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Sample records for 125i-si ang ii

  1. Comparison of arterial pressure and plasma ANG II responses to three methods of subcutaneous ANG II administration

    PubMed Central

    Kuroki, Marcos T.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension is a commonly studied model of experimental hypertension, particularly in rodents, and is often generated by subcutaneous delivery of ANG II using Alzet osmotic minipumps chronically implanted under the skin. We have observed that, in a subset of animals subjected to this protocol, mean arterial pressure (MAP) begins to decline gradually starting the second week of ANG II infusion, resulting in a blunting of the slow pressor response and reduced final MAP. We hypothesized that this variability in the slow pressor response to ANG II was mainly due to factors unique to Alzet pumps. To test this, we compared the pressure profile and changes in plasma ANG II levels during subcutaneous ANG II administration (150 ng·kg−1·min−1) using either Alzet minipumps, iPrecio implantable pumps, or a Harvard external infusion pump. At the end of 14 days of ANG II, MAP was highest in the iPrecio group (156 ± 3 mmHg) followed by Harvard (140 ± 3 mmHg) and Alzet (122 ± 3 mmHg) groups. The rate of the slow pressor response, measured as daily increases in pressure averaged over days 2–14 of ANG II, was similar between iPrecio and Harvard groups (2.7 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) but was significantly blunted in the Alzet group (0.4 ± 0.4 mmHg/day) due to a gradual decline in MAP in a subset of rats. We also found differences in the temporal profile of plasma ANG II between infusion groups. We conclude that the gradual decline in MAP observed in a subset of rats during ANG II infusion using Alzet pumps is mainly due to pump-dependent factors when applied in this particular context. PMID:24993045

  2. Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E; Speth, Robert C; Clark, Stewart D; Daniels, Derek

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of (125)I-Sar(1)-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II.

  3. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G M; Prieto, Minolfa C; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9-12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). AT(1)R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 +/- 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 +/- 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 +/- 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT(1)R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT(1)R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  4. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G. M.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9–12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 ± 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 ± 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 ± 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). AT1R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 ± 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 ± 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 ± 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT1R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT1R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  5. Circumventricular organs and ANG II-induced salt appetite: blood pressure and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Fitts, D A; Starbuck, E M; Ruhf, A

    2000-12-01

    A lesion of the subfornical organ (SFO) may reduce sodium depletion-induced salt appetite, which is largely dependent on ANG II, and yet ANG II infusions directly into SFO do not provoke salt appetite. Two experiments were designed to address this apparent contradiction. In experiment 1 sustained infusions of ANG II into SFO did not produce a sustained elevation of blood pressure, and neither a reduction of blood pressure alone with minoxidil and captopril nor a reduction of both blood pressure and volume with furosemide and captopril enhanced salt appetite. Infusions of ANG II in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) did evoke salt appetite without raising blood pressure. In experiment 2 knife cuts of the afferent and efferent fibers of the rostroventral pole of the SFO abolished water intake during an infusion of ANG II into the femoral vein but failed to reduce salt appetite during an infusion of ANG II into the OVLT. We conclude that 1) hypertension does not account for the failure of infusions of ANG II in the SFO to generate salt appetite and 2) the OVLT does not depend on its connectivity with the SFO to generate salt appetite during ANG II infusions. PMID:11080096

  6. Pitavastatin Regulates Ang II Induced Proliferation and Migration via IGFBP-5 in VSMC

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yu Mi; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key mediator of hypertensive, causes structural changes in the arteries (vascular remodeling), which involve alterations in cell growth, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy. Ang II promotes fibrotic factor like IGFBP5, which mediates the profibrotic effects of Ang II in the heart and kidneys, lung and so on. The purpose of this study was to identify the signaling pathway of IGFBP5 on cell proliferation and migration of Ang II-stimulated VSMC. We have been interested in Ang II-induced IGFBP5 and were curious to determine whether a Pitavastatin would ameliorate the effects. Herein, we investigated the question of whether Ang II induced the levels of IGFBP5 protein followed by proliferation and migration in VSMC. Pretreatment with the specific Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) inhibitor (Losartan), Angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2) inhibitor (PD123319), MAPK inhibitor (U0126), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), P38 inhibitor (SB600125) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) resulted in significantly inhibited IGFBP5 production, proliferation, and migration in Ang II-stimulated VSMC. In addition, IGFBP5 knockdown resulted in modulation of Ang II induced proliferation and migration via IGFBP5 induction. In addition, Pitavastatin modulated Ang II induced proliferation and migration in VSMC. Taken together, our results indicated that Ang II induces IGFBP5 through AT1, ERK1/2, P38, and PI3K signaling pathways, which were inhibited by Pitavastatin. These findings may suggest that Pitavastatin has an effect on vascular disease including hypertension. PMID:26557016

  7. ANG II is required for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. E.; Davis, B. S.; Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    ANG II mediates the hypertrophic response of overloaded cardiac muscle, likely via the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor. To examine the potential role of ANG II in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, plantaris and/or soleus muscle overload was produced in female Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) by the bilateral surgical ablation of either the synergistic gastrocnemius muscle (experiment 1) or both the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles (experiment 2). In experiment 1 (n = 10/group), inhibiting endogenous ANG II production by oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor during a 28-day overloading protocol attenuated plantaris and soleus muscle hypertrophy by 57 and 96%, respectively (as measured by total muscle protein content). ACE inhibition had no effect on nonoverloaded (sham-operated) muscles. With the use of new animals (experiment 2; n = 8/group), locally perfusing overloaded soleus muscles with exogenous ANG II (via osmotic pump) rescued the lost hypertrophic response in ACE-inhibited animals by 71%. Furthermore, orally administering an AT(1) receptor antagonist instead of an ACE inhibitor produced a 48% attenuation of overload-induced hypertrophy that could not be rescued by ANG II perfusion. Thus ANG II may be necessary for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, acting at least in part via an AT(1) receptor-dependent pathway.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) counteracts the effects of Ang II on vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular remodeling and hemorrhagic stroke: Role of the NFкB inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Bihl, Ji C; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Yuhui; Xiao, Xiang; Ma, Xiaotang; Chen, Yusen; Chen, Shuzhen; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

    2015-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is a potential vasoprotective peptide. In the present study, we investigated its counteractive effects to Ang II on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) through inflammatory mechanism. In in vitro experiments, human brain VSMCs (HBVSMCs) were treated with vehicle, Ang II, Ang II+Ang-(1-7), Ang II+A-779 or Ang II+Ang-(1-7)+A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist). HBVSMC proliferation, migration and apoptosis were determined by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium, wound healing assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were divided into vehicle, Ang II, Ang II+Ang-(1-7), Ang II+A-779 or Ang II+Ang-(1-7)+A-779 groups before they were subjected to collagenase-induced ICH or sham surgery. Hemorrhage volume and middle cerebral artery (MCA) remodeling were determined by histological analyses. Levels of NFκB, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL-8) were measured by western blot or ELISA. We found that 1) Ang II increased HBVSMC migration, proliferation and apoptosis, and increased the blood pressure (BP), neurological deficit score, MCA remodeling and hemorrhage volume in ICH mice. 2) Ang-(1-7) counteracted these effects of Ang II, which was independent of BP, with the down-regulation of NFκB, up-regulation of IκBα, and decreased levels of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-8. 3) The beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) could be abolished by A-779. In conclusion, Ang-(1-7) counteracts the effects of Ang II on ICH via modulating NFκB inflammation pathway in HBVSMCs and cerebral microvessels.

  9. Silencing MR-1 attenuates inflammatory damage in mice heart induced by AngII

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Wenjian; Chen, Haiyang; Jiang, Jiandong; Kong, Weijia; Wang, Yiguang

    2010-01-15

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1(MR-1) can aggravate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin(Ang) II in mice through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway, and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1(AP-1) regulate inflammatory and immune responses by increasing the expression of specific inflammatory genes in various tissues including heart. Whether inhibition of MR-1 expression will attenuate AngII-induced inflammatory injury in mice heart has not been explored. Herein, we monitored the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1, together with expression of pro-inflammatory of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-{alpha}, vascular-cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), and inflammatory cell infiltration in heart of mice which are induced firstly by AngII (PBS),then received MR-1-siRNA or control-siRNA injecting. We found that the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 was inhibited significantly, together with the decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, VCAM-1, and PECAM in AngII-induced mice myocardium in MR-1-siRNA injection groups compared with control-siRNA injecting groups. However, the expression level of MR-1 was not an apparent change in PBS-infused groups than in unoperation groups, and MR-1-siRNA do not affect the expression of MR-1 in PBS-infused mice. Our findings suggest that silencing MR-1 protected mice myocardium against inflammatory injury induced by AngII by suppression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 signaling pathway.

  10. Development of nonfibrotic left ventricular hypertrophy in an ANG II-induced chronic ovine hypertension model.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Niklas; Scherschel, Katharina; Schad, Claudia; Lau, Denise; Reitmeier, Aline; Kuklik, Pawel; Muellerleile, Kai; Yamamura, Jin; Zeller, Tanja; Steven, Daniel; Baldus, Stephan; Schäffer, Benjamin; Jungen, Christiane; Eickholt, Christian; Wassilew, Katharina; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Willems, Stephan; Meyer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases and leads to subsequent concomitant pathologies such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Translational approaches using large animals get more important as they allow the use of standard clinical procedures in an experimental setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a minimally invasive ovine hypertension model using chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) treatment and to characterize its effects on cardiac remodeling after 8 weeks. Sheep were implanted with osmotic minipumps filled with either vehicle control (n = 7) or ANG II (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure in the ANG II-treated group increased from 87.4 ± 5.3 to 111.8 ± 6.9 mmHg (P = 0.00013). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging showed an increase in left ventricular mass from 112 ± 12.6 g to 131 ± 18.7 g after 7 weeks (P = 0.0017). This was confirmed by postmortem measurement of left ventricular wall thickness which was higher in ANG II-treated animals compared to the control group (18 ± 4 mm vs. 13 ± 2 mm, respectively, P = 0.002). However, ANG II-treated sheep did not reveal any signs of fibrosis or inflammatory infiltrates as defined by picrosirius red and H&E staining on myocardial full thickness paraffin sections of both atria and ventricles. Measurements of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α were inconspicuous in all animals. Furthermore, multielectrode surface mapping of the heart did not show any differences in epicardial conduction velocity and heterogeneity. These data demonstrate that chronic ANG II treatment using osmotic minipumps presents a reliable, minimally invasive approach to establish hypertension and nonfibrotic LVH in sheep. PMID:27613823

  11. Attenuation of renal excretory responses to ANG II during inhibition of superoxide dismutase in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Islam, Mohammed Toriqul; Castillo, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    To examine the functional interaction between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NADPH oxidase activity, we assessed renal responses to acute intra-arterial infusion of ANG II (0.5 ng·kg−1·min−1) before and during administration of a SOD inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC, 0.5 mg·kg−1·min−1), in enalaprilat-pretreated (33 μg·kg−1·min−1) rats (n = 11). Total (RBF) and regional (cortical, CBF; medullary; MBF) renal blood flows were determined by Transonic and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Renal cortical and medullary tissue NADPH oxidase activity in vitro was determined using the lucigenin-chemiluminescence method. DETC treatment alone resulted in decreases in RBF, CBF, MBF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine flow (V), and sodium excretion (UNaV) as reported previously. Before DETC, ANG II infusion decreased RBF (−18 ± 3%), CBF (−16 ± 3%), MBF [−5 ± 6%; P = not significant (NS)], GFR (−31 ± 4%), V (−34 ± 2%), and UNaV (−53 ± 3%). During DETC infusion, ANG II also caused similar reductions in RBF (−20 ± 4%), CBF (−19 ± 3%), MBF (−2 ± 2; P = NS), and in GFR (−22 ± 7%), whereas renal excretory responses (V; −12 ± 2%; UNaV; −24 ± 4%) were significantly attenuated compared with those before DETC. In in vitro experiments, ANG II (100 μM) enhanced NADPH oxidase activity both in cortical [13,194 ± 1,651 vs. 20,914 ± 2,769 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein] and in medullary (21,296 ± 2,244 vs. 30,597 ± 4,250 RLU/mg protein) tissue. Application of DETC (1 mM) reduced the basal levels and prevented ANG II-induced increases in NADPH oxidase activity in both tissues. These results demonstrate that renal excretory responses to acute ANG II administration are attenuated during SOD inhibition, which seems related to a downregulation of NADPH oxidase in the deficient condition of SOD activity. PMID:19923406

  12. Sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt hypertension involves reduced SK channel function in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert A; Gui, Le; Huber, Michael J; Chapp, Andrew D; Zhu, Jianhua; LaGrange, Lila P; Shan, Zhiying; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hypertension (HTN) resulting from subcutaneous infusion of ANG II and dietary high salt (HS) intake involves sympathoexcitation. Recently, we reported reduced small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) current and increased excitability of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ANG II-salt HTN. Here, we hypothesized that ANG II-salt HTN would be accompanied by altered PVN SK channel activity, which may contribute to sympathoexcitation in vivo. In anesthetized rats with normal salt (NS) intake, bilateral PVN microinjection of apamin (12.5 pmol/50 nl each), the SK channel blocker, remarkably elevated splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In contrast, rats with ANG II-salt HTN demonstrated significantly attenuated SSNA, RSNA, and MAP (P < 0.05) responses to PVN-injected apamin compared with NS control rats. Next, we sought to examine the individual contributions of HS and subcutaneous infusion of ANG II on PVN SK channel function. SSNA, RSNA, and MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin in rats with HS alone were significantly attenuated compared with NS-fed rats. In contrast, sympathetic nerve activity responses to PVN-injected apamin in ANG II-treated rats were slightly attenuated with SSNA, demonstrating no statistical difference compared with NS-fed rats, whereas MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin were similar to NS-fed rats. Finally, Western blot analysis showed no statistical difference in SK1-SK3 expression in the PVN between NS and ANG II-salt HTN. We conclude that reduced SK channel function in the PVN is involved in the sympathoexcitation associated with ANG II-salt HTN. Dietary HS may play a dominant role in reducing SK channel function, thus contributing to sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt HTN.

  13. Sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt hypertension involves reduced SK channel function in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Robert A.; Gui, Le; Huber, Michael J.; Chapp, Andrew D.; Zhu, Jianhua; LaGrange, Lila P.; Shan, Zhiying

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) resulting from subcutaneous infusion of ANG II and dietary high salt (HS) intake involves sympathoexcitation. Recently, we reported reduced small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) current and increased excitability of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ANG II-salt HTN. Here, we hypothesized that ANG II-salt HTN would be accompanied by altered PVN SK channel activity, which may contribute to sympathoexcitation in vivo. In anesthetized rats with normal salt (NS) intake, bilateral PVN microinjection of apamin (12.5 pmol/50 nl each), the SK channel blocker, remarkably elevated splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In contrast, rats with ANG II-salt HTN demonstrated significantly attenuated SSNA, RSNA, and MAP (P < 0.05) responses to PVN-injected apamin compared with NS control rats. Next, we sought to examine the individual contributions of HS and subcutaneous infusion of ANG II on PVN SK channel function. SSNA, RSNA, and MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin in rats with HS alone were significantly attenuated compared with NS-fed rats. In contrast, sympathetic nerve activity responses to PVN-injected apamin in ANG II-treated rats were slightly attenuated with SSNA, demonstrating no statistical difference compared with NS-fed rats, whereas MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin were similar to NS-fed rats. Finally, Western blot analysis showed no statistical difference in SK1–SK3 expression in the PVN between NS and ANG II-salt HTN. We conclude that reduced SK channel function in the PVN is involved in the sympathoexcitation associated with ANG II-salt HTN. Dietary HS may play a dominant role in reducing SK channel function, thus contributing to sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt HTN. PMID:25862832

  14. Drinking and blood pressure during sodium depletion or ANG II infusion in chronic cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Fitts, D A; Lane, J R; Starbuck, E M; Li, C P

    1999-01-01

    After a chronic ligation of the common bile duct (BDL), Long-Evans rats are hypotensive and have elevated saline intake during both sodium-depleted and nondepleted conditions. We tested whether BDL rats have exaggerated hypotension during sodium depletion or an elevated dipsogenic response to angiotensin II (ANG II) that might help to explain the saline intake. After 4 wk of BDL, rats were hypotensive at baseline and developed exaggerated hypotension during acute furosemide-induced diuresis. Without saline to drink, BDL rats increased water intake during depletion equal to sham-ligated rats. However, with saline solution available at 22 h after sodium depletion, the BDL rats drank more water and saline than did sham-ligated rats. This rapid intake temporarily increased their mean arterial pressure to equal that of sham-ligated rats. Intravenous infusion of ANG II induced equal drinking responses despite reduced pressor responses in the BDL rats relative to sham-ligated rats during both ad libitum and sodium-depleted conditions. Thus BDL rats have exaggerated hypotension during diuresis, and their hypotension is corrected by drinking an exaggerated volume of saline, but they do not have an increased drinking response to ANG II. PMID:9887174

  15. Differential regulation of Na+ transporters along nephron during ANG II-dependent hypertension: distal stimulation counteracted by proximal inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mien T X; Lee, Donna H; Delpire, Eric; McDonough, Alicia A

    2013-08-15

    During angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, ANG II stimulates, while hypertension inhibits, Na(+) transporter activity to balance Na(+) output to input. This study tests the hypothesis that ANG II infusion activates Na(+) transporters in the distal nephron while inhibiting transporters along the proximal nephron. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with ANG II (400 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or vehicle for 2 wk. Kidneys were dissected (cortex vs. medulla) or fixed for immunohistochemistry (IHC). ANG II increased mean arterial pressure by 40 mmHg, urine Na(+) by 1.67-fold, and urine volume by 3-fold, evidence for hypertension and pressure natriuresis. Na(+) transporters' abundance and activation [assessed by phosphorylation (-P) or proteolytic cleavage] were measured by immunoblot. During ANG II infusion Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) abundance decreased in both cortex and medulla; Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) decreased in medullary thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) and increased, along with NKCC2-P, in cortical TALH; Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) and NCC-P increased in the distal convoluted tubule; and epithelial Na(+) channel subunits and their cleaved forms were increased in both cortex and medulla. Like NKCC2, STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and SPAK-P were decreased in medulla and increased in cortex. By IHC, during ANG II NHE3 remained localized to proximal tubule microvilli at lower abundance, and the differential regulation of NKCC2 and NKCC2-P in cortex versus medulla was evident. In summary, ANG II infusion increases Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from cortical TALH to medullary collecting duct while the hypertension drives a natriuresis response evident as decreased Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from proximal tubule through medullary TALH. PMID:23720346

  16. TGF-β Neutralization Enhances AngII-Induced Aortic Rupture and Aneurysm in Both Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-01-01

    AngII and TGF-β interact in development of thoracic and abdominal aortic diseases, although there are many facets of this interaction that have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TGF-β neutralization on AngII induced-aortic pathologies. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered with either a rabbit or mouse TGF-β neutralizing antibody and then infused with AngII. The rabbit TGF-β antibody modestly reduced serum TGF-β concentrations, with no significant enhancements to AngII-induced aneurysm or rupture. Administration of this rabbit TGF-β antibody in mice led to high serum titers against rabbit IgG that may have attenuated the neutralization. In contrast, a mouse TGF-β antibody (1D11) significantly increased rupture in both the ascending and suprarenal aortic regions, but only at doses that markedly decreased serum TGF-β concentrations. High doses of 1D11 antibody significantly increased AngII-induced ascending and suprarenal aortic dilatation. To determine whether TGF-β neutralization had effects in mice previously infused with AngII, the 1D11 antibody was injected into mice that had been infused with AngII for 28 days and were observed during continued infusion for a further 28 days. Despite near ablations of serum TGF-β concentrations, the mouse TGF-β antibody had no effect on aortic rupture or dimensions in either ascending or suprarenal region. These data provide further evidence that AngII-induced aortic rupture is enhanced greatly by TGF-β neutralization when initiated before pathogenesis. PMID:27104863

  17. TGF-β Neutralization Enhances AngII-Induced Aortic Rupture and Aneurysm in Both Thoracic and Abdominal Regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Rateri, Debra L; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-01-01

    AngII and TGF-β interact in development of thoracic and abdominal aortic diseases, although there are many facets of this interaction that have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TGF-β neutralization on AngII induced-aortic pathologies. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered with either a rabbit or mouse TGF-β neutralizing antibody and then infused with AngII. The rabbit TGF-β antibody modestly reduced serum TGF-β concentrations, with no significant enhancements to AngII-induced aneurysm or rupture. Administration of this rabbit TGF-β antibody in mice led to high serum titers against rabbit IgG that may have attenuated the neutralization. In contrast, a mouse TGF-β antibody (1D11) significantly increased rupture in both the ascending and suprarenal aortic regions, but only at doses that markedly decreased serum TGF-β concentrations. High doses of 1D11 antibody significantly increased AngII-induced ascending and suprarenal aortic dilatation. To determine whether TGF-β neutralization had effects in mice previously infused with AngII, the 1D11 antibody was injected into mice that had been infused with AngII for 28 days and were observed during continued infusion for a further 28 days. Despite near ablations of serum TGF-β concentrations, the mouse TGF-β antibody had no effect on aortic rupture or dimensions in either ascending or suprarenal region. These data provide further evidence that AngII-induced aortic rupture is enhanced greatly by TGF-β neutralization when initiated before pathogenesis.

  18. The Ang II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells involves a phospholipase D-mediated signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E J

    2000-02-15

    Angiotensin (Ang) II acts as a mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipase C, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, increasing evidence supports signal-activated phospholipases A(2) and D (PLD) as additional mechanisms. Stimulation of PLD results in phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, and PA has been linked to cell growth. However, the direct involvement of PA or its metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) in Ang II-induced growth is unclear. PLD activity was measured in cultured rat VSMC prelabeled with [(3)H]oleic acid, while the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to monitor growth. We have previously reported the Ang II-dependent, AT(1)-coupled stimulation of PLD and growth in VSMC. Here, we show that Ang II (100 nM) and exogenous PLD (0.1-100 units/mL; Streptomyces chromofuscus) stimulated thymidine incorporation (43-208% above control). PA (100 nM-1 microM) also increased thymidine incorporation to 135% of control. Propranolol (100 nM-10 microM), which inhibits PA phosphohydrolase, blocked the growth stimulated by Ang II, PLD, or PA by as much as 95%, an effect not shared by other beta-adrenergic antagonists. Propranolol also increased the production of PA in the presence of Ang II by 320% and reduced DAG and arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. The DAG lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (1-10 microM) increased Ang II-induced DAG production, while attenuating thymidine incorporation and release of AA. Thus, it appears that activation of PLD, formation of PA, conversion of PA to DAG, and metabolism of DAG comprise an important signaling cascade in Ang II-induced growth of VSMC.

  19. Increased ANG II sensitivity following recovery from acute kidney injury: role of oxidant stress in skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shane A.; Pechman, Kimberly R.; Leonard, Ellen C.; Friedrich, Jessica L.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Beal, Alisa G.

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) results in prolonged impairment of peripheral (i.e., nonrenal) vascular function since skeletal muscle resistance arteries derived from rats 5 wk post-I/R injury, show enhanced responses to ANG II stimulation but not other constrictors. Because vascular superoxide increases ANG II sensitivity, we hypothesized that peripheral responsiveness following recovery from AKI was attributable to vascular oxidant stress. Gracilis arteries (GA) isolated from post-I/R rats (∼5 wk recovery) showed significantly greater superoxide levels relative to sham-operated controls, as detected by dihydroeithidium, which was further augmented by acute ANG II stimulation in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide measured by dichlorofluorescein was not affected by ANG II. GA derived from postischemic animals manifested significantly greater constrictor responses in vitro to ANG II than GA from sham-operated controls. The addition of the superoxide scavenging reagent Tempol (10−5 M) normalized the response to values similar to sham-operated controls. Apocynin (10−6 M) and endothelial denudation nearly abrogated all ANG II-stimulated constrictor activity in GA from post-AKI rats, suggesting an important role for an endothelial-derived source of peripheral oxidative stress. Apocynin treatment in vivo abrogated GA oxidant stress and attenuated ANG II-induced pressor responses post-AKI. Interestingly, gene expression studies in GA vessels indicated a paradoxical reduction in NADPH oxidase subunit and AT1-receptor genes and no effect on several antioxidant genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AKI alters peripheral vascular responses by increasing oxidant stress, likely in the endothelium, via an undefined mechanism. PMID:20335375

  20. ANG II-induced hypertension in the VCD mouse model of menopause is prevented by estrogen replacement during perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Pollow, Dennis P; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sanchez, Jessica N; Konhilas, John P; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2015-12-15

    Premenopausal females are resistant to the development of hypertension, and this protection is lost after the onset of menopause, resulting in a sharp increase in disease onset and severity. However, it is unknown how a fluctuating ovarian hormone environment during the transition from perimenopause to menopause impacts the onset of hypertension, and whether interventions during perimenopause prevent disease onset after menopause. A gradual transition to menopause was induced by repeated daily injections of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). ANG II (800 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) was infused into perimenopausal and menopausal female mice for 14 days. A separate cohort of mice received 17β-estradiol replacement during perimenopause. ANG II infusion produced significantly higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in menopausal vs. cycling females, and 17β-estradiol replacement prevented this increase. In contrast, MAP was not significantly different when ANG II was infused into perimenopausal and cycling females, suggesting that female resistance to ANG II-induced hypertension is intact during perimenopause. ANG II infusion caused a significant glomerular hypertrophy, and hypertrophy was not impacted by hormonal status. Expression levels of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), a collecting duct protein, have been suggested to reflect blood pressure. AQP2 protein expression was significantly downregulated in the renal cortex of the ANG II-infused menopause group, where blood pressure was increased. AQP2 expression levels were restored to control levels with 17β-estradiol replacement. This study indicates that the changing hormonal environment in the VCD model of menopause impacts the severity of ANG II-induced hypertension. These data highlight the utility of the ovary-intact VCD model of menopause as a clinically relevant model to investigate the physiological mechanisms of hypertension that occur in women during the transition into menopause.

  1. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  2. Effects of ACE inhibition and ANG II stimulation on renal Na-Cl cotransporter distribution, phosphorylation, and membrane complex properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donna H.; Maunsbach, Arvid B.; Riquier-Brison, Anne D.; Nguyen, Mien T. X.; Fenton, Robert A.; Bachmann, Sebastian; Yu, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The renal distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) reabsorbs <10% of the filtered Na+ but is a key control point for blood pressure regulation by angiotensin II (ANG II), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), and thiazide diuretics. This study aimed to determine whether NCC phosphorylation (NCCp) was regulated by acute (20–30 min) treatment with the ACEI captopril (12 μg/min × 20 min) or by a sub-pressor dose of ANG II (20 ng·kg−1·min−1) in Inactin-anesthetized rats. By immuno-EM, NCCp was detected exclusively in or adjacent to apical plama membranes (APM) in controls and after ACEI or ANG II treatment, while NCC total was detected in both APM and subapical cytoplasmic vesicles (SCV) in all conditions. In renal homogenates, neither ACEI nor ANG II treatment altered NCCp abundance, assayed by immunoblot. However, by density gradient fractionation we identified a pool of low-density APM in which NCCp decreased 50% in response to captopril and was restored during ANG II infusion, and another pool of higher-density APM that responded reciprocally, indicative of regulated redistribution between two APM pools. In both pools, NCCp was preferentially localized to Triton-soluble membranes. Blue Native gel electrophoresis established that APM NCCp localized to ∼700 kDa complexes (containing γ-adducin) while unphosphorylated NCC in intracellular membranes primarily localized to ∼400 kDa complexes: there was no evidence for native monomeric or dimeric NCC or NCCp. In summary, this study demonstrates that phosphorylated NCC, localized to multimeric complexes in the APM, redistributes in a regulated manner within the APM in response to ACEI and ANG II. PMID:23114965

  3. Genetic knockdown of estrogen receptor-alpha in the subfornical organ augments ANG II-induced hypertension in female mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2015-03-15

    The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) ERα in the brain plays a key role in the estrogen-protective effects against ANG II-induced hypertension, and 2) that the subfornical organ (SFO) is a key site where ERα mediates these protective actions. In this study, a "floxed" ERα transgenic mouse line (ERα(flox)) was used to create models in which ERα was knocked down in the brain or just in the SFO. Female mice with ERα ablated in the nervous system (Nestin-ERα(-) mice) showed greater increases in blood pressure (BP) in response to ANG II. Furthermore, females with ERα knockdown specifically in the SFO [SFO adenovirus-Cre (Ad-Cre) injected ERα(flox) mice] also showed an enhanced pressor response to ANG II. Immunohistochemical (IHC), RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses revealed a marked reduction in the expression of ERα in nervous tissues and, in particular, in the SFO. These changes were not present in peripheral tissues in Nestin-ERα(-) mice or Ad-Cre-injected ERα(flox) mice. mRNA expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system in the lamina terminalis were upregulated in Nestin-ERα(-) mice. Moreover, ganglionic blockade on day 7 after ANG II infusions resulted in a greater reduction of BP in Nestin-ERα(-) mice or SFO Ad-Cre-injected mice, suggesting that knockdown of ERα in the nervous system or the SFO alone augments central ANG II-induced increase in sympathetic tone. The results indicate that interfering with the action of estrogen on SFO ERα is sufficient to abolish the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension.

  4. Elevated Adiponectin Levels Suppress Perivascular and Aortic Inflammation and Prevent AngII-induced Advanced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wågsäter, Dick; Vorkapic, Emina; van Stijn, Caroline M. W.; Kim, Jason; Lusis, Aldons J.; Eriksson, Per; Tangirala, Rajendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease characterized by aortic dilation and rupture leading to sudden death. Currently, no non-surgical treatments are available and novel therapeutic targets are needed to prevent AAA. We investigated whether increasing plasma levels of adiponectin (APN), a pleiotropic adipokine, provides therapeutic benefit to prevent AngII-induced advanced AAA in a well-established preclinical model. In the AngII-infused hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mouse (LDLR−/−) model, we induced plasma APN levels using a recombinant adenovirus expressing mouse APN (AdAPN) and as control, adenovirus expressing green florescent protein (AdGFP). APN expression produced sustained and significant elevation of total and high-molecular weight APN levels and enhanced APN localization in the artery wall. AngII infusion for 8 weeks induced advanced AAA development in AdGFP mice. Remarkably, APN inhibited the AAA development in AdAPN mice by suppressing aortic inflammatory cell infiltration, medial degeneration and elastin fragmentation. APN inhibited the angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R), inflammatory cytokine and mast cell protease expression, and induced lysyl oxidase (LOX) in the aortic wall, improved systemic cytokine profile and attenuated adipose inflammation. These studies strongly support APN therapeutic actions through multiple mechanisms inhibiting AngII-induced AAA and increasing plasma APN levels as a strategy to prevent advanced AAA. PMID:27659201

  5. Pentosan polysulfate treatment preserves renal autoregulation in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats via normalization of P2X1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhengrong; Fuller, Barry S; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Inscho, Edward W

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory factors are elevated in animal and human subjects with hypertension and renal injury. We hypothesized that inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced renal injury by impairing autoregulation and microvascular reactivity to P2X(1) receptor activation. Studies were conducted in vitro using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Rats receiving ANG II (60 ng/min) infusion were treated with the anti-inflammatory agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) for 14 days. The magnitude and progression of hypertension were similar in ANG II and ANG II+PPS-treated rats (169 ± 5 vs. 172 ± 2 mmHg). Afferent arterioles from control rats exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior with diameter decreasing from 18.4 ± 1.6 to 11.4 ± 1.7 μm when perfusion pressure was increased from 70 to 160 mmHg. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was markedly attenuated in ANG II-treated rats, and diameter remained essentially unchanged over the range of perfusion pressures. However, ANG II-treated rats receiving PPS exhibited normal autoregulatory behavior compared with ANG II alone rats. Arteriolar reactivity to ATP and β,γ-methylene ATP was significantly reduced in ANG II hypertensive rats compared with controls. Interestingly, PPS treatment preserved normal reactivity to P2 and P2X(1) receptor agonists despite the persistent hypertension. The maximal vasoconstriction was 79 ± 3 and 81 ± 2% of the control diameter for ATP and β,γ-methylene ATP, respectively, similar to responses in control rats. PPS treatment significantly reduced α-smooth muscle actin staining in afferent arterioles and plasma transforming growth factor-β1 concentration in ANG II-treated rats. In conclusion, PPS normalizes autoregulation without altering ANG II-induced hypertension, suggesting that inflammatory processes reduce P2X(1) receptor reactivity and thereby impair autoregulatory behavior in ANG II hypertensive rats.

  6. Selective knockdown of AT1 receptors by RNA interference inhibits Val5-ANG II endocytosis and NHE-3 expression in immortalized rabbit proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Zhuo, Jia L.

    2008-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular ANG II has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of proximal tubule cell (PTC) function. Using immortalized rabbit PTCs as an in vitro cell culture model, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular ANG II is taken up by PTCs through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1; or AT1a) receptor-mediated endocytosis and that inhibition of ANG II endocytosis using a selective AT1 receptor small-interfering RNA (siRNA; AT1R siRNA) or endocytotic inhibitors exerts a physiological effect on total and apical sodium and hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE-3) protein abundance. Western blots and live cell imaging with FITC-labeled ANG II confirmed that transfection of PTCs with a human specific AT1R siRNA for 48 h selectively knocked down AT1 receptor protein by 76 ± 5% (P < 0.01), whereas transfection with a scrambled siRNA had little effect. In nontransfected PTCs, exposure to extracellular ANG II (1 nM) for 60 min at 37°C increased intracellular ANG II accumulation by 67% (control: 566 ± 55 vs. ANG II: 943 ± 160 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05) and induced mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation (163 ± 15% of control, P < 0.01). AT1R siRNA reduced ANG II endocytosis to a level similar to losartan, which blocks cell surface AT1 receptors (557 ± 37 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05 vs. ANG II), or to colchicine, which disrupts cytoskeleton microtubules (613 ± 12 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05 vs. ANG II). AT1R siRNA, losartan, and colchicine all attenuated ANG II-induced ERK1/2 activation and total cell lysate and apical membrane NHE-3 abundance. The scrambled siRNA had no effect on ANG II endocytosis, ERK1/2 activation, or NHE-3 expression. These results suggest that AT1 receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular ANG II may regulate proximal tubule sodium transport by increasing total and apical NHE-3 proteins. PMID:17428839

  7. Increased Ang II Contraction of the Uterine Artery at Early Gestation in A Transgenic Model of Hypertensive Pregnancy is Reduced by Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pulgar, Victor M.; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M.; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne M.; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Howlett, Allyn C.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Increased vascular sensitivity to Ang II is a marker of a hypertensive human pregnancy. Recent evidence of interactions between the RAS and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) suggests that anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) may modulate Ang II contraction. We hypothesized that these interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular responses in hypertensive pregnancy. We studied Ang II contraction in isolated uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in a rat model that mimics many features of preeclampsia, the transgenic hAGN×hREN (TgA), and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We determined the role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 by blockade with SR171416A, and the contribution of AEA and 2-AG degradation to Ang II contraction by inhibiting their hydrolyzing enzymes FAAH (with URB597) or MAGL (with JZL184) respectively. TgA UA showed increased maximal contraction and sensitivity to Ang II that was inhibited by indomethacin. FAAH blockade decreased Ang IIMAX in SD UA, and decreased both Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. MAGL blockade had no effect on SD UA and decreased Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Blockade of the CB1 receptor in TgA UA had no effect. Immunolocalization of FAAH and MAGL showed a similar pattern between groups; FAAH predominantly localized in endothelium and MAGL in smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated an increased Ang II contraction in TgA UA before initiation of the hypertensive phenotype. AEA and 2-AG reduced Ang II contraction in a CB1-independent manner. These RAS-ECS interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular reactivity in early stages of hypertensive pregnancy. PMID:24935942

  8. Novel mechanism of cardiac protection by valsartan: synergetic roles of TGF-β1 and HIF-1α in Ang II-mediated fibrosis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xizhong; Wei, Hongchao; Wang, Dacheng

    2015-08-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a known factor in angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (Hif-1α) was recently demonstrated to involve in the tissue fibrosis and influenced by Ang II. However, whether Hif-1α contributed to the Ang II-mediated cardiac fibrosis after MI, and whether interaction or synergetic roles between Hif-1α and TGF-β pathways existed in the process was unclear. In vitro, cardiac cells were incubated under hypoxia or Ang II to mimic ischaemia. In vivo, valsartan was intravenously injected into Sprague-Dawley rats with MI daily for 1 week; saline and hydralazine (another anti-hypertensive agent like valsartan) was used as control. The fibrosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Cardiac structure and function were assessed with multimodality methods. We demonstrated in vitro that hypoxia would induce the up-regulation of Ang II, TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α, which further induced collagen accumulation. By blocking with valsartan, a blocker of Ang II type I (AT1) receptor, we confirmed that the up-regulation of TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α was through the Ang II-mediated pathway. By administering TGF-β or dimethyloxalylglycine, we determined that both TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α contributed to Ang II-mediated collagen accumulation and a synergetic effect between them was observed. Consistent with in vitro results, valsartan significantly attenuated the expression of TGF-β/Smad, Hif-1α and fibrosis-related protein in rats after MI. Heart function, infarcted size, wall thickness as well as myocardial vascularization of ischaemic hearts were also significantly improved by valsartan compared with saline and hydralazine. Our study may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis as well as into the cardiac protection of valsartan.

  9. Synergistic effect of high glucose and ANG II on proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells: involvement of PKC and MAPKs as well as AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Hee; Han, Ho Jae

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the synergistic effect of high glucose levels and ANG II on proliferation and its related signal pathways using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The combined use of a high glucose concentration (25 mM) and ANG II increased the level of [3H]thymidine/BrdU incorporation, and the number of cells compared with either treatment alone. Each treatment with high glucose or ANG II increased the cell population in the S phase compared with control, and the combined treatment of a high glucose concentration and ANG II significantly increased the number of cells in the S phase according to FACS analysis. Moreover, the high glucose-induced increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation was blocked by inhibiting the ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The combined high glucose and ANG II significantly increased the STAT3 phosphorylation compared with high glucose or ANG II alone. ANG II stimulated the influx of Ca2+ in 25 mM glucose compared with 5 mM glucose. High glucose levels increase the level of PKC alpha, epsilon, and zeta translocation from the cytosol to the membrane fraction. In an examination of other signal pathways, the combined treatment significantly increased the level of p44/42, p38 MAPKs phosphorylation compared with either treatment alone. Indeed, the combined treatment increased the mRNA expression level of the protooncogenes and cell cycle regulatory proteins. In conclusion, the combined treatment of a high glucose concentration and ANG II had a synergistic effect in stimulating mouse ES cell proliferation through the Ca2+/PKC, MAPKs, and the AT1 receptor.

  10. The NHERF1 PDZ1 domain and IRBIT interact and mediate the activation of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 by ANG II.

    PubMed

    He, Peijian; Zhao, Luqing; No, Yi Ran; Karvar, Serhan; Yun, C Chris

    2016-08-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)3, a major Na(+) transporter in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule, is subject to ANG II regulation in renal Na(+)/fluid absorption and blood pressure control. We have previously shown that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IRBIT) mediates ANG II-induced exocytosis of NHE3 in cultured proximal tubule epithelial cells. In searching for scaffold protein(s) that coordinates with IRBIT in NHE3 trafficking, we found that NHE regulatory factor (NHERF)1, NHE3, and IRBIT proteins were coexpressed in the same macrocomplexes and that loss of ANG II type 1 receptors decreased their expression in the renal brush-border membrane. We found that NHERF1 was required for ANG II-mediated forward trafficking and activation of NHE3 in cultured cells. ANG II induced a concomitant increase of NHERF1 interactions with NHE3 and IRBIT, which were abolished when the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain was removed. Overexpression of a yellow fluorescent protein-NHERF1 construct that lacks PDZ1, but not PDZ2, failed to exaggerate the ANG II-dependent increase of NHE3 expression in the apical membrane. Moreover, exogenous expression of PDZ1 exerted a dominant negative effect on NHE3 activation by ANG II. We further demonstrated that IRBIT was indispensable for the ANG II-provoked increase in NHERF1-NHE3 interactions and that phosphorylation of IRBIT at Ser(68) was necessary for the assembly of the NHEF1-IRBIT-NHE3 complex. Taken together, our findings suggest that NHERF1 mediates ANG II-induced activation of renal NHE3, which requires coordination between IRBIT and the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain in binding and transporting NHE3. PMID:27279487

  11. NMNAT3 is involved in the protective effect of SIRT3 in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhongbao; Ma, Yunzi; You, Jia; Li, Zhuoming; Ding, Yanqing; He, Ping; Lu, Xia; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Shaorui; Liu, Peiqing

    2016-10-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a maladaptive response in a variety of organic heart disease (OHD), which is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction that results from disturbed energy metabolism. SIRT3, a mitochondria-localized sirtuin, regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation and preserves mitochondrial function. However, the mechanisms by which SIRT3 regulates cardiac hypertrophy remains to be further elucidated. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that expression of SIRT3 was decreased in Angiotension II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes and in hearts of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophic mice. In addition, SIRT3 overexpression protected myocytes from hypertrophy, whereas SIRT3 silencing exacerbated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In particular, SIRT3-KO mice exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we identified NMNAT3 (nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3), the rate-limiting enzyme for mitochondrial NAD biosynthesis, as a new target and binding partner of SIRT3. Specifically, SIRT3 physically interacts with and deacetylates NMNAT3, thereby enhancing the enzyme activity of NMNAT3 and contributing to SIRT3-mediated anti-hypertrophic effects. Moreover, NMNAT3 regulates the activity of SIRT3 via synthesis of mitochondria NAD. Taken together, these findings provide mechanistic insights into the negative regulatory role of SIRT3 in cardiac hypertrophy.

  12. Influence of salt intake, ANG II synthesis and SFO lesion on thirst and blood pressure during sodium depletion. Subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, E M; Fitts, D A

    1998-12-01

    Water intake was elevated in sodium-depleted rats during a daytime salt appetite test, but other rats drank a similar amount of water when saline was not available for drinking during the test. This water intake stimulated by sodium depletion was blocked by an inhibition of angiotensin (ANG) II synthesis with a high dose of captopril (100 mg/kg, sc). Captopril did not reduce water intake by causing hypotensive shock or uremia, because water and saline intakes were increased rather than decreased after a low dose of captopril (5 mg/kg) that also reduced blood pressure and elevated blood urea nitrogen. The water intake, but not salt appetite, induced by sodium depletion was greatly reduced by a lesion of the subfornical organ (SFO) in one-bottle tests, and this was not clearly related to any effects of the lesion on blood pressure. A physiological role for ANG II in water intake induced by sodium depletion has recently been disputed, but the simplest explanation for the data remains that elevated levels of circulating ANG II bind to receptors in the SFO to generate daytime water drinking during sodium depletion. PMID:9920685

  13. Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus Inhibits IGFII-Related Signaling Pathway to Attenuate Ang II-Induced Pathological Hypertrophy in H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chuan-Te; Chang, Yung-Ming; Lin, Shu-Luan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a very important cardiovascular disease inducer and may cause cardiac pathological hypertrophy and remodeling. We evaluated a Chinese traditional medicine, alpinate oxyphyllae fructus (AOF), for therapeutic efficacy for treating Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. AOF has been used to treat patients with various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders in Korea. We investigated its protective effect against Ang II-induced cytoskeletal change and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. The results showed that treating cells with Ang II resulted in pathological hypertrophy, such as increased expression of transcription factors NFAT-3/p-NFAT-3, hypertrophic response genes (atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP] and b-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]), and Gαq down-stream effectors (PLCβ3 and calcineurin). Pretreatment with AOF (60-100 μg/mL) led to significantly reduced hypertrophy. We also found that AOF pretreatment significantly suppressed the cardiac remodeling proteins, metalloproteinase (MMP9 and MMP2), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), induced by Ang II challenge. In conclusion, we provide evidence that AOF protects against Ang II-induced pathological hypertrophy by specifically inhibiting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II/IIR-related signaling pathway in H9c2 cells. AOF might be a candidate for cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling prevention in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26987022

  14. ANG II promotes IGF-IIR expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting HSF1 via JNK activation and SIRT1 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C-Y; Kuo, W-W; Yeh, Y-L; Ho, T-J; Lin, J-Y; Lin, D-Y; Chu, C-H; Tsai, F-J; Tsai, C-H; Huang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis are major characteristics of early-stage heart failure. Our previous studies found that the activation of insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) signaling was critical for hypertensive angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism by which ANG II regulates IGF-IIR in heart cells remains elusive. In this study, we found that ANG II activated its downstream kinase JNK to increase IGF-IIR expression through the ANG II receptor angiotensin type 1 receptor. JNK activation subsequently led to sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) degradation via the proteasome, thus preventing SIRT1 from deacetylating heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). The resulting increase in the acetylation of HSF1 impaired its ability to bind to the IGF-IIR promoter region (nt −748 to −585). HSF1 protected cardiomyocytes by acting as a repressor of IGF-IIR gene expression, and ANG II diminished this HSF1-mediated repression through enhanced acetylation, thus activating the IGF-IIR apoptosis pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF1 represses IGF-IIR gene expression to protect cardiomyocytes. ANG II activates JNK to degrade SIRT1, resulting in HSF1 acetylation, which induces IGF-IIR expression and eventually results in cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. HSF1 could be a valuable target for developing treatments for cardiac diseases in hypertensive patients. PMID:24786827

  15. Combined suppression of the intrarenal and circulating vasoconstrictor renin-ACE-ANG II axis and augmentation of the vasodilator ACE2-ANG 1-7-Mas axis attenuates the systemic hypertension in Ren-2 transgenic rats exposed to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Červenka, L; Bíbová, J; Husková, Z; Vaňourková, Z; Kramer, H J; Herget, J; Jíchová, Š; Sadowski, J; Hampl, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia would aggravate hypertension in Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), a well-defined monogenetic model of hypertension with increased activity of endogenous renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in conscious rats and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized TGR and normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) rats were determined under normoxia that was either continuous or interrupted by two weeks´ hypoxia. Expression, activities and concentrations of individual components of RAS were studied in plasma and kidney of TGR and HanSD rats under normoxic conditions and after exposure to chronic hypoxia. In HanSD rats two weeks´ exposure to chronic hypoxia did not alter SBP and MAP. Surprisingly, in TGR it decreased markedly SBP and MAP; this was associated with substantial reduction in plasma and kidney renin activities and also of angiotensin II (ANG II) levels, without altering angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activities. Simultaneously, in TGR the exposure to hypoxia increased kidney ACE type 2 (ACE2) activity and angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7) concentrations as compared with TGR under continuous normoxia. Based on these results, we propose that suppression of the hypertensiogenic ACE-ANG II axis in the circulation and kidney tissue, combined with augmentation of the intrarenal vasodilator ACE2-ANG 1-7 axis, is the main mechanism responsible for the blood pressure-lowering effects of chronic hypoxia in TGR. PMID:25194129

  16. Early fibroblast progenitor cell migration to the AngII-exposed myocardium is not CXCL12 or CCL2 dependent as previously thought.

    PubMed

    Falkenham, Alec; Sopel, Mryanda; Rosin, Nicole; Lee, Tim D G; Issekutz, Thomas; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2013-08-01

    Fibroblast progenitor cells (fibrocytes) are important to the development of myocardial fibrosis and are suggested to migrate to the heart via CXCL12 and chemokine ligand (CCL) 2. We hypothesized that if these chemokines are recruiting fibrocytes, disrupting their signaling will reduce early (3-day) fibrocyte infiltration and, consequently, fibrosis in the myocardium. C57/Bl6 and CCR2(-/-) mice were infused with saline or angiotensin (Ang) II, with or without CXC receptor 4 blockade (AMD3100). Hearts were assessed for chemokine up-regulation, immunofluorescence, and histological features. AngII caused early myocardial up-regulation of CXCL12 and CCL2, which corresponded to significant myocardial infiltration and fibrosis compared with controls. Animals receiving AMD3100 and/or with the genotype CCR2(-/-) failed to demonstrate reductions in infiltrate or fibrosis after 3 days of AngII, and AngII + AMD3100 animals showed exacerbated fibrocyte infiltration and fibrosis compared with AngII alone. CCR2(-/-) mice demonstrated significant reductions in myocardial fibrosis relative to wild type, but this was after 28 days of AngII infusion and was the result of reduced infiltrating cell proliferation. An alternative CCR2 ligand, CCL12, was found to be increasing infiltrating cell proliferation in the heart after AngII infusion, which we confirmed in vitro. In conclusion, early fibrocyte recruitment cannot be inhibited through modulating CXCL12 or CCL2, as previously thought. Ablating CCR2 signaling did confer myocardial fibrosis reductions, but these benefits were not observed until much later and were likely the result of modulated proliferation through ablating the CCL12-CCR2 interaction. PMID:23731726

  17. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K.; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465

  18. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Thomson, Martha; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465

  19. The Role of the Rho/ROCK Pathway in Ang II and TGF-β1-Induced Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gui-Hua; Xu, Cheng-Gui; Xu, Zhe; Tang, Kai; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Gao, Xiu-Ren; Wu, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the role of the Rho/ROCK pathway in Ang II and TGF-β1-induced atrial remodeling. Methods and Results A canine atrial fibrillation (AF) model was established by rapid atrial pacing (RAP) of the left atrium. The roles of TGF-β1, the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in atrial remodeling were studied via both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Each of the dogs that received RAP developed persistent AF within 4 weeks. The mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1 (1.32±0.38), Collagen-I(1.33±0.91), CTGF(5.83±3.71), RhoA(1.23±0.57) and ROCK-1 (1.02±0.27) in the left atrium were significantly increased following 4 weeks of RAP. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced the proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and up-regulated the expression of both CTGF and ROCK-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Simvastatin and Y27632 reversed Ang II-induced CFs proliferation, as well as ROCK-1(0.89±0.05 and 1.27±0.03, respectively) and CTGF (0.87±0.04 and 0.91±0.02, respectively) expression. The expression mRNA of ROCK-1(1.74±0.13) and CTGF (2.28±0.11) can upregulated by TGF-β1, and down-regulated by Simvastatin (1.22±0.03 vs 2.27±0.11), Y27632 (1.01±0.04 vs 1.64±0.03), Los (1.04±0.11 vs 1.26±0.05), respectively. Losartan and Simvastatin attenuated the effects of TGF-β1, inhibited RhoA activity as opposed to RhoA protein expression. Y27632 had no effect on either the expression or the activity of RhoA. Conclusions The increased expression of profibrotic factors (CTGF, ROCK1 and Smad2/3) played an important role in our RAP-induced AF model. Increased atrial profibrotic factors involve the activation of either the TGF-β1/RhoA/ROCK-1 or the TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. PMID:27611832

  20. Metformin Prevents Renal Fibrosis in Mice with Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction and Inhibits Ang II-Induced ECM Production in Renal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Miao, Naijun; Xu, Jinlan; Gan, Xinxin; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Li; Xue, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and no effective medication is available clinically for managing its progression. Metformin was initially developed as an anti-diabetic drug and recently gained attention for its potential in the treatment of other diseases. In this study, we investigated its effects on renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in vivo and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated renal fibroblast NRK-49F cells in vitro. Our data showed that UUO induced renal fibrosis and combined with the activation of ERK signaling, the upregulation of fibronectin, collagen I, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The administration of metformin inhibited the activation of ERK signaling and attenuated the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and collagen deposition in the obstructed kidneys. In cultured renal fibroblasts, Ang II increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen I and also activated ERK signaling and TGF-β in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with metformin blocked Ang II-induced ERK signaling activation and ECM overproduction. Our results show that metformin prevents renal fibrosis, possibly through the inhibition of ERK signaling, and may be a novel strategy for the treatment of renal fibrosis.

  1. Exploring EUV Spicules Using 304 Ang He II Data from SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Ian; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a statistical study of He II 304 Angstrom EUV spicules and macrospicules at the limb of the Sun. We use high-cadence (12 sec) and high-resolution (0.6 arcsec pixels) resolution data from the Atmospheric Imaging Array (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). All of the observed events occurred in quiet or coronal hole regions near the solar pole. Spicules and macrospicules are typically transient jet-like chromospheric-material features, the macrospicules are wider and have taller maximum heights than the spicules. We looked for characteristics of the populations of these two phenomena that might indicate whether they have the same or different initiation mechanisms. We examined the maximum heights, time-averaged rise velocities, and lifetimes of about two dozen EUV spicules and about five EUV macrospicules. For spicules, these quantities are, respectively, approx. 5-30 km, 5-50 km/s, and a few 100- approx. 1000 sec. Macrospicules were approx. 60,000 km, 55 km/s, and had lifetimes of approx. 1800 sec. Therefore the macrospicules were taller and longer-lived than the spicules, and had velocities comparable to that of the fastest spicules. The rise profiles of both the spicules and the macrospicules matched well a second-order ("parabolic'') trajectory, although the acceleration was generally weaker than that of solar gravity in the profiles fitted to the trajectories. The Macrospicules also had obvious brightenings at their bases at their birth, while such brightenings were not apparent for most of the spicules. Most of the spicules and several of the macrospicules remained visible during their decent back to the solar surface, although a small percentage of the spicules faded out before their fall was completed. Are findings are suggestive of the two phenomena possibly having different initiation mechanisms, but this is not yet conclusive. Qualitatively the EUV 304 Angstrom spicules match well the properties quoted for "Type I

  2. Exploring Euv Spicules Using 304 Ang He II Data from SDO/AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, I. R.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from an exploratory study of He II 304 ŠEUV spicules at the limb of the Sun. We also measured properties of one macrospicule; macrospicules are longer than most spicules, and much broader in width than spicules. We use high-cadence (12 sec) and high-resolution (0.6 arcsec pixels) data from the Atmospheric Imaging Array (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). All of the observed events occurred near the solar north pole, in quiet-Sun or coronal-hole environments. We examined the maximum lengths, maximum rise velocities, and lifetimes of about 30 EUV spicules and the macrospicule. For the bulk of the EUV spicules the ranges of these quantities are respectively ~10,000----40,000 km, 20---100 km/s, and ~100--- ~600 sec. For the macrospicule the corresponding quantities are respectively ~60,000 km, ~130 km/s, and ~1800 sec, which is typical of macrospicules measured by other workers. Therefore macrospicules are taller, longer-lived, and faster than most EUV spicules. The rise profiles of both the spicules and the macrospicules fit well to a second-order ("parabolic'') trajectory, although the acceleration was often weaker than that of solar gravity in the profiles fitted to the trajectories. Our macrospicule also had an obvious brightening at its base at birth, whereas such brightenings were not apparent for the EUV spicules. Most of the EUV spicules remained visible during their decent back to the solar surface, although a small percentage of the spicules and the macrospicule faded out before falling back to the surface. Our sample of macrospicules is not yet large enough to address whether they are scaled-up versions of EUV spicules, or independent phenomena. A.C.S. and R.L.M. were supported by funding from the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program, and the Hinode Project. I.R.S. was supported by NSF's Research Experience for

  3. Increased Circulating ANG II and TNF-α Represents Important Risk Factors in Obese Saudi Adults with Hypertension Irrespective of Diabetic Status and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Bindahman, Lotfi S.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Saleem, Tahia H.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Draz, Hossam M.; Yakout, Sobhy; Mohamed, Amany O.; Harte, Alison L.; McTernan, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m2), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m2), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m2) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m2). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-α (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-α with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-α, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk. PMID:23251471

  4. Up-regulation of the Ang II/AT1 receptor may compensate for the loss of gastric antrum ICC via the PI3k/Akt signaling pathway in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C M; Huang, X; Lu, H L; Meng, X M; Liu, D H; Kim, Young-Chul; Xu, W X

    2016-03-01

    The classic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a complex system in which angiotensin II (Ang II) has been identified as an important endogenous regulator that influences both smooth muscle contraction and cell growth. Although a local RAS is known to exist in the gastrointestinal tract, it is unclear whether Ang II is involved in the loss of gastric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in diabetic mice. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Ang II on ICC survival in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Western blot, immunofluorescence, isometric muscle recording, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a cell counting kit-8 were used in this research. Our results demonstrate that the c-Kit and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) protein expression levels in gastric smooth muscle were decreased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) expression levels in gastric smooth muscle and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression levels in gastric mucosa were increased. The effect of Ang II on the tonic contraction of gastric smooth muscle was potentiated in diabetic mice, and the plasma Ang II level was enhanced. Ang II increased mSCF expression, cell proliferation, and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in cultured gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs). These effects were reduced by specific inhibitors ZD7155 (an AT1R antagonist) and LY294002 (a PI3-kinase inhibitor). Our results suggest that Ang II increases mSCF expression and cell proliferation in cultured GSMCs in a PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent manner. ACE and AT1R up-regulation in the stomach may help compensate for ICC loss in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  5. Ca2+ and K+ channels of normal human adrenal zona fasciculata cells: Properties and modulation by ACTH and AngII

    PubMed Central

    Enyeart, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In whole cell patch clamp recordings, we found that normal human adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express voltage-gated, rapidly inactivating Ca2+ and K+ currents and a noninactivating, leak-type K+ current. Characterization of these currents with respect to voltage-dependent gating and kinetic properties, pharmacology, and modulation by the peptide hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and AngII, in conjunction with Northern blot analysis, identified these channels as Cav3.2 (encoded by CACNA1H), Kv1.4 (KCNA4), and TREK-1 (KCNK2). In particular, the low voltage–activated, rapidly inactivating and slowly deactivating Ca2+ current (Cav3.2) was potently blocked by Ni2+ with an IC50 of 3 µM. The voltage-gated, rapidly inactivating K+ current (Kv1.4) was robustly expressed in nearly every cell, with a current density of 95.0 ± 7.2 pA/pF (n = 64). The noninactivating, outwardly rectifying K+ current (TREK-1) grew to a stable maximum over a period of minutes when recording at a holding potential of −80 mV. This noninactivating K+ current was markedly activated by cinnamyl 1-3,4-dihydroxy-α-cyanocinnamate (CDC) and arachidonic acid (AA) and inhibited almost completely by forskolin, properties which are specific to TREK-1 among the K2P family of K+ channels. The activation of TREK-1 by AA and inhibition by forskolin were closely linked to membrane hyperpolarization and depolarization, respectively. ACTH and AngII selectively inhibited the noninactivating K+ current in human AZF cells at concentrations that stimulated cortisol secretion. Accordingly, mibefradil and CDC at concentrations that, respectively, blocked Cav3.2 and activated TREK-1, each inhibited both ACTH- and AngII-stimulated cortisol secretion. These results characterize the major Ca2+ and K+ channels expressed by normal human AZF cells and identify TREK-1 as the primary leak-type channel involved in establishing the membrane potential. These findings also suggest a model for cortisol

  6. The RNA-binding protein PCBP2 inhibits Ang II-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes though promoting GPR56 mRNA degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Si, Yi; Ma, Nan; Mei, Ju

    2015-08-28

    Poly(C)-binding proteins (PCBPs) are known as RNA-binding proteins that interact in a sequence-specific fashion with single-stranded poly(C). This family can be divided into two groups: hnRNP K and PCBP1-4. PCBPs are expressed broadly in human and mouse tissues and all members of the PCBP family are related evolutionarily. However, their physiological or pathological functions in the hearts remain unknown. Here we reported that PCBP2 is an anti-hypertrophic factor by inhibiting GPR56 mRNA stability. We found the downregulation of PCBP2 in human failing hearts and mouse hypertrophic hearts. PCBP2 knockdown promoted angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy (increase in cell size, protein synthesis and activation of fetal genes) of neonatal cardiomyocytes and H9C2 cells, while PCBP2 overexpression obtained oppose effects. Furthermore, PCBP2 was shown to inhibit GPR56 expression by promoting its mRNA degeneration in cardiomyocytes. Finally, we knocked down GPR56 in cardiomyocytes and found that GPR56 promoted Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and it contributed to PCBP2 effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26116532

  7. Disruption of Smad7 Promotes ANG II-Mediated Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis via Sp1-TGF-β/Smad3-NF.κB-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao R.; Wei, Lihua; Chen, Hai-Yong; Shi, Yong-Jun; Heuchel, Rainer L.; Lan, Hui Y.

    2013-01-01

    Smad7 is an inhibitory Smad and plays a protective role in obstructive and diabetic kidney disease. However, the role and mechanisms of Smad7 in hypertensive nephropathy remains unexplored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role and regulatory mechanisms of Smad7 in ANG II-induced hypertensive nephropathy. Smad7 gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice received a subcutaneous infusion of ANG II or control saline for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pumps. ANG II infusion produced equivalent hypertension in Smad7 KO and WT mice; however, Smad7 KO mice exhibited more severe renal functional injury as shown by increased proteinuria and reduced renal function (both p<0.05) when compared with Smad7 WT mice. Enhanced renal injury in Smad7 KO mice was associated with more progressive renal fibrosis with elevated TGF-β/Smad3 signalling. Smad7 KO mice also showed more profound renal inflammation including increased macrophage infiltration, enhanced IL-1β and TNF-α expression, and a marked activation of NF-κB signaling (all p<0.01). Further studies revealed that enhanced ANG II-mediated renal inflammation and fibrosis in Smad7 KO mice were also associated with up-regulation of Sp1 but downregulation of miR-29b expression. Taken together, the present study revealed that enhanced Sp1-TGF-β1/Smad3-NF-κB signaling and loss of miR-29 may be mechanisms by which deletion of Smad7 promotes ANG II-mediated renal fibrosis and inflammation. Thus, Smad7 may play a protective role in ANG II-induced hypertensive kidney disease. PMID:23301086

  8. Pregnant rats treated with a high-fat/prooxidant Western diet with ANG II and TNF-α are resistant to elevations in blood pressure and renal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark W; West, Crystal A; Wen, Xuerong; Deng, Aihua; Baylis, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Here, we examined the 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) via telemetry and the nitric oxide (NO) and redox systems in the kidney cortex, medulla, and aorta of virgin and pregnant rats treated with a high-fat/prooxidant Western diet (HFD), ANG II, and TNF-α. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for 8 wk before mating. Day 6 of pregnancy and age-matched virgins were implanted with minipumps infusing saline or ANG II (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) + TNF-α (75 ng/day) for 14 days. Groups consisted of Virgin + ND + Saline (V+ND) (n = 7), Virgin + HFD +ANG II and TNF-α (V+HFD) (n = 7), Pregnant + ND + Saline (P+ND) (n = 6), and Pregnant + HFD + ANG II and TNF-α (P+HFD) (n = 8). After day 6 of minipump implantation, V+HFD rats displayed an increase in MAP on days 7, 8, and 10-15 vs. V+ND rats. P+HFD rats, after day 6 of minipump implantation, showed an increase in MAP only on day 7 vs. P+ND rats. P+HFD rats had a normal fall in 24-h MAP, hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, and osmolality at late pregnancy. No change in kidney cortex, medulla, or aortic oxidative stress in P+HFD rats. P+HFD rats displayed a decrease in nNOSβ abundance, but no change in kidney cortex NOx content vs. P+ND rats. Pregnant rats subjected to a chronic HFD and prooxidant and proinflammatory insults have a blunted increase in 24-h MAP and renal oxidative stress. Our data suggest renal NO bioavailability is not altered in pregnant rats treated with a HFD, ANG II, and TNF-α.

  9. Morphological and Biomechanical Differences in the Elastase and AngII apoE−/− Rodent Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Evan H.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Schroeder, Hilary D.; Wilson, Katherine E.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Goergen, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a potentially fatal cardiovascular disease with multifactorial development and progression. Two preclinical models of the disease (elastase perfusion and angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein-E-deficient animals) have been developed to study the disease during its initiation and progression. To date, most studies have used ex vivo methods to examine disease characteristics such as expanded aortic diameter or analytic methods to look at circulating biomarkers. Herein, we provide evidence from in vivo ultrasound studies of the temporal changes occurring in biomechanical parameters and macromolecules of the aortic wall in each model. We present findings from 28-day studies in elastase-perfused rats and AngII apoE−/− mice. While each model develops AAAs specific to their induction method, they both share characteristics with human aneurysms, such as marked changes in vessel strain and blood flow velocity. Histology and nonlinear microscopy confirmed that both elastin and collagen, both important extracellular matrix molecules, are similarly affected in their levels and spatial distribution. Future studies could make use of the differences between these models in order to investigate mechanisms of disease progression or evaluate potential AAA treatments. PMID:26064906

  10. Tert-butylhydroquinone lowers blood pressure in AngII-induced hypertension in mice via proteasome-PTEN-Akt-eNOS pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing-Can; Long, Hui-Bao; Luo, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), as an antioxidant, has been widely used for many years to prevent oxidization of food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tBHQ activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to prevent endothelial dysfunction and lower blood pressure. The role of Akt in tBHQ-induced eNOS phosphorylation was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or in mice. tBHQ treatment of HUVEC increased both Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, accompanied with increased eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and NO release. Mechanically, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Akt abolished tBHQ-enhanced NO release and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC. Gain-function of PTEN or inhibition of 26S proteasome abolished tBHQ-enhanced Akt phosphorylation in HUVEC. Ex vivo analysis indicated that tBHQ improved Ach-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in LPC-treated mice aortic arteries, which were abolished by inhibition of Akt or eNOS. In animal study, administration of tBHQ significantly increased eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, and lowered AngII-induced hypertension in wildtype mice, but not in mice deficient of Akt or eNOS. In conclusion, tBHQ via proteasome-dependent degradation of PTEN increases Akt phosphorylation, resulting in upregulation of eNOS-derived NO production and consequent improvement of endothelial function in vivo. In this way, tBHQ lowers blood pressure in hypertensive mice. PMID:27435826

  11. Chronic oral administration of Ang-(1-7) improves skeletal muscle, autonomic and locomotor phenotypes in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Cicha, Michael Z; Sinisterra, Ruben D M; De Sousa, Frederico B; Santos, Robson A; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-07-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting, dilated cardiomyopathy and early mortality. There are different types of muscular dystrophies with varying aetiologies but they all have a common hallmark of myofibre degeneration, atrophy and decreased mobility. Mutation in Sgcd (sarcoglycan-δ), a subunit of dystrophin glycoprotein complex, causes LGMD2F (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F). Previously, we have reported that Sgcd-deficient (Sgcd-/-) mice exhibit AngII (angiotensin II)-induced autonomic and skeletal muscle dysfunction at a young age, which contributes to onset of dilated cardiomyopathy and mortality at older ages. Two counter-regulatory RAS (renin-angiotensin system) pathways have been identified: deleterious actions of AngII acting on the AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) compared with the protective actions of Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] acting on the receptor Mas. We propose that the balance between the AngII/AT1R and Ang-(1-7)/Mas axes is disturbed in Sgcd-/- mice. Control C57BL/6J and Sgcd-/- mice were treated with Ang-(1-7) included in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (in drinking water) for 8-9 weeks beginning at 3 weeks of age. Ang-(1-7) treatment restored the AngII/AT1R compared with Ang-(1-7)/Mas balance, decreased oxidative stress and fibrosis in skeletal muscle, increased locomotor activity, and prevented autonomic dysfunction without lowering blood pressure in Sgcd-/- mice. Our results suggest that correcting the early autonomic dysregulation by administering Ang-(1-7) or enhancing its endogenous production may provide a novel therapeutic approach in muscular dystrophy.

  12. Differential mechanisms of ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effect in adult and aged candesartan-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bosnyak, S; Widdop, R E; Denton, K M; Jones, E S

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT(2)R). However, the role of vascular AT(2)R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinations in a randomised fashion over a 4-day protocol: (i) Ang (1-7) alone, (ii) AT(1)R antagonist, candesartan, alone, (iii) Ang (1-7) and candesartan, or (iv) Ang-(1-7), candesartan, and the AT(2)R antagonist, PD123319. In a separate group of animals, the specific MasR antagonist, A779, was administered in place of PD123319. Receptor localisation was also assessed in aortic sections from adult and aged WKY rats by immunofluorescence. Ang (1-7) reduced blood pressure (~15 mmHg) in adult normotensive rats although this effect was dependant on the background dose of candesartan. This depressor effect was reversed by AT(2)R blockade. In aged rats, the depressor effect of Ang (1-7) was evident but was now inhibited by either AT(2)R blockade or MasR blockade. At the same time, AT(2)R, MasR, and ACE2 immunoreactivity was markedly elevated in aortic sections from aged animals. These results indicate that the Ang (1-7)-mediated depressor effect was preserved in aged animals. Whereas Ang (1-7) effects were mediated exclusively via stimulation of AT(2)R in adult WKY, with aging the vasodepressor effect of Ang (1-7) involved both AT(2)R and MasR.

  13. T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selle, Penny

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

  14. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-01

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. PMID:27137842

  15. Evidence for extracellular, but not intracellular, generation of angiotensin II in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, H.; Khosla, M.C.; Bumpus, M.; Husain, A. )

    1988-11-01

    Based on the observation that high levels of renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) are found in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), it has been postulated that Ang II is formed intracellularly by the renin-converting enzyme cascade in this tissue. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined renin-angiotensin system components in subcellular fractions of the rat adrenal ZG. Renin activity and immunoreactive-Ang II (IR-Ang II) were observed in vesicular fractions but were not colocalized. In addition, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, and converting enzyme were not observed in the renin or IR-Ang II-containing vesicular fractions. These data do not support the hypothesis that Ang II is formed intracellularly within the renin-containing vesicles of the ZG. Rather, since modulatable renin release from adrenal ZG slices was observed and renin activity was found in dense vesicular fractions (33-39% sucrose), it is likely that Ang II formation in the ZG is extracellular and initiated by the release of vesicular renin. In ZG lysomal fractions {sup 125}I-labeled Ang II was degraded to {sup 125}I-labeled des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II. Since Ang II antibodies do not recognize des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II, these finding explain why IR-Ang II in the ZG is due predominantly to Ang II and not to its C-terminal immunoreactive fragments.

  16. AnGeLi: A Tool for the Analysis of Gene Lists from Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Danny A; Schubert, Falk; Dey, Shoumit; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Graeme C; Khadayate, Sanjay; Pancaldi, Vera; Wood, Valerie; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide assays and screens typically result in large lists of genes or proteins. Enrichments of functional or other biological properties within such lists can provide valuable insights and testable hypotheses. To systematically detect these enrichments can be challenging and time-consuming, because relevant data to compare against query gene lists are spread over many different sources. We have developed AnGeLi (Analysis of Gene Lists), an intuitive, integrated web-tool for comprehensive and customized interrogation of gene lists from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. AnGeLi searches for significant enrichments among multiple qualitative and quantitative information sources, including gene and phenotype ontologies, genetic and protein interactions, numerous features of genes, transcripts, translation, and proteins such as copy numbers, chromosomal positions, genetic diversity, RNA polymerase II and ribosome occupancy, localization, conservation, half-lives, domains, and molecular weight among others, as well as diverse sets of genes that are co-regulated or lead to the same phenotypes when mutated. AnGeLi uses robust statistics which can be tailored to specific needs. It also provides the option to upload user-defined gene sets to compare against the query list. Through an integrated data submission form, AnGeLi encourages the community to contribute additional curated gene lists to further increase the usefulness of this resource and to get the most from the ever increasing large-scale experiments. AnGeLi offers a rigorous yet flexible statistical analysis platform for rich insights into functional enrichments and biological context for query gene lists, thus providing a powerful exploratory tool through which S. pombe researchers can uncover fresh perspectives and unexpected connections from genomic data. AnGeLi is freely available at: www.bahlerlab.info/AnGeLi. PMID:26635866

  17. AnGeLi: A Tool for the Analysis of Gene Lists from Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Danny A; Schubert, Falk; Dey, Shoumit; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Graeme C; Khadayate, Sanjay; Pancaldi, Vera; Wood, Valerie; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide assays and screens typically result in large lists of genes or proteins. Enrichments of functional or other biological properties within such lists can provide valuable insights and testable hypotheses. To systematically detect these enrichments can be challenging and time-consuming, because relevant data to compare against query gene lists are spread over many different sources. We have developed AnGeLi (Analysis of Gene Lists), an intuitive, integrated web-tool for comprehensive and customized interrogation of gene lists from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. AnGeLi searches for significant enrichments among multiple qualitative and quantitative information sources, including gene and phenotype ontologies, genetic and protein interactions, numerous features of genes, transcripts, translation, and proteins such as copy numbers, chromosomal positions, genetic diversity, RNA polymerase II and ribosome occupancy, localization, conservation, half-lives, domains, and molecular weight among others, as well as diverse sets of genes that are co-regulated or lead to the same phenotypes when mutated. AnGeLi uses robust statistics which can be tailored to specific needs. It also provides the option to upload user-defined gene sets to compare against the query list. Through an integrated data submission form, AnGeLi encourages the community to contribute additional curated gene lists to further increase the usefulness of this resource and to get the most from the ever increasing large-scale experiments. AnGeLi offers a rigorous yet flexible statistical analysis platform for rich insights into functional enrichments and biological context for query gene lists, thus providing a powerful exploratory tool through which S. pombe researchers can uncover fresh perspectives and unexpected connections from genomic data. AnGeLi is freely available at: www.bahlerlab.info/AnGeLi.

  18. Angiotensin-(1-7) regulates Angiotensin II-induced VCAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ren, Jingyi; Chan, Kenneth; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We for the first time found that Ang-(1-7) inhibits Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on VCAM-1 is mediated by MAS receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ang-(1-7) is due to the suppression of NF-kappaB translocation. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) are key effector peptides in the renin-angiotensin system. Increased circulatory Ang II level is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, whether Ang-(1-7) regulates the action of Ang II on vascular endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the context of atherogenesis, specifically endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression that is implicated in early plaque formation. The results show that Ang II increased VCAM-1 mRNA expression and protein displayed on EC surface, while Ang-(1-7) alone exerted no effects. However, Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Ang-(1-7) also inhibited the Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity driven by transcription factor NF-KappaB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that Ang II facilitated the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in ECs, and this was attenuated by the presence of Ang-(1-7). The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were all reversed by the competitive antagonist of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor. Our results suggest that Ang-(1-7) mediates its affects on ECs through the Mas receptor, and negatively regulates Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression by attenuating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for the behavioural desensitization that occurs after repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2012-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on central angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase water and saline intake. Prolonged exposure to Ang II in cell culture models results in a desensitization of the AT(1) receptor that is thought to involve receptor internalization, and a behavioural correlate of this desensitization has been shown in rats after repeated central injections of Ang II. Specifically, rats given repeated injections of Ang II drink less water than control animals after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. In the same conditions, however, repeated injections of Ang II have no effect on Ang II-induced saline intake. Given earlier studies indicating that separate intracellular signalling pathways mediate Ang II-induced water and saline intake, we hypothesized that the desensitization observed in rats may be incomplete, leaving the receptor able to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK1/2), which play a role in Ang II-induced saline intake without affecting water intake. In support of this hypothesis, we found no difference in MAP kinase phosphorylation after an Ang II test injection in rats given prior treatment with repeated injections of vehicle, Ang II or Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)-Ang II (SII), an Ang II analogue that activates MAP kinase without G protein coupling. In addition, we found that pretreatment with the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 completely blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated Ang II injections on water intake. Furthermore, Ang II-induced water intake was reduced to a similar extent by repeated injections of Ang II or SII. The results suggest that G protein-independent signalling is sufficient to produce behavioural desensitization of the angiotensin system and that the desensitization requires MAP kinase activation.

  20. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  1. Differential brain angiotensin-II type I receptor expression in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin-II (Ang-II) has profound effects in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that Ang-II-dependent hypertension involves differential Ang-II type I (AT(1)) receptors expression in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Male Wistar rats were implanted with 14-day osmotic minipump filled with Ang-II (150 ng/kg/min) or saline. AT(1) receptor mRNA levels were detected in the SFO and RVLM by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ang-II caused hypertension (134 ± 10 mmHg vs. 98 ± 9 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed that Ang-II infusion induced increased AT(1) receptor mRNA levels in RVLM and decreased in SFO. Our data suggest that Ang-II-induced hypertension involves differential expression of brain AT(1) receptors. PMID:21897104

  2. The β-arrestin-biased ligand TRV120023 inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy while preserving enhanced myofilament response to calcium.

    PubMed

    Monasky, Michelle M; Taglieri, Domenico M; Henze, Marcus; Warren, Chad M; Utter, Megan S; Soergel, David G; Violin, Jonathan D; Solaro, R John

    2013-09-15

    In the present study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of TRV120023, a novel angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) ligand, which blocks G protein coupling but stimulates β-arrestin signaling, against treatment with losartan, a conventional AT1R blocker in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and regulation of myofilament activity and phosphorylation. Rats were subjected to 3 wk of treatment with saline, ANG II, ANG II + losartan, ANG II + TRV120023, or TRV120023 alone. ANG II induced increased left ventricular mass compared with rats that received ANG II + losartan or ANG II + TRV120023. Compared with saline controls, ANG II induced a significant increase in pCa50 and maximum Ca(2+)-activated myofilament tension but reduced the Hill coefficient (nH). TRV120023 increased maximum tension and pCa50, although to lesser extent than ANG II. In contrast to ANG II, TRV120023 increased nH. Losartan blocked the effects of ANG II on pCa50 and nH and reduced maximum tension below that of saline controls. ANG II + TRV120023 showed responses similar to those of TRV120023 alone; compared with ANG II + losartan, ANG II + TRV120023 preserved maximum tension and increased both pCa50 and cooperativity. Tropomyosin phosphorylation was lower in myofilaments from saline-treated hearts compared with the other groups. Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I was significantly reduced in ANG II + TRV120023 and TRV120023 groups versus saline controls, and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation at Ser(282) was unaffected by ANG II or losartan but significantly reduced with TRV120023 treatment compared with all other groups. Our data indicate that TRV120023-related promotion of β-arrestin signaling and enhanced contractility involves a mechanism promoting the myofilament response to Ca(2+) via altered protein phosphorylation. Selective activation of β-arrestin-dependent pathways may provide advantages over conventional AT1R blockers.

  3. ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis: A critical regulator of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation and cardiac dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice. Loss of ACE2 results in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction which is mediated in part by epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Angiotensin 1-7 reduces the obesity associated cardiac dysfunction predominantly via its role in adiponectin expression and attenuation of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Human heart disease is also linked with inflammed epicardial adipose tissue. Here, we discuss the important interpretation of the novel of ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathway in obesity associated cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27617176

  4. Angiotensin-(1–7) attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling associated with upregulation of dual-specificity phosphatase 1

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, LaTronya T.; Gallagher, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hypertension induces cardiac remodeling, including left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, through a combination of both hemodynamic and humoral factors. In previous studies, we showed that the heptapeptide ANG-(1–7) prevented mitogen-stimulated growth of cardiac myocytes in vitro, through a reduction in the activity of the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2. In this study, saline- or ANG II-infused rats were treated with ANG-(1–7) to determine whether the heptapeptide reduces myocyte hypertrophy in vivo and to identify the signaling pathways involved in the process. ANG II infusion into normotensive rats elevated systolic blood pressure >50 mmHg, in association with increased myocyte cross-sectional area, ventricular atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA, and ventricular brain natriuretric peptide mRNA. Although infusion with ANG-(1–7) had no effect on the ANG II-stimulated elevation in blood pressure, the heptapeptide hormone significantly reduced the ANG II-mediated increase in myocyte cross-sectional area, interstitial fibrosis, and natriuretic peptide mRNAs. ANG II increased phospho-ERK1 and phospho-ERK2, whereas cotreatment with ANG-(1–7) reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. Neither ANG II nor ANG-(1–7) altered the ERK1/2 MAPK kinase MEK1/2. However, ANG-(1–7) infusion, with or without ANG II, increased the MAPK phosphatase dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP)-1; in contrast, treatment with ANG II had no effect on DUSP-1, suggesting that ANG-(1–7) upregulates DUSP-1 to reduce ANG II-stimulated ERK activation. These results indicate that ANG-(1–7) attenuates cardiac remodeling associated with a chronic elevation in blood pressure and upregulation of a MAPK phosphatase and may be cardioprotective in patients with hypertension. PMID:22140049

  5. Angiotensin II modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Iwata, Shusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying gustatory detection of dietary sodium is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (AngII), a major mediator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis, modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities, and that this modulation critically influences ingestive behaviors in mice. Gustatory nerve recording demonstrated that AngII suppressed amiloride-sensitive taste responses to NaCl. Surprisingly, AngII also enhanced nerve responses to sweeteners, but had no effect on responses to KCl, sour, bitter, or umami tastants. These effects of AngII on nerve responses were blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist CV11974. In behavioral tests, CV11974 treatment reduced the stimulated high licking rate to NaCl and sweeteners in water-restricted mice with elevated plasma AngII levels. In taste cells AT1 proteins were coexpressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, an amiloride-sensitive salt taste receptor) or T1r3 (a sweet taste receptor component). These results suggest that the taste organ is a peripheral target of AngII. The specific reduction of amiloride-sensitive salt taste sensitivity by AngII may contribute to increased sodium intake. Furthermore, AngII may contribute to increased energy intake by enhancing sweet responses. The linkage between salty and sweet preferences via AngII signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes. PMID:23575826

  6. The anteroventral third ventricle region is critical for the behavioral desensitization caused by repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2014-01-01

    A single central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) potently increases water intake; however, a growing body of research suggests that repeated, acute intracerebroventricular injections of AngII cause a reduction in the dipsogenic response to subsequent AngII. This AngII-induced behavioral desensitization is specific to the effects of angiotensin and mediated by the angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor. The neuroanatomical substrate for this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region is an important site for the behavioral and physiological actions of AngII. Therefore, we hypothesized that this region also mediates the effects of repeated central AngII administration. In support of this hypothesis, we found that repeated injections of AngII into the AV3V reduced water intake stimulated by a test injection of AngII given into this region. Moreover, repeated AngII injections in the AV3V reduced water intake after AngII was injected into the lateral ventricle. These studies also demonstrate that activation of the AT1 receptor within the AV3V is required for AngII-induced behavioral desensitization because direct injection of the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, into the AV3V blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated AngII injections into the lateral ventricle. These findings provide additional support for a role of the AV3V in the dipsogenic actions of AngII, and suggest that this region is critical for the desensitization that occurs after acute repeated central injections of AngII.

  7. Novel roles of intracrine angiotensin II and signalling mechanisms in kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L; Li, Xiao C

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful sodium-retaining, growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory properties in addition to its physiological role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis. Increased circulating and local tissue Ang II is one of the most important factors contributing to the development of sodium and fluid retention, hypertension and target organ damage. The importance of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ injury is best demonstrated by the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists in treating hypertension and progressive renal disease including diabetic nephropathy. The detrimental effects of Ang II are mediated primarily by the AT1-receptor, while the AT2-receptor may oppose the AT1-receptor. The classical view of the AT1-receptor-mediated effects of Ang II is that the agonist binds its receptors at the cell surface, and following receptor phosphorylation, activates downstream signal transduction pathways and intracellular responses. However, evidence is emerging that binding of Ang II to its cell surface AT1-receptors also activates endocytotic (or internalisation) processes that promote trafficking of both the effector and the receptor into intracellular compartments. Whether internalised Ang II has important intracrine and signalling actions is not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in Ang II research with focus on the mechanisms underlying high levels of intracellular Ang II in proximal tubule cells and the contribution of receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular Ang II. Further attention is devoted to the question whether intracellular and/or internalised Ang II plays a physiological role by activating cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors in proximal tubule cells. This information may aid future development of drugs to prevent and treat Ang II-induced target organ injury in cardiovascular and renal

  8. Investigation into the specificity of angiotensin II-induced behavioral desensitization.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Myers, Kevin P; Daniels, Derek

    2012-02-28

    Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a key role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. The physiological and behavioral effects of central AngII include increased blood pressure and fluid intake. In vitro experiments demonstrate that repeated exposure to AngII reduces the efficacy of subsequent AngII, and behavioral studies indicate that prior icv AngII administration reduces the dipsogenic response to AngII administered later. Specifically, rats given a treatment regimen of three icv injections of a large dose of AngII, each separated by 20 min, drink less water in response to a test injection of AngII than do vehicle-treated controls given the same test injection. The present studies were designed to test three potential explanations for the reduced dipsogenic potency of AngII after repeated administration. To this end, we tested for motor impairment caused by repeated injections of AngII, for a possible role of visceral distress or illness, and for differences in the pressor response to the final test injection of AngII. We found that repeated injections of AngII neither affected drinking stimulated by carbachol nor did they produce a conditioned flavor avoidance. Furthermore, we found no evidence that differences in the pressor response to the final test injection of AngII accounted for the difference in intake. In light of these findings, we are able to reject these three explanations for the observed behavioral desensitization, and, we suggest instead that the mechanism for this phenomenon may be at the level of the receptor.

  9. Identification of metabolic pathways of brain angiotensin II and III using specific aminopeptidase inhibitors: predominant role of angiotensin III in the control of vasopressin release.

    PubMed Central

    Zini, S; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Chauvel, E; Roques, B P; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1996-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang III are two peptide effectors of the brain renin-angiotensin system that participate in the control of blood pressure and increase water consumption and vasopressin release. In an attempt to delineate the respective roles of these peptides in the regulation of vasopressin secretion, their metabolic pathways and their effects on vasopressin release were identified in vivo. For this purpose, we used recently developed selective inhibitors of aminopeptidase A (APA) and aminopeptidase N (APN), two enzymes that are believed to be responsible for the N-terminal cleavage of Ang II and Ang III, respectively. Mice received [3H]Ang II intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in the presence or absence of the APN inhibitor, EC33 (3-amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate) of the APN inhibitor, EC27 (2-amino-pentan-1,5-dithiol). [3H]Ang II and [3H]Ang III levels were evaluated from hypothalamus homogenates by HPLC. EC33 increased the half-life of [3H]Ang II 2.6-fold and completely blocked the formation of [3H]Ang III, whereas EC27 increased the half-life of [3H]Ang III 2.3-fold. In addition, the effects of EC33 and EC27 on Ang-induced vasopressin release were studied in mice. Ang II was injected i.c.v. in the presence or absence of EC33, and plasma vasopressin levels were estimated by RIA. While vasopressin levels were increased 2-fold by Ang II (5 ng), EC33 inhibited Ang II-induced vasopressin release in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, EC27 injected alone increased in a dose-dependent manner vasopressin levels. The EC27-induced vasopressin release was completely blocked by the coadministration of the Ang receptor antagonist (Sar1-Ala8) Ang II. These results demonstrate for the first time that (i) APA and APN are involved in vivo in the metabolism of brain Ang II and Ang III, respectively, and that (ii) the action of Ang II on vasopressin release depends upon the prior conversion of Ang II to Ang III. This shows that Ang III behaves as one of the main

  10. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  11. Angiotensin II modification by decomposition products of linoleic acid-derived lipid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki; Lee, Seon Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species and enzymes, leading to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The linoleic acid (LA)-derived hydroperoxide, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE) undergoes homolytic decomposition to reactive aldehydes, 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (EDE), and 4-hydroperoxy-2(E)-nonenal (HPNE), which can covalently modify peptides and proteins. ONE and HNE have been shown to react with angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and modify the N-terminus, Arg(2), and His(6). ONE-derived pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P) alters the biological activities of Ang II considerably. The present study revealed that EDE and HPNE preferentially modified the N-terminus and His(6) of Ang II. In addition to the N-substituted pyrrole of [N-C4H2]-Ang II and Michael addition products of [His(6)(EDE)]-Ang II, hydrated forms were detected as major products, suggesting considerable involvement of the vicinal dihydrodiol (formed by epoxide hydration) in EDE-derived protein modification in vivo. Substantial amounts of [N-(EDE-H2O)]-Ang II isomers were also formed and their synthetic pathway might involve the tautomerization of a carbinolamine intermediate, followed by intramolecular cyclization and dehydration. The main HPNE-derived products were [His(6)(HPNE)]-Ang II and [N-(HPNE-H2O)]-Ang II. However, ONE, HNE, and malondialdehyde-derived modifications were dominant, because HPNE is a precursor of these aldehydes. A mixture of 13-HPODE and [(13)C18]-13-HPODE (1:1) was then used to determine the major modifications derived from LA peroxidation. The characteristic doublet (1:1) observed in the mass spectrum and the mass difference of the [M+H](+) doublet aided the identification of Ang P (N-terminal α-ketoamide), [N-ONE]-Ang II (4-ketoamide), [Arg(2)(ONE-H2O)]-Ang II, [His(6)(HNE)]-Ang II (Michael addition product), [N-C4H2]-Ang II (EDE-derived N-substituted pyrrole

  12. Angiotensin-(1–7) abrogates angiotensin II-induced proliferation, migration and inflammation in VSMCs through inactivation of ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Ren, Xingsheng; Zhao, Mingxia; Zhou, Bing; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation, migration and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of several cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7) and Ang II are identified to be involved in regulating cardiovascular activity. The present study is designed to determine the interaction between Ang-(1–7) and Ang II on VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation as well as their underlying mechanisms. We found that Ang-(1–7) significantly suppressed the positive effects of Ang II on VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation, as well as on induction of the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 and increase of superoxide anion level and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in VSMCs, whereas Ang-(1–7) alone had no significant effects. This inhibitory effects of Ang-(1–7) were abolished by Mas receptor antagonist A-779. In addition, Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan, but not A-779, abolished Ang II induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation responses. Furthermore, superoxide anion scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin inhibited Ang II-induced activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. These results indicate that Ang-(1–7) antagonizes the Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation, migration and inflammation through activation of Mas receptor and then suppression of ROS-dependent PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. PMID:27687768

  13. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events.

  14. Mechanism of angiotensin II-induced arachidonic acid metabolite release in aortic smooth muscle cells: involvement of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, J; Kozawa, O; Suzuki, A; Watanabe-Tomita, Y; Oiso, Y; Uematsu, T

    1997-02-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) activates phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D due to Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx from extracellular space in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we have investigated the role of phospholipase D in Ang II-induced arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite release and prostacyclin synthesis in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Ang II significantly stimulated AA metabolite release in a concentration-dependent manner in the range between 1 nmol/I and 0.1 mumol/I. D.L.-Propranolol hydrochloride (propranolol), an inhibitor of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced release of AA metabolites. The Ang II-induced AA metabolite release was reduced by chelating extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA. Genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. 1,6-Bis-(cyclohexyloximinocarbonylamino)-hexane (RHC-80267), a potent and selective inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. Both propranolol and RHC-80267 inhibited the Ang II-induced synthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin. The synthesis was suppressed by genistein. These results strongly suggest that the AA metabolite release induced by Ang II is mediated, at least in part, through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D activation in aortic smooth muscle cells.

  15. Angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 is a major endogenous source of oxidative stress in kidney tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Tae-Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Moon, Ju-Young

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important intracellular second messenger in renal disease. Recent findings suggest that Ang II induces mitochondrial depolarization and further amplifies mitochondrial generation of ROS. We examined the hypothesis that ROS injury mediated by Ang II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial dysfunction in tubular cells and is related to cell survival. In addition, we assessed whether angiotensin (1-7) peptide (Ang-(1-7)) was able to counteract Ang II-induced ROS-mediated cellular injury. Cultured NRK-52E cells were stimulated with 10(-6) M Ang II for 24 h with or without Ang-(1-7) or apocynin. Ang II simulated mitochondrial Nox4 and resulted in the abrupt production of mitochondrial superoxide (O(2) (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Ang II also induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytosolic secretion of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Ang-(1-7) attenuated Ang II-induced mitochondrial Nox4 expression and apoptosis, and its effect was comparable to that of the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. These findings suggest that Ang II-induced activation of mitochondrial Nox4 is an important endogenous source of ROS, and is related to cell survival. The ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis should be investigated further as a novel target of Ang II-mediated ROS injury.

  16. Relationship between angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II correlates with hemodynamic changes in human liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Walkíria Wingester; Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Antônio; Pereira, Regina Maria; da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata; Almeida, Jerusa; Nadu, Ana Paula; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating angiotensins at different stages of human cirrhosis and to further evaluate a possible relationship between renin angiotensin system (RAS) components and hemodynamic changes. METHODS: Patients were allocated into 4 groups: mild-to-moderate liver disease (MLD), advanced liver disease (ALD), patients undergoing liver transplantation, and healthy controls. Blood was collected to determine plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7) levels using radioimmunoassays. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood was simultaneously obtained from the portal vein and radial artery in order to measure RAS components. RESULTS: PRA and angiotensins were elevated in ALD when compared to MLD and controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, Ang II was significantly reduced in MLD. Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were increased in MLD when compared to controls and ALD. During transplantation, Ang II levels were lower and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were higher in the splanchnic circulation than in the peripheral circulation (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.38 ± 0.04, P < 0.02), whereas the peripheral circulating Ang II/Ang I ratio was elevated in comparison to splanchnic levels (0.18 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.02, P < 0.04). Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios positively correlated with cardiac output (r = 0.66) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.70). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the relationship between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II may play a role in the hemodynamic changes of human cirrhosis. PMID:19469002

  17. Angiotensin 1-7 Protects against Angiotensin II-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction via Mas Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Dharmani; Lau, Yeh Siang; Lau, Wai Chi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin 1–7 (Ang 1–7) counter-regulates the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II (Ang II). The present study investigated the protective effect of Ang 1–7 against Ang II-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and endothelial dysfunction. Ex vivo treatment with Ang II (0.5 μM, 24 hours) impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in mouse aortas; this harmful effect of Ang II was reversed by co-treatment with ER stress inhibitors, l4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) as well as Ang 1–7. The Mas receptor antagonist, A779, antagonized the effect of Ang 1–7. The elevated mRNA expression of CHOP, Grp78 and ATF4 or protein expression of p-eIF2α and ATF6 (ER stress markers) in Ang II-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse aortas were blunted by co-treatment with Ang 1–7 and the latter effect was reversed by A779. Furthermore, Ang II-induced reduction in both eNOS phosphorylation and NO production was inhibited by Ang 1–7. In addition, Ang 1–7 decreased the levels of ER stress markers and augmented NO production in HUVECs treated with ER stress inducer, tunicamycin. The present study provides new evidence for functional antagonism between the two arms of the renin-angiotensin system in endothelial cells by demonstrating that Ang 1–7 ameliorates Ang II-stimulated ER stress to raise NO bioavailability, and subsequently preserves endothelial function. PMID:26709511

  18. Molecular characterization of a dual endothelin-1/Angiotensin II receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Hirayama, K.; Akimoto, K.; Herrera, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The molecular recognition theory (MRT) provides a conceptual framework that could explain the evolution of intermolecular and intramolecular interaction of peptides and proteins. As such, it predicts that binding sites of peptide hormones, and its receptor binding sites were originally encoded by and evolved from complementary strands of genomic DNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On the basis of principles underlying the MRT, we screened a rat brain complementary DNA library using an AngII followed by an endothelin-1 (ET-1) antisense oligonucleotide probe, expecting to isolate potential cognate receptors. RESULTS: An identical cDNA clone was isolated independently from both the AngII and ET-1 oligonucleotide screenings. Structural analysis revealed a receptor polypeptide containing a single predicted transmembrane region with distinct ET-1 and AngII putative binding domains. Functional analysis demonstrated ET-1- and AngII-specific binding as well as ET-1- and AngII-induced coupling to a Ca2+ mobilizing transduction system. Amino acid substitutions within the predicted ET-1 binding domain obliterate ET-1 binding while preserving AngII binding, thus defining the structural determinants of ET-1 binding within the dual ET-1/AngII receptor, as well as corroborating the dual nature of the receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Elucidation of the dual ET-1/AngII receptor provides further molecular genetic evidence in support of the molecular recognition theory and identifies for the first time a molecular link between the ET-1 and AngII hormonal systems that could underlie observed similar physiological responses elicited by ET-1 and AngII in different organ systems. The prominent expression of the ET-1/AngII receptor mRNA in brain and heart tissues suggests an important role in cardiovascular function in normal and pathophysiological states. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:9508787

  19. Serotonin uptake rates in platelets from angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Fletcher, Terry W; Li, Yicong; Rusch, Nancy J; Kilic, Fusun

    2013-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that contributes to hypertension. Although platelets in blood from hypertensive subjects have an abnormal biological profile, it is unclear if circulating Ang II influences platelet aggregation or thrombus formation. One of the abnormalities presented to the platelets during hypertension is an elevated plasma concentration of serotonin (5-HT) caused by reduced 5-HT uptake secondary to loss of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) on the platelet plasma membrane. In the current study, we evaluated in vivo platelet function after 7 days of subcutaneous Ang II infusion to establish hypertension in mice and additionally assessed the biology of isolated platelets exposed to Ang II in vitro. The administration of Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure, but markers of platelet activation including P-selectin and (PE)Jon/A staining were not changed. However, the aggregation response to collagen was reduced in isolated platelets from Ang II-infused mice, which also showed reduced 5-HT uptake by SERT. In vitro exposure of isolated platelets to Ang II also resulted in a loss of surface SERT associated with a reduced aggregation response to collagen. These abnormalities were reversed by increasing concentrations of the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Interestingly, SERT KO mice failed to fully develop hypertension in response to Ang II infusion and isolated platelets from these animals were insensitive to the anti-aggregatory influence of Ang II. Thus, Ang II blunts the aggregation responses of platelets and the mechanism underlying this action may involve a loss of SERT on the platelet plasma membrane. The latter event depletes intracellular 5-HT in platelets, an event that is associated with reduced aggregation. The widespread use of antihypertensive drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system suggest the potential clinical utility of our findings and emphasize the importance of understanding

  20. Serotonin uptake rates in platelets from angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preeti; Fletcher, Terry W.; Li, Yicong; Rusch, Nancy J.; Kilic, Fusun

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that contributes to hypertension. Although platelets in blood from hypertensive subjects have an abnormal biological profile, it is unclear if circulating Ang II influences platelet aggregation or thrombus formation. One of the abnormalities presented to the platelets during hypertension is an elevated plasma concentration of serotonin (5-HT) caused by reduced 5-HT uptake secondary to loss of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) on the platelet plasma membrane. In the current study, we evaluated in vivo platelet function after 7 days of subcutaneous Ang II infusion to establish hypertension in mice and additionally assessed the biology of isolated platelets exposed to Ang II in vitro. The administration of Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure, but markers of platelet activation including P-selectin and PEJon/A staining were not changed. However, the aggregation response to collagen was reduced in isolated platelets from Ang II-infused mice, which also showed reduced 5-HT uptake by SERT. In vitro exposure of isolated platelets to Ang II also resulted in a loss of surface SERT associated with a reduced aggregation response to collagen. These abnormalities were reversed by increasing concentrations of the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Interestingly, SERT KO mice failed to fully develop hypertension in response to Ang II infusion and isolated platelets from these animals were insensitive to the anti-aggregatory influence of Ang II. Thus, Ang II blunts the aggregation responses of platelets and the mechanism underlying this action may involve a loss of SERT on the platelet plasma membrane. The latter event depletes intracellular 5-HT in platelets, an event that is associated with reduced aggregation. The widespread use of antihypertensive drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system suggest the potential clinical utility of our findings and emphasize the importance of understanding the

  1. Norepinephrine metabolism in neuronal cultures is increased by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Shalit, S.L.; Kalberg, C.J.; Raizada, M.K.

    1987-06-01

    In this study the authors have examined the actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) on catecholamine metabolism in neuronal brain cell cultures prepared from the hypothalamus and brain stem. Neuronal cultures prepared from the brains of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit specific neuronal uptake mechanisms for both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), and also monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity. Separate neuronal uptake sites for NE and DA were identified by using specific neuronal uptake inhibitors for each amine. In previous studies, they determined that ANG II (10 nM-1 ..mu..M) stimulates increased neuronal (/sup 3/H)NE uptake by acting as specific receptors. They have confirmed these results here and in addition have shown that ANG II has not significant effects on neuronal (/sup 3/H)DA uptake. These results suggest that the actions of ANG II are restricted to the NE transporter in neuronal cultures. It is possible that ANG II stimulates the intraneuronal metabolism of at least part of the NE that is taken up, because the peptide stimulates MAO activity, an effect mediated by specific ANG II receptors. ANG II had no effect on COMT activity in neuronal cultures. Therefore, the use of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus and brain stem they have determined that ANG II can specifically alter NE metabolism in these areas, while apparently not altering DA metabolism.

  2. Angiotensin II receptor alterations during pregnancy in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.P.; Venuto, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Despite activation of the renin-angiotensin system during pregnancy, renal and peripheral vascular blood flows increase, and the systemic blood pressure and the pressor response to exogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) fall. Gestational alterations in Ang II receptors could contribute to these changes. Ang II binding parameters were determining utilizing SVI-Ang II in vascular (glomeruli and mesenteric arteries) and nonvascular (adrenal glomerulosa) tissues from 24- to 28-day pregnant rabbits. Comparisons were made utilizing tissues from nonpregnant rabbits. Binding site concentrations (N) and dissociation constants (K/sub d/) were obtained by Scatchard analyses of binding inhibition data. Meclofenamate (M) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, reduces plasma renin activity, and enhances the pressor response to infused Ang II in pregnant rabbits. Administration of M to pregnant rabbits increased N in glomerular and in mesenteric artery membranes. These data demonstrate that Ang II receptors in glomeruli and mesenteric arteries are down regulated during gestation in rabbits. Elevated endogenous Ang II during pregnancy in rabbits may contribute to the down regulation of vascular Ang II receptors.

  3. TGF-β1 mediates the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte growth induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jo El J.; Witt, Sandra A.; Glascock, Betty J.; Nieman, Michelle L.; Reiser, Peter J.; Nix, Stacey L.; Kimball, Thomas R.; Doetschman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent hypertrophic stimulus, causes significant increases in TGFb1 gene expression. However, it is not known whether there is a causal relationship between increased levels of TGF-β1 and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that TGF-β1–deficient mice subjected to chronic subpressor doses of Ang II had no significant change in left ventricular (LV) mass and percent fractional shortening during Ang IItreatment. In contrast, Ang II–treated wild-type mice showed a >20% increase in LV mass and impaired cardiac function. Cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was also markedly increased in Ang II–treated wild-type mice but unchanged in Ang II–treated TGF-β1–deficient mice. No significant levels of fibrosis, mitotic growth, or cytokine infiltration were detected in Ang II–treated mice. Atrial natriuretic factor expression was ∼6-fold elevated in Ang II–treated wild-type, but not TGF-β1–deficient mice. However, the α- to β-myosin heavy chain switch did not occur in Ang II–treated mice, indicating that isoform switching is not obligatorily coupled with hypertrophy or TGF-β1. The Ang IIeffect on hypertrophy was shown not to result from stimulation of the endogenous renin-angiotensis system. These results indicate that TGF-β1 is an important mediator of the hypertrophic growth response of the heart to Ang II. PMID:11901187

  4. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression is suppressed by angiotensin II via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuya; Li, Ying; Miao, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Nan; Su, Guohai; Cai, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) in rat primary cardiomyocytes, and to investigate the potential association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and these effects. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 3-day-old Wistar rats, and were cultured and identified. Subsequently, the expression levels of Angptl2 were detected following incubation with various concentrations of AngII for various durations using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Finally, under the most appropriate conditions (100 nmol/l AngII, 24 h), the cardiomyocytes were divided into six groups: Normal, AngII, AngII + losartan, normal + losartan, AngII + PD123319 and normal + PD123319 groups, in order to investigate the possible function of AT1R in Angptl2 suppression. Losartan and PD123319 are antagonists of AT1R and angiotensin II type 2 receptor, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was analyzed using Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance. The results demonstrated that Angptl2 expression was evidently suppressed (P<0.05) following incubation with 100 nmol/l AngII for 24 h. Conversely, the expression levels of Angptl2 were significantly increased in the AngII + losartan group compared with the AngII group (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was detected between the AngII + PD123319, normal + losartan or normal + PD123319 groups and the normal group. The present in vitro study indicated that AngII was able to suppress Angptl2 expression, whereas losartan was able to significantly reverse this decrease by inhibiting AT1R. PMID:27483989

  5. Puerarin accelerate scardiac angiogenesis and improves cardiac function of myocardial infarction by upregulating VEGFA, Ang-1 and Ang-2 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Fen; Chen, Manhua; Yu, Bo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Guizhong; Gui, Feng; Liu, Zhenxing; Bai, Xiangyan; Chen, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The traditional Chinese medicinal puerarin, has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases, however, the mechanism underlying its effects remain unclear. Here, this study would to investigate the role of puerarin on cardiac angiogenesis and myocardial function induced by myocardial infarction. Methods: Puerarin was treated in rats after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation and maintained for 4 weeks (diets containing about 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day). After treatment, cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and markers of heart failure. Paraffin sections of the heart tissues were used for isolect in GS-IB4 staining. The Mrna and protein expression levels of VEGFA, Ang-1 and Ang-2 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Results: Significantly damaged angiogenesis and slightly increase of VEGFA, Ang-1 and Ang-2 were showed after LAD ligation. Impaired angiogenesis and cardiac function were remarkably improved in puerarin treatment rats with great increase of VEGFA, Ang-1 and Ang-2. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that puerarin could accelerate cardiac angiogenesis and improve cardiac function of myocardial infarction rats by upregulating VEGFA, Ang-1 and Ang-2. PMID:26885006

  6. Construction of Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles and the effect on Ang2 gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHAO-LIANG; YOU, CAI-LIAN; WANG, BIAO; LIN, JIAN-HONG; HU, XUE-FENG; SHAN, XIU-YING; WANG, MEI-SHUI; ZHENG, HOU-BING; ZHANG, YAN-DING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)-small interfering (si)RNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles and to observe the interference effects of the nanoparticles on the expression of the Ang2 gene in human malignant melanoma cells. Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were constructed and transfected into human malignant melanoma cells in vitro. Red fluorescent protein expression was observed, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess the inhibition efficiency of Ang2 gene expression. Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were successfully constructed, and at a mass ratio of plasmid to magnetic chitosan nanoparticles of 1:100, the transfection efficiency into human malignant melanoma cells was the highest of the ratios assessed, reaching 61.17%. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles effectively inhibited Ang2 gene expression in cells, and the inhibition efficiency reached 59.56% (P<0.05). Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were successfully constructed. The in vitro studies showed that the nanoparticles inhibited Ang2 gene expression in human malignant melanoma tumor cells, which laid the foundation and provided experimental evidence for additional future in vivo studies of intervention targeting malignant melanoma tumor growth in nude mice. PMID:27313729

  7. Cardiac steatosis potentiates angiotensin II effects in the heart.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Denis J; Cardema, Michelle C; Ni, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Gardner, David G

    2015-02-15

    Lipid accumulation in the heart is associated with obesity and diabetes and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The renin-angiotensin system is also thought to contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in obese and diabetic patients. We hypothesized that the presence of lipid within the myocyte might potentiate the cardiomyopathic effects of ANG II in the cardiac diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) transgenic mouse model of myocyte steatosis. Treatment with ANG II resulted in a similar increase in blood pressure in both nontransgenic and DGAT1 transgenic mice. However, ANG II in DGAT1 transgenic mice resulted in a marked increase in interstitial fibrosis and a reduction in systolic function compared with nontransgenic littermates. Lipidomic analysis revealed that >20% of lipid species were significantly altered between nontransgenic and DGAT1 transgenic animals, whereas 3% were responsive to ANG II administration. ROS were also increased by ANG II in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. ANG II treatment resulted in increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and the type I TGF-β receptor as well as increased phosphorylation of Smad2 in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. Injection of neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β resulted in a reduction in fibrosis in DGAT1 transgenic hearts treated with ANG II. These results suggest that myocyte steatosis amplifies the fibrotic effects of ANG II through mechanisms that involve activation of TGF-β signaling and increased production of ROS. PMID:25485904

  8. Angiotensin II receptors in rabbit renal preglomerular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.P.; Venuto, R.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the specific sites within the renal microcirculation affected by angiotensin II (ANG II). Under some conditions, ANG II can elicit direct vasoconstrictor responses in the preglomerular vessels and efferent arterioles. These experiments were designed to evaluate the binding of {sup 125}I-ANG II in preglomerular vessels. Arcuate and interlobular arteries, with attached proximal segments of afferent arterioles, were microdissected from rabbit renal cortexes. A membrane preparation was obtained from the pooled freshly dissected vessels and utilized in an ANG II radioreceptor assay on the same day. The dissociation of bound ANG II was enhanced in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP. Linear Scatchard plots were obtained, indicating the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites. In conclusion, there is a single class of specific ANG II receptors in preglomerular vessels. The K{sub D} and N are similar, but the binding inhibition potencies of selected ANG analogues differ in renal and extrarenal vascular tissues. Intrarenal vascular receptors also appear to differ from glomerular receptors. Furthermore, these data support the concept that ANG II may affect renal vascular resistance at sites proximal to the distal afferent arterioles.

  9. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/cAMP response element-binding protein/Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade regulates angiotensin II-induced podocyte injury and albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingling; Song, Yuxian; Li, Jianzhong; Mao, Junhua; Zhao, Allan Zijian; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2013-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a pivotal role in promoting podocyte dysfunction and albuminuria, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. In this study, we found that Ang II induced Wnt1 expression and β-catenin nuclear translocation in cultured mouse podocytes. Blocking Wnt signaling with Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) or β-catenin siRNA attenuated Ang II-induced podocyte injury. Ang II could also induce the phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in cultured podocytes. Blockade of this pathway with CK59 or CREB siRNA could significantly inhibit Ang II-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling and podocyte injury. In in vivo studies, administration of Ang II promoted Wnt/β-catenin signaling, aggregated podocyte damage, and albuminuria in mice. CK59 could remarkably ameliorate Ang II-induced podocyte injury and albuminuria. Furthermore, ectopic expression of exogenous Dkk1 also attenuated Ang II-induced podocytopathy in mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the CaMK II/CREB/Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade plays an important role in regulating Ang II-induced podocytopathy. Targeting this signaling pathway may offer renal protection against the development of proteinuric kidney diseases. PMID:23803607

  10. Lack of angiotensin II conversion to angiotensin III increases water but not alcohol consumption in aminopeptidase A-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Gembardt, Florian; Sun, Xiaoou; Mizutani, Shigehiko; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Walther, Thomas

    2006-09-11

    Elevated central concentrations of the vasopressor octapeptide angiotensin (Ang) II increase the water intake in mammals. Recently, we showed that central AngII is also crucial in alcohol-consuming behavior. Since the heptapeptide AngIII, an AngII metabolite, is discussed to mediate AngII-related effects, we investigated water and alcohol consumption in mice, genetically deficient in aminopeptidase A (APA), a peptidase responsible for AngII conversion to AngIII. Sixteen male APA-deficient mice and their age matched wild-type controls were monitored on their water intake under basal conditions and total fluid and alcohol intake before and after social stress in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Alterations were connected to the regulation in activity of Ang-related peptidases (APA, ACE; ACE2) in brain regions involved in alcohol intake and peripheral organs. In comparison to their wild-type controls, APA-deficient mice drank significantly more water but not more alcohol at all investigated time points. A reduction in water intake, as observed in wild-type animals after social stress, did not occur in knockout mice. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption after social stress was significantly reduced in both strains. Alcohol consumption upregulated all three peptidases in the kidney, but not in lung. Notable, renal ACE2 activity was significantly higher in APA-deficient mice under basal condition. While the inhibition of AngII metabolism to AngIII does not influence the alcohol intake, water consumption in mice deficient for APA was significantly elevated. These differences induced by an altered AngII/AngIII ratio oppose the hypothesis that central AngII and AngIII act in a congruent pattern.

  11. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    PubMed

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release.

  12. Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Mediates Peroxynitrite-dependent Uncoupling of Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase and Fibronectin Expression in Response to Angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doug-Yoon; Wauquier, Fabien; Eid, Assaad A.; Roman, Linda J.; Ghosh-Choudhury, Goutam; Khazim, Khaled; Block, Karen; Gorin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Activation of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to extracellular matrix accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that, in MCs, Ang II induces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased production of NO. Ang II promotes a rapid increase in 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and uric acid attenuates Ang II-induced decrease in NO bioavailability, demonstrating that peroxynitrite mediates the effects of Ang II on eNOS dysfunction. Ang II rapidly up-regulates Nox4 protein. Inhibition of Nox4 abolishes the increase in ROS and peroxynitrite generation as well as eNOS uncoupling triggered by Ang II, indicating that Nox4 is upstream of eNOS. This pathway contributes to Ang II-mediated fibronectin accumulation in MCs. Ang II also elicits an increase in mitochondrial abundance of Nox4 protein, and the oxidase contributes to ROS production in mitochondria. Overexpression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase prevents the stimulatory effects of Ang II on mitochondrial ROS production, loss of NO availability, and MC fibronectin accumulation, whereas manganese superoxide dismutase depletion increases mitochondrial ROS, NO deficiency, and fibronectin synthesis basally and in cells exposed to Ang II. This work provides the first evidence that uncoupled eNOS is responsible for Ang II-induced MC fibronectin accumulation and identifies Nox4 and mitochondrial ROS as mediators of eNOS dysfunction. These data shed light on molecular processes underlying the oxidative signaling cascade engaged by Ang II and identify potential targets for intervention to prevent renal fibrosis. PMID:23940049

  13. Angiotensin II increases nerve-evoked contractions in mouse tail artery by a T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Trent F; Callaghan, Brid P; Brock, James A

    2015-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) increases sympathetic nerve-evoked contractions of arterial vessels. Here the mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated in mouse tail artery. Isometrically mounted segments of mouse distal tail artery were used to investigate the effects of endothelium denudation, blocking Ca(2+) channels and inhibiting superoxide signalling on Ang II-induced facilitation of nerve-evoked contractions. In addition, in situ amperometry was used to assess effects of Ang II on noradrenaline release. Ang II (0.1-1nM) increased nerve-evoked contractions but did not change noradrenaline release. Losartan (Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist), but not PD 123319 (Ang II type 2 receptor antagonist), blocked the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. Ang II increased vascular muscle reactivity to phenylephrine and UK-14304 (α1- and α2-adrenoceptor agonists, respectively). Endothelial denudation increased nerve-evoked contractions and reduced the facilitatory effect of Ang II on these responses. Efonidipine (L- and T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) and NNC 55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) also attenuated this effect of Ang II, while nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) did not. Blockers of superoxide generation/signalling did not change the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. The findings indicate that Ang II increases the contribution of T-type Ca(2+) channels to neural activation of the vascular muscle. In addition, Ang II appears to reduce the inhibitory influence of the endothelium on nerve-evoked contractions. PMID:25934568

  14. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  15. Neonatal handling reduces angiotensin II receptor density in the medial preoptic area and paraventricular nucleus but not in arcuate nucleus and locus coeruleus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cármen Marilei; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Franskoviaki, Inélia; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal handling alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonads axis (HPG) in adult animals, and angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates the functions in these axes. We tested whether neonatal handling could change the density of Ang II receptors in some central areas in female rats. Results showed decreased density of the Ang II receptors in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the neonatal handled group.

  16. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. PMID:26015450

  17. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus stimulates sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system and make vasopressin release in rat.

    PubMed

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays essential roles in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. It was shown that microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN produced a pressor response. In this study, we explored the probable mechanisms of this pressor response. AngII was microinjected into the PVN and cardiovascular responses were recorded. Then, the responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a ganglionic blocker, Hexamethonium, or a vasopressin V1 receptor blocker. Hexamethonium pretreatment (i.v.) greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that the sympathetic system is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Systemic pretreatment (i.v.) with V1 antagonist greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that vasopressin release is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Overall, we found that AngII microinjected into the PVN produced a pressor response mediated by the sympathetic system and vasopressin release, indicating that other than circulating AngII, endogenous AngII of the PVN increases the vasopressin release from the PVN. PMID:27565052

  18. Angiotensin(1-7) attenuated Angiotensin II-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β/Smad circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Huang, Shan; Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Dan; Jin, Si-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Yang; Li, Xu

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is correlated with NAPDH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS-induced NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a novel mechanism of EMT. Angiotensin II (AngII) induces EMT by regulating intracellular ROS. Nevertheless, it has not been reported whether AngII could induce hepatocyte EMT. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] can inhibit the effects of AngII via a counter-regulatory mechanism. However, whether Ang-(1-7) attenuated the effects of AngII on hepatocyte EMT remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ang-(1-7) attenuated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit. In vivo, two animal models were established. In the first model, rats were infused AngII. In the second model, Ang-(1-7) was constantly infused into double bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. In vitro, hepatocytes were pretreated with antioxidant, NLRP3 siRNA, NOX4 siRNA, or Ang-(1-7) before exposure to AngII. In vitro, AngII induced hepatocyte EMT, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), diphenylene iodonium (DPI), and NOX4 siRNA. NLRP3 inflammasome, which was activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), mediated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT. Ang-(1-7) suppressed AngII-induced EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit. In vivo, infusion of AngII induced activation of H2O2-correlated NLRP3 inflammasome in rat livers and accumulation of α-collagen I (Col1A1) in hepatocytes. Infusion of Ang-(1-7) alleviated BDL-induced liver fibrosis and inhibited the expression of Col1A1 and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in hepatocytes. Ang-(1-7) attenuated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit.

  19. Repeated administration of angiotensin II reduces its dipsogenic effect without affecting saline intake.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2010-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts at central type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase intake of water and saline. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid desensitization of the AT(1) receptor after Ang II exposure, and behavioural studies in rats suggest that exposure to Ang II decreases the dipsogenic potency of subsequent Ang II. Nevertheless, the effect of repeated Ang II injections on saline intake remains untested, and a reliable protocol for examining this purported behavioural desensitization has not emerged from the literature. To address these issues, we established a reliable approach to study Ang II-induced dipsetic desensitization and used this approach to test the requirement of central AT(1) receptors and the specificity of the effect for water intake. Rats given a treatment regimen of three injections of Ang II (300 ng, intracerebroventricular), each separated by 20 min, drank less water than control rats after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. The effect was relatively short lasting, dependent on the dose and timing of Ang II, and was almost completely blocked by the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan. In further testing, when rats were given access to both water and 1.5% saline, animals that received an Ang II treatment regimen drank less water than control animals, but saline intake was unaffected. These data support previous suggestions that Ang II-induced water and saline intakes are separable. Given the role of G protein uncoupling in desensitization of the AT(1) receptor, these data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that AT(1) receptor G protein-dependent intracellular signalling pathways are more relevant for water, but not saline, intake.

  20. The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carla; Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Simon, Felipe; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang (1-7)] is a peptide belonging to the non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang (1-7), through its receptor Mas, has an opposite action to angiotensin II (Ang II), the typical peptide of the classical RAS axis. Ang II produces skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterised by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is the decrease of the myofibrillar proteins produced by the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), evidenced by the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, it has been described that Ang II also induces myonuclear apoptosis during muscle atrophy. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) and Mas participation on myonuclear apoptosis during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II. Our results show that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by Ang II in the diaphragm muscles and decreases several events associated with apoptosis in the diaphragm (increased apoptotic nuclei, increased expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased caspase-3 activity and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Concomitantly, Ang (1-7) also attenuates the decrease in fibre diameter and muscle strength, and prevents the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 during the muscle wasting induced by Ang II. Interestingly, these effects of Ang (1-7) are dependent on the Mas receptor. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Ang (1-7) prevents myonuclear apoptosis during the recovery of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II.

  1. Olmesartan Inhibits Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice Overexpressing Renin Independently of Blood Pressure: Its Beneficial Effects on ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas Axis and NADPH Oxidase Expression.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Tomohiro; Tomita, Hirofumi; Narita, Ikuyo; Kinjo, Takahiko; Nishizaki, Kimitaka; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Makoto; Osanai, Tomohiro; Okumura, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced renin-angiotensin activity causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. The angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis pathway functions against Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling. We investigated whether olmesartan (Olm), an AT1R blocker, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy independently of blood pressure, and evaluated the potential mechanisms. The 3- to 4-month-old male mice overexpressing renin in the liver (Ren-Tg) were given Olm (5 mg/kg/d) and hydralazine (Hyd) (3.5 mg/kg/d) orally for 2 months. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the Ren-Tg mice than in wild-type littermates. Olm and Hyd treatments lowered systolic blood pressure to the same degree. However, cardiac hypertrophy, evaluated by echocardiography, heart weight, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, and gene expression, was inhibited by only Olm treatment, but not by Hyd. Olm treatment reversed decreased gene expressions of ACE2 and Mas receptor of Ren-Tg mice and inhibited enhanced NADPH oxidase (Nox)4 expression and reactive oxygen species, whereas Hyd treatment had no influence on them. These findings indicate that Olm treatment inhibits cardiac hypertrophy independently of blood pressure, not only through its original AT1R blockade but partly through enhancement of ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis and suppression of Nox4 expression. PMID:26886190

  2. Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Agata, Jun; Ura, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hideaki; Shinshi, Yasuyuki; Sasaki, Haruki; Hyakkoku, Masaya; Taniguchi, Shinya; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-11-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used for the treatment of hypertension. It is believed that treatment with an ARB increases the level of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) because of a lack of negative feedback on renin activity. However, Ichikawa (Hypertens Res 2001; 24: 641-646) reported that long-term treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan resulted in a reduction in plasma Ang II level, though the mechanism was not determined. It has been reported that angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) potentiates the effect of bradykinin and acts as an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is known that ACE2, which was discovered as a novel ACE-related carboxypeptidase in 2000, hydrolyzes Ang I to Ang-(1-9) and also Ang II to Ang-(1-7). It has recently been reported that olmesartan increases plasma Ang-(1-7) through an increase in ACE2 expression in rats with myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that over-expression of ACE2 may be related to a reduction in Ang II level and the cardioprotective effect of olmesartan. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg/day of olmesartan for 4 weeks to 12-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) significantly reduced blood pressure and left ventricular weight compared to those in SHRSP given a vehicle. Co-administration of olmesartan and (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7), a selective Ang-(1-7) antagonist, partially inhibited the effect of olmesartan on blood pressure and left ventricular weight. Interestingly, co-administration of (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7) with olmesartan significantly increased the plasma Ang II level (453.2+/-113.8 pg/ml) compared to olmesartan alone (144.9+/-27.0 pg/ml, p<0.05). Moreover, olmesartan significantly increased the cardiac ACE2 expression level compared to that in Wistar Kyoto rats and SHRSP treated with a vehicle. Olmesartan significantly improved cardiovascular remodeling and cardiac nitrite/ nitrate content, but co-administration of olmesartan and (D-Ala7)-Ang-(1-7) partially reversed

  3. COX-1-derived PGE2 and PGE2 type 1 receptors are vital for angiotensin II-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) influx in the subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Sarkar, Pallabi; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Anrather, Josef; Pierce, Joseph P; Moore, Jamie M; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Milner, Teresa A; Pickel, Virginia M; Iadecola, Costantino; Davisson, Robin L

    2013-11-15

    Regulation of blood pressure by angiotensin II (ANG II) is a process that involves the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium. We have shown that ANG-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) type 1 receptors (EP1R) are required in the subfornical organ (SFO) for ROS-mediated hypertension induced by slow-pressor ANG-II infusion. However, the signaling pathway associated with this process remains unclear. We sought to determine mechanisms underlying the ANG II-induced ROS and calcium influx in mouse SFO cells. Ultrastructural studies showed that cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) codistributes with AT1R in the SFO, indicating spatial proximity. Functional studies using SFO cells revealed that ANG II potentiated PGE2 release, an effect dependent on AT1R, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and COX-1. Furthermore, both ANG II and PGE2 increased ROS formation. While the increase in ROS initiated by ANG II, but not PGE2, required the activation of the AT1R/PLA2/COX-1 pathway, both ANG II and PGE2 were dependent on EP1R and Nox2 as downstream effectors. Finally, ANG II potentiated voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) currents in SFO neurons via the same signaling pathway required for PGE2 production. Blockade of EP1R and Nox2-derived ROS inhibited ANG II and PGE2-mediated Ca(2+) currents. We propose a mechanism whereby ANG II increases COX-1-derived PGE2 through the AT1R/PLA2 pathway, which promotes ROS production by EP1R/Nox2 signaling in the SFO. ANG II-induced ROS are coupled with Ca(2+) influx in SFO neurons, which may influence SFO-mediated sympathoexcitation. Our findings provide the first evidence of a spatial and functional framework that underlies ANG-II signaling in the SFO and reveal novel targets for antihypertensive therapies.

  4. Angiotensin-(1-7) enhances the effects of angiotensin II on the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rostral ventrolateral medulla in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Feng; Han, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Excessive sympathetic activity propels the pathogenesis and progression of organ damage in hypertension. Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is involved in sympathetic activation in hypertension. Given the important role of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system in regulating sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular activity, the present study aimed to investigate the roles of Ang-(1-7) in Ang II-induced CSAR and the sympathetic activation responses in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of hypertensive rats. The two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method was used to induce renovascular hypertension. Responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to epicardial application of capsaicin were used to evaluate the CSAR in sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats with anesthesia. Both Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM caused greater increases in RSNA and MAP in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated (sham) rats and enhanced CSAR independently. RVLM pretreatment with Ang-(1-7) dose dependently augmented the effects of Ang II on RSNA, MAP, and CSAR in 2K1C rats. Mas receptor antagonist A-779 in the RVLM exhibited more powerful inhibitory effects on RSNA, MAP, and CSAR than the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan. The expression of both the AT1 receptor and Mas receptor proteins in the RVLM increased, but neither the Ang II nor Ang-(1-7) levels in the RVLM changed significantly in the 2K1C rats compared with the sham rats. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM enhances the CSAR and sympathetic output not only by itself but also through enhancing the effects of Ang II in renovascular hypertensive rats. Both endogenous Ang-(1-7) and Ang II in the RVLM contribute to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension.

  5. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIAO-QIAN; SU, FEI-FEI; XU, XUAN; LIU, XIONG-TAO; WANG, HONG-TAO; ZHANG, WEI; LI, XUE; LIAN, CHENG; ZHENG, QIANG-SUN; FENG, ZHI-CHUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase-3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII-induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced p-Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII-induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26862035

  6. Novel EGFR inhibitors attenuate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kesong; Tian, Xinqiao; Qian, Yuanyuan; Skibba, Melissa; Zou, Chunpeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Zheng; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an important risk factor for heart failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this current study was to examine the role of EGFR in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we observed that both Ang II and EGF could increase the phospohorylation of EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then induce cell hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic silencing significantly reduced Ang II-induced EGFR signalling pathway activation, hypertrophic marker overexpression, and cell hypertrophy. In addition, our results showed that Ang II-induced EGFR activation is mediated by c-Src phosphorylation. In vivo, Ang II treatment significantly led to cardiac remodelling including cardiac hypertrophy, disorganization and fibrosis, accompanied by the activation of EGFR signalling pathway in the heart tissues, while all these molecular and pathological alterations were attenuated by the oral administration with EGFR inhibitors. In conclusion, the c-Src-dependent EGFR activation may play an important role in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of EGFR by specific molecules may be an effective strategy for the treatment of Ang II-associated cardiac diseases. PMID:26762600

  7. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog attenuates angiotensin II hypertension and kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Hye; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Campbell, William B; Imig, John D

    2014-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to blood pressure regulation leading to the concept that EETs can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension and the associated end organ damage. In the present study, we investigated anti-hypertensive and kidney protective actions of an EET analog, EET-B in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. EET-B was administered in drinking water for 14 days (10 mg/kg/d) and resulted in a decreased blood pressure elevation in ANG II hypertension. At the end of the two-week period, blood pressure was 30 mmHg lower in EET analog-treated ANG II hypertensive rats. The vasodilation of mesenteric resistance arteries to acetylcholine was impaired in ANG II hypertension; however, it was improved with EET-B treatment. Further, EET-B protected the kidney in ANG II hypertension as evidenced by a marked 90% decrease in albuminuria and 54% decrease in nephrinuria. Kidney histology demonstrated a decrease in renal tubular cast formation in EET analog-treated hypertensive rats. In ANG II hypertension, EET-B treatment markedly lowered renal inflammation. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 excretion was decreased by 55% and kidney macrophage infiltration was reduced by 52% with EET-B treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that EET-B has anti-hypertensive properties, improves vascular function, and decreases renal inflammation and injury in ANG II hypertension.

  8. Angiotensin II alters blood flow distribution in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Slivkoff, M D; Warburton, S J

    2001-01-01

    In toads, angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the water absorption response (WR) during which the seat patch (pelvic+inner-thigh skin) is pressed to a wet substrate from which water flows osmotically into the animal. Since ANG II is a potent vasoconstrictor, it has the potential to redistribute blood flow. To determine the regional circulatory effects of ANG II, we used microsphere methods to measure relative changes in blood flow to several skin regions and other organs before and after ANG II administration in terrestrial toads and aquatic bullfrogs. In toads, after ANG II administration, seat patch and bladder blood flow increased by 264.2%+/-197.6% and 287.2%+/-86.7%, respectively (P<0.05), while dorsal and pectoral skin flow decreased by 48.0%+/-19.4% and 21.3%+/-25.4%, respectively (P<0.05). In bullfrogs, ANG II caused no significant changes in blood flow. Our results support our hypothesis that, in toads, ANG II increases and decreases blood flow to regions of the body associated with water gain and water loss, respectively.

  9. A Guide to the Wen-ch'ang and Ting-an Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.; Norman, Jerry L.

    This document describes the Wen-ch'ang and Ting-an dialects of Chinese. Items covered in the phonological description of Wen-ch'ang include syllable structure, initials, finals, tones, tone change, and differences in the initials and finals in colloquial and literary forms. Initials, finals, and tones in the Ting-an dialect are also discussed. The…

  10. Angiotensin II: Immunohistochemical Study in Sardinian Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, P.; Corrias, M.; Zucca, I.; Piras, F.; Sirigu, P.; Perra, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector peptide of the RAS system. It has a pleiotropic effect and, beside its physiological role, it has the property to stimulate angiogenesis and activate multiple signalling pathways related to cell proliferation. The purpose of the study was to determinate the Ang II expression and localization in Sardinian pterygium and normal conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry, and its possible involvement in the development and progression of the disease. Twenty-three pterygiums and eleven normal conjunctiva specimens obtained from Sardinian patients, were processed for paraffin embedding and assessed for the immunohistochemi-cal revelation of Ang II. Significant Ang II expression was identified in pterygium and conjunctiva. Particularly, thirteen pterygium specimens (n=13) displayed exclusively moderate to strong nuclear staining; some specimens (n=5) showed exclusively a moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, and few specimens (n=2) displayed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Only 3 specimens were negative. Statistical significance difference in respect of nuclear and cytoplasmic localization was observed between normal conjunctiva and pterygium (P=0.020). The results showed a predominant intranuclear localization of Ang II in pterygium epithelial cells, in spite of conjunctiva that mainly showed cytoplasmic localization. These findings suggest a possible role for Ang II in the development and/or progression of pterygium mediated by the activation of local RAS system. PMID:25308851

  11. Mechanisms underlying the cerebral microvascular responses to angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vital, Shantel A; Terao, Satoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Granger, D Neil

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type-1 receptors (AT1r) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and ischemic stroke. The objectives of this study was to determine if/how chronic AngII administration affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and blood cell adhesion in the cerebral microvasculature. AngII-loaded osmotic pumps were implanted in wild type (WT) and mutant mice. Leukocyte and platelet adhesion were monitored in cerebral venules by intravital microscopy and BBB permeability detected by Evans blue leakage. AngII (two week) infusion increased blood pressure in WT mice. This was accompanied by an increased BBB permeability and a high density of adherent leukocytes and platelets. AT1r (on the vessel wall, but not on blood cells) was largely responsible for the microvascular responses to AngII. Immunodeficient (Rag-1(-/-) ) mice exhibited blunted blood cell recruitment responses without a change in BBB permeability. A similar protection pattern was noted in RANTES(-/-) and P-selectin(-/-) mice, with bone marrow chimeras (blood cell deficiency only) yielding responses comparable to the respective knockouts. These findings implicate AT1r in the microvascular dysfunction associated with AngII-induced hypertension and suggest that immune cells and blood cell-associated RANTES and P-selectin contribute to the blood cell recruitment, but not the BBB failure, elicited by AngII. PMID:21044218

  12. Spinal cord injury increases the reactivity of rat tail artery to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Al Dera, Hussain; Brock, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suggest the vasculature is hyperreactive to angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, the effects of SCI on the reactivity of the rat tail and mesenteric arteries to Ang II have been investigated. In addition, the effects of SCI on the facilitatory action of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions of these vessels were determined. Isometric contractions of artery segments from T11 (tail artery) or T4 (mesenteric arteries) spinal cord-transected rats and sham-operated rats were compared 6–7 weeks postoperatively. In both tail and mesenteric arteries, SCI increased nerve-evoked contractions. In tail arteries, SCI also greatly increased Ang II-evoked contractions and the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. By contrast, SCI did not detectably change the responses of mesenteric arteries to Ang II. These findings provide the first direct evidence that SCI increases the reactivity of arterial vessels to Ang II. In addition, in tail artery, the findings indicate that Ang II may contribute to modifying their responses following SCI. PMID:25610365

  13. JS ISH-ECCR-2 ANG-(1-7) AND ET-1, A NEW PARTNERSHIP.

    PubMed

    Hood, Katie Yates; Yusuf, Hiba; Findlay, Jane E; Santos, Robson A; Castro, Carlos H; Baillie, George S; Montezano, Augusto C; MacLean, Margaret R; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-09-01

    ACE2 and Ang-1-7 have been shown to protect against pulmonary hypertension (PH). Mechanisms for this remain unclear. Considering the important role of ET-1 in the pathophysiology of PH and endothelial dysfunction, we questioned whether Ang-(1-7) influences ET-1 signaling in endothelial cells and whether Ang-(1-7) treatment influences the ET-1 system in PH. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were stimulated with ET-1 in the absence/presence of Ang 1-7 and showed that Ang 1-7 increased preproET-1 mRNA levels, ET-1 release, and ETBR protein levels. ET-1 increases in e-selectin mRNA, VCAM-1 protein and TNFα production were blocked by Ang 1-7. Pro-inflammatory effects were dependent on NO production. Ang 1-7 increased NO production in a Mas and ETBR-dependent manner. An interaction between Mas and ETBR was observed by immunoprecipitation. To further characterise a physical interaction between Mas/ETBR, we utilised novel technology, employing a library of overlapping peptides scanning the entirety of the MasR sequence, to define the interaction sites for ETBR binding. By substitution or sequence truncation we identified two distinct regions on the MasR that confer specificity for ETBR binding. Peptides that disrupt each of these regions to prevent Mas/ETBR interaction were developed for in vitro validation. To investigate the pathophysiological significance of our findings, we investigated whether Ang-(1-7) treatment ameliorates PH and whether this is associated with changes in ET-1 status. Hypobaric hypoxia was used to induce PH in mice, which were divided in 4 groups: normoxic controls (NC), hypoxic PH (HP), normoxic (NA) and hypoxic PH (HA) treated with orally active Ang 1-7 30 μg/kg/day for 14 days. In HP mice, RVSP, RVH and ET-1 levels were increased and blocked by Ang 1-7 treatment. Hyper-contractility and endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary arteries of HP mice compared to NC was attenuated by Ang 1-7. These findings indicate that vasoprotective

  14. JS ISH-ECCR-2 ANG-(1-7) AND ET-1, A NEW PARTNERSHIP.

    PubMed

    Hood, Katie Yates; Yusuf, Hiba; Findlay, Jane E; Santos, Robson A; Castro, Carlos H; Baillie, George S; Montezano, Augusto C; MacLean, Margaret R; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-09-01

    ACE2 and Ang-1-7 have been shown to protect against pulmonary hypertension (PH). Mechanisms for this remain unclear. Considering the important role of ET-1 in the pathophysiology of PH and endothelial dysfunction, we questioned whether Ang-(1-7) influences ET-1 signaling in endothelial cells and whether Ang-(1-7) treatment influences the ET-1 system in PH. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were stimulated with ET-1 in the absence/presence of Ang 1-7 and showed that Ang 1-7 increased preproET-1 mRNA levels, ET-1 release, and ETBR protein levels. ET-1 increases in e-selectin mRNA, VCAM-1 protein and TNFα production were blocked by Ang 1-7. Pro-inflammatory effects were dependent on NO production. Ang 1-7 increased NO production in a Mas and ETBR-dependent manner. An interaction between Mas and ETBR was observed by immunoprecipitation. To further characterise a physical interaction between Mas/ETBR, we utilised novel technology, employing a library of overlapping peptides scanning the entirety of the MasR sequence, to define the interaction sites for ETBR binding. By substitution or sequence truncation we identified two distinct regions on the MasR that confer specificity for ETBR binding. Peptides that disrupt each of these regions to prevent Mas/ETBR interaction were developed for in vitro validation. To investigate the pathophysiological significance of our findings, we investigated whether Ang-(1-7) treatment ameliorates PH and whether this is associated with changes in ET-1 status. Hypobaric hypoxia was used to induce PH in mice, which were divided in 4 groups: normoxic controls (NC), hypoxic PH (HP), normoxic (NA) and hypoxic PH (HA) treated with orally active Ang 1-7 30 μg/kg/day for 14 days. In HP mice, RVSP, RVH and ET-1 levels were increased and blocked by Ang 1-7 treatment. Hyper-contractility and endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary arteries of HP mice compared to NC was attenuated by Ang 1-7. These findings indicate that vasoprotective

  15. Identification and characterization of a novel angiotensin binding site in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that is specific for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II, angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Hall, K L; Hanesworth, J M; Ball, A E; Felgenhauer, G P; Hosick, H L; Harding, J W

    1993-03-19

    This study demonstrates the existence of a previously unrecognized class of angiotensin binding sites on vascular smooth muscle that exhibit high affinity and specificity for the hexapeptide (3-8) fragment of angiotensin II (AngIV). Binding of [125I]AngIV is saturable, reversible and describes a pharmacologic profile that is distinct and separate from the classic AT1 or AT2 angiotensin receptors. Saturation binding studies utilizing cultured vascular smooth muscle cells obtained from bovine aorta (BVSM) revealed that [125I]AngIV bound to a single high affinity site with an associated Hill coefficient of 0.99 +/- 0.003, exhibiting a KD = 1.85 +/- 0.45 nM and a corresponding Bmax = 960 +/- 100 fmol mg-1 protein. Competition binding curves in BVSM demonstrated the following rank order effectiveness: AngIV > AngII(3-7) > AngIII > Sar1,Ile8 AngII > AngII > AngII(1-7) > AngII(4-8), DuP 753, PD123177. The presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP gamma S, had no effect on [125I]AngIV binding affinity in BVSM. The presence of this novel angiotensin binding site on smooth muscle in high concentration suggests the possibility that this system may play an important, yet unrecognized role in vascular control.

  16. Angiotensin II inhibits ADH-stimulated cAMP: role on O2- and transport-related oxygen consumption in the loop of Henle.

    PubMed

    Silva, G B; Juncos, L I; Baigorria, S T; Garcia, N H

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration and acute reductions of blood pressure increases ADH and Ang II levels. These hormones increase transport along the distal nephron. In the thick ascending limb (TAL) ADH increases transport via cAMP, while Ang II acts via superoxide (O2-). However, the mechanism of interaction of these hormones in this segment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore ADH/Ang II interactions on TAL transport. For this, we measured the effects of ADH/Ang II, added sequentially to TAL suspensions from Wistar rats, on oxygen consumption (QO2) -as a transport index-, cAMP and O2-. Basal QO2 was 112+-5 nmol O2/min/mg protein. Addition of ADH (1nM) increased QO2 by 227 percent. In the presence of ADH, Ang II (1nM) elicited a QO2 transient response. During an initial 3.1+-0.7 minutes after adding Ang II, QO2 decreased 58 percent (p less than 0.03 initial vs. ADH) and then rose by 188 percent (p less than 0.03 late vs initial Ang II). We found that Losartan blocked the initial effects of Ang II and the latter blocked ADH and forskolin-stimulated cAMP. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME or the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 showed no effect on transported related oxygen consumption. Then, we assessed the late period after adding Ang II. The O2- scavenger tempol blocked the late Ang II effects on QO2, while Ang II increased O2- production during this period. We conclude that 1) Ang II has a transient effect on ADH-stimulated transport; 2) this effect is mediated by AT1 receptors; 3) the initial period is mediated by decreased cAMP and 4) the late period is mediated by O2-.

  17. Angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction is temporally linked with increases in interleukin-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gomolak, Jessica R.; Didion, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with vascular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction and activation of a number of inflammatory molecules, however the linear events involved in the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction produced in response to Ang II are not well defined. The goal of this study was to examine the dose- and temporal-dependent development of endothelial dysfunction in response to Ang II. Blood pressure and responses of carotid arteries were examined in control (C57Bl/6) mice and in mice infused with 50, 100, 200, 400, or 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II for either 14 or 28 Days. Infusion of Ang II was associated with graded and marked increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma Ang II concentrations. While low doses of Ang II (i.e., 50 and 100 ng/kg/min) had little to no effect on blood pressure or endothelial function, high doses of Ang II (e.g., 1000 ng/kg/min) were associated with large increases in arterial pressure and marked impairment of endothelial function. In contrast, intermediate doses of Ang II (200 and 400 ng/kg/min) while initially having no effect on systolic blood pressure were associated with significant increases in pressure over time. Despite increasing blood pressure, 200 ng/kg/min had no effect on endothelial function, whereas 400 ng/kg/min produced modest impairment on Day 14 and marked impairment of endothelial function on Day 28. The degree of endothelial dysfunction produced by 400 and 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II was reflective of parallel increases in plasma IL-6 levels and vascular macrophage content, suggesting that increases in arterial blood pressure precede the development of endothelial dysfunction. These findings are important as they demonstrate that along with increases in arterial pressure that increases in IL-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation correlate with the impairment of endothelial function produced by Ang II. PMID:25400581

  18. Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Signaling to Attenuate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Angiotensin II-induced Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Huang, Ya-Qian; Chen, Qing-Hua; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Jia; Tang, Chao-Shu; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clarifying the mechanisms underlying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is important for the prevention and treatment of vascular remodeling and the reverse of hyperplastic lesions. Previous research has shown that the gaseous signaling molecule sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhibits VSMC proliferation, but the mechanism for the inhibition of the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation by SO2 has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate if SO2 inhibited VSMC proliferation in mice with hypertension induced by AngII. Methods: Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control, AngII, and AngII + SO2 groups. Mice in AngII group and AngII + SO2 group received a capsule-type AngII pump implanted under the skin of the back at a slow-release dose of 1000 ng·kg−1·min−1. In addition, mice in AngII + SO2 received intraperitoneal injections of SO2 donor. Arterial blood pressure of tail artery was determined. The thickness of the aorta was measured by elastic fiber staining, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) were detected in aortic tissues. The concentration of SO2 in serum and aortic tissue homogenate supernatant was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence determination. In the in vitro study, VSMC of A7R5 cell lines was divided into six groups: control, AngII, AngII + SO2, PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation), AngII + PD98059, and AngII + SO2 + PD98059. Expression of PCNA, ERK, and P-ERK was determined by Western blotting. Results: In animal experiment, compared with the control group, AngII markedly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01) and thickened the aortic wall in mice (P < 0.05) with an increase in the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05). SO2, however, reduced the systemic hypertension and the wall thickness induced by AngII (P < 0.05). It inhibited the increased expression of PCNA and P

  19. An Interaction of Renin-Angiotensin and Kallikrein-Kinin Systems Contributes to Vascular Hypertrophy in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ceravolo, Graziela S.; Montezano, Augusto C.; Jordão, Maria T.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Costa, Tiago J.; Takano, Ana P.; Fernandes, Denise C.; Barreto-Chaves, Maria L.; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.; Chopard, Renato P.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems interact at multiple levels. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the B1 kinin receptor (B1R) contributes to vascular hypertrophy in angiotensin II (ANG II)–induced hypertension, through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation. Male Wistar rats were infused with vehicle (control rats), 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II (ANG II rats) or 400 ng/Kg/min ANG II plus B1 receptor antagonist, 350 ng/Kg/min des-Arg9-Leu8-bradykinin (ANGII+DAL rats), via osmotic mini-pumps (14 days) or received ANG II plus losartan (10 mg/Kg, 14 days, gavage - ANG II+LOS rats). After 14 days, ANG II rats exhibited increased systolic arterial pressure [(mmHg) 184±5.9 vs 115±2.3], aortic hypertrophy; increased ROS generation [2-hydroxyethidium/dihydroethidium (EOH/DHE): 21.8±2.7 vs 6.0±1.8] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (% of control: 218.3±29.4 vs 100±0.25]. B1R expression was increased in aortas from ANG II and ANG II+DAL rats than in aortas from the ANG II+LOS and control groups. B1R antagonism reduced aorta hypertrophy, prevented ROS generation (EOH/DHE: 9.17±3.1) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (137±20.7%) in ANG II rats. Cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) stimulated with low concentrations (0.1 nM) of ANG II plus B1R agonist exhibited increased ROS generation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expression and [H3]leucine incorporation. At this concentration, neither ANG II nor the B1R agonist produced any effects when tested individually. The ANG II/B1R agonist synergism was inhibited by losartan (AT1 blocker, 10 µM), B1R antagonist (10 µM) and Tiron (superoxide anion scavenger, 10 mM). These data suggest that B1R activation contributes to ANG II-induced aortic hypertrophy. This is associated with activation of redox-regulated ERK1/2 pathway that controls aortic smooth muscle cells growth. Our findings

  20. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  1. Angiotensin II induces secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and a tissue metalloprotease inhibitor-related protein from rat brain astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.A. Jr.; Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Buhi, W.C.; Raizada, M.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The present study investigates angiotensin (Ang) II effects on secretory protein synthesis in brain astrocytes cultured from neonatal and 21-day-old rats. Ang II-induced changes in the de novo synthesis of (35S)methionine-labeled secretory proteins were visualized using two-dimensional NaDodSO4/PAGE. Astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brain possess specific high-affinity receptors for Ang II. These cells express two Ang II-induced secretory proteins with Mr 55,000 (AISP-55K) and Mr 30,000 (AISP-30K), which were time- and dose-dependent (EC50, 1 nM). (Sar1, Ile8)Ang II (where Sar is sarcosine) inhibited Ang II-induced secretion of AISP-55K but not AISP-30K. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicates that AISP-55K is identical to rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, whereas AISP-30K exhibits 72-81% identity to three closely related proteins: human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, a rat phorbol ester-induced protein, and the murine growth-responsive protein 16C8. Immunofluorescent staining with rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 antibody was induced in the majority of cells in culture after Ang II treatment of astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brains. Absence of this response to Ang II in astrocytes from neonatal rat brain provides evidence that this action of Ang II on astrocytes is developmentally regulated.

  2. How does angiotensin II increase cardiac dopamine-beta-hydroxylation?

    PubMed

    Chevillard, C; Duchene, N; Alexandre, J M

    1975-03-01

    The potent accelerating effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on caridac dopamine beta-hydroxylation was studied on slices of rat heart. Ang II did not affect the kinetics of beta-hydroxylation but it increased the axonal uptake of dopamine, and, concomitant with the acceleration of biosynthesis, it enhanced the accumulation of dopamine into tissue. Puromycin, in contrast to actinomycin D, antagonized the stimulation of dopamine beta-hydroxylation by Ang II, but did not suppress the rise in cardiac dopamine. Therefore, to promote the acceleration of dopamine beta-hydroxylation, (i) the rise in tissue dopamine available for conversion appeared to be insufficient, (ii) the formation of new proteins by activation of traduction seemed to constitute the basic mechanism of Ang II action.

  3. Angiotensin II Stimulation of DPP4 Activity Regulates Megalin in the Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya; Zuberek, Marcin; Duta, Cornel; Meuth, Alex; Sowers, James R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Nistala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of incipient kidney injury in many disorders, including obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that megalin, a receptor endocytotic protein in the proximal tubule, is downregulated in obese mice, which was prevented by inhibition of dipeptidyl protease 4 (DPP4). Obesity is thought to be associated with upregulation of intra-renal angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II suppresses megalin expression in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II will suppress megalin protein via activation of DPP4. We used Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) infusion in mice and Ang II (10−8 M) treatment of T35OK-AT1R proximal tubule cells to test our hypothesis. Ang II-infused mouse kidneys displayed increases in DPP4 activity and decreases in megalin. In proximal tubule cells, Ang II stimulated DPP4 activity concurrent with suppression of megalin. MK0626, a DPP4 inhibitor, partially restored megalin expression similar to U0126, a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor and AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Similarly, Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation was suppressed with MK0626 and Ang II-induced DPP4 activity was suppressed by U0126. Therefore, our study reveals a cross talk between AT1R signaling and DPP4 activation in the regulation of megalin and underscores the significance of targeting DPP4 in the prevention of obesity related kidney injury progression. PMID:27213360

  4. Effect of Lysyl Oxidase Inhibition on Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension, Remodeling, and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Eberson, Lance S.; Sanchez, Pablo A.; Majeed, Beenish A.; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larson, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces altered vascular stiffness through responses including both structural and material remodeling. Concurrent with remodeling is the induction of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) through which ECM proteins are cross-linked. The study objective was to determine the effect of LOX mediated cross-linking on vascular mechanical properties. Three-month old mice were chronically treated with Ang II with or without the LOX blocker, β -aminopropionitrile (BAPN), for 14 days. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) from Doppler measurements of the aortic flow wave was used to quantify in vivo vascular stiffness in terms of an effective Young’s modulus. The increase in effective Young’s modulus with Ang II administration was abolished with the addition of BAPN, suggesting that the material properties are a major controlling element in vascular stiffness. BAPN inhibited the Ang II induced collagen cross-link formation by 2-fold and PWV by 44% (P<0.05). Consistent with this observation, morphometric analysis showed that BAPN did not affect the Ang II mediated increase in medial thickness but significantly reduced the adventitial thickness. Since the hypertensive state contributes to the measured in vivo PWV stiffness, we removed the Ang II infusion pumps on Day 14 and achieved normal arterial blood pressures. With pump removal we observed a decrease of the PWV in the Ang II group to 25% above that of the control values (P=0.002), with a complete return to control values in the Ang II plus BAPN group. In conclusion, we have shown that the increase in vascular stiffness with 14 day Ang II administration results from a combination of hypertension-induced wall strain, adventitial wall thickening and Ang II mediated LOX ECM cross-linking, which is a major material source of vascular stiffening, and that the increased PWV was significantly inhibited with co-administration of BAPN. PMID:25875748

  5. Central Angiotensin II Stimulation Promotes β Amyloid Production in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Donglin; Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Yingdong; Wang, Bianrong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Zhicong; Tong, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress and various stress hormones, including catecholamines and glucocorticoids, have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which represents the greatest unresolved medical challenge in neurology. Angiotensin receptor blockers have shown benefits in AD and prone-to-AD animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for their efficacy remain unknown, and no studies have directly addressed the role of central angiotensin II (Ang II), a fundamental stress hormone, in the pathogenesis of AD. The present study focused on the role of central Ang II in amyloidogenesis, the critical process in AD neuropathology, and aimed to provide direct evidence for the role of this stress hormone in the pathogenesis of AD. Methodology/Principal Findings Increased central Ang II levels during stress response were modeled by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of graded doses of Ang II (6 ng/hr low dose, 60 ng/hr medium dose, and 600 ng/hr high dose, all delivered at a rate of 0.25 µl/hr) to male Sprague Dawley rats (280–310 g) via osmotic pumps. After 1 week of continuous Ang II infusion, the stimulation of Ang II type 1 receptors was accompanied by the modulation of amyloid precursor protein, α-, β-and γ-secretase, and increased β amyloid production. These effects could be completely abolished by concomitant ICV infusion of losartan, indicating that central Ang II played a causative role in these alterations. Conclusions/Significance Central Ang II is essential to the stress response, and the results of this study suggest that increased central Ang II levels play an important role in amyloidogenesis during stress, and that central Ang II-directed stress prevention and treatment might represent a novel anti-AD strategy. PMID:21297982

  6. [Advance in Research of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor and Malignant Tumor].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lulu; Shi, Jian

    2016-09-20

    Angiotensin AngII, a linear small peptide,which is composed of eight amino acids, is the main effectors of renin-angiotensin systen (Renin-angiotensin system, RAS). AngII, a main biopolypeptide of the RAS, has important pathophysiologic in effects participating in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular cell proproliferation, inflammation and tissue remodeling through G-protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, Ang II can promote tumor cell proliferation, tumor vessel formation and inhibit the differentiation of the tumor cells. This suggests that inhibit the production of AngII or block its effect is expected to become a new measure for the treatment of malignant tumors. This article reviews the advances in research on the relationship between AngII and its receptor and malignant tumor in recent years. PMID:27666553

  7. Interaction of angiotensin II with the C-terminal 300-320 fragment of the rat angiotensin II receptor AT1a monitored by NMR.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Nicola; Gaggelli, Elena; Gaggelli, Nicola; Lozzi, Luisa; Neri, Paolo; Valensin, Daniela; Valensin, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Interaction between angiotensin II (Ang II) and the fragment peptide 300-320 (fCT300-320) of the rat angiotensin II receptor AT1a was demonstrated by relaxation measurements, NOE effects, chemical shift variations, and CD measurements. The correlation times modulating dipolar interactions for the bound and free forms of Ang II were estimated by the ratio of the nonselective and single-selective longitudinal relaxation rates. The intermolecular NOEs observed in NOESY spectra between HN protons of 9Lys(fCT) and 6His(ang), 10Phe(fCT) and 8Phe(ang), HN proton of 3Tyr(fCT) and Halpha of 4Tyr(ang), 5Phe(fCT)Hdelta and Halpha of 4Tyr(ang) indicated that Ang II aromatic residues are directly involved in the interaction, as also verified by relaxation data. Some fCT300-320 backbone features were inferred by the CSI method and CD experiments revealing that the presence of Ang II enhances the existential probability of helical conformations in the fCT fragment. Restrained molecular dynamics using the simulated annealing protocol was performed with intermolecular NOEs as constraints, imposing an alpha-helix backbone structure to fCT300-320 fragment. In the built model, one strongly preferred interaction was found that allows intermolecular stacking between aromatic rings and forces the peptide to wrap around the 6Leu side chain of the receptor fragment.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) antagonist [D-Ala7-Ang-(1-7);A-779] attenuates post-suspension hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayorh, M. A.; Wang, M.; Socci, R. R.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning manifested by reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardioaccleration are usually observed in astronauts during standing postflight. The head-down tilt (HDT) rat model with "unloaded" hindlimbs has been extensively studied because some of the observed responses mimic observations made during exposure to microgravity. Angiotensin-(1-7) is a biologically active component of the renin-angiotensin system that acts to oppose the pressor and proliferative actions of Angiotensin II. It produces a hypotensive response by either stimulating production of vasodilator prostaglandins (i.e., prostacyclin), increasing nitric oxide or both. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of a specific inhibitor of Ang-(1-7), D-Ala7-Ang-(1-7)[A-779], as a countermeasure against post-suspension hypotension.

  9. The Effects of Hydroalchoholic Extract of Teucrium polium L. on Hypertension Induced by Angiotensin II in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Niazmand, Saeed; Khodaee, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antispasmodic and vasorelaxant effects of Teucrium polium L. (TP) were mentioned in former studies, so we attempted to evaluate the eventual preventive effect of TP in an acute experimental model of hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups (n = 8); control Group (C), which received only saline, group Ang II; which received Ang II (300 ng/min, IV), group losartan (Los); which received Los (10 mg/kg, IV) before Ang II injection, three groups of TP 100, TP 200, and TP 400; which received different doses of TP extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, IP, respectively) before Ang II application. After cannulation of the femoral artery, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) was continuously measured and recorded during the experiments. Comparisons were performed using t-test with SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: MAP and HR in Ang group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001), MAP in group Los significantly was lower than Ang group (P < 0.001) and pretreatment with three doses of TP extract also inhibited increasing of MAP after Ang II injection (P < 0.001). Los also inhibited the increase of HR due to Ang II (P < 0.001), but none of three doses of TP extract had a protective effect on tachycardia induced by Ang II. Conclusions: It seems TP extract could be effective in preventing of high blood pressure induced by Ang II pathway activation but could not have remarkable efficacy for improving the created tachycardia. PMID:25400883

  10. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and PKC-{alpha} are involved in the inhibitory effects of Ib, a novel nonpeptide AngiotensinII subtype AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist, on AngiotensinII-induced vascular contraction in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Wang Wei; Wang Qiujuan Wu Jinhui; Xu Jinyi; Wu Xiaoming

    2007-12-07

    The vasoactive peptide AngiotensinII (AngII) is an important factor in the cardiovascular system, exerting most of its effects through AngII receptor type 1 (AT{sub 1}). Ib, a new nonpeptide AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist, has been observed to play a positive role in the treatment of hypertension in preclinical tests. In this study, the inhibitory effects of Ib on AngII-induced vascular contraction in vitro were investigated, and its molecular mechanisms were further explored. In endothelium-denuded aortic rings from rabbits, Ib produced a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve for AngII with a decrease in the maximal contractile response and the pD{sub 2}{sup '} was 7.29. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the specific binding of [{sup 125}I]AngII to AT{sub 1} receptors was inhibited by Ib in a concentration-dependent manner with IC{sub 50} value of 0.96 nM. Ib could inhibit both AngII-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization from internal stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx. Moreover, the translocation of PKC-{alpha} stimulated by AngII was inhibited by Ib. Thus, the inhibitory effects of Ib might be related with the depression on AngII-induced increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and translocation of PKC-{alpha} through blocking AT{sub 1} receptors.

  11. ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin II inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Yuki; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Fujita, Yoshiko; Ali, Nermin; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Obata, Toshiyuki; Ebina, Yousuke; Tomita, Shuhei; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2005-08-15

    Clinical evidence suggests a relationship between hypertension and insulin resistance, and cross-talk between angiotensin II (Ang II) and insulin signaling pathways may take place. We now report the effect of Ang II on insulin-induced glucose uptake and its intracellular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We examined the translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucose uptake in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt activities, and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at the serine and tyrosine residues were measured by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. As a result, Ang II inhibited insulin-induced GLUT-4 translocation from cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in RASMC. Ang II induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser307 and Ser616. Ang II-induced Ser307 and Ser616 phophorylation of IRS-1 was inhibited by a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, and a JNK inhibitor, SP600125. Ang II inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosyl phophorylation and Akt activation were reversed by PD98059 but not by SP600125. Ang II inhibited insulin-induced glucose uptake, which was also reversed by PD98059 but not by SP600125. It is shown that Ang II-induced ERK1/2 activation inhibits insulin-dependent glucose uptake through serine phophorylation of IRS-1 in RASMC.

  12. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Cassina, Adriana; Rios, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Boggia, José; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease. PMID:26943326

  13. Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 by angiotensin II is mediated by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed

    He, Peijian; Klein, Janet; Yun, C Chris

    2010-09-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulates renal tubular reabsorption of NaCl by targeting Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3. We have shown previously that inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IRBIT) plays a critical role in stimulation of NHE3 in response to elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in mediating NHE3 activation by ANG II. IRBIT is abundantly expressed in the proximal tubules where NHE3 is located. ANG II at physiological concentrations stimulates NHE3 transport activity in a model proximal tubule cell line. ANG II-induced activation of NHE3 was abrogated by knockdown of IRBIT, whereas overexpression of IRBIT enhanced the effect of ANG II on NHE3. ANG II transiently increased binding of IRBIT to NHE3 at 5 min but became dissociated by 45 min. In comparison, it took at least 15 min of ANG II treatment for an increase in NHE3 activity and NHE3 surface expression. The stimulation of NHE3 by ANG II was dependent on changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II. Inhibition of CaMKII completely blocked the ANG II-induced binding of IRBIT to NHE3 and the increase in NHE3 surface abundance. Several serine residues of IRBIT are thought to be important for IRBIT binding. Mutations of Ser-68, Ser-71, and Ser-74 of IRBIT decreased binding of IRBIT to NHE3 and its effect on NHE3 activity. In conclusion, our current findings demonstrate that IRBIT is critically involved in mediating activation of NHE3 by ANG II via a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II-dependent pathway.

  14. PKC-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in the inhibition of Ib on AngiotensinII-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Yan Tianhua; Wang Qiujuan Wang Wei; Xu Jinyi; Wu Xiaoming; Ji Hui

    2008-10-10

    AngiotensinII (AngII) induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which plays an important role in the development and progression of hypertension. AngII-induced cellular events have been implicated, in part, in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ib, a novel nonpeptide AngII receptor type 1 (AT{sub 1}) antagonist, on the activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in VSMC proliferation induced by AngII. MTT, and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation assay showed that AngII-induced VSMC proliferation was inhibited significantly by Ib. The specific binding of [{sup 125}I]AngII to AT{sub 1} receptors was blocked by Ib in a concentration-dependent manner with IC{sub 50} value of 0.96 nM. PKC activity assay and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Ib significantly inhibited the activation of PKC and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by AngII, respectively. Furthermore, AngII-induced ERK1/2 activation was obviously blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor. These findings suggest that the suppression of Ib on AngII-induced VSMC proliferation may be attributed to its inhibitory effect on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 pathway.

  15. Early life stress sensitizes rats to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular inflammation in adult life.

    PubMed

    Loria, Analia S; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2010-02-01

    Maternal separation during early life is an established chronic behavioral model of early life stress in rats. It is known that perinatal adverse environments increase activity of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system, specifically Ang II, in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of early life stress augment the sensitivity of the Ang II pathway. Using Wistar Kyoto rats, the maternal separation (MS) protocol was performed by separating approximately half of the male pups from their mother 3 h/d from days 2 to 14 of life. Pups remaining with the mother at all times were used as controls. Maternal separation did not influence the plasma basal parameters, such as blood glucose, insulin, Ang II, Ang 1-7 and plasma renin activity. Furthermore, body weight, blood pressure, and heart rate were similar in MS and control rats. The acute pressor response to Ang II was not different in anesthetized MS and control rats. However, the chronic infusion of Ang II (65 ng/min SC) elicited an exaggerated hypertensive response in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). Surprisingly, HR was dramatically increased during the second week of Ang II infusion in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). This enhanced Ang II sensitivity was accompanied by a greater vascular inflammatory response in MS versus control rats. Chronic Ang II infusion increased vascular wall structure in both groups similarly. These data indicate that early life stress sensitizes rats to an increased hemodynamic and inflammatory response during Ang II-induced hypertension.

  16. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Cassina, Adriana; Rios, Natalia; Boggia, José; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II–induced renal disease. PMID:26943326

  17. Notch activation mediates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling by promoting the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Yukako; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Qin, Yingjie; Tateno, Kaoru; Ito, Kaoru; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Yano, Masamichi; Yabumoto, Chizuru; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Minamino, Tohru; Nagai, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Komuro, Issei

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling is involved in an intercellular communication mechanism that is essential for coordinated cell fate determination and tissue morphogenesis. The biological effects of Notch signaling are context-dependent. We investigated the functional and hierarchical relationship between angiotensin (Ang) II receptor signaling and Notch signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A fluorogenic substrate assay revealed directly that the enzymatic activity of γ-secretase was enhanced after 10 min of Ang II stimulation in HEK293 cells expressing Ang II type 1 receptor. Notch cleavage by γ-secretase was consistently induced and peaked at 10 min after Ang II stimulation, and the Ang II-stimulated increase in Notch intracellular domain production was significantly suppressed by treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Treatment with DAPT also significantly reduced the Ang II-stimulated proliferation and migration of human aortic VSMCs, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and the Boyden chamber assay, respectively. Systemic administration of the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine reduced Ang II-induced medial thickening and perivascular fibrosis in the aortas of wild-type mice. These findings suggest that the hierarchical Ang II receptor-Notch signaling pathway promotes the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, and thereby contributes to the progression of vascular remodeling. PMID:23719127

  18. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-03-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

  19. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular remodeling induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Yamato; Elliott, Katherine J; Tilley, Douglas G; Davisson, Robin L; Park, Joon-Young; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AngII) elevates blood pressure and enhances end-organ damage seem to be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically mediates vascular remodeling such as medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis remains incomplete. We have previously shown that AngII-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), and that this signaling is required for vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy but not for contractile signaling in response to AngII. Recent studies have implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hypertension. Interestingly, EGFR is capable of inducing ER stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of EGFR and ER stress are critical components required for vascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks with or without treatment of EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, or ER chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate. AngII infusion induced vascular medial hypertrophy in the heart, kidney and aorta, and perivascular fibrosis in heart and kidney, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension. Treatment with erlotinib as well as 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated vascular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy but not hypertension. In addition, AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, EGFR activation, and ER/oxidative stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in both erlotinib-treated and 4-phenylbutyrate-treated mice. ADAM17 induction and EGFR activation by AngII in vascular cells were also prevented by inhibition of EGFR or ER stress. In conclusion, AngII induces vascular remodeling by EGFR activation and ER stress via a signaling mechanism involving ADAM17 induction independent of hypertension.

  20. Vascular ADAM17 as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Mediating Cardiovascular Hypertrophy and Perivascular Fibrosis Induced by Angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scalia, Rosario; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) has been strongly implicated in hypertension and its complications. Evidence suggests the mechanisms by which AngII elevates blood pressure and enhances cardiovascular remodeling and damage may be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically initiates cardiovascular remodeling, such as hypertrophy and fibrosis, remains insufficiently understood. In vascular smooth muscle cells, a metalloproteinase ADAM17 mediates epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation, which may be responsible for cardiovascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of vascular ADAM17 is indispensable for vascular remodeling but not for hypertension induced by AngII. Vascular ADAM17-deficient mice and control mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks. Control mice infused with AngII showed cardiac hypertrophy, vascular medial hypertrophy, and perivascular fibrosis. These phenotypes were prevented in vascular ADAM17-deficient mice independent of blood pressure alteration. AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, epidermal growth factor receptor activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in ADAM17-deficient mice. Treatment with a human cross-reactive ADAM17 inhibitory antibody also prevented cardiovascular remodeling and endoplasmic reticulum stress but not hypertension in C57Bl/6 mice infused with AngII. In vitro data further supported these findings. In conclusion, vascular ADAM17 mediates AngII-induced cardiovascular remodeling via epidermal growth factor receptor activation independent of blood pressure regulation. ADAM17 seems to be a unique therapeutic target for the prevention of hypertensive complications.

  1. Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.

  2. Vascular ADAM17 as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Mediating Cardiovascular Hypertrophy and Perivascular Fibrosis Induced by Angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scalia, Rosario; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) has been strongly implicated in hypertension and its complications. Evidence suggests the mechanisms by which AngII elevates blood pressure and enhances cardiovascular remodeling and damage may be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically initiates cardiovascular remodeling, such as hypertrophy and fibrosis, remains insufficiently understood. In vascular smooth muscle cells, a metalloproteinase ADAM17 mediates epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation, which may be responsible for cardiovascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of vascular ADAM17 is indispensable for vascular remodeling but not for hypertension induced by AngII. Vascular ADAM17-deficient mice and control mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks. Control mice infused with AngII showed cardiac hypertrophy, vascular medial hypertrophy, and perivascular fibrosis. These phenotypes were prevented in vascular ADAM17-deficient mice independent of blood pressure alteration. AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, epidermal growth factor receptor activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in ADAM17-deficient mice. Treatment with a human cross-reactive ADAM17 inhibitory antibody also prevented cardiovascular remodeling and endoplasmic reticulum stress but not hypertension in C57Bl/6 mice infused with AngII. In vitro data further supported these findings. In conclusion, vascular ADAM17 mediates AngII-induced cardiovascular remodeling via epidermal growth factor receptor activation independent of blood pressure regulation. ADAM17 seems to be a unique therapeutic target for the prevention of hypertensive complications. PMID:27480833

  3. Chronic angiotensin II infusion modulates angiotensin II type I receptor expression in the subfornical organ and the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fabíola C; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-12-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin II (Ang II) has profound effects on the central nervous system, including regulation of vasopressin secretion and modulation of sympathetic outflow. However, the mechanism by which circulating Ang II affects the central nervous system remains largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of Ang II activate angiotensin type I (AT1) receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO), increasing the Ang II signalling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Male Wistar rats were subcutaneously implanted with two 14-day osmotic minipumps filled with Ang II (150 ng/kg/minute), Losartan (10mg/kg/day), or saline. In addition, AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the SFO and RVLM were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Infusion of Ang II-induced hypertension (134 ± 10 mmHg vs 98 ± 9 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05), which was blunted by concomitant infusion of Losartan (105 ± 8 vs 134 ± 10 mmHg, n = 9, p < 0.05). In addition, hexamethonium produced a greater decrease in blood pressure in Ang II-infused rats. Real time PCR revealed that chronic Ang II infusion induced an increase in AT1 receptor mRNA levels in the RVLM and a decrease in the SFO. Taken together, using combined in vivo and molecular biology approaches, our data suggest that Ang II-induced hypertension is mediated by an increase in sympathetic nerve activity, which seems to involve up-regulation of AT1 receptors in the RVLM and down-regulation of AT1 receptors in the SFO. PMID:21393361

  4. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Miao-Qian; Su, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xuan; Liu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue; Lian, Cheng; Zheng, Qiang-Sun; Feng, Zhi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)‑induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase‑3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII‑induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced p‑Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase‑3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII‑induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  5. Cellular mechanisms mediating rat renal microvascular constriction by angiotensin II.

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, T; Suzuki, H; Fujiwara, K; Kanno, Y; Ohno, Y; Hayashi, K; Nagahama, T; Saruta, T

    1997-01-01

    To assess cellular mechanisms mediating afferent (AA) and efferent arteriolar (EA) constriction by angiotensin II (AngII), experiments were performed using isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidneys. In the first series of studies, AngII (0.3 nM) constricted AAs and EAs by 29+/-3 (n = 8, P < 0.01) and 27+/-3% (n = 8, P < 0.01), respectively. Subsequent addition of nifedipine restored AA but not EA diameter. Manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction by 65+/-9% (P < 0.01). In the second group, the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM), a Gi/Go protein antagonist, abolished AngII- induced EA (n = 6) but not AA constriction (n = 6). In the third series of experiments, treatment with 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl-N, N-diphenyl-carbamate (200 microM), a phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked both AA and EA constriction by AngII (n = 6 for each). In the fourth group, thapsigargin (1 microM) prevented AngII-induced AA constriction (n = 8) and attenuated EA constriction (8+/-2% decrease in EA diameter at 0.3 nM AngII, n = 8, P < 0.05). Subsequent addition of manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction. Our data provide evidence that in AAs, AngII stimulates phospholipase C with subsequent calcium mobilization that is required to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels. Our results suggest that AngII constricts EAs by activating phospholipase C via the Gi protein family, thereby eliciting both calcium mobilization and calcium entry. PMID:9329977

  6. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Dependent GLP-1 and PYY Secretion in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Rievaj, Juraj; Larraufie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan. Ang II raised intracellular calcium levels in L cells in primary cultures, recorded by live-cell imaging of L cells specifically expressing the fluorescent calcium sensor GCaMP3. In Ussing chamber recordings, Ang II reduced short circuit currents in mouse distal colon preparations, which was antagonized by candesartan or a specific neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibitor but insensitive to amiloride. We conclude that Ang II stimulates PYY secretion, in turn inhibiting epithelial anion fluxes, thereby reducing net fluid secretion into the colonic lumen. Our findings highlight an important role of colonic L cells in whole-body fluid homeostasis by controlling water loss through the intestine. PMID:27447725

  7. Opposite effects of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity on the pressor response to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhonghua; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Langenbach, Robert I.; Breyer, Richard M.; Redha, Reyadh; Morrow, Jason D.; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic use of cyclooxygenase-inhibiting (COX-inhibiting) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is often complicated by renal side effects including hypertension and edema. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the roles of COX1 and COX2 in regulating blood pressure and renal function. COX2 inhibitors or gene knockout dramatically augment the pressor effect of angiotensin II (Ang II). Unexpectedly, after a brief increase, the pressor effect of Ang II was abolished by COX1 deficiency (either inhibitor or knockout). Ang II infusion also reduced medullary blood flow in COX2-deficient but not in control or COX1-deficient animals, suggesting synthesis of COX2-dependent vasodilators in the renal medulla. Consistent with this, Ang II failed to stimulate renal medullary prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin I2 production in COX2-deficient animals. Ang II infusion normally promotes natriuresis and diuresis, but COX2 deficiency blocked this effect. Thus, COX1 and COX2 exert opposite effects on systemic blood pressure and renal function. COX2 inhibitors reduce renal medullary blood flow, decrease urine flow, and enhance the pressor effect of Ang II. In contrast, the pressor effect of Ang II is blunted by COX1 inhibition. These results suggest that, rather than having similar cardiovascular effects, the activities of COX1 and COX2 are functionally antagonistic. PMID:12093889

  8. Angiotensin II regulates collagen metabolism through modulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in diabetic skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Hao, Shaoyun; Yang, Chuan; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Lihong; Lin, Diaozhu; Li, Na; Yan, Li

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) balance in regulating collagen metabolism of diabetic skin. Skin tissues from diabetic model were collected, and the primary cultured fibroblasts were treated with Ang II receptor inhibitors before Ang II treatment. The collagen type I (Coll I) and collagen type III (Coll III) were measured by histochemistry. The expressions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), MMP-1, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in skin tissues and fibroblasts were quantified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Collagen dysfunction was documented by changed collagen I/III ratio in streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice compared with controls. This was accompanied by increased expression of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in diabetic skin tissues. In primary cultured fibroblasts, Ang II prompted collagen synthesis accompanied by increases in the expressions of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and types I and III procollagens, and these increases were inhibited by losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, but not affected by PD123319, an Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist. These findings present evidence that Ang-II-mediated changes in the productions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 occur via AT1 receptors and a TGF-β-dependent mechanism.

  9. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Quan-Xing; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-14

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage.

  10. Angiotensin II induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, X L; Tummala, P E; Olbrych, M T; Alexander, R W; Medford, R M

    1998-11-01

    Monocyte infiltration into the vessel wall, a key initial step in the process of atherosclerosis, is mediated in part by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Hypertension, particularly in the presence of an activated renin-angiotensin system, is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate a potential molecular basis for a link between hypertension and atherosclerosis, we studied the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on MCP-1 gene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Rat smooth muscle cells treated with Ang II exhibited a dose-dependent increase in MCP-1 mRNA accumulation that was prevented by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. Ang II also activated MCP-1 gene transcription. Inhibition of NADH/NADPH oxidase, which generates superoxide and H2O2, with diphenylene iodonium or apocynin decreased Ang II-induced MCP-1 mRNA accumulation. Induction of MCP-1 gene expression by Ang II was inhibited by catalase, suggesting a second messenger role for H2O2. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059 inhibited Ang II-induced MCP-1 gene expression, consistent with a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling mechanism. Ang II may thus promote atherogenesis by direct activation of MCP-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

    1985-03-01

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates water and NaCl intake through separate cell signalling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Nowak, Erica L; Fluharty, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation of water and NaCl intake is a classic model of the behavioural effects of hormones. In vitro studies indicate that the AngII type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulates intracellular pathways that include protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Previous studies support the hypotheses that PKC is involved in AngII-induced water, but not NaCl intake and that MAP kinase plays a role in NaCl consumption, but not water intake, after injection of AngII. The present experiments test these hypotheses in rats using central injections of AngII in the presence or absence of a PKC inhibitor or a MAP kinase inhibitor. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated AngII-induced water intake, but NaCl intake was unaffected. In contrast, pretreatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, had no effect on AngII-induced water intake, but attenuated NaCl intake. These data support the working hypotheses and significantly extend our earlier findings and those of others. Perhaps more importantly, these experiments demonstrate the remarkable diversity of peptide receptor systems and add support for the surprising finding that intracellular signalling pathways can have divergent behavioural relevance.

  13. Ets-1 upregulation mediates angiotensin II-related cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guanghua; Han, Zhenhua; Meng, Zhe; Wei, Jin; Gao, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Ets-1, the prototypical member of the family of Ets transcription factors, has been shown to participate in tissue fibrotic remodeling. However, its role in cardiac fibrosis has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Ets-1 in profibrotic actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and in the in vivo heart. In growth-arrested CFs, Ang II induced Ets-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Ang II type 1 receptor blocker losartan, protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 partly inhibited this induction accompanied with impaired cell proliferation and production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein, the two downstream targets of Ets-1. Knockdown of Ets-1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the inductive effects of Ang II on cell proliferation and expression of CTGF and PAI-1. Moreover, the levels of Ets-1, PAI-1 and CTGF protein were simultaneously upregulated in left ventricle of Ang II-infused rats in parallel with an increase in the activation of ERK and JNK. Our data suggest that Ets-1 may mediate Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic effects.

  14. Central Renin-Angiotensin System Activation and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet Sensitize Angiotensin II-Elicited Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Thunhorst, Robert L; Yu, Yang; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Felder, Robert B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to promote renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammation in the brain and to be accompanied by increased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin (Ang) II sensitizes subsequent Ang II-elicited hypertension. The present study tested whether high-fat diet (HFD) feeding also sensitizes the Ang II-elicited hypertensive response and whether HFD-induced sensitization is mediated by an increase in renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammatory mechanisms in the brain. HFD did not increase baseline blood pressure, but enhanced the hypertensive response to Ang II compared with a normal-fat diet. The sensitization produced by the HFD was abolished by concomitant central infusions of either a tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, or an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline. Furthermore, central pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor-α mimicked the sensitizing action of a central subpressor dose of Ang II, whereas central pentoxifylline or minocycline abolished this Ang II-induced sensitization. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of lamina terminalis tissue indicated that HFD feeding, central tumor necrosis factor-α, or a central subpressor dose of Ang II upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines, whereas inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and of inflammation reversed these changes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by upregulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system and of central proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Role of EGFR transactivation in angiotensin II signaling to extracellular regulated kinase in preglomerular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Bradley T; Linnoila, Jenny J; Jackson, Edwin K; Romero, Guillermo G

    2003-03-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK); however, the mechanisms leading to Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation are debated. The currently accepted theory involves transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We have shown that generation of phosphatidic acid (PA) is required for the recruitment of Raf to membranes and the activation of ERK by multiple agonists, including Ang II. In the present report, we confirm that phospholipase D-dependent generation of PA is required for Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat preglomerular smooth muscle cells (PGSMCs). However, EGF stimulation does not activate phospholipase D or generate PA. These observations indicate that EGF recruits Raf to membranes via a mechanism that does not involve PA, and thus, Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK is partially independent of EGFR-mediated signaling cascades. We hypothesized that phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) can also act to recruit Raf to membranes; therefore, inhibition of PI3K should inhibit EGF signaling to ERK. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited EGF-mediated phosphorylation of ERK (IC50, approximately 14 nmol/L). To examine the role of the EGFR in Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK we utilized 100 nmol/L wortmannin to inhibit EGFR signaling to ERK and T19N RhoA to block Ang II-mediated ERK phosphorylation. Wortmannin treatment inhibited EGF-mediated but not Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, T19N RhoA inhibited Ang II-mediated ERK phosphorylation, whereas T19N RhoA had significantly less effect on EGF-mediated ERK phosphorylation. We conclude that transactivation of the EGFR is not primarily responsible for Ang II-mediated activation of ERK in PGSMCs.

  16. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    PubMed

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. PMID:26256416

  17. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  18. Metformin treatment improves erectile function in an angiotensin II model of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Labazi, Hicham; Wynne, Brandi M.; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increased angiotensin II (AngII) levels cause hypertension, which is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have demonstrated that increased AngII levels in penile tissue are associated with ED. A recent study showed that metformin treatment restored nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein expression in penile tissue in obese rats; however, whether metformin treatment can be beneficial and restore erectile function in a model of ED has not yet been established. Aim The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that AngII induces ED by means of increased corpus cavernosum contraction, and that metformin treatment will reverse ED in AngII-treated rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with mini-osmotic pumps containing saline or AngII (70 ng/min, 28 days). Animals were then treated with metformin or vehicle during the last week of AngII infusion. Main Outcome Measures Intracavernosal pressure (ICP); corpus cavernosum contraction and relaxation; nNOS protein expression; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation. Results AngII induced ED was accompanied with an increase in corpus cavernusom contractility, decreased nitrergic relaxation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Metformin treatment improved erectile function in the AngII-treated rats by reversing the increased contraction and decreased relaxation. Metformin treatment also resulted in an increase in eNOS phosphorylation at ser1177. Conclusions Metformin treatment increased eNOS phosphorylation and improved erectile function in AngII hypertensive rats by re-establishing normal cavernosal smooth muscle tone. PMID:23889981

  19. Angiotensin II receptor binding in the rat hypothalamus and circumventricular organs during dietary sodium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Mendelsohn, F A

    1989-10-01

    The effect of dietary sodium intake on angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor binding in the rat brain was studied using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. After 2 weeks of sodium deprivation, the peripheral angiotensin system was activated as shown by increased plasma renin activity (4-fold) and plasma aldosterone concentration (approximately 40-fold). At the same time, Ang II receptor binding in the adrenal glomerulosa zone increased by 40%. Frozen brain sections prepared from 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 control, 6 sodium-deprived) were incubated with 125I[Sar1, Ile8] Ang II, exposed to X-ray film, and Ang II receptor binding in individual brain nuclei was quantitated by computerized densitometry. Ang II binding in the area postrema was significantly suppressed in the sodium-deprived rats (60% of control; p less than 0.05). No change was observed in the other circumventricular organs studied, the subfornical organ or organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Ang II binding in the solitary tract nucleus was not affected by the dietary salt treatment. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, there was a small (9%) but significant (p less than 0.001) increase in Ang II receptor binding in the sodium-deprived group. However, no change was observed in the hypothalamic median preoptic or suprachiasmatic nuclei, areas with similarly high Ang II receptor binding. These results suggest that only a limited subset of brain Ang II receptors respond to sodium deprivation and do so in a region-specific manner. These results support evidence that the central angiotensin system may contribute to the regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.

  20. TNF Receptor 1 Signaling is Critically Involved in Mediating Angiotensin-II-induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R.; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E.; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34+CD45+ monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1 week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34+CD45+ cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  1. Calcium channel blockade attenuates angiotensin II-induced drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Schechter, M D

    1993-01-01

    Lateral ventricular administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) produces potent dipsogenic effects in water-sated rats. ANG II seems to require functional voltage-gated calcium channels on neurons throughout circumventricular brain sites to exert its effects. Although there are at least three types of calcium channels, only L-type calcium channel-blocking drugs have been reported to decrease drinking. (4-(4-Benzofurazanyl)-1-4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridine-dic arb oxylic acid methyl 1-methyl-ethyl ester) [PN 200-110; isradipine (ISR)], a selective L-type calcium channel blocker, has been shown to attenuate significantly the intake of sweetened water in water-sated rats following either peripheral or ICV administration, but ISR does not affect plain-water intake in water-deprived rats. The present experiment was designed to determine whether ISR would attenuate ANG II-induced drinking that is not either motivated by palatability or dependent on deprivation. Rats, each fitted with chronic indwelling ventricular cannulae, were pretreated with ISR (0.3, 3.0, and 30 micrograms/rat; ICV). ANG II (40 ng/rat; ICV) was administered 10 min later and rats were allowed free access to water for 15 min. Injections of ANG II plus saline and ANG II plus the ISR vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) did not attenuate ANG II-induced polydipsia, whereas ANG II+ISR (0.3 and 3.0 micrograms) attenuated ANG II-induced drinking to 62 and 22% of control, respectively. Results with the 30-micrograms dose were not different from the 3.0 dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Polydatin prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial superoxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yingying; Zhang, Nan; Yao, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Our studies and others recently demonstrate that polydatin, a resveratrol glucoside, has antioxidative and cardioprotective effects. This study aims to investigate the direct effects of polydatin on Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy to explore the potential role of polydatin in cardioprotection. Our results showed that in primary cultured cardiomyocytes, polydatin blocked Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in a dose-dependent manner, which were associated with reduction in the cell surface area and [3H]leucine incorporation, as well as attenuation of the mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor and β-myosin heavy chain. Furthermore, polydatin prevented rat cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II infusion, as assessed by heart weight-to-body weight ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte, and gene expression of hypertrophic markers. Further investigation demonstrated that polydatin attenuated the Ang II-induced increase in the reactive oxygen species levels and NADPH oxidase activity in vivo and in vitro. Polydatin also blocked the Ang II-stimulated increases of Nox4 and Nox2 expression in cultured cardiomyocytes and the hearts of Ang II-infused rats. Our results indicate that polydatin has the potential to protect against Ang II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production. These observations may shed new light on the understanding of the cardioprotective effect of polydatin. PMID:25488910

  3. Cross talk between MMP2-Spm-Cer-S1P and ERK1/2 in proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under angiotensin II stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Pramanik, Pijush Kanti; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish the mechanism associated with the proliferation of PASMCs under ANG II stimulation. The results showed that treatment of PASMCs with ANG II induces an increase in cell proliferation and 100 nM was the optimum concentration for maximum increase in proliferation of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with AT1, but not AT2, receptor antagonist inhibited ANG II induced cell proliferation. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) prevented ANG II-induced cell proliferation. ANG II has also been shown to induce SMase activity, SPHK phosphorylation and S1P production. In addition, ANG II caused an increase in proMMP-2 expression and activation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activation. Upon inhibition of MMP-2, SMase activity and S1P level were curbed leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. SPHK was phosphorylated by ERK1/2 during ET-1 stimulation of the cells. ANG II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proMMP-2 expression and activation in the cells were abrogated upon inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Overall, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in proMMP-2 expression and activation and that MMP-2 mediated SMC proliferation occurs through the involvement of Spm-Cer-S1P signaling axis under ANG II stimulation of PASMCs. PMID:27210740

  4. Combination of angiotensin II and l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cause heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Dale J; Zhang, Aijun; Li, Shumin; Cao, Tram N; Smith, Jessie A; Vedula, Indira; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Youker, Keith A; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Gupte, Anisha A

    2016-03-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a cause of energy deprivation in heart failure (HF). Herein, we tested individual and combined effects of two pathogenic factors of nonischemic HF, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis [with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] and hypertension [with angiotensin II (AngII)], on myocardial mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic gene expression. l-NAME and AngII were administered individually and in combination to mice for 5 wk. Although all treatments increased blood pressure and reduced cardiac contractile function, the l-NAME + AngII group was associated with the most severe HF, as characterized by edema, hypertrophy, oxidative stress, increased expression of Nppa and Nppb, and decreased expression of Atp2a2 and Camk2b. l-NAME + AngII-treated mice exhibited robust deterioration of cardiac mitochondrial function, as observed by reduced respiratory control ratios in subsarcolemmal mitochondria and reduced state 3 levels in interfibrillar mitochondria for complex I but not for complex II substrates. Cardiac myofibrils showed reduced ADP-supported and oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial functional impairment was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex I but increased H2O2 production and tissue protein carbonyls in hearts from AngII and l-NAME + AngII groups. Microarray analyses revealed the majority of the gene changes attributed to the l-NAME + AngII group. Pathway analyses indicated significant changes in metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, cardiac hypertrophy, and fatty acid metabolism in l-NAME + AngII hearts. We conclude that l-NAME + AngII is associated with impaired mitochondrial respiratory function and increased oxidative stress compared with either l-NAME or AngII alone, resulting in nonischemic HF.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Baker, Nicki; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments AngII

  6. Role of caveolin 1 in AT1a receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II in the proximal tubule of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Gu, Victor; Miguel-Qin, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (CAV-1) functions not only as a constitutive scaffolding protein of caveolae but also as a vesicular transporter and signaling regulator. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that CAV-1 knockout (CAV-1 KO) inhibits ANG II type 1 [AT1 (AT1a)] receptor-mediated uptake of ANG II in the proximal tubule and attenuates blood pressure responses in ANG II-induced hypertension. To determine the role of CAV-1 in mediating the uptake of FITC-labeled ANG II, wild-type (WT) mouse proximal convoluted tubule cells were transfected with CAV-1 small interfering (si)RNA for 48 h before AT1 receptor-mediated uptake of FITC-labeled ANG II was studied. CAV-1 siRNA knocked down CAV-1 expression by >90% (P < 0.01) and inhibited FITC-labeled ANG II uptake by >50% (P < 0.01). Moreover, CAV-1 siRNA attenuated ANG II-induced activation of MAPK ERK1/2 and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 expression, respectively (P < 0.01). To determine whether CAV-1 regulates ANG II uptake in the proximal tubule, Alexa 488-labeled ANG II was infused into anesthetized WT and CAV-1 KO mice for 60 min (20 ng/min iv). Imaging analysis revealed that Alexa 488-labeled ANG II uptake was decreased by >50% in CAV-1 KO mice (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Val5-ANG II was infused into WT and CAV-1 KO mice for 2 wk (1.5 mg·kg−1·day−1 ip). Basal systolic pressure was higher, whereas blood pressure and renal excretory and signaling responses to ANG II were attenuated, in CAV-1 KO mice (P < 0.01). We concluded that CAV-1 plays an important role in AT1 receptor-mediated uptake of ANG II in the proximal tubule and modulates blood pressure and renal responses to ANG II. PMID:25164083

  7. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers.

  8. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P < 0.007; n = 6) and increased T495 phosphorylation by 147 ± 26% (P < 0.008; n = 6). One-day ANG II infusion had no significant effect. NO production in response to endothelin-1 was blunted in thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.01]. This was not due to reduced endothelin-1 receptor expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3)-induced NO production was also reduced in ANG II-infused rats (ANG II -0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.03), and this correlated with an impaired ability of PIP3 to increase S1177 phosphorylation. We conclude that in ANG II-induced hypertension NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation.

  9. Angiotensin II-Induced Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells was Inhibited by Blueberry Anthocyanin Through Bax- and Caspase 3-Dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Leng, Jiyan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Guangxin; Yang, Di; Lin, Huan; Qin, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry anthocyanin (BBA) on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and its regulation mechanisms involving Bax and Caspase 3. MATERIAL AND METHODS HUVECs were first treated by different concentrations of Ang II (10-9, 10-8, 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/L) and BBA (80, 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 μg/ml). After 24 h and 48 h of treatment, MTT was performed to detect the viability of HUVECs. Then, HUVECs were randomly divided into the Ang II group (10-6 mol/L Ang II) and Ang II + BBA group (10-6 mol/L Ang II and 20 μg/ml BBA), and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in these 2 groups. During the whole process, HUVECs without any treatments served as the control group. RESULTS The cell viability of HUVECs was significantly reduced by Ang II in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), while BBA significantly elevated the cell viability of HUVECs until a peak of 20.0 μg/ml. The apoptosis rate of HUVECs was significantly increased by Ang II (P<0.01) and reduced by the BBA intervention (P<0.05). Ang II significantly elevated the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in HUVECs, but their expression was significantly inhibited by BBA. CONCLUSIONS BBA increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate of HUVECs induced by Ang II through Bax- and Caspase 3-dependent pathways. PMID:27616275

  10. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-15

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl transport by this segment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net thick ascending limb transport. NOS3 activity is regulated by changes in expression and phosphorylation at threonine 495 (T495) and serine 1177 (S1177), inhibitory and stimulatory sites, respectively. We hypothesized that NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired by chronic ANG II infusion, due to reduced NOS3 expression, increased phosphorylation of T495, and decreased phosphorylation of S1177. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 1 and 5 days. ANG II infusion for 5 days decreased NOS3 expression by 40 ± 12% (P < 0.007; n = 6) and increased T495 phosphorylation by 147 ± 26% (P < 0.008; n = 6). One-day ANG II infusion had no significant effect. NO production in response to endothelin-1 was blunted in thick ascending limbs from ANG II-infused animals [ANG II -0.01 ± 0.06 arbitrary fluorescence units (AFU)/min vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.01]. This was not due to reduced endothelin-1 receptor expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3)-induced NO production was also reduced in ANG II-infused rats (ANG II -0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 AFU/min in controls; P < 0.03), and this correlated with an impaired ability of PIP3 to increase S1177 phosphorylation. We conclude that in ANG II-induced hypertension NO production by thick ascending limbs is impaired due to decreased NOS3 expression and altered phosphorylation. PMID:25377910

  11. Angiotensin II increases matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells via AT1R and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunmao; Qian, Xiangyang; Sun, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and activated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) produced by human aortic smooth muscle cells (human ASMCs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Additionally, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation contributes to TAA development in Marfan Syndrome. However, there is scant data regarding the relationship between Ang II and MMP-2 expression in human ASMCs. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Ang II on MMP-2 expression in human ASMCs and used Western blotting to identify the Ang II receptors and intracellular signaling pathways involved. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that Ang II receptors were expressed on human ASMCs. Additionally, Ang II increased the expression of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) but not AT1R at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Furthermore, Western blotting showed that Ang II increased MMP-2 expression in human ASMCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This response was completely inhibited by the AT1R inhibitor candesartan but not by the AT2R blocker PD123319. In addition, Ang II–induced upregulation of MMP-2 was mediated by the activation of ERK1/2, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) had no effect on this process. In conclusion, these results indicate that Ang II can increase the expression of MMP-2 via AT1 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human ASMCs and suggest that antagonists of AT1R and ERK1/2 may be useful for treating TAAs. PMID:25767191

  12. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  13. Angiotensin II-Induced Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells was Inhibited by Blueberry Anthocyanin Through Bax- and Caspase 3-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jian; Leng, Jiyan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Guangxin; Yang, Di; Lin, Huan; Qin, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry anthocyanin (BBA) on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and its regulation mechanisms involving Bax and Caspase 3. Material/Methods HUVECs were first treated by different concentrations of Ang II (10−9, 10−8, 10−7, 10−6, 10−5, and 10−4 mol/L) and BBA (80, 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 μg/ml). After 24 h and 48 h of treatment, MTT was performed to detect the viability of HUVECs. Then, HUVECs were randomly divided into the Ang II group (10−6 mol/L Ang II) and Ang II + BBA group (10−6 mol/L Ang II and 20 μg/ml BBA), and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in these 2 groups. During the whole process, HUVECs without any treatments served as the control group. Results The cell viability of HUVECs was significantly reduced by Ang II in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), while BBA significantly elevated the cell viability of HUVECs until a peak of 20.0 μg/ml. The apoptosis rate of HUVECs was significantly increased by Ang II (P<0.01) and reduced by the BBA intervention (P<0.05). Ang II significantly elevated the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in HUVECs, but their expression was significantly inhibited by BBA. Conclusions BBA increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate of HUVECs induced by Ang II through Bax- and Caspase 3-dependent pathways. PMID:27616275

  14. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang-actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo ("wild-type", wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein-copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1-17) and AcAng(1-17), which encompass the sequence 1-17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH₂), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides. PMID:27490533

  15. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang-actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo ("wild-type", wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein-copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1-17) and AcAng(1-17), which encompass the sequence 1-17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH₂), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides.

  16. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tao; Ding, Ling; Ruan, Yang; Qin, Weiwei; Lin, Yajun; Xi, Chao; Lu, Yonggang; Dou, Lin; Zhu, Yuping; Cao, Yuan; Man, Yong; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Shu; Xiao, Chuanshi; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII-) induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1's protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury. PMID:25614777

  17. Lack of protein kinase C-α leads to impaired urine concentrating ability and decreased aquaporin-2 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thai, Tiffany L; Blount, Mitsi A; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2012-07-01

    Regulation of water and urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct is essential for urine concentration. Aquaporin (AQP)2 water channels and urea transporter (UT)-A1 are inserted into the apical membrane upon phosphorylation of the channels to allow the transcellular movement of water and urea. Since ANG II activates PKC in many cell types, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II-induced regulation of water and urea transport is mediated by PKC. Osmotic minipumps delivered ANG II to wild-type (WT) or PKC-α(-/-) mice for 7 days. Inner medullas were harvested, and protein abundance was determined by immunoblot. ANG II increased systolic blood pressure to a similar degree in WT and PKC-α(-/-) mice. ANG II had no effect on the urine output of WT mice but increased that of PKC-α(-/-) mice. In accordance with observed differences in urine output, AQP2 abundance was unchanged in ANG II-treated WT animals but was decreased in PKC-α(-/-) mice. No change in membrane accumulation was seen. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-induced transcription factor CREB was decreased in PKC-α(-/-) mice in response to ANG II with no change in overall CREB abundance. ANG II did not alter the abundance of UT-A1 protein in WT or PKC-α(-/-) mice. Phosphorylation and overall abundance of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein, a transcription factor that regulates UT-A1, were also unaltered by ANG II in either group. We conclude that PKC-α protects against ANG II-induced decreases in urine concentrating ability by maintaining AQP2 levels through CREB phosphorylation. PMID:22492943

  18. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 Receptors Decreases the Contractile Response to Angiotensin II in Resistance Mesenteric Arteries from Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagihara, Graziela N.; Lobato, Nubia S.; Filgueira, Fernando P.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Aragão, Danielle S.; Casarini, Dulce E.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS) are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese) and non-obese Wistar rats (control) were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats. PMID:25170617

  19. Cross talk between AT1 receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 in microglia contributes to angiotensin II-derived ROS production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Stranahan, Alexis M; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Stern, Javier E

    2016-02-01

    ANG II is thought to increase sympathetic outflow by increasing oxidative stress and promoting local inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, the relative contributions of inflammation and oxidative stress to sympathetic drive remain poorly understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular targets have yet to be examined. ANG II has been shown to enhance Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated signaling on microglia. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether ANG II-mediated activation of microglial TLR4 signaling is a key molecular target initiating local oxidative stress in the PVN. We found TLR4 and ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamic microglia, providing molecular evidence for the potential interaction between these two receptors. In hypothalamic slices, ANG II induced microglial activation within the PVN (∼65% increase, P < 0.001), an effect that was blunted in the absence of functional TLR4. ANG II increased ROS production, as indicated by dihydroethidium fluorescence, within the PVN of rats and mice (P < 0.0001 in both cases), effects that were also dependent on the presence of functional TLR4. The microglial inhibitor minocycline attenuated ANG II-mediated ROS production, yet ANG II effects persisted in PVN single-minded 1-AT1a knockout mice, supporting the contribution of a non-neuronal source (likely microglia) to ANG II-driven ROS production in the PVN. Taken together, these results support functional interactions between AT1 receptors and TLR4 in mediating ANG II-dependent microglial activation and oxidative stress within the PVN. More broadly, our results support a functional interaction between the central renin-angiotensin system and innate immunity in the regulation of neurohumoral outflows from the PVN.

  20. Caveolin-1 prevents sustained angiotensin II-induced resistance artery constriction and obesity-induced high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Istvan; Feher, Attila; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The type 1 angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor (AT1R) undergoes internalization following stimulation by ANG II. Internalization reduces cell surface AT1Rs, and it is required for AT1R resensitization. In this process AT1R may interact with caveolin-1 (Cav1), the main scaffolding protein of caveolae. We hypothesized that the interaction between Cav1 and AT1R delays AT1R resensitization and thereby prevents sustained ANG II-induced resistance artery (RA) constriction under normal conditions and in experimental obesity. In rat and mouse skeletal muscle RA (diameter: ∼90–120 μm) ANG II-induced constrictions were reduced upon repeated (30-min apart) administrations. Upon disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or in RA of Cav1 knockout mice, repeated ANG II applications resulted in essentially maintained constrictions. In vascular smooth muscle cells, AT1R interacted with Cav1, and the degree of cell surface interactions was reduced by long-term (15-min), but not short-term (2-min), exposure to ANG II. When Cav1 was silenced, the amount of membrane-associated AT1R was significantly reduced by a short-term ANG II exposure. Moreover, Cav1 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited augmented and sustained RA constriction to ANG II and had elevated systemic blood pressure, when compared with normal or high-fat fed wild-type mice. Thus, Cav1, through a direct interaction, delays internalization and subsequent resensitization of AT1R. We suggest that this mechanism prevents sustained ANG II-induced RA constriction and elevated systemic blood pressure in diet-induced obesity. PMID:25527780

  1. Angiotensin II stimulates expression of the chemokine RANTES in rat glomerular endothelial cells. Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, G; Ziyadeh, F N; Thaiss, F; Tomaszewski, J; Caron, R J; Wenzel, U; Zahner, G; Helmchen, U; Stahl, R A

    1997-01-01

    Glomerular influx of monocytes/macrophages (M/M) occurs in many immune- and non-immune-mediated renal diseases. The mechanisms targeting M/M into the glomerulus are incompletely understood, but may involve stimulated expression of chemokines. We investigated whether angiotensin II (ANG II) induces the chemokine RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells of the rat and in vivo. ANG II stimulated mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in cultured glomerular endothelial cells. The ANG II-induced RANTES protein was chemotactic for human monocytes. Surprisingly, the ANG II-stimulated RANTES expression was transduced by AT2 receptors because the AT2 receptor antagonists PD 123177 and CGP-42112A, but not an AT1 receptor blocker, abolished the induced RANTES synthesis. Intraperitoneal infusion of ANG II (500 ng/h) into naive rats for 4 d significantly stimulated glomerular RANTES mRNA and protein expression compared with solvent-infused controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed induction of RANTES protein mainly in glomerular endothelial cells and small capillaries. Moreover, ANG II- infused animals exhibited an increase in glomerular ED-1- positive cells compared with controls. Oral treatment with PD 123177 (50 mg/liter drinking water) attenuated the glomerular M/M influx without normalizing the slightly elevated systolic blood pressure caused by ANG II infusion, suggesting that the effects on blood pressure and RANTES induction can be separated. We conclude that the vasoactive peptide ANG II may play an important role in glomerular chemotaxis of M/M through local induction of the chemokine RANTES. The observation that the ANG II- mediated induction of RANTES is transduced by AT2 receptors may influence the decision as to which substances might be used for the therapeutic interference with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:9276721

  2. COX-2 mediates angiotensin II-induced (pro)renin receptor expression in the rat renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xiaohan; Peng, Kexin; Zhou, Li; Li, Chunling; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Xueqing; Kohan, Donald E; Zhu, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2014-07-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the distal nephron where it is activated by angiotensin II (ANG II), resulting in increased renin activity in the renal medulla thereby amplifying the de novo generation and action of local ANG II. The goal of the present study was to test the role of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in meditating ANG II-induced PRR expression in the renal medulla in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells to ANG II induced sequential increases in COX-2 and PRR protein expression. When the cells were pretreated with a COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, ANG II-induced upregulation of PRR protein expression was almost completely abolished, in parallel with the changes in medium active renin content. The inhibitory effect of NS-398 on the PRR expression was reversed by adding exogenous PGE2. A 14-day ANG II infusion elevated renal medullary PRR expression and active and total renin content in parallel with increased urinary renin, all of which were remarkably suppressed by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. In contrast, plasma and renal cortical active and total renin content were suppressed by ANG II treatment, an effect that was unaffected by COX-2 inhibition. Systolic blood pressure was elevated with ANG II infusion, which was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibition. Overall, the results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies established a crucial role of COX-2 in mediating upregulation of renal medullary PRR expression and renin content during ANG II hypertension.

  3. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  4. The activity of the Ang/Tie-2 system in the brain that suffered acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suping; Liu, Zanhua; Qu, Jing; Wang, Xiaoting

    2013-10-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) leads to significant toxicity of the central nervous system and heart, and even death, following it, some patients suffered delayed encephalopathy. Until now, no theory had explained it exactly. It was reported that neovascularization was found in acute ischemic brains and also that angiopoietins (Ang) play important roles in the process of angiogenesis, for example, the members of Ang family, Ang-1 and Ang-2 may promote angiogenesis by combining with endothelial-specific cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor Tie-2. Interestingly, some studies suggested that small vascular injury may play an important role in the pathogenesis of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning. Does neovascularization also occur in the brains after ACMP? Do Ang also take part in the pathologic processes in the brains that suffered ACMP? People know little about it. In the present study, we showed that neovascularization also occurred in the brains that suffered ACMP, and there are two expression peaks of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2, respectively, in the mice brains on the 3rd day and the 7th day following ACMP, and draw a conclusion that the Ang/Tie-2 system takes part in the pathologic processes in the brains that suffered ACMP by participating in neovascularization.

  5. Evaluating the potential for rostral diffusion in the cerebral ventricles using angiotensin II-induced drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Marshall, Anikó

    2012-11-27

    In spite of evidence to the contrary, concern that substances injected into the fourth ventricle (4V) reach forebrain structures challenges the validity of using these injections to evaluate the role of hindbrain structures. Injection of AngII into the lateral ventricle (LV) increases water intake, but a similar response is not observed after injection into the 4V. This alone suggests the requirement of forebrain structures, but the potential for a counteracting, anti-dipsogenic pressor response to hindbrain AngII allows for lingering concern that this competing effect of AngII, rather than lack of forebrain access, underlies the negative result. Here, we used a double cannulation approach (LV and 4V) to evaluate the effect of the AngII receptor antagonist, losartan, on the drinking response to AngII injected into the LV. Injections of losartan into the LV blocked the dipsogenic response to AngII given 5min later into the LV. There was no effect, however, when losartan was injected into 4V, even when we used a dose of losartan that was 25 times greater than needed when injected into the LV. Collectively, these experiments suggest that concerns about diffusion from hindbrain ventricles to forebrain structures are overstated and can be circumvented using proper dose and timing of injections. Moreover, these data provide additional support to the existing literature showing that forebrain structures are key sites in the stimulation of drinking behavior by AngII.

  6. Angiotensin II induces Fat1 expression/activation and vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    Bruder-Nascimento, T; Chinnasamy, P; Riascos-Bernal, DF; Cau, SB; Callera, GE; Touyz, RM; Tostes, RC; Sibinga, NES

    2013-01-01

    Fat1 is an atypical cadherin that controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (Nox1) is an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces the expression and/or activation of both Fat1 and Nox1 proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that Ang II-induced Fat1 activation and VSMC migration are mediated by Nox1-dependent ROS generation and redox signaling. Studies were performed in cultured VSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 μmol/L) for short (5 to 30 min) or long term stimulations (3 to 12 h) in the absence or presence of the antioxidant apocynin (10 μmol/L), extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibitor PD98059 (1 μmol/L), or Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) valsartan (1 μmol/L). siRNA was used to knockdown Nox1 or Fat1. Cell migration was determined by Boyden chamber assay. Ang II increased Fat1 mRNA and protein levels and promoted Fat1 translocation to the cell membrane, responses that were inhibited by AT1R antagonist and antioxidant treatment. Downregulation of Nox1 inhibited the effects of Ang II on Fat1 protein expression. Nox1 protein induction, ROS generation, and p44/p42 MAPK phosphorylation in response to Ang II were prevented by valsartan and apocynin, and Nox1 siRNA inhibited Ang II-induced ROS generation. Knockdown of Fat1 did not affect Ang II-mediated increases in Nox1 expression or ROS. Inhibition of p44/p42 MAPK phosphorylation by PD98059 abrogated the Ang II-induced increase in Fat1 expression and membrane translocation. Knockdown of Fat1 inhibited Ang II-induced VSMC migration, which was also prevented by valsartan, apocynin, PD98059, and Nox1 siRNA. Our findings indicate that Ang II regulates Fat1 expression and activity and induces Fat1-dependent VSMC migration via activation of AT1R, ERK1/2, and Nox1-derived ROS, suggesting a role for Fat1 downstream of Ang II

  7. Purinergic receptors contribute to early mesangial cell transformation and renal vessel hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Graciano, Miguel L.; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith; Seth, Dale M.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Prieto-Carrasquero, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ANG II infusions lead to increases in intrarenal ANG II levels, hypertension, and tissue injury. Increased blood pressure also elicits increases in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) ATP concentrations that stimulate cell proliferation. We evaluated the contribution of purinergic receptor activation to ANG II-induced renal injury in rats by treating with clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor blocker, or with PPADS, a nonselective P2 receptor blocker. α-Actin expression in mesangial cells, afferent arteriolar wall thickness (AAWT), cortical cell proliferation, and macrophage infiltration were used as early markers of renal injury. Clopidogrel and PPADS did not alter blood pressure, renin or kidney ANG II content. α-Actin expression increased from control of 0.6 ± 0.4% of mesangial area to 6.3 ± 1.9% in ANG II-infused rats and this response was prevented by clopidogrel (0.4 ± 0.2%) and PPADS. The increase in AAWT from 4.7 ± 0.1 to 6.0 ± 0.1 mm in ANG II rats was also prevented by clopidogrel (4.8 ± 0.1 mm) and PPADS. ANG II infusion led to interstitial macrophage infiltration (105 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 4 cell/mm2) and tubular proliferation (71 ± 15 vs. 20 ± 4 cell/mm2) and these effects were prevented by clopidogrel (52 ± 4 and 36 ± 3 cell/mm2) and PPADS. RIF ATP levels were higher in ANG II-infused rats than in control rats (11.8 ± 1.9 vs. 5.6 ± 0.6 nmol/l, P < 0.05). The results suggest that activation of vascular and glomerular purinergic P2 receptors may contribute to the mesangial cell transformation, renal inflammation, and vascular hypertrophy observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension. PMID:17989111

  8. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene disruption causes increased adrenal angiotensin II and aldosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Vellaichamy, Elangovan; Somanna, Naveen K; Pandey, Kailash N

    2007-07-01

    Disruption of the guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene leads to elevated arterial blood pressure and congestive heart failure in mice lacking NPRA. This study was aimed at determining whether Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene copy number affects adrenal ANG II and aldosterone (Aldo) levels in a gene-dose-dependent manner in Npr1 gene-targeted mice. Adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels increased in 1-copy mice compared with 2-copy mice, but decreased in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. In contrast, renal ANG II levels decreased in 1-copy (25%), 3-copy (38%), and 4-copy (39%) mice compared with 2-copy mice. The low-salt diet stimulated adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (20 and 2,441%), 2-copy (15 and 2,339%), 3-copy (20 and 424%), and 4-copy (31 and 486%) mice, respectively. The high-salt diet suppressed adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (46 and 29%) and 2-copy (38 and 17%) mice. On the other hand, the low-salt diet stimulated renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (45%), 2-copy (45%), 3-copy (59%), and 4-copy (48%) mice. However, the high-salt diet suppressed renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (28%) and 2-copy (27%) mice. In conclusion, NPRA signaling antagonizes adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in a gene-dose dependent manner. Increased adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels may play an important role in elevated arterial blood pressure and progressive hypertension, leading to renal and vascular injury in Npr1 gene-disrupted mice.

  9. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Quan-xing; Tan, Hong-wei; Guo, Meng; Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li

    2012-10-01

    The activation of transforming growth factor-{beta}1(TGF-{beta}1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis. However, whether TGF{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways involved in AngII-induced fibrogenetic factor expression remained unknown. Recently tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/TGF{beta}-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) has been shown to be crucial for the activation of TGF-{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression in cultured adult atrial fibroblasts. AngII (1 {mu}M) provoked the activation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). AngII (1 {mu}M) also promoted TGF{beta}1, TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which were suppressed by angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (Losartan) as well as p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Meanwhile, both TGF{beta}1 antibody and TRAF6 siRNA decreased the stimulatory effect of AngII on TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which also attenuated AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. In summary, the MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway is an important signaling pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression, and inhibition of TRAF6 may therefore represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced CTGF expression in atrial fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 may represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis.

  10. High sodium augments angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the ERK 1/2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Rahman, Asadur; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular injury is exacerbated by high-salt diets. This study examined the effects of high-sodium level on Ang II-induced cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The cells were cultured in a standard medium containing 137.5 mmol l(-1) of sodium. The high-sodium medium (140 mmol l(-1)) contained additional sodium chloride. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Ang II (100 nmol l(-1)) significantly increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation in the both medium containing standard sodium and high sodium. High-sodium level augmented Ang II-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation compared with standard sodium. Pre-treatment with candesartan (1 μmol l(-1), Ang II type 1 receptor blocker) or PD98095 (10 μmol l(-1), ERK kinase iinhibitor) abolished the proliferative effect induced by high sodium/Ang II. Pre-treatment with 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (30 μmol l(-1), Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (NHE-1) inhibitor), but not SN-6 (10 μmol l(-1), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor) or ouabain (1 mmol l(-1), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor) attenuated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Osmotic pressure or chloride had no effect on Ang II-induced proliferative changes. High-sodium level did not affect Ang II receptor expression. Ang II increased intracellular pH via NHE-1 activation, and high-sodium level augmented the pH increase induced by Ang II. These data suggest that high-sodium level directly augments Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through NHE-1- and ERK 1/2-dependent pathways and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vascular remodeling by high-sodium/Ang II.

  11. The role of mAKAPβ in the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huixin; Liu, Baoxin; Hou, Lei; The, Erlinda; Li, Gang; Wang, Dongzhi; Jie, Qiqiang; Che, Wenliang; Wei, Yidong

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the central product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this octapeptide contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. mAKAPβ is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that has the function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of mAKAPβ in AngII‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the possible mechanisms involved. Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were treated with AngII. Subsequently, the morphology of the cardiomyocytes was observed and the expression of mAKAPβ and cardiomyocyte hypertrophic markers was measured. mAKAPβ‑shRNA was constructed for RNA interference; the expression of mAKAPβ and hypertrophic markers, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate in the AngII‑treated rat cardiomyocytes were detected following RNA interference. Simultaneously, changes in the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)2 in the cardiomyocytes were assessed. The cell size of the AngII-treated cardiaomyocytes was significantly larger than that of the untreated cardiomyocytes. The expression of hypertrophic markers and p-ERK2, the cell surface area and the [3H]Leucine incorporation rate were all significantly increased in the AngII‑treated cells. However, the expression of mAKAPβ remained unaltered in this process. RNA interference simultaneously inhibited the protein expression of mAKAPβ and p‑ERK2, and the hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes induced by AngII was attenuated. These results demonstrate that AngII induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, and mAKAPβ is possibly involved in this process. The effects of mAKAPβ on AngII‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be associated with p-ERK2 expression.

  12. Increased angiotensin II contraction of the uterine artery at early gestation in a transgenic model of hypertensive pregnancy is reduced by inhibition of endocannabinoid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Victor M; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne M; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Howlett, Allyn C; Brosnihan, K Bridget

    2014-09-01

    Increased vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) is a marker of a hypertensive human pregnancy. Recent evidence of interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system suggests that anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol may modulate Ang II contraction. We hypothesized that these interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular responses in hypertensive pregnancy. We studied Ang II contraction in isolated uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in a rat model that mimics many features of preeclampsia, the transgenic human angiotensinogen×human renin (TgA), and control Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined the role of the cannabinoid receptor 1 by blockade with SR171416A, and the contribution of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol degradation to Ang II contraction by inhibiting their hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (with URB597) or monoacylglycerol lipase (with JZL184), respectively. TgA UA showed increased maximal contraction and sensitivity to Ang II that was inhibited by indomethacin. Fatty acid amide hydrolase blockade decreased Ang IIMAX in Sprague-Dawley UA, and decreased both Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Monoacylglycerol lipase blockade had no effect on Sprague-Dawley UA and decreased Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 in TgA UA had no effect. Immunolocalization of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase showed a similar pattern between groups; fatty acid amide hydrolase predominantly localized in endothelium and monoacylglycerol lipase in smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated an increased Ang II contraction in TgA UA before initiation of the hypertensive phenotype. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol reduced Ang II contraction in a cannabinoid receptor 1-independent manner. These renin-angiotensin system-endocannabinoid system interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular reactivity in early stages of hypertensive pregnancy. PMID

  13. Angiotensin II Reduces Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue via Phospholipase C β4 Depending on Feeding but Increases Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue via c-Src.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, high triglyceride (TG)- and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-levels, hypertension, and diabetes-all of which often cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It remains unclear, however, why visceral adiposity but not subcutaneous adiposity causes insulin resistance and other pathological situations. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes hydrolysis of TG in plasma lipoproteins. In the present study, we investigated whether the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on TG metabolism are mediated through an effect on LPL expression. Adipose tissues were divided into visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for comparison. AngII accelerated LPL expression in SAT but, on the contrary, suppressed its expression in VAT. In both SAT and VAT, AngII signaled through the same type 1 receptor. In SAT, AngII increased LPL expression via c-Src and p38 MAPK signaling. In VAT, however, AngII reduced LPL expression via the Gq class of G proteins and the subsequent phospholipase C β4 (PLCβ4), protein kinase C β1, nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. PLCβ4 small interfering RNA experiments showed that PLCβ4 expression is important for the AngII-induced LPL reduction in VAT, in which PLCβ4 expression increases in the evening and falls at night. Interestingly, PLCβ4 expression in VAT decreased with fasting, while AngII did not decrease LPL expression in VAT in a fasting state. In conclusion, AngII reduces LPL expression through PLCβ4, the expression of which is regulated by feeding in VAT, whereas AngII increases LPL expression in SAT. The different effects of AngII on LPL expression and, hence, TG metabolism in VAT and SAT may partly explain their different contributions to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26447765

  14. Angiotensin II Reduces Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue via Phospholipase C β4 Depending on Feeding but Increases Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue via c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, high triglyceride (TG)- and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-levels, hypertension, and diabetes—all of which often cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It remains unclear, however, why visceral adiposity but not subcutaneous adiposity causes insulin resistance and other pathological situations. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes hydrolysis of TG in plasma lipoproteins. In the present study, we investigated whether the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on TG metabolism are mediated through an effect on LPL expression. Adipose tissues were divided into visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for comparison. AngII accelerated LPL expression in SAT but, on the contrary, suppressed its expression in VAT. In both SAT and VAT, AngII signaled through the same type 1 receptor. In SAT, AngII increased LPL expression via c-Src and p38 MAPK signaling. In VAT, however, AngII reduced LPL expression via the Gq class of G proteins and the subsequent phospholipase C β4 (PLCβ4), protein kinase C β1, nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. PLCβ4 small interfering RNA experiments showed that PLCβ4 expression is important for the AngII-induced LPL reduction in VAT, in which PLCβ4 expression increases in the evening and falls at night. Interestingly, PLCβ4 expression in VAT decreased with fasting, while AngII did not decrease LPL expression in VAT in a fasting state. In conclusion, AngII reduces LPL expression through PLCβ4, the expression of which is regulated by feeding in VAT, whereas AngII increases LPL expression in SAT. The different effects of AngII on LPL expression and, hence, TG metabolism in VAT and SAT may partly explain their different contributions to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26447765

  15. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P < 0.001; n = 9). This concentration of Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) production by 50% (1.77 ± 0.26 vs. 2.62 ± 0.36 relative lights units (RLU)/s/μg protein; P < 0.04; n = 5). In the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) decreased from 2.02 ± 0.29 to 1.10 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein (P < 0.01; n = 8). L-arginine alone did not change Ang II-stimulated O2 (-) (2.34 ± 0.22 vs. 2.29 ± 0.29 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). In the presence of Ang II plus the PKC α/β1 inhibitor Gö 6976, L-NAME had no effect on O2 (-) production (0.78 ± 0.23 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 7). In the presence of Ang II plus apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, L-NAME did not change O2 (-) (0.59 ± 0.04 vs. 0.61 ± ×0.08 RLU/s/μg protein; n = 5). We conclude that: (1) Ang II causes NOS to produce O2 (-) in thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate.

  16. Humid heat exposure induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the angiotensin II signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowu; Yuan, Binbin; Dong, Wenpeng; Yang, Bo; Yang, Yongchao; Lin, Xi; Gong, Gu

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to humid heat stress leads to the initiation of serious physiological dysfunction that may result in heat-related diseases, including heat stroke, heat cramp, heat exhaustion, and even death. Increasing evidences have shown that the humid heat stress-induced dysfunction of the cardiovascular system was accompanied with severe cardiomyocyte injury; however, the precise mechanism of heat stress-induced injury of cardiomyocyte remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that humid heat stress promoted oxidative stress through the activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in cardiomyocytes. To test our hypothesis, we established mouse models of humid heat stress. Using the animal models, we found that Ang II levels in serum were significantly up-regulated and that the Ang II receptor AT1 was increased in cardiomyocytes. The antioxidant ability in plasma and heart tissues which was detected by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was also decreased with the increased ROS production under humid heat stress, as was the expression of antioxidant genes (SOD2, HO-1, GPx). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan, effectively relieved oxidative stress, blocked Ang II signaling pathway and suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by humid heat stress. In addition, overexpression of antioxidant genes reversed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by Ang II. Overall, these results implied that humid heat stress increased oxidative stress and caused apoptosis of cardiomyocytes through the Ang II signaling pathway. Thus, targeting the Ang II signaling pathway may provide a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused by humid heat stress.

  17. Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (Δ13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain.

  18. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (P<0.001), and 239.4±34.6 µm(3) (P<0.001) albumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function.

  19. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling via antioxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takumi; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Imanishi, Masaki; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Fujii, Shoko; Tominaga, Erika; Tsuneishi, Teppei; Horinouchi, Yuya; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Tomita, Shuhei; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Minakuchi, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nifedipine is unstable under light and decomposes to a stable nitroso analog, nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF). The ability of NO-NIF to block calcium channels is quite weak compared with that of nifedipine. Recently, we have demonstrated that NO-NIF reacts with unsaturated fatty acid leading to generate NO-NIF radical, which acquires radical scavenging activity. However, the effects of NO-NIF on the pathogenesis related with oxidative stress, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO-NIF on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular remodeling. Ang II-induced thickening and fibrosis of aorta were inhibited by NO-NIF in mice. NO-NIF decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aorta and urinary 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine. Ang II-stimulated mRNA expressions of p22(phox), CD68, F4/80, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and collagen I in the aorta were inhibited by NO-NIF. Moreover, NO-NIF inhibited Ang II-induced cell migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). NO-NIF reduced Ang II-induced ROS to the control level detected by dihydroethidium staining and lucigenin chemiluminescence assay in VSMCs. NO-NIF suppressed phosphorylations of Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor induced by Ang II. However, NO-NIF had no effects on intracellular Ca(2+) increase and protein kinase C-δ phosphorylation induced by Ang II in VSMCs. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated the continuous generation of NO-NIF radical of reaction with cultured VSMCs. These findings suggest that NO-NIF improves Ang II-induced vascular remodeling via the attenuation of oxidative stress.

  20. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Protective effects of diltiazem against vascular endothelial cell injury induced by angiotensin-II and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Minggao; Li, Jing; Meng, Guo; Liu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    To provide pharmacological data for future clinical studies, this study investigated the protective effects of diltiazem on vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury induced by angiotensin-II (AngII), hypoxia, and a combination of both treatments. The concentration of intracellular free calcium and the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC were assessed as indicators of cell injury. An in vivo hypoxic animal model was used to test the protective effect of diltiazem on vascular endothelial tissues. Our study showed that AngII and hypoxia decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in VEC, which was significantly inhibited by diltiazem. Diltiazem protected against VEC injury induced by the increased concentration of intracellular free calcium, which was associated with AngII and hypoxia. Diltiazem reduced the apoptosis of rat VEC under a sustained hypoxic condition. In addition, it reduced AngII and endothelin I levels in rat vascular endothelial tissues. Our study confirmed that AngII and hypoxia induced VEC injury by regulating the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular free calcium. Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, protected VEC from AngII- and hypoxia-induced injury. PMID:25661249

  2. Improving vagal activity ameliorates cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II: in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ning; Lu, Yi; Zhao, Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yong-hua; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is characterized by overactivity of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and withdrawal of vagal activity. We hypothesized that improving vagal activity could attenuate cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) with or without pyridostigmine (PYR) (31 mg/kg/d). After 8 weeks, PYR significantly decreased Ang II level, AT1 protein expression, and collagen deposition in cardiac tissue and improved heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac function, which were abolished by atropine. In vitro, treatment of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II (10−7 M) increased cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and secretory properties, which were significantly diminished by acetylcholine (ACh, 10−6 M). Subsequently, Ang II significantly increased collagen type I expression as well as metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and activity. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation presented a similar trend. Notably, the knockdown of the acetylcholine M2 receptor by siRNA could abolish ACh anti-fibrotic action. These data implicated cholinesterase inhibitor can increase vagal activity and reduce local Ang II level, and ACh inhibit Ang II pro-fibrotic effects. Our findings suggested that the parasympathetic nervous system can serve as a promising target for cardiac remodeling treatment. PMID:26596640

  3. Identification of an essential signaling cascade for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by angiotensin II in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Possible requirement of Gq-mediated p21ras activation coupled to a Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, S; Matsumoto, T; Motley, E D; Utsunomiya, H; Inagami, T

    1996-06-14

    In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II (Ang II) induced a rapid increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity through the Ang II type 1 receptor, which was insensitive to pertussis toxin but was abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122. The Ang II-induced MAPK activation was not affected by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X, and was only partially impaired by pretreatment with a phorbol ester, whereas both treatments completely prevented MAPK activation by the phorbol ester. Intracellular Ca2+ chelation by TMB-8, but not extracellular Ca2+ chelation or inhibition of Ca2+ influx, abolished Ang II-induced MAPK activation. The calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, completely blocked MAPK activation by Ang II as well as by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ang II caused a rapid increase in the binding of GTP to p21(ras), and this was inhibited by genistein, TMB-8, and calmidazolium but not by pertussis toxin or GF109203X. These data suggest that Ang II-induced MAPK activation through the Ang II type 1 receptor could be mediated by p21(ras)activation through a currently unidentified tyrosine kinase that lies downstream of Gq-coupled Ca2+/calmodulin signals.

  4. [The expression of BmK AngM1 in Mut(s) and Mut(+) recombinants of Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-hua; Liang, Lan; Chen, Jing-jing; Gong, Ting; Hou, Qi; Yang, Jin-ling; Zhu, Ping

    2015-07-01

    BmK AngM1 is a long-chain scorpion toxin purified from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch. It has been reported to exhibit evident analgesic effect and low toxicity, and has the potential to be a novel analgesic drug. The BmKAngM1 gene was transformed into Pichiapastoris GS115. Mut+ and Mut(s) recombinant strains were screened by phenotype and Mut+ recombinant strains were used to detect BmK AngMl gene copy number in the real-time PCR. Expression of BmK AngM1 in the Mut+ recombinant strain was compared with that of the Mut(s) recombinant strain with the same single copy of BmK AngM1 gene under the same condition. The results indicated that the transcription level of BmK AngM1 gene in the Mut(s) recombinant strain was 2.7 fold of that in the Mut recombinant strain in the real-time PCR, and the expression of BmK AngM 1 in the Mut(s) recombinant strain was 1.5 fold of that in the Mut+ recombinant strain. Therefore, Mut(s) recombinant strain showed better ability to express BmK AngM1 than Mut+ recombinant strain. PMID:26552156

  5. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang–actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo (“wild-type”, wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein–copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1–17) and AcAng(1–17), which encompass the sequence 1–17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH2), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides. PMID:27490533

  6. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Renita E.; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics. PMID:26808388

  7. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip.

    PubMed

    Horton, Renita E; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Pasqualini, Francesco S; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics.

  8. Angiotensin II promotes differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to smooth muscle cells through PI3-kinase signaling pathway and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoye; Wu, Yutao; Zhu, Liangfeng; Chen, Qishan; Zhou, Yijiang; Yan, Hui; Chen, Ting; Xiao, Qingzhong; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells), the pluripotent derivatives of the inner cell mass from blastocysts, have the capacity for unlimited growth, self-renewal and differentiation toward all types of somatic cells. Angiotensin II (Ang II), the most important effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, is also an angiogenesis factor. However, the potential impact of Ang II on ES cell differentiation is still unknown. In the present study, we have successfully induced the differentiation of ES cells into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on collagen IV. Interestingly, incubation of ES cells with Ang II further promoted SMC differentiation from ES cells, which was abolished by prior treatment with Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan, but not Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist PD123319. Moreover, we found that, in parallel with SMC specific-marker induction, the expression levels of phosphoAkt and NF-Kappa B (NF-κB) p50 were up-regulated by Ang II. Importantly, addition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 led to a marked inhibition of Ang II induced SMC specific markers, phosphoAkt and NF-κB p50 expression. Furthermore, NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 can inhibit Ang II induced expression of SMC specific markers. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that Ang II plays a promotive role in the stage of ES cell differentiation to SMCs through AT1 receptor. We further confirmed that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and NF-κB play key roles in this process.

  9. Exendin-4 Prevents Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Angiotensin II via the Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Kosuke; Kyotani, Yoji; Zhao, Jing; Ito, Satoyasu; Ozawa, Kentaro; Bolstad, Francesco A.; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a main pathophysiological culprit peptide for hypertension and atherosclerosis by causing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is currently used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, and is believed to have beneficial effects for cardiovascular diseases. However, the vascular protective mechanisms of GLP-1 receptor agonists remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we examined the effect of exendin-4 on Ang II-induced proliferation and migration of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). The major findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Ang II caused a phenotypic switch of RASMC from contractile type to synthetic proliferative type cells; (2) Ang II caused concentration-dependent RASMC proliferation, which was significantly inhibited by the pretreatment with exendin-4; (3) Ang II caused concentration-dependent RASMC migration, which was effectively inhibited by the pretreatment with exendin-4; (4) exendin-4 inhibited Ang II-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in a pre-incubation time-dependent manner; and (5) U0126 (an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) also inhibited both RASMC proliferation and migration induced by Ang II stimulation. These results suggest that exendin-4 prevented Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation caused by Ang II stimulation. This indicates that GLP-1 receptor agonists should be considered for use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in addition to their current use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26379274

  10. Angiotensin II modulates the cardiovascular responses to microinjection of NPY Y1 and NPY Y2 receptor agonists into the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Fuxe, Kjell; Coveñas, Rafael; González-Barón, Salvador; Narváez, José A

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the modulation of the cardiovascular effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) by angiotensin II (Ang II) and to determine the NPY receptor subtype involved in this modulation. Anesthesized Sprague-Dawley rats received microinjections in the NTS of Ang II (threshold and ED(50) doses) with NPY Y(1) agonist Leu(31)Pro(34)NPY and NPY Y(2) agonist NPY(13-36) (threshold and ED(50) doses). The changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) recorded in the femoral artery were analyzed during 60 min after the microinjections. The injection of threshold doses of Ang II, Y(1) agonist or Y(2) agonist alone did not produce any change in cardiovascular parameters. However, the co-injections into the NTS of threshold doses of both Ang II and the Y(1) agonist elicited significant increases of MAP and HR of about 12 and 10%, respectively. The co-administration of threshold doses of Ang II with the Y(2) agonist also induced a significant vasopressor response. The vasodepressor and bradycardiac effect of an ED(50) dose of the Y(1) agonist was significantly counteracted (P<0.01) by a threshold dose of Ang II. The vasopressor effect elicited by an ED(50) dose of the Y(2) agonist was significantly enhanced by a threshold dose of Ang II (P<0.01). No significant change of cardiovascular responses elicited by an ED(50) dose of Ang II was observed in the presence of threshold doses of the Y(1) agonist or of the Y(2) agonist. The present study gives functional evidences for a differential modulatory activity of Ang II on the cardiovascular responses mediated by Y(1) and Y(2) receptor subtypes, which may be of relevance for central cardiovascular regulation in the NTS.

  11. Interaction between Angiotensin II and Insulin/IGF-1 Exerted a Synergistic Stimulatory Effect on ERK1/2 Activation in Adrenocortical Carcinoma H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, An-li; Wang, Fen; Cui, Yun-ying; Li, Chun-yan; Li, Yu-xiu

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk between angiotensin II (Ang II) and insulin has been described mainly in cardiovascular cells, hepatocytes, adipocytes, and so forth, and to date no such cross talk was reported in adrenal. In this study, we examined the interaction between Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 in ERK and AKT signaling pathways and expression of steroidogenic enzymes in H295R cells. Compared to the control, 100 nM Ang II increased phospho-ERK1/2 approximately 3-fold. Insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) alone raised phospho-ERK1/2 1.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively, while, after pretreatment with 100 nM Ang II for 30 min, insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) elevated phospho-ERK1/2 level 8- and 7-fold, respectively. The synergistic effect of Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 on ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by selective AT1 receptor blocker, PKC inhibitor, and MEK1/2 inhibitor. Ang II marginally suppressed AKT activation under the basal condition, while it had no effect on phospho-AKT induced by insulin/IGF-1. Ang II significantly stimulated mRNA expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and such stimulatory effects were enhanced when cells were cotreated with insulin/IGF-1. We are led to conclude that Ang II in combination with insulin/IGF-1 had an evident synergistic stimulatory effect on ERK1/2 activation in H295R cells and the effect may be responsible for the enhanced steroid hormone production induced by Ang II plus insulin/IGF-1. PMID:27293433

  12. G protein coupling and second messenger generation are indispensable for metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor shedding through angiotensin II type-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Mizuo; Ohtsu, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hidekatsu; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J; Frank, Gerald D; Inagami, Tadashi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Thomas, Walter G; Eckhart, Andrea D; Dempsey, Peter J; Eguchi, Satoru

    2005-07-15

    A G protein-coupled receptor agonist, angiotensin II (AngII), induces epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) transactivation possibly through metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) shedding. Here, we have investigated signal transduction of this process by using COS7 cells expressing an AngII receptor, AT1. In these cells AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was completely inhibited by pretreatment with a selective HB-EGF inhibitor, or with a metalloprotease inhibitor. We also developed a COS7 cell line permanently expressing a HB-EGF construct tagged with alkaline phosphatase, which enabled us to measure HB-EGF shedding quantitatively. In the COS7 cell line AngII stimulated release of HB-EGF. This effect was mimicked by treatment either with a phospholipase C activator, a Ca2+ ionophore, a metalloprotease activator, or H2O2. Conversely, pretreatment with an intracellular Ca2+ antagonist or an antioxidant blocked AngII-induced HB-EGF shedding. Moreover, infection of an adenovirus encoding an inhibitor of G(q) markedly reduced EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF shedding through AT1. In this regard, AngII-stimulated HB-EGF shedding was abolished in an AT1 mutant that lacks G(q) protein coupling. However, in cells expressing AT1 mutants that retain G(q) protein coupling, AngII is still able to induce HB-EGF shedding. Finally, the AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was attenuated in COS7 cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of ADAM17. From these data we conclude that AngII stimulates a metalloprotease ADAM17-dependent HB-EGF shedding through AT1/G(q)/phospholipase C-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species production, representing a key mechanism indispensable for EGFR transactivation.

  13. Acute repeated intracerebroventricular injections of angiotensin II reduce agonist and antagonist radioligand binding in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and median preoptic nucleus in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Speth, Robert C; Vento, Peter J; Carrera, Eduardo J; Gonzalez-Reily, Luz; Linares, Andrea; Santos, Kira; Swindle, Jamala D; Daniels, Derek

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates water and saline intakes when injected into the brain of rats. This arises from activation of the AT1 Ang II receptor subtype. Acute repeated injections, however, decrease the water intake response to Ang II without affecting saline intake. Previous studies provide evidence that Ang II-induced water intake is mediated via the classical G protein coupling pathway, whereas the saline intake caused by Ang II is mediated by an ERK 1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway. Accordingly, the different behavioral response to repeated injections of Ang II may reflect a selective effect on G protein coupling. To test this hypothesis, we examined the binding of a radiolabeled agonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1) Ang II) and a radiolabeled antagonist ((125)I-sarcosine(1), isoleucine(8) Ang II) in brain homogenates and tissue sections prepared from rats given repeated injections of Ang II or vehicle. Although no treatment-related differences were found in hypothalamic homogenates, a focus on specific brain structures using receptor autoradiography, found that the desensitization treatment reduced binding of both radioligands in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), but not in the subfornical organ (SFO). Because G protein coupling is reported to have a selective effect on agonist binding without affecting antagonist binding, these findings do not support a G protein uncoupling treatment effect. This suggests that receptor number is more critical to the water intake response than the saline intake response, or that pathways downstream from the G protein mediate desensitization of the water intake response.

  14. Plasma Ang2 and ADAM17 levels are elevated during clinical malaria; Ang2 level correlates with severity and expression of EPCR-binding PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jens E. V.; Mkumbaye, Sixbert I.; Vaaben, Anna V.; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Lyimo, Eric; Kavishe, Reginald A.; Mwakalinga, Steven B.; Mosha, Jacklin; Minja, Daniel T. R.; Lusingu, John P. A.; Theander, Thor G.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Wang, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria involves a complex interplay between parasite adhesion and inflammatory response that includes release of cytokines and activation of the endothelium with accompanying release of Angiopoitin 2 (Ang2) to the plasma. A-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is a protein responsible for releasing cytokines, including Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), and shedding of adhesion proteins. In this study, we show that plasma levels of ADAM17 are increased in Tanzanian children hospitalized with a malaria infection compared with asymptomatic children but similar to children hospitalized with other infectious diseases. The plasma levels of ADAM17 decreased during recovery after an acute malaria episode. Plasma levels of Ang2 were associated with markers of malaria severity and levels of var transcripts encoding P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) containing Cysteine Rich Inter Domain Region α1 (CIDRα1) domains predicted to bind Endothelial Protein C receptor (EPCR). ADAM17 levels were not associated with expression of var genes encoding different PfEMP1 types when controlling for age. These data are the first to report ADAM17 plasma levels in malaria-exposed individuals, and support the notion that parasite sequestration mediated by EPCR-binding PfEMP1 is associated with endothelial activation and pathology in severe paediatric malaria. PMID:27784899

  15. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  16. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, Adebowale Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  17. Klotho inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/beta catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangzhu; Meng, Wei; Ding, Jieqiong; Cheng, Menglin

    2016-04-29

    Myocardial hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. The antiaging protein klotho reportedly possesses a protective role in cardiac diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of klotho remain unknown. This study was aimed to determine the effects of klotho on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the possible mechanism of actions. We found that klotho significantly inhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased [(3)H]-Leucine incorporation, cardiomyocyte surface area and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expression. Meanwhile, klotho inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased protein expression of active β-catenin, downregulated protein and mRNA expression of the β-catenin target genes c-myc and cyclin D1, and increased β-catenin phosphorylation. Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by the specific inhibitor XAV939 markedly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The further study revealed that klotho treatment significantly downregulated protein expression of Ang II receptor type I (AT1R) but not type II (AT2R). The AT1R antagonist losartan inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that klotho inhibits Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the protective effects of klotho in heart diseases, and raise the possibility that klotho may act as an endogenous antihypertrophic factor by inhibiting the Ang II signaling pathway. PMID:26970306

  18. Mercury transit at the rotonda of Santa Maria degli Angeli on May 9th 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas Cardona, Salvador; Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Image quality simulations were made for a Mercury image on the solar disc for the sun position on the sky respect the Summer lens of the "Divinità in Luce" glasswork at Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. It is shown the image quality of the lens will be enough to show the Mercury shadow on the solar disc but only for the first 30 minutes from the transit's first contact.

  19. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca(2+)]i chelator; KN-93, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca(2+)]i-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. PMID:24662198

  20. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Increases Arginase Activity and Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction in Corpora Cavernosa from Angiotensin-II Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toque, Haroldo A.; Romero, Maritza J.; Tostes, Rita C.; Shatanawi, Alia; Chandra, Surabhi; Carneiro, Zidonia N.; Inscho, Edward W.; Webb, R. Clinton; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Caldwell, R. William

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Angiotensin II (AngII) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and elevates arginase activity in endothelial cells. Upregulation of arginase activity has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction by reducing NO bioavailability. However, signaling pathways activated by AngII in the penis are largely unknown. Aim We hypothesized that activation of p38 MAPK increases arginase activity and thus impairs penile vascular function in AngII-treated mice. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing saline or AngII (42 μg/kg/h) for 14 days and co-treated with p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB 203580 (5 μg/kg/day), beginning 2 days before minipump implantation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured. Corpus cavernosum (CC) tissue was used for vascular functional studies and protein expression levels of p38 MAPK, arginase and constitutive NOS, and arginase activity. Main Outcome Measures Arginase expression and activity; expression of phospho-p38 MAPK, -eNOS and nNOS proteins; endothelium-dependent and nitrergic nerve-mediated relaxations were determined in CC from control and AngII-infused mice. Results AngII increased SBP (22%) and increased CC arginase activity and expression (~2-fold), and phosphorylated P38 MAPK levels (30%) over control. Treatment with SB 203580 prevented these effects. Endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced by AngII and this effect was prevented by SB 203580 (P<0.01). AngII (2-week) did not alter nitrergic function. However, SB 203580 significantly increased nitrergic relaxation in both control and AngII tissue at lower frequencies. Maximum contractile responses for phenylephrine and electrical field stimulation were increased by AngII (56% and 171%, respectively), and attenuated by SB 203580 treated. AngII treatment also decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 compared to control. Treatment with SB 203580 prevented all these changes. Conclusion p38

  1. Reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria mediate angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ching; Pan, Zih-Cian; Cheng, Hui-Pin; Liu, Chen-Hsiu; Lin, Bor-Tyng; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence has emerged as an important player in both physiology and pathology. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to mediate cellular senescence. NADPH oxidases are major sources for ROS production in the vascular wall; the roles of different NADPH oxidase isoforms in cellular senescence remain unclear, however. We investigated the roles of two NADPH oxidase isoforms in mitochondrial dysfunction during angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cellular senescence of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Ang II (10(-7)M) stimulated ROS generation, exhibiting early increases between 30 and 60min and sustained increases between 24h and 72h, and induced VSMCs senescence after 48h or 72h treatment as assessed with senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of two cell cycle inhibitors, p21 and p16. ROS scavengers and membrane-permeable catalase (catalase-PEG) reduced Ang II-stimulated cellular senescence. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit Nox1, but not that of another isoform Nox4, inhibited Ang II-induced cellular senescence. Nox1 siRNA inhibited both early and sustained ROS increases induced by Ang II. In addition, a mitochondrial-specific antioxidant, mitoQ10, effectively inhibited Ang II-induced ROS increases and cellular senescence. Ang II decreased ATP synthesis and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which were attenuated by pre-treating cells with Nox1 siRNA, mitoQ10 or catalase-PEG. The effect of Ang II on the mitochondrial regulator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream genes was examined. Ang II stimulated S570 phosphorylation of PGC-1α with concomitant decreases in catalase and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) levels between 12h and 72h, which were inhibited by Nox1 siRNA. Knockdown of both catalase and UCP-2 mimicked Ang II-induced VSMC senescence. These results suggested that Ang II-stimulated Nox1

  2. Fibulin-2 is essential for angiotensin II-induced myocardial fibrosis mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaukat A; Dong, Hailong; Joyce, Jennifer; Sasaki, Takako; Chu, Mon-Li; Tsuda, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Fibrosis is an ominous pathological process in failing myocardium, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We recently reported that loss of an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, fibulin-2, protected against ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in association with absence of activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling and suppressed upregulation of ECM protein expression during myocardial remodeling. Here we investigated the role of fibulin-2 in the development of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by continuous pressor-dosage of angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Both wild type (WT) and fibulin-2 null (Fbln2KO) mice developed comparable hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy by Ang II infusion. However, myocardial fibrosis with significant upregulation of collagen type I and III mRNA was only seen in WT but not in Fbln2KO mice.Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA and its downstream signal, Smad2, were significantly upregulated in WT by Ang II, whereas there were no Ang II-induced changes in Flbn2KO, suggesting fibulin-2 is necessary for Ang II-induced TGF-β signaling that induces myocardial fibrosis. To test whether fibulin-2 is sufficient for Ang II-induced TGF-β upregulation, isolated Flbn2KO cardiac fibroblasts were treated with Ang II after transfecting with fibulin-2 expression vector or pretreating with recombinant fibulin-2 protein. Ang II-induced TGF-β signaling in Fbln2KO cells was partially rescued by exogenous fibulin-2, suggesting that fibulin-2 is required and probably sufficient for Ang II-induced TGF-β activation. Smad2 phosphorylation was induced just by adding recombinant fibulin-2 to KO cells, suggesting that extracellular interaction between fibulin-2 and latent TGF-β triggered initial TGF-β activation. Our study indicates that Ang II cannot induce TGF-β activation without fibulin-2 and that fibulin-2 has an essential role in Ang II-induced TGF-β signaling and subsequent myocardial

  3. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  4. Preventive effect of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on angiotensin II-induced hypertension via an increased nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byeong Hyeok; Lee, Seung Jin; Choi, Young Whan; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2015-03-01

    Gomisin J (GJ) is a small molecular weight lignan found in Schisandra chinensis and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of GJ on blood pressure (BP) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive mice. In addition, we determined the relative potencies of gomisin A (GA) and GJ with respect to vasodilatory activity and antihypertensive effects. C57/BL6 mice infused s.c. with Ang II (2 μg kg(-1) min(-1) for 2 weeks) showed an increase in BP and a decrease in plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. In the thoracic aortas of Ang II-induced hypertensive mice, a decrease in vascular NO was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, these alterations in BP, plasma concentrations of NO metabolites and in the vascular productions of NO and ROS in Ang II-treated mice were reversed by the co-administration of GJ (1 and 3 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). In in vitro studies, Ang II decreased the cellular concentration of NO, which was accompanied by a reduction in phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in ROS production. These eNOS phosphorylation and ROS production changes in Ang II-treated cells were also reversed by GJ pretreatment (0-3 μg ml(-1)). Interestingly, the vasodilatory and antihypertensive effects of GJ were more prominent than those of GA. Collectively, an increase in BP in mice treated with Ang II was markedly attenuated by GJ, which was attributed to the preservations of vascular NO bioavailability and eNOS function, and to the inhibition of ROS production in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice.

  5. Angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cultured murine proximal tubular cells is mediated by endogenous transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, G; Mueller, E; Stahl, R A; Ziyadeh, F N

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that angiotensin II (ANG II), as a single factor in serum-free medium, induces cellular hypertrophy of a cultured murine proximal tubular cell line (MCT). The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that this growth effect was mediated by activation of endogenous transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Exogenous TGF-beta 1 (1 ng/ml) mimicked the growth effects observed with 10(-8) M ANG II (inhibition of DNA synthesis and induction of cellular hypertrophy). A neutralizing anti-TGF-beta antibody attenuated the ANG II-induced increase in de novo protein and total RNA synthesis as well as total protein content. This antibody also abolished the ANG II-mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into quiescent MCT cells. Control IgG or an unrelated antibody had no effect. A bioassay for TGF-beta using mink lung epithelial cells revealed that MCT cells treated with ANG II released active TGF-beta into the cell culture supernatant. Northern blot analysis and semi-quantitative cDNA amplification demonstrated increases in steady-state levels for TGF-beta 1 mRNA after ANG II stimulation of MCT cells, but not in a syngeneic murine mesangial cell line. Our data indicate that the ANG II-induced hypertrophy in MCT cells is mediated by synthesis and activation of endogenous TGF-beta. It is intriguing to speculate that TGF-beta may play a role in the early tubular cell hypertrophy and the subsequent interstitial scarring observed in several models of chronic renal injury that are characterized by increased activity of intrarenal ANG II. Images PMID:7690779

  6. Gene silencing of endothelial von Willebrand Factor attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dushpanova, Anar; Agostini, Silvia; Ciofini, Enrica; Cabiati, Manuela; Casieri, Valentina; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Clerico, Aldo; Berti, Sergio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Since von Willebrand Factor (vWF) blockade improves endothelial function in coronary patients, we hypothesized that targeting endothelial vWF with short interference RNA (siRNA) prevents Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation. Nearly 65 ± 2% silencing of vWF in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) was achieved with vWF-specific siRNA without affecting cell viability and growth. While showing ET-1 similar to wild type cells at rest, vWF-silenced cells did not present ET-1 upregulation during exposure to Ang II (100 nM/24 h), preserving levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity similar to wild type. vWF silencing prevented AngII-induced increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity and superoxide anion (O2−) levels, known triggers of ET-1 expression. Moreover, no increase in O2− or ET-1 levels was found in silenced cells treated with AngII or NOX-agonist phorbol ester (PMA 5 nM/48 h). Finally, vWF was required for overexpression of NOX4 and NOX2 in response to AngII and PMA. In conclusion, endothelial vWF knockdown prevented Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation through attenuation of NOX-mediated O2− production. Our findings reveal a new role of vWF in preventing of Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27443965

  7. Angiotensin II induces membrane trafficking of natively expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels in hypothalamic 4B cells.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashwini; Bachelor, Martha; Park, Yong H; Carreno, Flavia R; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 4 (TRPV4) channels are expressed in central neuroendocrine neurons and have been shown to be polymodal in other systems. We previously reported that in the rodent, a model of dilutional hyponatremia associated with hepatic cirrhosis, TRPV4 expression is increased in lipid rafts from the hypothalamus and that this effect may be angiotensin dependent. In this study, we utilized the immortalized neuroendocrine rat hypothalamic 4B cell line to more directly test the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) on TRPV4 expression and function. Our results demonstrate the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) transcripts, for sex-determining region Y (SRY) (male genotype), arginine vasopressin (AVP), TRPV4, and ANG II type 1a and 1b receptor in 4B cells. After a 1-h incubation in ANG II (100 nM), 4B cells showed increased TRPV4 abundance in the plasma membrane fraction, and this effect was prevented by the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (1 μM) and by a Src kinase inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Ratiometric calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that ANG II incubation potentiated TRPV4 agonist (GSK 1016790A, 20 nM)-induced calcium influx (control 18.4 ± 2.8% n = 5 and ANG II 80.5 ± 2.4% n = 5). This ANG II-induced increase in calcium influx was also blocked by 1 μM losartan and 10 μM PP2 (losartan 26.4 ± 3.8% n = 5 and PP2 19.7 ± 3.9% n = 5). Our data suggests that ANG II can increase TRPV4 channel membrane expression in 4B cells through its action on AT1R involving a Src kinase pathway. PMID:25080500

  8. Disruption of the cytochrome P-450 1B1 gene exacerbates renal dysfunction and damage associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in female mice.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brett L; Moore, Joseph A; Pingili, Ajeeth K; Estes, Anne M; Fang, Xiao R; Kanu, Alie; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in female mice that protection against ANG II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes depend on cytochrome P-450 (CYP)1B1. The present study was conducted to determine if Cyp1b1 gene disruption ameliorates renal dysfunction and organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension in female mice. ANG II (700 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) infused by miniosmotic pumps for 2 wk in female Cyp1b1(+/+) mice did not alter water consumption, urine output, Na(+) excretion, osmolality, or protein excretion. However, in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice, ANG II infusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) water intake (5.50 ± 0.42 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 8.80 ± 0.60 ml/24 h with ANG II), urine output (1.44 ± 0.37 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 4.30 ± 0.37 ml/24 h with ANG II), and urinary Na(+) excretion (0.031 ± 0.016 mmol/24 h with vehicle vs. 0.099 ± 0.010 mmol/24 h with ANG II), decreased osmolality (2,630 ± 79 mosM/kg with vehicle vs. 1,280 ± 205 mosM/kg with ANG II), and caused proteinuria (2.60 ± 0.30 mg/24 h with vehicle vs. 6.96 ± 0.55 mg/24 h with ANG II). Infusion of ANG II caused renal fibrosis, as indicated by an accumulation of renal interstitial α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and transforming growth factor-β in Cyp1b1(-/-) but not Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. ANG II also increased renal production of ROS and urinary excretion of thiobarburic acid-reactive substances and reduced the activity of antioxidants and urinary excretion of nitrite/nitrate and the 17β-estradiol metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol in Cyp1b1(-/-) but not Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. These data suggest that Cyp1b1 plays a critical role in female mice in protecting against renal dysfunction and end-organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension, in preventing oxidative stress, and in increasing activity of antioxidant systems, most likely via generation of 2-methoxyestradiol from 17β-estradiol.

  9. Disruption of the cytochrome P-450 1B1 gene exacerbates renal dysfunction and damage associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Brett L.; Moore, Joseph A.; Pingili, Ajeeth K.; Estes, Anne M.; Fang, Xiao R.; Kanu, Alie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in female mice that protection against ANG II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes depend on cytochrome P-450 (CYP)1B1. The present study was conducted to determine if Cyp1b1 gene disruption ameliorates renal dysfunction and organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension in female mice. ANG II (700 ng·kg−1·min−1) infused by miniosmotic pumps for 2 wk in female Cyp1b1+/+ mice did not alter water consumption, urine output, Na+ excretion, osmolality, or protein excretion. However, in Cyp1b1−/− mice, ANG II infusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) water intake (5.50 ± 0.42 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 8.80 ± 0.60 ml/24 h with ANG II), urine output (1.44 ± 0.37 ml/24 h with vehicle vs. 4.30 ± 0.37 ml/24 h with ANG II), and urinary Na+ excretion (0.031 ± 0.016 mmol/24 h with vehicle vs. 0.099 ± 0.010 mmol/24 h with ANG II), decreased osmolality (2,630 ± 79 mosM/kg with vehicle vs. 1,280 ± 205 mosM/kg with ANG II), and caused proteinuria (2.60 ± 0.30 mg/24 h with vehicle vs. 6.96 ± 0.55 mg/24 h with ANG II). Infusion of ANG II caused renal fibrosis, as indicated by an accumulation of renal interstitial α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and transforming growth factor-β in Cyp1b1−/− but not Cyp1b1+/+ mice. ANG II also increased renal production of ROS and urinary excretion of thiobarburic acid-reactive substances and reduced the activity of antioxidants and urinary excretion of nitrite/nitrate and the 17β-estradiol metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol in Cyp1b1−/− but not Cyp1b1+/+ mice. These data suggest that Cyp1b1 plays a critical role in female mice in protecting against renal dysfunction and end-organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension, in preventing oxidative stress, and in increasing activity of antioxidant systems, most likely via generation of 2-methoxyestradiol from 17β-estradiol. PMID:25694484

  10. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  11. Inhibitory effect of reinioside C on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ENK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dan; Bai, Yong-Ping; Shi, Rui-Zheng; Tan, Gui-Shan; Hu, Chang-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, the effect of reinioside C, a main active ingredient of Polygala fallax Hemsl, on proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II was investigated. It was found that Ang II (1 microM) markedly stimulated proliferation of VSMCs. Pretreatment of reinioside C (3, 10 or 30 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferative effect of Ang II. To determine the possible mechanism, NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox-1, Nox-4) mRNA expression, intracellular ROS level, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, NF-kappaB activity, and mRNA expression of AP-1 subunits (c-fos, c-jun) and c-myc were measured. The results demonstrated that reinioside C attenuated Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase mRNA expression, generation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, activation of NF-kappaB, and mRNA expression of AP-1 and c-myc in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of Ang II were also inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor), PD98059 (the ERK1/2 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, the NF-kappaB inhibitor). These results suggest reinioside C attenuates Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMCs by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ERK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway. PMID:25272943

  12. Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates angiotensin II-induced lipid raft clustering in mesenteric endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei-Qing; Chen, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that intracellular Ca2+ is involved in lysosome fusion and membrane repair in skeletal cells. Given that angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and that lysosome fusion is a crucial mediator of lipid raft (LR) clustering, we hypothesized that Ang II induces lysosome fusion and activates LR formation in rat mesenteric endothelial cells (MECs). We found that Ang II acutely increased intracellular Ca2+ content, an effect that was inhibited by the extracellular Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca2+ release inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Further study showed that EGTA almost completely blocked Ang II-induced lysosome fusion, the translocation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) to LR clusters, ASMase activation and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activation. In contrast, 2-APB had a slight inhibitory effect. Functionally, both the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and the ASMase inhibitor amitriptyline reversed Ang II-induced impairment of vasodilation. We conclude that Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates the Ang II-induced regulation of the LR-redox signaling pathway and mesenteric endothelial dysfunction.

  13. Atorvastatin inhibits the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by angiotensin II via the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Ye, Ning; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Zhao; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate lysosomes-mitochondria cross-signaling in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether atorvastatin played a protective role via lysosomal-mitochondrial axis. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 and AO/EB assay. The temporal relationship of lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization was established. Activity of Cathepsin D (CTSD) was suppressed by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Proteins production were measured by western blotting. Our study showed that Ang II could induce the apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-depended and time-depended manner. Exposure to 1 μM Ang II for 24 h resulted in mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increased ROS production. Lysosomal permeabilization and CTSD redistribution into the cytoplasm occurred several hours prior to mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects were all suppressed by atorvastatin. Either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CTSD preserved mitochondrial function and decreased apoptosis in HUVECs. Most importantly, we found that the protective effect of atorvastatin was significantly greater than pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CTSD. Finally, overexpression of CTSD without exposure to Ang II had no effect on mitochondrial function and apoptosis. Our data strongly suggested that Ang II induced apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HUVECs. Furthermore, atorvastatin played an important role in the regulation of lysosomes and mitochondria stability, resulting in an antagonistic role against Ang II on HUVECs. PMID:27394920

  14. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  15. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  16. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production in the thick ascending limb by activating NOX4

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nancy J.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulates production of superoxide (O2−) by NADPH oxidase (NOX) in medullary thick ascending limbs (TALs). There are three isoforms of the catalytic subunit (NOX1, 2, and 4) known to be expressed in the kidney. We hypothesized that NOX2 mediates ANG II-induced O2− production by TALs. To test this, we measured NOX1, 2, and 4 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blot in TAL suspensions from rats and found three catalytic subunits expressed in the TAL. We measured O2− production using a lucigenin-based assay. To assess the contribution of NOX2, we measured ANG II-induced O2− production in wild-type and NOX2 knockout mice (KO). ANG II increased O2− production by 346 relative light units (RLU)/mg protein in the wild-type mice (n = 9; P < 0.0007 vs. control). In the knockout mice, ANG II increased O2− production by 290 RLU/mg protein (n = 9; P < 0.007 vs. control). This suggests that NOX2 does not contribute to ANG II-induced O2− production (P < 0.6 WT vs. KO). To test whether NOX4 mediates the effect of ANG II, we selectively decreased NOX4 expression in rats using an adenovirus that expresses NOX4 short hairpin (sh)RNA. Six to seven days after in vivo transduction of the kidney outer medulla, NOX4 mRNA was reduced by 77%, while NOX1 and NOX2 mRNA was unaffected. In control TALs, ANG II stimulated O2− production by 96%. In TALs transduced with NOX4 shRNA, ANG II-stimulated O2− production was not significantly different from the baseline. We concluded that NOX4 is the main catalytic isoform of NADPH oxidase that contributes to ANG II-stimulated O2− production by TALs. PMID:22875785

  17. The role of IL-6 in the physiologic versus hypertensive blood pressure actions of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Manhiani, M Marlina; Seth, Dale M; Banes-Berceli, Amy K L; Satou, Ryosuke; Navar, L Gabriel; Brands, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a critical physiologic regulator of volume homeostasis and mean arterial pressure (MAP), yet it also is known to induce immune mechanisms that contribute to hypertension. This study determined the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the physiologic effect of AngII to maintain normal MAP during low-salt (LS) intake, and whether hypertension induced by plasma AngII concentrations measured during LS diet required IL-6. IL-6 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were placed on LS diet for 7 days, and MAP was measured 19 h/day with telemetry. MAP was not affected by LS in either group, averaging 101 ± 4 and 100 ± 4 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively, over the last 3 days. Seven days of ACEI decreased MAP ∼25 mmHg in both groups. In other KO and WT mice, AngII was infused at 200 ng/kg per minute to approximate plasma AngII levels during LS. Surgical reduction of kidney mass and high-salt diet were used to amplify the blood pressure effect. The increase in MAP after 7 days was not different, averaging 20 ± 5 and 22 ± 6 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer of activated transcription (STAT3) phosphorylation were not affected by LS, but were increased by AngII infusion at 200 and 800 ng/kg per minute. These data suggest that physiologic levels of AngII do not activate or require IL-6 to affect blood pressure significantly, whether AngII is maintaining blood pressure on LS diet or causing blood pressure to increase. JAK2/STAT3 activation, however, is tightly associated with AngII hypertension, even when caused by physiologic levels of AngII. PMID:26486161

  18. Alkaloids of Nitraria sibirica Pall. decrease hypertension and albuminuria in angiotensin II-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Mahinur; Yi, Yang; Chen, Ling-Dan; Aisa, Haji Akber; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2014-04-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Nitraria sibirica Pall. (Nitrariaceae) is used to treat hypertension. This study determined the effects of the total alkaloids of the leaves of Nitraria sibirica (NSTA) on blood pressure and albuminuria in mice treated with angiotensin II and a high-salt diet (ANG/HS). Adult mice were divided into three groups: control; infused with angiotensin II and fed a diet containing 4% NaCl (ANG/HS; and ANG/HS plus injection of NSTA (1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), i.p.). After treatment of these regimens, daily water and food intake, kidney weight, blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, renal concentrations of inflammatory markers, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the expression of renal fibrosis markers were determined. Compared to the control group, the ANG/HS group had higher blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. Treatment with NSTA in ANG/HS mice for three weeks significantly reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. ANG/HS treatment caused elevated levels of sICAM-1 and MCP-1, as well as increased fibrosis markers. Concurrent treatment with ANG/HS and NSTA attenuated the levels and expression of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. Treatment with NSTA effectively reduces hypertension-induced albuminuria through the reduction of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers.

  19. Novel Roles for Peroxynitrite in Angiotensin II and CaMKII Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoming; Ramaswamy, Swarna S.; Johnson, Derrick E.; Vitturi, Dario A.; Schopfer, Franciso J.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Hudmon, Andy; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) oxidation controls excitability and viability. While hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) affects Ca2+-activated CaMKII in vitro, Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CaMKIIδ signaling in cardiomyocytes is Ca2+ independent and requires NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide, but not its dismutation product H2O2. To better define the biological regulation of CaMKII activation and signaling by Ang II, we evaluated the potential for peroxynitrite (ONOO−) to mediate CaMKII activation and downstream Kv4.3 channel mRNA destabilization by Ang II. In vitro experiments show that ONOO− oxidizes and modestly activates pure CaMKII in the absence of Ca2+/CaM. Remarkably, this apokinase stimulation persists after mutating known oxidation targets (M281, M282, C290), suggesting a novel mechanism for increasing baseline Ca2+-independent CaMKII activity. The role of ONOO− in cardiac and neuronal responses to Ang II was then tested by scavenging ONOO− and preventing its formation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase. Both treatments blocked Ang II effects on Kv4.3, tyrosine nitration and CaMKIIδ oxidation and activation. Together, these data show that ONOO− participates in Ang II-CaMKII signaling. The requirement for ONOO− in transducing Ang II signaling identifies ONOO−, which has been viewed as a reactive damaging byproduct of superoxide and nitric oxide, as a mediator of GPCR-CaMKII signaling. PMID:27079272

  20. Angiotensin II inhibits the ROMK-like small conductance K channel in renal cortical collecting duct during dietary potassium restriction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan; Zavilowitz, Beth; Satlin, Lisa M; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2007-03-01

    Base-line urinary potassium secretion in the distal nephron is mediated by small conductance rat outer medullary K (ROMK)-like channels. We used the patch clamp technique applied to split-open cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) isolated from rats fed a normal potassium (NK) or low potassium (LK) diet to test the hypothesis that AngII directly inhibits ROMK channel activity. We found that AngII inhibited ROMK channel activity in LK but not NK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The AngII-induced reduction in channel activity was mediated by AT1 receptor (AT1R) binding, because pretreatment of CCDs with losartan but not PD123319 AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, respectively, blocked the response. Pretreatment of CCDs with U73122 and calphostin C, inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC), respectively, abolished the AngII-induced decrease in ROMK channel activity, confirming a role of the PLC-PKC pathway in this response. Studies by others suggest that AngII stimulates an Src family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) via PKC-NADPH oxidase. PTK has been shown to regulate the ROMK channel. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with diphenyliodonium abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on ROMK channels. Suppression of PTK by herbimycin A significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of AngII on ROMK channel activity. We conclude that AngII inhibits ROMK channel activity through PKC-, NADPH oxidase-, and PTK-dependent pathways under conditions of dietary potassium restriction.

  1. Prolonged blood pressure elevation following continuous infusion of angiotensin II-a baroreflex study in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Sayk, Friedhelm; Wobbe, Isabel; Twesten, Christoph; Meusel, Moritz; Wellhöner, Peter; Derad, Inge; Dodt, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    ANG II interacts with the sympathetic nervous system at central nervous blood pressure-regulating structures, including the baroreflex. It is unknown whether prolonged BP elevation mediated by high ANG II plasma levels could induce a persistent shift of the central nervous baroreflex setpoint, lasting beyond the short ANG II plasmatic half time of a few seconds, thereby consolidating elevated BP and/or increased SNA in healthy humans. In a blinded crossover design, ANG II or placebo (saline) was infused for a 6-h period in 12 resting normotensive students (6 males, 6 females) raising BP to borderline hypertensive levels. Between 60 and 120 min after the infusion period, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was assessed microneurographically and correlated with oscillometric BP measurements and heart rate at supine rest (baseline) and during pharmacologic baroreceptor challenge. Infusion of ANG II increased BP to borderline-hypertensive levels, as intended, whereas heart rate remained unaltered. At baroreflex assessment (i.e., 60-120 min after end of infusion period), systolic BP was significantly higher compared with placebo (Δ8.4 ± 3.1 mmHg; P < 0.05), whereas diastolic values were nearly equal between conditions. Baseline MSNA was neither decreased nor increased, and baroreflex sensitivity to vasoactive drug challenge was not altered. Our results show that elevation of ANG II plasma levels over 6 h was able to increase systolic, but not diastolic, BP far beyond blood-mediated ANG II effects. MSNA or heart rate did not counter-regulate this BP elevation, indicating that ANG II had sustainably reset the central nervous BP threshold of sympathetic baroreflex function to accept elevated BP input signals without counter-regulatory response. PMID:26400183

  2. Role of intramitochondrial arachidonic acid and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 in angiotensin II-regulated aldosterone synthesis in NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Mele, Pablo G; Duarte, Alejandra; Paz, Cristina; Capponi, Alessandro; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-07-01

    Although the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in angiotensin II (ANG II)- and potassium-stimulated steroid production in zona glomerulosa cells is well documented, the mechanism responsible for AA release is not fully described. In this study we evaluated the mechanism involved in the release of intramitochondrial AA and its role in the regulation of aldosterone synthesis by ANG II in glomerulosa cells. We show that ANG II and potassium induce the expression of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesterase 2 and acyl-CoA synthetase 4, two enzymes involved in intramitochondrial AA generation/export system well characterized in other steroidogenic systems. We demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP is required for AA generation/export system, steroid production, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction. We also demonstrate the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases regulating acyl-CoA synthetase 4 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction, and hence ANG II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis.

  3. A Designed Angiopoietin-1 Variant, Dimeric CMP-Ang1 Activates Tie2 and Stimulates Angiogenesis and Vascular Stabilization in N-glycan Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nuri; Kim, Kangsan; Jin Kim, Soo; Park, Intae; Lee, Jung-Eun; Suk Seo, Young; Joo An, Hyun; Min Kim, Ho; Young Koh, Gou

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a potential growth factor for therapeutic angiogenesis and vascular stabilization, is known to specifically cluster and activate Tie2 in high oligomeric forms, which is a unique and essential process in this ligand-receptor interaction. However, highly oligomeric native Ang1 and Ang1 variants are difficult to produce, purify, and store in a stable and active form. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and active dimeric CMP-Ang1 by replacing the N-terminal of native Ang1 with the coiled-coil domain of cartilage matrix protein (CMP) bearing mutations in its cysteine residues. This dimeric CMP-Ang1 effectively increased the migration, survival, and tube formation of endothelial cells via Tie2 activation. Furthermore, dimeric CMP-Ang1 induced angiogenesis and suppressed vascular leakage in vivo. Despite its dimeric structure, the potencies of such Tie2-activation-induced effects were comparable to those of a previously engineered protein, COMP-Ang1. We also revealed that these effects of dimeric CMP-Ang1 were affected by specified N-glycosylation in its fibrinogen-like domain. Taken together, our results indicate that dimeric CMP-Ang1 is capable of activating Tie2 and stimulating angiogenesis in N-glycan dependent manner. PMID:26478188

  4. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  5. Cognitive effects attributed to angiotensin II may result from its conversion to angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Braszko, Jan Jozef; Walesiuk, Anna; Wielgat, Przemyslaw

    2006-09-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the facilitation of learning and improvement of memory observed after an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) is, in fact, caused by its derivative angiotensin IV (Ang IV). We ran two memory tests as well as an auxiliary test assessing motor performance in rats injected (i.c.v., 1 nmol in 2 microl saline) with Ang II or Ang IV. There were separate groups receiving peptide or saline five, 10 and 15 minutes before testing. Ang IV significantly increased step-through latencies in a passive avoidance paradigm as well as improved discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar objects in an object recognition test in all groups showing better retrieval of memory of aversive as well as appetitive stimuli in the peptide-treated groups regardless of the time of its injection. In contrast, rats treated with Ang II demonstrated significant improvement of memory of aversive and appetitive stimuli in the same tests only 15 minutes after its i.c.v. injection, with no effect in the groups injected five minutes before testing and slight efficacy in those injected 10 minutes before the test. Numbers of crossings, rearings and bar approaches in an open field were similar both in the peptide-treated and control groups making it unlikely that changes in motor performance affected the memory tests. In line with the present views on the intracellular metabolism of Ang II, these results suggest degradation to Ang IV by aminopeptidases A and N is necessary before the cognitive effects can occur.

  6. Effects of probucol on angiotensin II-induced BMP-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jing-Hua; Chen, Shu-Juan; Zhen, Bin; Wang, Chang-Hua; He, Hua; Jiang, Chen-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) participates significantly in vascular development and pathophysiological processes. Angiotensin II (AngII) has been demonstrated to be critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of AngII on BMP-2 expression and of probucol on the AngII-induced BMP-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate these effects. HUVECs were cultured and stimulated with various agents. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and BMP-2 were measured by standard methods. Northern blotting was used to detect the expression of BMP-2 mRNA. The activation of NF-κB in the HUVECs was also determined. The AngII treatment significantly increased BMP-2 expression levels and activated NF-κB. These effects were suppressed by treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or probucol. Furthermore, the increased levels of MDA in the conditioned medium and the decrease in the total SOD activity caused by the AngII treatment were reversed by treatment with probucol or PDTC. Probucol downregulated the AngII‑induced BMP-2 expression. These effects of probucol may be mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID:23128665

  7. Angiotensin II and norepinephrine activate specific calcineurin-dependent NFAT transcription factor isoforms in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ida G; Kvaløy, Heidi; Austbø, Bjørg; Christensen, Geir; Carlson, Cathrine R

    2011-11-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) are primary effectors of the sympathetic adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, mediating hypertrophic, apoptotic, and fibrotic events in the myocardium. As NE and ANG II have been shown to affect intracellular calcium in cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that they activate the calcium-sensitive, prohypertrophic calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFATc) signaling pathway. More specifically, we have investigated isoform-specific activation of NFAT in NE- and ANG II-stimulated cardiomyocytes, as it is likely that each of the four calcineurin-dependent isoforms, c1-c4, play specific roles. We have stimulated neonatal ventriculocytes from C57/B6 and NFAT-luciferase reporter mice with ANG II or NE and quantified NFAT activity by luciferase activity and phospho-immunoblotting. ANG II and NE increased calcineurin-dependent NFAT activity 2.4- and 1.9-fold, measured as luciferase activity after 24 h of stimulation, and induced protein synthesis, measured by radioactive leucine incorporation after 24 and 72 h. To optimize measurements of NFAT isoforms, we examined the specificity of NFAT antibodies on peptide arrays and by immunoblotting with designed blocking peptides. Western analyses showed that both effectors activate NFATc1 and c4, while NFATc2 activity was regulated by NE only, as measured by phospho-NFAT levels. Neither ANG II nor NE activated NFATc3. As today's main therapies for heart failure aim at antagonizing the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, understanding their intracellular actions is of importance, and our data, through validating a method for measuring myocardial NFATs, indicate that ANG II and NE activate specific NFATc isoforms in cardiomyocytes.

  8. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; P<0.05), suggesting that AngII-mediated epithelial Na(+) channel activation provokes K(+) depletion. The second aim tested whether doubling dietary potassium intake from 1% (A1K) to 2% (A2K) would prevent K(+) depletion during AngII infusion and, thus, prevent NCC accumulation. A2K-fed rats exhibited normal plasma [K(+)] and 2-fold higher K(+) excretion and plasma [aldosterone] versus A1K. In A1K rats, NCC, NCCpS71, and NCCpT53 abundance increased 1.5- to 3-fold versus controls (P<0.05). The rise in NCC and NCCp abundance was prevented in the A2K rats, yet blood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation.

  9. Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves glycemia in angiotensin II-infused mice

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Xia, Huijing; Pedersen, Kim Brint; Speth, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    An overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although ACE2 overexpression has been shown to be protective against the overactive RAS, a role for pancreatic ACE2, particularly in the islets of Langerhans, in regulating glycemia in response to elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) levels remains to be elucidated. This study examined the role of endogenous pancreatic ACE2 and the impact of elevated Ang II levels on the enzyme's ability to alleviate hyperglycemia in an Ang II infusion mouse model. Male C57bl/6J mice were infused with Ang II or saline for a period of 14 days. On the 7th day of infusion, either an adenovirus encoding human ACE2 (Ad-hACE2) or a control adenovirus (Ad-eGFP) was injected into the mouse pancreas. After an additional 7–8 days, glycemia and plasma insulin levels as well as RAS components expression and oxidative stress were assessed. Ang II-infused mice exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets compared with control mice. This phenotype was associated with decreased ACE2 expression and activity, increased Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression, and increased oxidative stress in the mouse pancreas. Ad-hACE2 treatment restored pancreatic ACE2 expression and compensatory activity against Ang II-mediated impaired glycemia, thus improving β-cell function. Our data suggest that decreased pancreatic ACE2 is a link between overactive RAS and impaired glycemia in T2DM. Moreover, maintenance of a normal endogenous ACE2 compensatory activity in the pancreas appears critical to avoid β-cell dysfunction, supporting a therapeutic potential for ACE2 in controlling diabetes resulting from an overactive RAS. PMID:23462816

  10. Angiotensin II increases the permeability and PV-1 expression of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Csaba; Nagy, János Péter; Végh, Borbála; Németh, Adrienn; Jenei, Attila; MirzaHosseini, Shahrokh; Sebe, Attila; Rosivall, László

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II), the major effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is a powerful vasoactive mediator associated with hypertension and renal failure. In this study the permeability changes and its morphological attributes in endothelial cells of human umbilical vein (HUVECs) were studied considering the potential regulatory role of ANG II. The effects of ANG II were compared with those of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Permeability was determined by 40 kDa FITC-Dextran and electrical impedance measurements. Plasmalemmal vesicle-1 (PV-1) mRNA levels were measured by PCR. Endothelial cell surface was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and caveolae were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in HUVEC monolayers. ANG II (10(-7) M), similarly to VEGF (100 ng/ml), increased the endothelial permeability parallel with an increase in the number of cell surface openings and caveolae. AT1 and VEGF-R2 receptor blockers (candesartan and ZM-323881, respectively) blunted these effects. ANG II and VEGF increased the expression of PV-1, which could be blocked by candesartan or ZM-323881 pretreatments and by the p38 mitogem-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor SB-203580. Additionally, SB-203580 blocked the increase in endothelial permeability and the number of surface openings and caveolae. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ANG II plays a role in regulation of permeability and formation of cell surface openings through AT1 receptor and PV-1 protein synthesis in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner in endothelial cells. The surface openings that increase in parallel with permeability may represent transcellular channels, caveolae, or both. These morphological and permeability changes may be involved in (patho-) physiological effects of ANG II. PMID:22012329

  11. Angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart. Predominance of the angiotensin-converting enzyme pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, L S; Abraham, W T; Meixell, G E; Vamvakias, B N; Quaife, R A; Lowes, B D; Roden, R L; Peacock, S J; Groves, B M; Raynolds, M V

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the contribution of myocardial tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the human heart is low compared with non-ACE pathways. However, little is known about the actual in vivo contribution of these pathways to Ang II formation in the human heart. To examine angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart, we administered intracoronary 123I-labeled angiotensin I (Ang I) with and without intracoronary enalaprilat to orthotopic heart transplant recipients. The fractional conversion of Ang I to Ang II, calculated after separation of angiotensin peptides by HPLC, was 0.415 +/- 0.104 (n = 5, mean +/- SD). Enalaprilat reduced fractional conversion by 89%, to a value of 0.044 +/- 0.053 (n = 4, P = 0.002). In a separate study of explanted hearts, a newly developed in vitro Ang II-forming assay was used to examine cardiac tissue ACE activity independent of circulating components. ACE activity in solubilized left ventricular membrane preparations from failing hearts was 49.6 +/- 5.3 fmol 125I-Ang II formed per minute per milligram of protein (n = 8, +/- SE), and 35.9 +/- 4.8 fmol/min/mg from nonfailing human hearts (n = 7, P = 0.08). In the presence of 1 microM enalaprilat, ACE activity was reduced by 85%, to 7.3 +/- 1.4 fmol/min/mg in the failing group and to 4.6 +/- 1.3 fmol/min/mg in the nonfailing group (P < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant pathway for angiotensin II formation in the human heart is through ACE. Images PMID:7657820

  12. Potassium Supplementation Prevents Sodium Chloride Cotransporter Stimulation During Angiotensin II Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veiras, Luciana C; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; McDonough, Alicia A

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion. AngII-infused rats exhibited lower plasma [K(+)] versus controls (3.6±0.2 versus 4.5±0.1 mmol/L; P<0.05), suggesting that AngII-mediated epithelial Na(+) channel activation provokes K(+) depletion. The second aim tested whether doubling dietary potassium intake from 1% (A1K) to 2% (A2K) would prevent K(+) depletion during AngII infusion and, thus, prevent NCC accumulation. A2K-fed rats exhibited normal plasma [K(+)] and 2-fold higher K(+) excretion and plasma [aldosterone] versus A1K. In A1K rats, NCC, NCCpS71, and NCCpT53 abundance increased 1.5- to 3-fold versus controls (P<0.05). The rise in NCC and NCCp abundance was prevented in the A2K rats, yet blood pressure did not significantly decrease. Epithelial Na(+) channel subunit abundance and cleavage increased 1.5- to 3-fold in both A1K and A2K; ROMK (renal outer medulla K(+) channel abundance) abundance was unaffected by AngII or dietary K(+) In summary, the accumulation and phosphorylation of NCC seen during chronic AngII infusion hypertension is likely secondary to potassium deficiency driven by epithelial Na(+) channel stimulation. PMID:27600183

  13. Proliferative effects of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 on guinea pig gingival fibroblast cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Nozomi; Koike, Katsuo; Sano, Masakazu; Kusama, Tadashi; Kizawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Yumiko; Ohsawa, Masami; Iwamoto, Keishi; Murakami, Hajime

    2002-08-01

    We investigated whether phenytoin (PHT) and nifedipine (NIF) induce angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) generation by cultured gingival fibroblasts derived from guinea pigs and whether Ang II and ET-1 induce proliferation of these cells. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM) increased the immunostaining intensities of immunoreactive Ang II and ET-1 (IRET-1) in these cells. Captopril (3 microM), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced these enhanced intensities to control levels. Ang II (100 nM) enhanced the immunostaining intensity of IRET-1. PHT (250 nM) and NIF (250 nM)-induced cell proliferation. Both PHT- and NIF-induced proliferation was inhibited by captopril (3 microM). Ang II (100 nM) and ET-1 (100 nM) also induced cell proliferation. Ang II-induced proliferation was inhibited by CV11974 (1 microM), an AT(1) receptor antagonist and saralasin (1 microM), an AT(1)/AT(2) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123,319 (1 microM), an AT(2) receptor antagonist. ET-1-induced proliferation was inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A) receptor antagonist, but not by BQ788 (1 microM), an ET(B) receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that PHT- and NIF-induced gingival fibroblast proliferation is mediated indirectly through the induction of Ang II and ET-1 and probably mediated through AT(1) and ET(A) receptors present in or on gingival fibroblasts. PMID:12223201

  14. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt. PMID:15525798

  15. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt.

  16. Pinhole Solar Monitor tests in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    A pinhole camera has the advantage of undistorted field of view. Its imaging capability is limited by random (diffraction and atmospheric seeing) and systematic (penumbra) effects. The Pinhole Solar Monitor, PSM, measures the solar angular diameter by timing meridian transits. Meridian transits have been videorecorded with UTC synchronization at the pinhole gnomon of Santa Maria degli Angeli church in Rome. The tarature of this Clementine Gnomon is outlined with its accuracy as PSM. On the Moon an array of such PSM equipped with 1000 lines for parallel transits can monitor 0.1” variations of solar diameter.

  17. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  18. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of non-peptide angiotensin II receptor binding inhibitors specific for the AT2 subtype.

    PubMed

    Blankley, C J; Hodges, J C; Klutchko, S R; Himmelsbach, R J; Chucholowski, A; Connolly, C J; Neergaard, S J; Van Nieuwenhze, M S; Sebastian, A; Quin, J

    1991-11-01

    Structure-activity relationships are reported for a novel class of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid derivatives that displace 125I-labeled angiotensin II from a specific subset of angiotensin II (Ang II) binding sites in rat adrenal preparations. This binding site is not the Ang II receptor mediating vascular contraction or aldosterone release, but, rather, is one whose function has not yet been fully elucidated. It has been identified in a number of tissues and has a similar affinity for Ang II and its peptide analogues as does the vascular receptor. The non-peptide compounds reported here are uniquely specific in displacing Ang II at this binding site and are inactive in antagonizing Ang II at the vascular receptor or in pharmacological assays measuring vascular effects. PD 123,319 (79), one of the most potent compounds, has an IC50 of 34 nM. Certain of these compounds may have utility in the definition and study of Ang II receptor subtypes.

  19. Vascular and Central Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension: Role of RGS-5.

    PubMed

    Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Toral, Marta; León-Gómez, Elvira; Gómez-Gúzman, Manuel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Rath, Geraldine; Tamargo, Juan; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Dessy, Chantal; Duarte, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ) lowers blood pressure in genetic and mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension. Regulator of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling 5 (RGS5) protein, which interferes in angiotensin II (AngII) signaling, is a target gene to PPARβ The aim of the present study was to examine whether PPARβ activation in resistance arteries and brain tissues prevents the elevated blood pressure in AngII-induced hypertension and evaluate the role of RGS5 in this effect. C57BL/6J male mice were divided into five groups (control mice, PPARβ agonist [4-[[[2-[3-Fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-methyl-5-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]-2-methylphenoxy]acetic acid (GW0742)-treated mice AngII-infused mice, GW0742-treated AngII-infused mice, and AngII-infused mice treated with GW0742 plus PPARβ antagonist 3-[[[2-Methoxy-4-(phenylamino)phenyl]amino]sulfonyl]-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid methyl ester (GSK0660)) and were followed for 3 weeks. GW0742 prevented the increase in both arterial blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline levels and the higher reduction of blood pressure after ganglionic blockade, whereas it reduced the mesenteric arterial remodeling and the hyper-responsiveness to vasoconstrictors (AngII and endothelin-1) in AngII-infused mice. These effects were accompanied by an inhibition of NADPH oxidase expression and activity in the brain. Gene expression profiling revealed a marked loss of brainstem and vascular RGS5 in AngII-infused mice, which was restored by GW0742. GW0742-induced effects were abolished by GSK0660. Small interfering RNA targeting RGS5 caused augmented contractile response to AngII in resistance mesenteric arteries and blunted the inhibitory effect of GW0742 on this response. In conclusion, GW0742 exerted antihypertensive effects, restoring sympathetic tone and vascular structure and function in AngII-infused mice by PPARβ activation in brain and vessels inhibiting AngII signaling as a result of RGS5

  20. Angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic effects require p38MAPK activity and transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Vazquez, Yaneisi; Acuña, María José; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Simon, Felipe; Salas, José Diego; Alvarez Ruf, Joel; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Fibrotic disorders are typically characterised by excessive connective tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition that preclude the normal healing of different tissues. Several skeletal muscle dystrophies are characterised by extensive fibrosis. Among the factors involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis is angiotensin II (Ang-II), a key protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We previously demonstrated that myoblasts responded to Ang-II by increasing the ECM protein levels mediated by AT-1 receptors, implicating an Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mechanism. In this paper, we show that in myoblasts, Ang-II induced the increase of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression through its AT-1 receptor. This effect is dependent of the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-induced ROS, as indicated by a decrease of the expression of both pro-fibrotic factors when the ROS production was inhibited via the NOX inhibitor apocynin. The increase in pro-fibrotic factors levels was paralleled by enhanced p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to Ang-II. However, only the p38MAPK activity was critical for the Ang-II-induced fibrotic effects, as indicated by the decrease in the Ang-II-induced TGF-β1 and CTGF expression and fibronectin levels by SB-203580, an inhibitor of the p38MAPK, but not by U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we showed that the Ang-II-dependent p38MAPK activation, but not the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, was necessary for the NOX-derived ROS. In addition, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 expression was required for the Ang-II-induced pro-fibrotic effects evaluated by using SB-431542, an inhibitor of TGF-βRI kinase activity, and by knocking down TGF-β1 levels by shRNA technique. These results strongly suggest that the fibrotic response to Ang-II is mediated by the AT-1 receptor and requires the p38MAPK phosphorylation, NOX-induced ROS, and TGF

  1. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor stimulates Na+–K+ ATPase activity through a pathway involving PKC-ζ in rat thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Marsigliante, S; Muscella, A; Elia, M G; Greco, S; Storelli, C

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtype 1, AT1, is expressed by the rat thyroid. A relationship between thyroid function and several components of the renin-angiotensin system has also been established, but the Ang II cellular effects in thyrocytes and its transduction signalling remain undefined. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the modulation of the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase by Ang II and its intracellular transduction pathway in PC-Cl3 cells, an established epithelial cell line derived from rat thyroid. Here we have demonstrated, by RT-PCR analysis, the expression of mRNA for the Ang II AT1 receptor in PC-Cl3 cells; mRNA for the Ang II AT2 receptor was not detected. Ang II was not able to affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in fura-2-loaded cells, but it stimulated the translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of atypical protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ) and -iota (PKC-ι) isoforms with subsequent phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and 2). Translocated atypical PKCs displayed temporally different activations, the activation of PKC-ζ being the fastest. PC-Cl3 cells stimulated with increasing Ang II concentrations showed dose- and time-dependent activation of the Na+-K+ ATPase activity, which paralleled the PKC-ζ translocation time course. Na+-K+ ATPase activity modulation was dependent on PKC activation since the PKC antagonist staurosporine abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The inhibition of the ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and 2) by PD098059 (2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone) failed to block the effect of Ang II on the Na+-K+ ATPase activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Ang II modulates Na+-K+ ATPase activity in PC-Cl3 cells through the AT1 receptor via activation of atypical PKC-ζ while the Ang II-activated PKC-ζ appears to have other as yet unknown functions. PMID:12527732

  2. Donor Heart Treatment With COMP-Ang1 Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Rejection of Cardiac Allografts.

    PubMed

    Syrjälä, S O; Nykänen, A I; Tuuminen, R; Raissadati, A; Keränen, M A I; Arnaudova, R; Krebs, R; Koh, G Y; Alitalo, K; Lemström, K B

    2015-08-01

    The major cause of death during the first year after heart transplantation is primary graft dysfunction due to preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Angiopoietin-1 is a Tie2 receptor-binding paracrine growth factor with anti-inflammatory properties and indispensable roles in vascular development and stability. We used a stable variant of angiopoietin-1 (COMP-Ang1) to test whether ex vivo intracoronary treatment with a single dose of COMP-Ang1 in donor Dark Agouti rat heart subjected to 4-h cold ischemia would prevent microvascular dysfunction and inflammatory responses in the fully allogeneic recipient Wistar Furth rat. COMP-Ang1 reduced endothelial cell-cell junction disruption of the donor heart in transmission electron microscopy during 4-h cold ischemia, improved myocardial reflow, and reduced microvascular leakage and cardiomyocyte injury of transplanted allografts during IRI. Concurrently, the treatment reduced expression of danger signals, dendritic cell maturation markers, endothelial cell adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase activation and the influx of macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 treatment provided sustained anti-inflammatory effects during acute rejection and prevented the development of cardiac fibrosis and allograft vasculopathy. These results suggest donor heart treatment with COMP-Ang1 having important clinical implications in the prevention of primary and subsequent long-term injury and dysfunction in cardiac allografts. PMID:25932532

  3. Expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 and maspin in ovarian cancer and their role in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various angiogenic regulators are involved in angiogenesis cascade. Transcription factor Ets-1 plays important role in angiogenesis, remodeling of extracellular matrix, and tumor metastasis. Ets-1 target genes involved in various stages of new blood vessel formation include angiopoietin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the protease inhibitor maspin. Methods We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of Ets-1, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and maspin in ovarian tumor and analyzed the relationship between the expression of these proteins and the clinical manifestation of ovarian cancer. Results Ets-1 expression was much stronger in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, but had no significant correlation with other pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. However, Ang-2 and maspin expression had no obvious correlation with pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. Ets-1 had a positive correlation with Ang-2 which showed their close relationship in angiogenesis. Although microvessel density (MVD) value had no significant correlation with the expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 or maspin, strong nuclear expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. Conclusions The expression of Ets-1, Ang2 and maspin showed close relationship with angiogenesis in ovarian cancer and expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. The mechanisms underlying the cross-talk of the three factors need further investigations. PMID:21439064

  4. Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xue-Fen; Zhang, Li-Hui; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Garner, Ron E; McKallip, Robert J; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day) was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02%) vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05). These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited, and tissue fibrosis was attenuated, as demonstrated by less extensive collagen-rich fibrosis. Furthermore, curcumin increased protein level of ACE2 and enhanced its expression in the intermyocardium relative to the Ang II group. These results suggest that curcumin could be considered as an add-on therapeutic agent in the treatment of fibrosis-derived heart failure patient who is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy.

  5. The effect of angiotensin II microinjection into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on serum lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolite levels

    PubMed Central

    Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overactivity of renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathophysiology of renal and cardiovascular diseases. It is suggested that endothelial cells can release nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species in response to angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor of Ang II has been found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). BST is involved in autonomic function. This study was performed to find the role of central Ang II in serum lipid peroxidation product and in releasing NO into circulation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one catheterized rats were placed in stereotaxic instrument. A hole was drilled above BST. In the control group, saline 0.9% (100 nl) was microinjected into the BST. In the second group, Ang II (100 μM, 100–150 nl) was microinjected into the BST. In the third group losartan (an AT1 antagonist) was microinjected (100 μM, 200 nl) before Ang II into the BST. Systolic blood pressure was recorded. The NO metabolite (nitrite) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the rat's serum. Results: The data indicated that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response (P < 0.0001). It also increased MDA and nitrite levels of the serum significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). Pretreatment with losartan before Ang II microinjection attenuated serum's levels of MDA and nitrite (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that central effect of Ang II on blood pressure is accompanied with increased levels of MDA and nitrite in the circulation. PMID:27376045

  6. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C: a novel target gene of miR-214-3p in suppressing angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Fang-zhou; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Hui; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Wu, Shu-Lin; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The role of microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) in cardiac hypertrophy was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-214-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy. In mice with either Ang-II infusion or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model, miR-214-3p expression was markedly decreased in the hypertrophic myocardium. Down-regulation of miR-214-3p was observed in the myocardium of patients with cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of miR-214-3p was upregulated in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice by tail vein injection of miR-214-3p. Moreover, miR-214-3p inhibited the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), which was increased in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic mouse myocardium and cardiomyocytes, was identified as a target gene of miR-214-3p. Functionally, miR-214-3p mimic, consistent with MEF2C siRNA, inhibited cell size increase and protein expression of ANP and β-MHC in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes. The NF-κB signal pathway was verified to mediate Ang-II-induced miR-214-3p expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, our results revealed that MEF2C is a novel target of miR-214-3p, and attenuation of miR-214-3p expression may contribute to MEF2Cexpressionin cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27796324

  7. DL0805-2, a novel indazole derivative, relaxes angiotensin II-induced contractions of rat aortic rings by inhibiting Rho kinase and calcium fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tian-yi; Chen, Yu-cai; Zhang, Hui-fang; Li, Li; Jiao, Xiao-zhen; Xie, Ping; Fang, Lian-hua; Du, Guan-hua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: DL0805-2 [N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl) pyrrolidine-3-carboxamide] is a DL0805 derivative with more potent vasorelaxant activity and lower toxicity. This study was conducted to investigate the vasorelaxant mechanisms of DL0805-2 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced contractions of rat thoracic aortic rings in vitro. Methods: Rat thoracic aortic rings and rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were pretreated with DL0805-2, and then stimulated with Ang II. The tension of the aortic rings was measured through an isometric force transducer. Ang II-induced protein phosphorylation, ROS production and F-actin formation were assessed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations were detected with Fluo-3 AM. Results: Pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the constrictions of the aortic rings induced by a single dose of Ang II (10−7 mol/L) or accumulative addition of Ang II (10−10–10−7 mol/L). The vasodilatory effect of DL0805-2 was independent of endothelium. In the aortic rings, pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1, 3, and 10 μmol/L) suppressed Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, and Ang II-induced phosphorylation of two substrates of Rho kinase (MLC and MYPT1). In VSMCs, pretreatment with DL0805-2 (1, 3, and 10 μmol/L) also suppressed Ang II-induced Ca2+ fluxes and phosphorylation of MLC and MYPT1. In addition, pretreatment with DL0805-2 attenuated ROS production and F-actin formation in the cells. Conclusion: DL0805-2 exerts a vasodilatory action in rat aortic rings through inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway and calcium fluxes. PMID:27041459

  8. Deficiency of endogenous acute phase serum amyloid A protects apoE−/− mice from angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Webb, NR; De Beer, MC; Wroblewski, JM; Ji, A; Bailey, W; Shridas, P; Charnigo, RJ; Noffsinger, VP; Witta, J; Howatt, DA; Balakrishnan, A; Rateri, DL; Daugherty, A; De Beer, FC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a major cause of death in the aged population, is characterized by vascular inflammation and matrix degradation. Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase reactant linked to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase induction, correlates with aortic dimensions before aneurysm formation in humans. We investigated whether SAA deficiency in mice impacts AAA formation during angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Approach and Results Plasma SAA increased ~60-fold in apoE−/− mice 24 hours after i.p. AngII injection (100 μg/kg; n = 4) and ~15-fold after chronic 28-day AngII infusion (1,000 ng/kg/min; n = 9). AAA incidence and severity after 28-day AngII infusion was significantly reduced in apoE−/− mice lacking both acute phase SAA isoforms (SAAKO; n = 20) compared to apoE−/− mice (SAAWT; n = 20) as assessed by in vivo ultrasound and ex vivo morphometric analyses, despite a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after AngII infusion. Atherosclerotic lesion area of the aortic arch was similar in SAAKO and SAAWT mice after 28-day AngII infusion. Immunostaining detected SAA in AAA tissues of AngII-infused SAAWT mice that co-localized with macrophages, elastin breaks, and enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMP-2 activity was significantly lower in aortas of SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after 10-day AngII infusion. Conclusion Lack of endogenous acute phase SAA protects against experimental AAA through a mechanism that may involve reduced MMP-2 activity. PMID:25745063

  9. Acute angiotensin II increases plasma F2-isoprostanes in salt-replete human hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Laine J; Morrow, Jason D; Sawathiparnich, Pairunyar; Williams, Gordon H; Vaughan, Douglas E; Brown, Nancy J

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II induces oxidative stress in vitro and in animal models of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II increases oxidative stress in human hypertension, as assessed by plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations. Plasma F2-isoprostanes, hemodynamic and endocrine parameters were measured at baseline and following a 55 min infusion of 3 ng/kg/min Ang II in 13 normotensive and 13 hypertensive volunteers ingesting a high- (200 mmol/d) or low- (10 mmol/d) sodium diet. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and body mass index were higher in hypertensive subjects. Ang II infusion increased MAP (p<.001) and plasma aldosterone concentrations (p<.001) and decreased plasma renin activity (p<.001) and renal plasma flow (p<.001) to a similar extent in both groups. Plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations were similar at baseline. There was no effect of Ang II on F2-isoprostane concentrations during low-salt intake in either group (normotensive 51.7 +/- 7.1 to 53.7 +/- 6.5 pg/ml and hypertensive 52.2 +/- 8.2 to 56.2 +/- 10.0 pg/ml; mean +/- SE). During high-salt intake, Ang II increased F2-isoprostane concentrations in the hypertensive group (52.3 +/- 7.2 to 63.2 +/- 10.4 pg/ml, p=0.010) but not in the normotensive group (54.2 +/- 4.4 to 58.9 +/- 6.6 pg/ml, p=0.83). Acute Ang II infusion increases oxidative stress in vivo in hypertensive humans. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to oxidative stress in human cardiovascular disease.

  10. Impact of angiotensin II on skeletal muscle metabolism and function in mice: contribution of IGF-1, Sirtuin-1 and PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Kackstein, Katharina; Teren, Andrej; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Mangner, Norman; Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Linke, Axel; Schuler, Gerhard; Punkt, Karla; Adams, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and increased levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II) occurs in numerous cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF). Another hallmark in CHF is a reduced exercise tolerance with impaired skeletal muscle function. The aim of this study was to investigate in an animal model the impact of Ang-II on skeletal muscle function and concomitant molecular alterations. Mice were infused with Ang-II for 4 weeks. Subsequently, skeletal muscle function of the soleus muscle was assessed. Expression of selected proteins was quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Infusion of Ang-II resulted in a 33% reduction of contractile force, despite a lack of changes in muscle weight. At the molecular level an increased expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and a reduced expression of Sirt1, PGC-1α and IGF-1 were noticed. No change was evident for the ubiquitin E3-ligases MuRF1 and MafBx and α-sarcomeric actin expression. Cytophotometrical analysis of the soleus muscle revealed a metabolic shift toward a glycolytic profile. This study provides direct evidence of Ang-II-mediated, metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle function despite preserved muscle mass. One may speculate that the Ang-II-mediated loss of muscle force is due to an activation of NAD(P)H oxidase expression and a subsequent ROS-induced down regulation of IGF-1, PGC-1α and Sirt1.

  11. Exogenous L-arginine attenuates the effects of angiotensin II on renal hemodynamics and the pressure natriuresis-diuresis relationship.

    PubMed

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L

    2014-04-01

    Administration of exogenous L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates angiotensin-II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure diuresis-natriuresis in anaesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg per min i.v.) or AngII + L-Arg (300 μg/kg per min i.v.). Experiments in isolated aortic rings were carried out to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from ~100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a nine- to tenfold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40-42%, and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54-58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10(-10) mol/L to 10(-7) mol/L) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27 ± 3% of the response to 10(-5) mol/L phenylephrine. Contraction to 10(-7) mol/L AngII was blunted by 75 ± 3% with 10(-4) mol/L L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII-mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Furthermore, the addition of 10(-3) mol/L cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies show that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg.

  12. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  13. Exendin-4 alleviates angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting Rac1 activation via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Ai Q; Zhou, Teng F; Zhang, Meng Q; Qin, Xiao M

    2014-12-15

    Vascular aging has been implicated in the progression of diabetes and age-related cardiovascular disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone capable of cytoprotective actions in addition to its glucose-lowering effect. The present study was undertaken to examine whether Exendin-4, a specific ligand for the GLP-1 receptor, could prevent angiotensin (ANG) II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to determine the underlying mechanism involved. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) assay showed that ANG II induced premature senescence of VSMCs. Pretreatment with Exendin-4 significantly attenuated ANG II-induced generation of H2O2 and the subsequent VSMC senescence. These effects were, however, reversed in the presence of exendin fragment 9-39, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, or PKI14-22. Moreover, a marked increase in the levels of p53 and p21 induced by ANG II was blunted by the treatment with Exendin-4. Nevertheless, Exendin-4 failed to decrease ANG II-induced expression of NAD(P)H oxidase 1 (Nox1), NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4), p22(phox), or p47(phox) in VSMCs. Mechanistically, Exendin-4 blocked ANG II-induced Rac1 activation through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Specifically, NSC23766, a Rac1 inhibitor, abrogated the suppressive effects of Exendin-4 on ANG II-induced premature senescence and H2O2 generation, respectively. Thus Exendin-4 confers resistance to ANG II-induced superoxide anion generation from NAD(P)H oxidase and the resultant VSMC senescence by inhibiting Rac1 activation via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. These findings demonstrate that GLP-1 as well as its analogs (GLP-1-related reagents) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy: implications of angiotensin II – dependent activation of TRPC channels

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Lowing, Andrea; Shuyskiy, Leonid S.; Palygin, Oleg; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Injury to podocytes is considered a major contributor to diabetic kidney disease: their loss causes proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte depletion may result from improper calcium handling due to abnormal activation of the calcium permeant TRPC (Transient Receptor Potential Canonical) channels. Angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are found to be elevated in diabetes; furthermore, it was reported that Ang II causes activation of TRPC6 in podocytes. We hypothesized here that Ang II-mediated calcium influx is aggravated in the podocytes under the conditions of type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ-SS). Eleven weeks post treatment was sufficient for the animals to develop hyperglycemia, excessive urination, weight loss, microalbuminuria, nephrinuria and display renal histological lesions typical for patients with DN. Patch-clamp electrophysiology performed on podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli showed enhanced basal TRPC channel activity in the STZ-SS rats, and increased response to Ang II; total calcium influx triggered by Ang II application was also augmented in podocytes of these rats. Our studies have a strong potential for advancing the understanding of TRPC-mediated effects on podocytopenia in DN initiation. PMID:26656101

  15. Thymosin β4 Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Growth by Regulating Wnt/WISP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Guleria, Rakeshwar S; Thakur, Suresh; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Pan, Jing; Baker, Kenneth M; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2016-08-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. However, the role of Tβ4 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardio-protective effect of Tβ4 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte growth. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVM) were pretreated with Tβ4 followed by Ang II stimulation. Cell size, hypertrophy marker gene expression and Wnt signaling components, β-catenin, and Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy. Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of cell size, hypertrophy marker genes and Wnt-associated gene expression, and protein levels; induced by Ang II in cardiomyocyte. WISP-1 was overexpressed in NRVM and, the effect of Tβ4 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth was evaluated. WISP-1 overexpression promoted cardiomyocytes growth and was reversed by pretreatment with Tβ4. This is the first report which demonstrates that Tβ4 targets Wnt/WISP-1 to protect Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1737-1744, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII.

  17. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors.

  18. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors. PMID:27401876

  19. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  20. New Insights into the Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Ang1 on Neutrophils: Induction of MIP-1β Synthesis and Release.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Elizabeth; Neagoe, Paul-Eduard; McDonald, Patrick P; White, Michel; Sirois, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    We reported the expression of angiopoietin Tie2 receptor on human neutrophils and the capacity of angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) to induce pro-inflammatory activities, such as platelet-activating factor synthesis, β2-integrin activation and neutrophil migration. Recently, we observed differential effects between both angiopoietins, namely, the capacity of Ang1, but not Ang2, to promote rapid interleukin-8 synthesis and release, as well as neutrophil viability. Herein, we addressed whether Ang1 and/or Ang2 could modulate the synthesis and release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) by neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers; intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were assessed by ELISA. After 24 hours, the basal intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were ≈500 and 100 pg/106 neutrophils, respectively. Treatment with Ang1 (10 nM) increased neutrophil intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β concentrations by 310 and 388% respectively. Pretreatment with PI3K (LY294002), p38 MAPK (SB203580) and MEK (U0126) inhibitors completely inhibited Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. Pretreatment with NF-κB complex inhibitors, namely Bay11-7085 and IKK inhibitor VII or with a transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D) and protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide), did also abrogate Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. We validated by RT-qPCR analyses the effect of Ang1 on the induction of MIP-1β mRNA levels. Our study is the first one to report Ang1 capacity to induce MIP-1β gene expression, protein synthesis and release from neutrophils, and that these effects are mediated by PI3K, p38 MAPK and MEK activation and downstream NF-κB activation.

  1. New Insights into the Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Ang1 on Neutrophils: Induction of MIP-1β Synthesis and Release

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Elizabeth; Neagoe, Paul-Eduard; McDonald, Patrick P.; White, Michel; Sirois, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    We reported the expression of angiopoietin Tie2 receptor on human neutrophils and the capacity of angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) to induce pro-inflammatory activities, such as platelet-activating factor synthesis, β2-integrin activation and neutrophil migration. Recently, we observed differential effects between both angiopoietins, namely, the capacity of Ang1, but not Ang2, to promote rapid interleukin-8 synthesis and release, as well as neutrophil viability. Herein, we addressed whether Ang1 and/or Ang2 could modulate the synthesis and release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) by neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers; intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were assessed by ELISA. After 24 hours, the basal intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were ≈500 and 100 pg/106 neutrophils, respectively. Treatment with Ang1 (10 nM) increased neutrophil intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β concentrations by 310 and 388% respectively. Pretreatment with PI3K (LY294002), p38 MAPK (SB203580) and MEK (U0126) inhibitors completely inhibited Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. Pretreatment with NF-κB complex inhibitors, namely Bay11-7085 and IKK inhibitor VII or with a transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D) and protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide), did also abrogate Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. We validated by RT-qPCR analyses the effect of Ang1 on the induction of MIP-1β mRNA levels. Our study is the first one to report Ang1 capacity to induce MIP-1β gene expression, protein synthesis and release from neutrophils, and that these effects are mediated by PI3K, p38 MAPK and MEK activation and downstream NF-κB activation. PMID:27632174

  2. New Insights into the Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Ang1 on Neutrophils: Induction of MIP-1β Synthesis and Release.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Elizabeth; Neagoe, Paul-Eduard; McDonald, Patrick P; White, Michel; Sirois, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    We reported the expression of angiopoietin Tie2 receptor on human neutrophils and the capacity of angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) to induce pro-inflammatory activities, such as platelet-activating factor synthesis, β2-integrin activation and neutrophil migration. Recently, we observed differential effects between both angiopoietins, namely, the capacity of Ang1, but not Ang2, to promote rapid interleukin-8 synthesis and release, as well as neutrophil viability. Herein, we addressed whether Ang1 and/or Ang2 could modulate the synthesis and release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) by neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers; intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were assessed by ELISA. After 24 hours, the basal intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β protein concentrations were ≈500 and 100 pg/106 neutrophils, respectively. Treatment with Ang1 (10 nM) increased neutrophil intracellular and extracellular MIP-1β concentrations by 310 and 388% respectively. Pretreatment with PI3K (LY294002), p38 MAPK (SB203580) and MEK (U0126) inhibitors completely inhibited Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. Pretreatment with NF-κB complex inhibitors, namely Bay11-7085 and IKK inhibitor VII or with a transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D) and protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide), did also abrogate Ang1-mediated increase of MIP-1β intracellular and extracellular protein levels. We validated by RT-qPCR analyses the effect of Ang1 on the induction of MIP-1β mRNA levels. Our study is the first one to report Ang1 capacity to induce MIP-1β gene expression, protein synthesis and release from neutrophils, and that these effects are mediated by PI3K, p38 MAPK and MEK activation and downstream NF-κB activation. PMID:27632174

  3. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  4. Angiotensin II AT2 receptors are functionally coupled to protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nahmias, C; Cazaubon, S M; Briend-Sutren, M M; Lazard, D; Villageois, P; Strosberg, A D

    1995-01-01

    Murine N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells are shown to express a single class of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors that display all the pharmacological properties defining the Ang II receptor subtype 2 (AT2): high affinity for 125I-labelled AT2-selective agonist CGP 42112 (Kd 91 +/- 19 pM); expected rank order of potency (CGP 42112 = (Sar1,Ile8)Ang II > or = Ang II > PD 123319 >> DUP 753) for several Ang II analogues; increased binding in the presence of the reducing reagent dithiothreitol (DTT); and insensitivity to analogues of GTP. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding AT2 receptors from N1E-115 cells reveals nucleotide sequence identity with the AT2 subtype expressed in fetal tissue. Murine AT2 receptors transiently expressed in COS cells display the same pharmacological profile as endogenous Ang II receptors of N1E-115 cells. Taken together, these data reveal the exclusive presence of the AT2 receptor subtype in N1E-115 cells. Incubation of N1E-115 cells with Ang II leads to a marked decrease in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins with apparent molecular masses of 80, 97, 120, 150 and 180 kDa respectively. Tyrosine dephosphorylation of the same set of proteins is observed after treatment with the AT2-specific agonist CGP 42112. The response to both effectors is rapid and transient, showing a maximum between 5 and 10 min, and returning to basal levels after 20-30 min. In both cases, tyrosine dephosphorylation can be prevented by co-incubation with an excess of the antagonist Sarile. These data thus establish that AT2 receptor activation leads to protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in N1E-115 cells, and support a possible role for AT2 receptors in the negative regulation of cell proliferation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7532401

  5. Selection of a high-affinity and in vivo bioactive ssDNA aptamer against angiotensin II peptide.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2016-08-01

    Unique features of aptamers have attracted interests for a broad range of applications. Aptamers are able to specifically bind to targets and inhibit their functions. This study, aimed to isolate the high affinity ssDNA aptamers against bio-regulator peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) and investigate their bioactivity in cellular and animal models. To isolate ssDNA aptamers, 12 rounds of affinity chromatography SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) procedure were carried out. The SPR (surface plasmon resonance) and ELONA (enzyme linked oligonucleotide assay) analysis were used to determine the affinity and specificity of aptamers. The ability of selected aptamers to inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs) and their performance on Wistar rat urinary system and serum electrolyte levels were investigated. Two full-length aptamers (FLC112 and FLC125) with high affinity of respectively 7.52±2.44E-10 and 5.87±1.3E-9M were isolated against Ang II. The core regions of these aptamers (CRC112 and CRC125) also showed affinity of 5.33±1.15E-9 and 4.11±1.09E-9M. In vitro analysis revealed that FLC112 and FLC125 can inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on HA-VSMCs (P<0.05). They also significantly reduced the serum sodium level and increased the urine volume (P<0.05). The core regions of aptamers did not show high inhibitory potential against Ang II. It can be a spotlight that ssDNA aptamers have high potential for blocking Ang II. In conclusion, it appears that the researches focusing on high affinity and bioactive aptamers may lead to excellent results in blocking Ang II activity. PMID:27298205

  6. Angiotensin II increases fibronectin and collagen I through the β-catenin-dependent signaling in mouse collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Catherina A.; Gonzalez, Alexis A.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Vio, Carlos P.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of angiotensin II (ANG II) to renal and tubular fibrosis has been widely reported. Recent studies have shown that collecting duct cells can undergo mesenchymal transition suggesting that collecting duct cells are involved in interstitial fibrosis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an essential role in development, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis; however, the dysregulation of this pathway has been linked to fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether AT1 receptor activation induces the expression of fibronectin and collagen I via the β-catenin pathway in mouse collecting duct cell line M-1. ANG II (10−7 M) treatment in M-1 cells increased mRNA, protein levels of fibronectin and collagen I, the β-catenin target genes (cyclin D1 and c-myc), and the myofibroblast phenotype. These effects were prevented by candesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker. Inhibition of the β-catenin degradation with pyrvinium pamoate (pyr; 10−9 M) prevented the ANG II-induced expression of fibronectin, collagen I, and β-catenin target genes. ANG II treatment promoted the accumulation of β-catenin protein in a time-dependent manner. Because phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibits β-catenin degradation, we further evaluated the effects of ANG II and ANG II plus pyr on p-ser9-GSK-3β levels. ANG II-dependent upregulation of β-catenin protein levels was correlated with GSK-3β phosphorylation. These effects were prevented by pyr. Our data indicate that in M-1 collecting duct cells, the β-catenin pathway mediates the stimulation of fibronectin and collagen I in response to AT1 receptor activation. PMID:25411386

  7. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  8. Stability of a Beddington-DeAngelis type predator-prey model with trichotomous noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Niu, Siyong

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of a Beddington-DeAngelis (B-D) type predator-prey model driven by symmetric trichotomous noises is presented in this paper. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, the first-order and second-order solution moments of the system are obtained. The moment stability conditions of the B-D predator-prey model are given by using Routh-Hurwitz criterion. It is found that the stabilities of the first-order and second-order solution moments depend on the noise intensities and correlation time of noise. The first-order and second-order moments are stable when the correlation time of noise is increased. That is, the trichotomous noise plays a constructive role in stabilizing the solution moment with regard to Gaussian white noise. Finally, some numerical results are performed to support the theoretical analyses.

  9. Angiotensin II accelerates mammary gland development independently of high blood pressure in pregnancy-associated hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Baasanjav, Altansarnai; Kwon, Chulwon; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a vasopressor hormone that has critical roles in maintenance of normal blood pressure and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We previously generated pregnancy-associated hypertensive (PAH) mice by mating female human angiotensinogen transgenic mice with male human renin transgenic mice. PAH mice exhibit hypertension in late pregnancy by overproducing AngII. A recent study demonstrated that angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor is expressed in mammary epithelial cells and its signaling is critical for mammary gland involution after weaning. However, the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in the development of mammary gland during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, to investigate the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in mammary gland development during pregnancy, we analyzed the mammary gland of PAH mice. Histological and gene expression analyses revealed that lobuloalveolar development was accelerated with increased milk protein production and lipid accumulation in the mammary gland of PAH mice. Furthermore, AT1 receptor blocker treatment suppressed acceleration of mammary gland development in PAH mice, while the treatment of hydralazine, another antihypertensive drug, did not. These data suggest that AngII-AT1 receptor-induced signaling accelerates mammary gland development during pregnancy through hypertension-independent mechanism.

  10. Angiotensin II stimulates internalization and degradation of arterial myocyte plasma membrane BK channels to induce vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bulley, Simon; Bannister, John P.; Kuruvilla, Korah P.; Narayanan, Damodaran

    2015-01-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. In arterial myocytes, β1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. In contrast, BKα subunits are primarily plasma membrane-localized. Trafficking pathways for BKα and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BKα localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. Here, using biotinylation, immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer (immunoFRET) microscopy, and RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries. Angiotensin II (ANG II), a vasoconstrictor, reduced both surface and total BKα, an effect blocked by bisindolylmaleimide-II, concanavalin A, and dynasore, protein kinase C (PKC), internalization, and endocytosis inhibitors, respectively. In contrast, ANG II did not reduce BKα mRNA, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, did not alter surface BKα protein over the same time course. MG132 and bafilomycin A, proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, respectively, also inhibited the ANG II-induced reduction in surface and total BKα, resulting in intracellular BKα accumulation. ANG II-mediated BK channel degradation reduced BK currents in isolated myocytes and functional responses to iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, and NS1619, a BK activator, in pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries. These data indicate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in arterial myocytes. We also show that ANG II stimulates PKC-dependent BKα internalization and degradation. These data describe a unique mechanism by which ANG II inhibits arterial myocyte BK currents, by reducing surface channel number, to induce vasoconstriction. PMID:26179602

  11. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU.

  12. Effect of subpressor dose of angiotensin II on pain-related behavior in relation with neuronal injury and activation of satellite glial cells in the rat dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Jaroslav; Oroszova, Zuzana; Hricova, Ludmila; Lukacova, Nadezda

    2013-07-01

    To clarify the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the regulation of sensory signaling, we studied the effect of subpressor dose (150 ng/kg/min) of Ang II on pain-related behavior in relation with neuronal injury and activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) after chronic constriction injury (CCI). Systemic continuous delivery of Ang II induced the tactile, heat and cold hyperlagesia, when measured at 7 days ofpost-injury. Blockade of the AT1 receptor with losartan (2.5 mg/kg/day) prevented tactile hyperalgesia and attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but did not affect the response to noxious heat stimulus. A marked increase of large-sized injured primary afferent neurons, detected by ATF3 immunolabeling, was seen in lower lumbar DRGs on ipsilateral side after Ang II treatment. Subpressor dose of Ang II induced an increase of activated SGCs (detected by GFAP immunolabeling) enveloping large-diameter neurons. Our results suggested that Ang II through the AT1 receptor activation is an important regulatory factor in neuropathic pain perception and plays an important role in the injury of large-sized primary afferent neurons and activation of SGCs elicited by the CCI.

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits agiontensin II-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and bone morphogenetic protein-2 downregulation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin-Yu; Ruan, Qiu-Rong; Zhu, Da-He; Zhu, Min; Qu, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Jun

    2007-06-25

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an effective component of traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong, is commonly used to resolve embolism. Its possible therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis has received considerable attention recently. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is highly implicated in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), resulting in atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of TMP in the proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II remain to be defined. The present study was aimed to study the effect of TMP on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through detection of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression. Primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were divided into the control group, Ang II group, Ang II + TMP group and TMP group. Cells in each group were harvested at different time points (15, 30 and 60 min for detection of NF-kappaB activity; 6, 12 and 24 h for measurement of BMP-2 expression). NF-kappaB activation was identified as nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry. BMP-2 expression was observed through Western blot, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The results showed that: (1) Ang II stimulated the activation of NF-kappaB. Translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nucleus appeared as early as 15 min, peaked at 30 min (P<0.01) and declined after 1 h. (2) TMP inhibited Ang II-induced NF-kappaB activation (P<0.01). (3) Ang II increased BMP-2 expression at 6 h but declined it significantly at 12 and 24 h (P<0.01). (4) BMP-2 expression was also kept at high level at 6 h in Ang II + TMP group but maintained at the normal level at 12 and 24 h. (5) There was no significant difference in NF-kappaB activation and BMP-2 expression between the control group and TMP group. These results indicate that TMP inhibits Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through repression of NF-kappaB activation and BMP-2 reduction, and BMP-2 expression is independent of the NF-kappaB pathway. In

  14. Inhibition of PTEN expression and activity by angiotensin II induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Yu, Lu-Gang; Sun, Rong; Cheng, Yan-Na; Cao, Hua; Yang, Kang-Min; Dong, Yi-Ning; Wu, Yan; Guo, Xiu-Li

    2013-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor and has been suggested recently to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular diseases. The molecular mechanisms of this regulation are however poorly understood. This study shows that down regulation of PTEN expression and activity by angiotensin II (Ang II) increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The presence of Ang II induced rapid PTEN phosphorylation and oxidation in accordance with increased AKT and FAK phosphorylation. The Ang II-mediated VSMC proliferation and migration was inhibited when cellular PTEN expression was increased by AT1 inhibitor losartan, PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. Over expression of PTEN in VSMCs by adenovirus transduction also resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and migration in response to Ang II. These results suggest that PTEN down-regulation is involved in proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by Ang II. This provides insight into the molecular regulation of PTEN in vascular smooth muscle cells and suggests that targeting the action of PTEN may represent an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. NMDA Receptor Plasticity in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to the Elevated Blood Pressure Produced by Angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Glass, Michael J; Wang, Gang; Coleman, Christal G; Chan, June; Ogorodnik, Evgeny; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Milner, Teresa A; Butler, Scott D; Young, Colin N; Davisson, Robin L; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M

    2015-07-01

    Hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with glutamate-dependent dysregulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Many forms of glutamate-dependent plasticity are mediated by NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit expression and the distribution of functional receptor to the plasma membrane of dendrites. Here, we use a combined ultrastructural and functional analysis to examine the relationship between PVN NMDA receptors and the blood pressure increase induced by chronic infusion of a low dose of Ang II. We report that the increase in blood pressure produced by a 2 week administration of a subpressor dose of Ang II results in an elevation in plasma membrane GluN1 in dendrites of PVN neurons in adult male mice. The functional implications of these observations are further demonstrated by the finding that GluN1 deletion in PVN neurons attenuated the Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure. These results indicate that NMDA receptor plasticity in PVN neurons significantly contributes to the elevated blood pressure mediated by Ang II.

  16. NMDA Receptor Plasticity in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to the Elevated Blood Pressure Produced by Angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Coleman, Christal G.; Chan, June; Ogorodnik, Evgeny; Van Kempen, Tracey A.; Milner, Teresa A.; Butler, Scott D.; Young, Colin N.; Davisson, Robin L.; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with glutamate-dependent dysregulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Many forms of glutamate-dependent plasticity are mediated by NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit expression and the distribution of functional receptor to the plasma membrane of dendrites. Here, we use a combined ultrastructural and functional analysis to examine the relationship between PVN NMDA receptors and the blood pressure increase induced by chronic infusion of a low dose of Ang II. We report that the increase in blood pressure produced by a 2 week administration of a subpressor dose of Ang II results in an elevation in plasma membrane GluN1 in dendrites of PVN neurons in adult male mice. The functional implications of these observations are further demonstrated by the finding that GluN1 deletion in PVN neurons attenuated the Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure. These results indicate that NMDA receptor plasticity in PVN neurons significantly contributes to the elevated blood pressure mediated by Ang II. PMID:26134639

  17. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity alters blood pressure response to angiotensin II administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinic, which is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. CP may also disturb hemodynamics of the circulation system. We have tested the role of CP in mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to graded angiotensin (Ang) II infusion in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were treated with CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 1-week and compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The blood pressure response to Ang II (100–1000 ng/kg/min) was determined under the anesthesia condition. Endothelial permeability of aorta was measured according to the Evans blue uptake. The kidney tissue was also subjected to histological investigation. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and pathological findings in CP-treated rats verified CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Significant difference in percentage of change in MAP response to Ang II between male and female rats was detected in vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05) while in CP-treated animals this response difference was not observed. The groups were not significantly different with regard to the endothelial permeability of aorta while the serum level of nitrite in male rats increased significantly following administration of CP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems the different response in percentage of change of MAP to graded Ang II infusion between male and female indicates the effect of CP on renin Ang system parameters. PMID:27110550

  18. Interaction of central Angiotensin II and estrogen on systolic blood pressure in female DOCA-salt treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kafami, Marzieh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Niazmand, Saeed; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Alreza; Farrokhi, Esmaeil; Mazloum, Tahereh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a probable interaction of central angiotensin II (Ang II) and estrogen (Est) on blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Therefore, in the present study, the interaction between Ang II and Est in ovariectomized (Ovx) and Sham rats that were treated with DOCA- salt was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The female rats were divided into 10 groups as follows: Sham, Ovx, Sham-DOCA, Ovx-DOCA, Sham-DOCA-estrogen (E), Ovx DOCA-E, Sham-DOCA-losartan (L), Ovx-DOCA-L, Sham–DOCA-L-E, and Ovx-DOCA-L-E. The Est groups received estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; daily; subcutaneously (s.c)) for four weeks. Following that, several doses of Ang II (0.5, 5, 50, 500, 5000 ng/5 μl) were injected via the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) route and the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated. In the losartan groups, 200 μg losartan was injected (i.c.v) 15 minutes after the Ang II injection and the blood pressure was recorded. Treatment by DOCA was performed by removal of one kidney, injection of DOCA (45 mg/kg i.p), and adding of sodium chloride (NaCl) (1%) and potassium chloride (KCl) (0.1%) in the drinking water. Results: The SBP was increased by Ang II and this effect in DOCA-salt treated rat was higher than in the untreated groups. The effect of Ang II on SBP in groups that were treated with Est and L was lower than that in the DOCA-salt groups. Increase in SBP was strongly attenuated by Ang II in groups that were co-treated with both Est and L compared to the DOCA-treated rats. These results showed that Est significantly attenuated the effect of central Ang II on SBP in the DOCA-salt treated rats. Conclusion: We suggest that there are interactions between E and Ang II in the control of blood pressure in DOCA-salt treated rats. PMID:27195251

  19. Castration of male mice prevents the progression of established angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Thatcher, Sean; Wu, Congqing; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Male sex is a non-modifiable risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Similar to humans, male mice are more susceptible to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs than females. Previous studies demonstrated that castration of males markedly reduced the formation of AngII-induced AAAs. Progression of AAA size is associated with increased risk of aneurysm rupture. In this study, we hypothesized that castration of male mice would reduce the progression of established AngII-induced AAAs. Methods Male apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were infused with AngII for 1 month to induce AAA formation. Aortic diameters were measured by ultrasound and mice were stratified into 2 groups that were either sham-operated or castrated. AngII infusions were continued for a further 2 months. Ultrasound was used to quantify lumen diameters, and excised aortas were processed for quantification of AAA size, volume, and tissue characteristics. Results Sham-operated mice exhibited progressive dilation of suprarenal aortic lumen diameters during continued AngII infusion. Castration significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters (study endpoint: 1.88 ± 0.05 mm vs 1.63 ± 0.04 mm; P<.05; sham-operated [n = 15] vs castration [n = 17], respectively). However, maximal external AAA diameters were not significantly different between sham-operated and castrated mice. The vascular volume/lumen volume ratio of excised AAAs imaged by ultrasound was significantly increased by castration (sham-operated, 4.8 ± 0.9; castration, 9.5 ± 2.0 %; n = 11/group; P<.05). Moreover, compared to thin walled AAAs of sham-operated mice, aneurysm sections from castrated mice exhibited increased smooth muscle -actin and collagen. Conclusions Removal of endogenous male hormones by castration selectively reduces aortic lumen expansion while not altering the external AAA dimensions. PMID:24439319

  20. Alpha-adrenergic regulation of angiotensin II receptors in neuronal cultures from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Watkins, L.L.; Raizada, M.K.

    1986-03-05

    Our previous studies have suggested that endogenous catecholamine (CA) levels are important regulators of angiotensin II receptors (AngII-R) in neuronal cultures. The present study was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms by which CA exert their effects on AngII-R. Incubation of neuronal cultures with norepinephrine (NE) resulted in time and dose dependent decreases in (/sup 125/I)-AngII specific binding. A maximal effect of 60-70% was observed between 4-8 hours at 1..mu..M NE, which was the result of a decrease in Bmax (104 +/- 16.3 fmol/mg protein in controls vs 41.4 +/- 9.3 fmol/mg protein in NE treated) and little change in Kd. Similar effects were observed when neuronal cultures were incubated with dopamine (DA) or phenylephrine, but serotonin, epinephrine and isoproterenol had no effect. The NE and DA stimulated decrease in AngII-R appears to be an ..cap alpha../sub 1/=adrenergic receptor mediated phenomenon because it is abolished by coincubation with prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-antagonist) and not by ..cap alpha../sub 2/- or ..beta..-antagonists. Similar incubations of neuronal cultures with NE also caused a time and dose dependent downregulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors. Taken together these observations indicate that the NE induced downregulation of AngII-R is mediated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptors, and suggest that one possible mechanism may be the cointernalization of both ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and AngII-R stimulated by ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic agonists.

  1. Obligatory Role for B Cells in the Development of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christopher T; Sobey, Christopher G; Lieu, Maggie; Ferens, Dorota; Kett, Michelle M; Diep, Henry; Kim, Hyun Ah; Krishnan, Shalini M; Lewis, Caitlin V; Salimova, Ekaterina; Tipping, Peter; Vinh, Antony; Samuel, Chrishan S; Peter, Karlheinz; Guzik, Tomasz J; Kyaw, Tin S; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alexander; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-11-01

    Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R(-/-)) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R(-/-) (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was rescued by B-cell transfer. BAFF-R(-/-) mice displayed reduced IgG accumulation in the aorta, which was associated with 80% fewer aortic macrophages and a 70% reduction in transforming growth factor-β expression. BAFF-R(-/-) mice were also protected from Ang II-induced collagen deposition and aortic stiffening (assessed by pulse wave velocity analysis). Finally, like BAFF-R deficiency, pharmacological depletion of B cells with an anti-CD20 antibody attenuated Ang II-induced hypertension by ≈35%. Hence, these studies demonstrate that B cells/IgGs are crucial for the development of Ang II-induced hypertension and vessel remodeling in mice. Thus, B-cell-targeted therapies-currently used for autoimmune diseases-may hold promise as future treatments for hypertension.

  2. Short-term nonpressor angiotensin II infusion stimulates sodium transporters in proximal tubule and distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mien T X; Han, Jiyang; Ralph, Donna L; Veiras, Luciana C; McDonough, Alicia A

    2015-09-01

    In Sprague Dawley rats, 2-week angiotensin II (AngII) infusion increases Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from cortical thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) to medullary collecting duct (CD) and raises blood pressure associated with a pressure natriuresis, accompanied by depressed Na(+) transporter abundance and activation from proximal tubule (PT) through medullary TALH. This study tests the hypothesis that early during AngII infusion, before blood pressure raises, Na(+) transporters' abundance and activation increase all along the nephron. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused via osmotic minipumps with a subpressor dose of AngII (200 ng/kg/min) or vehicle for 3 days. Overnight urine was collected in metabolic cages and sodium transporters' abundance and phosphorylation were determined by immunoblotting homogenates of renal cortex and medulla. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, overnight urine volume, urinary Na(+) and K(+) excretion, or rate of excretion of a saline challenge between AngII and vehicle infused rats. The 3-day nonpressor AngII infusion significantly increased the abundance of PT Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), cortical TALH Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2), distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and cortical CD ENaC subunits. Additionally, phosphorylation of cortical NKCC2, NCC, and STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) were increased; medullary NKCC2 and SPAK were not altered. In conclusion, 3-day AngII infusion provokes PT NHE3 accumulation as well as NKCC2, NCC, and SPAK accumulation and activation in a prehypertensive phase before evidence for intrarenal angiotensinogen accumulation. PMID:26347505

  3. Angiotensin-(1-7) acts as a vasodepressor agent via angiotensin II type 2 receptors in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, Pia E; Gaspari, Tracey A; Widdop, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Given that angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) has been frequently reported to exert direct in vitro vascular effects but less often in vivo, we investigated whether a vasodepressor effect of Ang-(1-7) could be unmasked acutely in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) against a background of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured over a 5-day protocol in various groups of rats randomized to receive the following drug combinations: saline, AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist candesartan (0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg IV) alone, Ang-(1-7) (5 pmol/min) alone, candesartan plus Ang-(1-7), and candesartan plus Ang-(1-7) and angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor (AT2R) antagonist PD123319 (50 microg/kg per minute). In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, saline, Ang-(1-7), or candesartan alone caused no significant alteration in MAP, whereas Ang-(1-7) coadministered with candesartan caused a marked, sustained reduction in MAP. A similar unmasking of a vasodepressor response to Ang-(1-7) during AT1R blockade was observed in SHR. Moreover, the AT(2)R antagonist PD123319 markedly attenuated the enhanced depressor response evoked by the Ang-(1-7)/candesartan combination in SHR and WKY rats, whereas in other experiments, the putative Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 (5 and 50 pmol/min) did not attenuate this vasodepressor effect. In separate experiments, the bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (100 microg/kg IV) or the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 mg/kg IV) abolished the depressor effect of Ang-(1-7) in the presence of candesartan. Collectively, these results suggest that Ang-(1-7) evoked a depressor response during AT1R blockade via activation of AT2R, which involves the bradykinin-NO cascade.

  4. Pioglitazone inhibits angiotensin II-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation via NF-κB/TGF-β1/TRIF/TRAF6 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao-qing; Liu, Xu; Wang, Quan-xing; Zhang, Ming-jian; Guo, Meng; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying inhibitory effects of pioglitazone (Pio) on Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced atrial fibrosis are complex and remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of Pio on AngII-induced mice atrial fibrosis in vivo and atrial fibroblasts proliferation in vitro. In vivo study showed that AngII infusion induced atrial fibrosis and increased expressions of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in mice models. However, those effects could be attenuated by Pio (P<0.01). As for in vitro experiment, Pio suppressed AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation via nuclear factor-κB/transforming growth factor-β1/TRIF/TRAF6 signaling pathway in primary cultured mice atrial fibroblasts (P<0.01). In conclusion, suppression of Pio on AngII-induced atrial fibrosis might be related to its inhibitory effects on above signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II increased atrial fibrosis and related gene expressions in mice. • Angiotensin II induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation by activating signaling pathway. • Pioglitazone reversed both aforementioned changes.

  5. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  6. APE1/Ref-1 promotes the effect of angiotensin II on Ca2+ -activated K+ channel in human endothelial cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Sun; Ko, Eun A; Jung, In Duk; Son, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Nari; Park, So Youn; Hong, Ki Whan; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Han, Jin

    2008-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on whole-cell large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) currents was investigated in control and Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1)-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ang II blocked the BK(Ca) current in a dose-dependent fashion, and this inhibition was greater in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs than in control HUVECs (half-inhibition values of 102.81+/-9.54 nM and 11.34+/-0.39 nM in control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs, respectively). Pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or knock down of NADPH oxidase (p22 phox) using siRNA increased the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) currents, similar to the effect of APE1/Ref-1 overexpression. In addition, application of Ang II increased the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in the control HUVECs but not in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. Furthermore, direct application of hydrogen peroxide increased BK(Ca) channel activity. Finally, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) current was blocked by an antagonist of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in both control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. From these results, we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channel function is NADPH oxidase-dependent and may be promoted by APE1/Ref-1.

  7. Thymoquinone Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through the AMPK/PPARγ/PGC-1α Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xing; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Heming; Han, Yong; Fan, Yigang

    2016-08-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the primary bioactive component of Nigella sativa L. seed oil, which exhibits antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats, but its role in VSMC proliferation and migration has not been investigated. The results of MTT assay and flow cytometry assay indicated that TQ dose-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced VSMCs' cell cycle progression, as well as cyclin D1 expression, whereas p21 expression was altered conversely. TQ dose-dependently suppressed Ang II-induced VSMC migration accompanied by reduced MMP-9 expression. In addition, we observed the elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase activity and reduced superoxide dismutase activity in Ang II-treated VSMCs, which were dose-dependently reversed by TQ. Western blot analysis indicated that TQ dose-dependently restored Ang II-inhibited expression of p-AMPK, PPARγ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) proteins. Furthermore, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor Compound C and PGC-1α siRNA transfection abrogated the activation of TQ on Ang II-inhibited AMPK/PPARγ/PGC-1α signaling, but abolished the inhibitory effects of TQ on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as ROS generation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TQ inhibited Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through the AMPK/PPARγ/PGC-1α pathway. PMID:27064837

  8. Female protection from slow-pressor effects of angiotensin II involves prevention of ROS production independent of NMDA receptor trafficking in hypothalamic neurons expressing angiotensin 1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Marques-Lopes, Jose; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Waters, Elizabeth M; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M; Milner, Teresa A

    2015-03-01

    Renin–angiotensin system overactivity, upregulation of postsynaptic NMDA receptor function, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are hallmarks of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension, which is far more common in young males than in young females. We hypothesize that the sex differences in hypertension are related to differential AngII-induced changes in postsynaptic trafficking of the essential NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit and ROS production in PVN cells expressing angiotensin Type 1a receptor (AT1aR). We tested this hypothesis using slow-pressor (14-day) infusion of AngII (600 ng/kg/min) in mice, which elicits hypertension in males but not in young females. Two-month-old male and female transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in AT1aR-containing cells were used. In males, but not in females, AngII increased blood pressure and ROS production in AT1aR–EGFP PVN cells at baseline and following NMDA treatment. Electron microscopy showed that AngII increased cytoplasmic and total GluN1–silver-intensified immunogold (SIG) densities and induced a trend toward an increase in near plasmalemmal GluN1–SIG density in AT1aR–EGFP dendrites of males and females. Moreover, AngII decreased dendritic area and diameter in males, but increased dendritic area of small (<1 µm) dendrites and decreased diameter of large (>1 µm) dendrites in females. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that AT1aR and estrogen receptor β do not colocalize, suggesting that if estrogen is involved, its effect is indirect. These data suggest that the sexual dimorphism in AngII-induced hypertension is associated with sex differences in ROS production in AT1aR-containing PVN cells but not with postsynaptic NMDA receptor trafficking. PMID:25559190

  9. Impact of losartan and angiotensin II on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Song; Wu, Zong-Gui; Yang, Jun-Ke; Chen, Xin-Jing

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of losartan and angiotensin II (AngII) on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), secreted by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in different concentrations of AngII and losartan for 24 h and western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the subsequent impact on the gene and protein expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. AngII was shown to promote the protein and gene expression of MMP-9 in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed on the expression of TIMP-1, therefore, an increase in the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was observed. Losartan was shown to be able to inhibit MMP-9 protein and gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whilst promoting an increase in TIMP-1 expression, thus decreasing the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1. The combined action of losartan and AngII resulted in the same directional changes in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression as observed for losartan alone. The comparison of AngII, losartan and the combinatory effect on the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in VSMCs indicated that losartan inhibited the effects of AngII, therefore reducing the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of losartan in preventing atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, the development of the extracellular matrix of plaque is closely correlated with the evolution of AS. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs is important in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium between the ECM, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is involved in the pathologenesis of AS, and in which AngII has a central role.

  10. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1-4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  11. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1–4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  12. Retinoids inhibit the actions of angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Haxsen, V; Adam-Stitah, S; Ritz, E; Wagner, J

    2001-03-30

    Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A and powerful inhibitors of cell proliferation and inflammation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to vascular lesions by promoting cell growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we examined whether retinoids interfere with the proproliferative actions of Ang II in VSMCs via AT(1) receptor-dependent or activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent mechanisms. VSMCs express retinoid receptor proteins, ie, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha. Long-term exposure to 1 micromol/L all-trans retinoic acid (RA) dose-dependently inhibited Ang II-induced cell proliferation (P<0.005) as well as DNA and protein synthesis (P<0.001). All-trans RA blocked Ang II stimulation of transforming growth factor-beta(1) mRNA (P<0.005). All-trans RA inhibition of vascular VSMC growth was mediated both via RAR- and RXR-dependent pathways, as shown by receptor-specific synthetic retinoids. Transfection experiments revealed that inhibition of AP-1-dependent gene transcription is one mechanism by which all-trans RA inhibits Ang II action. RARalpha cotransfection enhanced the anti-AP-1 effects of all-trans RA dose-dependently. AP-1 activity was similarly inhibited by cotransfection with either RARalpha or RXRalpha. Ang II-induced gene expression of c-fos was abrogated by all-trans RA treatment (P<0.005). In VSMCs, all-trans RA downregulated AT(1) receptor mRNA (P<0.01) and reduced B(max) (P<0.001). All-trans RA repressed Ang II-stimulated AT(1) receptor promoter activity. The all-trans RA inhibitory effect was abolished when the AP-1 consensus site on the AT(1) receptor promoter was deleted. Our findings demonstrate that retinoids are potent inhibitors of the actions of Ang II on VSMCs. The findings support the notion that retinoids may interfere with proliferative vascular disease.

  13. Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes.

  14. Antenatal betamethasone exposure is associated with lower ANG-(1-7) and increased ACE in the CSF of adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Pirro, Nancy T; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2013-10-01

    Antenatal betamethasone (BM) therapy accelerates lung development in preterm infants but may induce early programming events with long-term cardiovascular consequences. To elucidate these events, we developed a model of programming whereby pregnant ewes are administered BM (2 doses of 0.17 mg/kg) or vehicle at the 80th day of gestation and offspring are delivered at term. BM-exposed (BMX) offspring develop elevated blood pressure; decreased baroreflex sensitivity; and alterations in the circulating, renal, and brain renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) by 6 mo of age. We compared components of the choroid plexus fourth ventricle (ChP4) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) RAS between control and BMX male offspring at 6 mo of age. In the choroid plexus, high-molecular-weight renin protein and ANG I-intact angiotensinogen were unchanged between BMX and control animals. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity was threefold higher than either neprilysin (NEP) or angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) in control and BMX animals. Moreover, all three enzymes were equally enriched by approximately 2.5-fold in ChP4 brush-border membrane preparations. CSF ANG-(1-7) levels were significantly lower in BMX animals (351.8 ± 76.8 vs. 77.5 ± 29.7 fmol/mg; P < 0.05) and ACE activity was significantly higher (6.6 ± 0.5 vs. 8.9 ± 0.5 fmol·min(-1)·ml(-1); P < 0.05), whereas ACE2 and NEP activities were below measurable limits. A thiol-sensitive peptidase contributed to the majority of ANG-(1-7) metabolism in the CSF, with higher activity in BMX animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure alters CSF but not ChP RAS components, resulting in lower ANG-(1-7) levels in exposed animals. PMID:23948771

  15. Association between the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk in Caucasian: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lishou; Deng, Xinbo; Ding, Dan; Leng, Huilin; Zhu, Xuepeng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    The study purpose is to perform a meta-analysis to help resolve the debate of whether the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk in Caucasian. Three literature databases were searched for eligible studies published up to January 8, 2015: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science using the following search terms: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS and Angiogenin or ANG. Five eligible articles were identified, which reported 6 case-control studies and a total of 2326 cases and 3799 controls. The overall results suggested low frequencies of the K17I variant in Caucasian patients (10/2326, 0.43 %) and controls (6/3799, 0.16 %). There is no difference in the variant frequencies between patients with FALS or SALS (p = 0.069). Analysis of pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that the ANG K17I variant increases the risk for ALS (AT vs. AA: OR 2.65, 95 % CI 1.05-6.66, p = 0.038) and familial ALS (FALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 11.81, 95 % CI 2.11-66.15, p = 0.005) but not for sporadic ALS (SALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 1.63, 95 % CI 0.55-4.82, p = 0.378). The ANG K17I variant is rare in Caucasian patients and controls and increases the risk for ALS and FALS but not for SALS in Caucasian populations. Further well-designed studies with larger samples are needed to validate these results.

  16. Involvement of cytochrome P-450 1B1 in renal dysfunction, injury, and inflammation associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brett L; Anderson, Larry J; Estes, Anne M; Fang, Xiao R; Song, Chi Young; Campbell, William B; Malik, Kafait U

    2012-02-15

    We investigated the contribution of cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1) to renal dysfunction and organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension in rats. ANG II (300 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or vehicle were infused for 2 wk, with daily injections of a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor, 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS; 300 μg/kg ip), or its vehicle. ANG II increased blood pressure and renal CYP1B1 activity that were prevented by TMS. ANG II also increased water intake and urine output, decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary Na(+) and K(+) excretion, and caused proteinuria, all of which were prevented by TMS. ANG II infusion caused hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and increased reactivity of renal and interlobar arteries to vasoconstrictor agents and renal vascular resistance and interstitial fibrosis as indicated by accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen, and inflammation as indicated by increased infiltration of CD-3(+) cells; these effects were inhibited by TMS. ANG II infusion also increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and c-Src that were prevented by TMS. TMS alone had no effect on any of the above parameters. These data suggest that CYP1B1 contributes to the renal pathophysiological changes associated with ANG II-induced hypertension, most likely via increased ROS production and activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and c-Src and that CYP1B1 could serve as a novel target for treating renal disease associated with hypertension.

  17. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  18. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi.

  19. Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Jonas; Riedemann, Lars; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Susek, Katharina; Yu, Veronica; Dalvie, Nisha; Amelung, Robin L; Datta, Meenal; Song, Jonathan W; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Taylor, Jennie W; Lu-Emerson, Christine; Batista, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D; Jung, Keehoon; Snuderl, Matija; Muzikansky, Alona; Stubenrauch, Kay G; Krieter, Oliver; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Xu, Lei; Munn, Lance L; Duda, Dan G; Fukumura, Dai; Batchelor, Tracy T; Jain, Rakesh K

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has failed to improve overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously showed that angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) overexpression compromised the benefit from anti-VEGF therapy in a preclinical GBM model. Here we investigated whether dual Ang-2/VEGF inhibition could overcome resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We treated mice bearing orthotopic syngeneic (Gl261) GBMs or human (MGG8) GBM xenografts with antibodies inhibiting VEGF (B20), or Ang-2/VEGF (CrossMab, A2V). We examined the effects of treatment on the tumor vasculature, immune cell populations, tumor growth, and survival in both the Gl261 and MGG8 tumor models. We found that in the Gl261 model, which displays a highly abnormal tumor vasculature, A2V decreased vessel density, delayed tumor growth, and prolonged survival compared with B20. In the MGG8 model, which displays a low degree of vessel abnormality, A2V induced no significant changes in the tumor vasculature but still prolonged survival. In both the Gl261 and MGG8 models A2V reprogrammed protumor M2 macrophages toward the antitumor M1 phenotype. Our findings indicate that A2V may prolong survival in mice with GBM by reprogramming the tumor immune microenvironment and delaying tumor growth.

  20. Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Jonas; Riedemann, Lars; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Susek, Katharina; Yu, Veronica; Dalvie, Nisha; Amelung, Robin L.; Datta, Meenal; Song, Jonathan W.; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Taylor, Jennie W.; Lu-Emerson, Christine; Batista, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Jung, Keehoon; Snuderl, Matija; Muzikansky, Alona; Stubenrauch, Kay G.; Krieter, Oliver; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Xu, Lei; Munn, Lance L.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has failed to improve overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously showed that angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) overexpression compromised the benefit from anti-VEGF therapy in a preclinical GBM model. Here we investigated whether dual Ang-2/VEGF inhibition could overcome resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We treated mice bearing orthotopic syngeneic (Gl261) GBMs or human (MGG8) GBM xenografts with antibodies inhibiting VEGF (B20), or Ang-2/VEGF (CrossMab, A2V). We examined the effects of treatment on the tumor vasculature, immune cell populations, tumor growth, and survival in both the Gl261 and MGG8 tumor models. We found that in the Gl261 model, which displays a highly abnormal tumor vasculature, A2V decreased vessel density, delayed tumor growth, and prolonged survival compared with B20. In the MGG8 model, which displays a low degree of vessel abnormality, A2V induced no significant changes in the tumor vasculature but still prolonged survival. In both the Gl261 and MGG8 models A2V reprogrammed protumor M2 macrophages toward the antitumor M1 phenotype. Our findings indicate that A2V may prolong survival in mice with GBM by reprogramming the tumor immune microenvironment and delaying tumor growth. PMID:27044098

  1. Region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity in angiotensin II-salt hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Osborn, John W; Fink, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    It is now well accepted that many forms of experimental hypertension and human essential hypertension are caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, the role of region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been difficult to determine because methods for chronic measurement of SNA in conscious animals have not been available. We have recently combined indirect, and continuous and chronic direct, assessment of region-specific SNA to characterize hypertension produced by administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) to rats consuming a high-salt diet (Ang II-salt hypertension). Angiotensin II increases whole-body noradrenaline (NA) spillover and depressor responses to ganglionic blockade in rats consuming a high-salt diet, but not in rats on a normal-salt diet. Despite this evidence for increased 'whole-body SNA' in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats, renal SNA is decreased in this model and renal denervation does not attenuate the steady-state level of arterial pressure. In addition, neither lumbar SNA, which largely targets skeletal muscle, nor hindlimb NA spillover is changed from control levels in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. However, surgical denervation of the splanchnic vascular bed attenuates/abolishes the increase in arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance, as well as the decrease in vascular capacitance, observed in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. We hypothesize that the 'sympathetic signature' of Ang II-salt hypertension is characterized by increased splanchnic SNA, no change in skeletal muscle SNA and decreased renal SNA, and this sympathetic signature creates unique haemodynamic changes capable of producing sustained hypertension. PMID:19717492

  2. Safflor yellow B suppresses angiotensin II-mediated human umbilical vein cell injury via regulation of Bcl-2/p22{sup phox} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; He, Yanhao; Yang, Ming; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Shuping; Wang, Chunhua

    2013-11-15

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can cause endothelial dysfunction by promoting intracellular ROS generation. Safflor yellow B (SYB) effectively inhibits ROS generation by upregulating Bcl-2 expression. In this study, we examined the effects of SYB on Ang II-induced injury to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and elucidated the roles of NADPH oxidase and Bcl-2. We treated cultured HUVECs with Ang II, SYB, and Bcl-2 siRNA, and determined NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels. Furthermore, cellular and mitochondrial physiological states were evaluated, and the expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Ang II significantly enhanced intracellular ROS levels, caused mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and decreased cell viability, leading to apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of AT1R and p22{sup phox}, increased NADPH oxidase activity, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, leading to decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities, which were further strengthened after blocking Bcl-2. Compared to Ang II treatment alone, co-treatment with SYB significantly reversed HUVEC injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SYB could significantly protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced cell damage, and that it does so by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting ROS generation. - Highlights: • Angiotensin II depresses mitochondria physiological function. • Angiotensin II activates NADPH oxidase via up-regulating expresion of p22{sup phox}. • Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in improving mitochondria function and regulates ROS level. • Inhibitor of Bcl-2 promotes angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury. • SYB attenuates angiotensin II mediated HUVEC injury via up regulating Bcl-2 expression.

  3. Angiotensin II enhances epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through the interaction between activated hepatic stellate cells and the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 axis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Koichi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Makino, Isamu; Kinoshita, Jun; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Fujita, Hideto; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Harada, Shinichi; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Iseki, Shoichi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    We previously reported that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activated by angiotensin II (AngII) facilitate stromal fibrosis and tumor progression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). AngII has been known as a growth factor which can promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal epithelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells and peritoneal mesothelial cells. However, in the past, the relationship between AngII and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the microenvironment around cancer and the role of AngII on EMT of cancer cells has not been reported in detail. SDF-1 and its specific receptor, CXCR4, are now receiving attention as a mechanism of cell progression and metastasis. In this study, we examined whether activated HSCs promote tumor fibrogenesis, tumor progression and distant metastasis by mediating EMT via the AngII/AngII type 1 receptor (AT-1) and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Two human ICC cell lines and a human HSC line, LI-90, express CXCR4. Significantly higher concentration of SDF-1α was released into the supernatant of LI-90 cells to which AngII had been added. SDF-1α increased the proliferative activity of HSCs and enhanced the activation of HSCs as a growth factor. Furthermore, addition of SDF-1α and AngII enhanced the increase of the migratory capability and vimentin expression, reduced E-cadherin expression, and translocated the expression of β-catenin into the nucleus and cytoplasm in ICC cells. Co-culture with HSCs also enhanced the migratory capability of ICC cells. These findings suggest that SDF-1α, released from activated HSCs and AngII, play important roles in cancer progression, tumor fibrogenesis, and migration in autocrine and paracrine fashion by mediating EMT. Our mechanistic findings may provide pivotal insights into the molecular mechanism of the AngII and SDF-1α-initiated signaling pathway that regulates fibrogenesis in cancerous stroma, tumor progression and meta-stasis of tumor cells expressing AT-1 and CXCR4

  4. Inactivation of the EP3 receptor attenuates the Angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Miao, Yifei; Zhang, Yahua; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Tian, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangrui; Pu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jihong; Gao, Yuansheng; Wang, Shiqiang; Breyer, Matthew D.; Wang, Nanping; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Yu; Breyer, Richard M; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in regulating blood pressure. Methods and Results Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP3−/−) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid arterial catheterization. The pressor responses induced by EP3 agonists M&B28767 and sulprostone were markedly attenuated in EP3−/− mice, while the reduction of BP induced by PGE2 was comparable in both genotypes. Vasopressor effect of acute or chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) was attenuated in EP3−/− mice. AngII–induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries decreased in EP3−/− group. In mesenteric arteries from wild type mice, AngII–induced vasoconstriction was inhibited by EP3 selective antagonist DG-041 or L798106. The expression of Arhgef-1 is attenuated in EP3 deficient mesenteric arteries. EP3 antagonist DG-041 diminished AngII-induced phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 in isolated mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was potentiated by EP3 agonist sulprostone, while inhibited by DG-041. Conclusions Activation of the EP3 receptor raises baseline blood pressure and contributes to AngII-dependent hypertension at least partially via enhancing Ca2+ sensitivity and intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs. Selective targeting of the EP3 receptor may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:23065824

  5. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  6. Identification of Distinct Conformations of the Angiotensin-II Type 1 Receptor Associated with the Gq/11 Protein Pathway and the β-Arrestin Pathway Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre

    2015-06-19

    Biased signaling represents the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to engage distinct pathways with various efficacies depending on the ligand used or on mutations in the receptor. The angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor, a prototypical class A G protein-coupled receptor, can activate various effectors upon stimulation with the endogenous ligand angiotensin-II (AngII), including the Gq/11 protein and β-arrestins. It is believed that the activation of those two pathways can be associated with distinct conformations of the AT1 receptor. To verify this hypothesis, microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations were computed to explore the conformational landscape sampled by the WT-AT1 receptor, the N111G-AT1 receptor (constitutively active and biased for the Gq/11 pathway), and the D74N-AT1 receptor (biased for the β-arrestin1 and -2 pathways) in their apo-forms and in complex with AngII. The molecular dynamics simulations of the AngII-WT-AT1, N111G-AT1, and AngII-N111G-AT1 receptors revealed specific structural rearrangements compared with the initial and ground state of the receptor. Simulations of the D74N-AT1 receptor revealed that the mutation stabilizes the receptor in the initial ground state. The presence of AngII further stabilized the ground state of the D74N-AT1 receptor. The biased agonist [Sar(1),Ile(8)]AngII also showed a preference for the ground state of the WT-AT1 receptor compared with AngII. These results suggest that activation of the Gq/11 pathway is associated with a specific conformational transition stabilized by the agonist, whereas the activation of the β-arrestin pathway is linked to the stabilization of the ground state of the receptor.

  7. Identification of Distinct Conformations of the Angiotensin-II Type 1 Receptor Associated with the Gq/11 Protein Pathway and the β-Arrestin Pathway Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations*

    PubMed Central

    Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Biased signaling represents the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to engage distinct pathways with various efficacies depending on the ligand used or on mutations in the receptor. The angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor, a prototypical class A G protein-coupled receptor, can activate various effectors upon stimulation with the endogenous ligand angiotensin-II (AngII), including the Gq/11 protein and β-arrestins. It is believed that the activation of those two pathways can be associated with distinct conformations of the AT1 receptor. To verify this hypothesis, microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations were computed to explore the conformational landscape sampled by the WT-AT1 receptor, the N111G-AT1 receptor (constitutively active and biased for the Gq/11 pathway), and the D74N-AT1 receptor (biased for the β-arrestin1 and -2 pathways) in their apo-forms and in complex with AngII. The molecular dynamics simulations of the AngII-WT-AT1, N111G-AT1, and AngII-N111G-AT1 receptors revealed specific structural rearrangements compared with the initial and ground state of the receptor. Simulations of the D74N-AT1 receptor revealed that the mutation stabilizes the receptor in the initial ground state. The presence of AngII further stabilized the ground state of the D74N-AT1 receptor. The biased agonist [Sar1,Ile8]AngII also showed a preference for the ground state of the WT-AT1 receptor compared with AngII. These results suggest that activation of the Gq/11 pathway is associated with a specific conformational transition stabilized by the agonist, whereas the activation of the β-arrestin pathway is linked to the stabilization of the ground state of the receptor. PMID:25934394

  8. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: knowledge, attitude and practice in Ang Thong Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittigul, Leera; Suankeow, Kedsuda; Sujirarat, Dusit; Yoksan, Sutee

    2003-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out between July 1998 and June 1999 to identify dengue virus-infected patients under age 15 admitted to seven government hospitals in Ang Thong Province, a central region of Thailand, and to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of their care takers. To differentiate dengue cases, clinical evaluation and laboratory diagnosis were used. Serum samples were collected from 90 admitted children and also from 80 healthy students. The dengue cases were classified as dengue fever (9 cases, 12.2%) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF: 65 cases, 87.8%). Nine patients had dengue shock syndrome, but no death occurred. With serological confirmation, primary antibody response was observed in 8 (11.3%) and definite secondary infection in 49 (69%). Out of 41 serum samples, 14 (34.1%) were positive for dengue virus isolation: dengue serotypes 1, 2 or 3. A total of 131 care takers of enrolled children were interviewed in the context of KAP in DHF. The majority of them were mothers with primary school education level. Half of the care takers were workers. DHF knowledge of the care takers of the dengue cases, non-cases, and healthy students was almost the same. However, the care takers of dengue cases recognized petechiae as a danger sign, p-value of 0.006. They had a higher response in prevention, control and treatment of DHF than the other two groups after their children were admitted to hospital, p-value of 0.000. The results indicated that DHF remains a public health problem in this area and the people need more understanding of the disease. Continuous campaigns are required for community participation so as to prevent and control DHF successfully.

  9. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (Pdose < 0.0001), and PD123319 intensified the reduction of RBF response in female (Pgroup < 0.005), but not in male rats. Conclusion. The impact of the AT2R on vascular responses to Ang II in renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats. PMID:27034657

  10. High-Dose Estradiol-Replacement Therapy Enhances the Renal Vascular Response to Angiotensin II via an AT2-Receptor Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Tahereh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Evans, Roger G.; Denton, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological levels of estrogen appear to enhance angiotensin type 2 receptor- (AT2R-) mediated vasodilatation. However, the effects of supraphysiological levels of estrogen, analogous to those achieved with high-dose estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, remain unknown. Therefore, we pretreated ovariectomized rats with a relatively high dose of estrogen (0.5 mg/kg/week) for two weeks. Subsequently, renal hemodynamic responses to intravenous angiotensin II (Ang II, 30–300 ng/kg/min) were tested under anesthesia, while renal perfusion pressure was held constant. The role of AT2R was examined by pretreating groups of rats with PD123319 or its vehicle. Renal blood flow (RBF) decreased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang II. Responses to Ang II were enhanced by pretreatment with estradiol. For example, at 300 ng kg−1 min−1, Ang II reduced RBF by 45.7 ± 1.9% in estradiol-treated rats but only by 27.3 ± 5.1% in vehicle-treated rats. Pretreatment with PD123319 blunted the response of RBF to Ang II in estradiol-treated rats, so that reductions in RBF were similar to those in rats not treated with estradiol. We conclude that supraphysiological levels of estrogen promote AT2R-mediated renal vasoconstriction. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with hormone replacement therapy using high-dose estrogen. PMID:26681937

  11. [Codon optimization and eukaryotic expression analysis of the analgesic peptide gene BmK AngM1 from Buthus martensii Karsch].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ling; Gao, Li-li; Zhu, Ping; Hou, Qi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Wen-bo; Nie, Tao

    2012-10-01

    Codon bias is an important factor which influences heterologous gene expression. Optimizing codon sequence could improve expression level of heterologous gene. In order to improve the expression level of BmK AngM1 gene encoding the analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris, the codon-optimized BmK AngM1 gene according to its cDNA sequence and the preference codon usage of P. pastoris were cloned into expression vector pPIC9K and then transformed into P. pastoris. The expersion of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1) was inducced by methanol in the medium, and the expression level of the optimized BmK AngM1 gene was 3.7 times of the native one. These results suggested that the expression of BmK AngM1 in P. pastoris could be successfully improved by codon optimization. PMID:23289154

  12. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  13. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  14. miR-802 regulates human angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Sarah E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Martin, Mickey M.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) can regulate intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport and control intestinal wall muscular activity. Ang II is also a proinflammatory mediator that participates in inflammatory responses such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling; accumulating evidence suggests that this hormone may be involved in gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ang II binds to two distinct G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, the AT1R and AT2R, which are widely expressed in the GI system. Together these studies suggest that Ang II-AT1R/-AT2R actions may play an important role in GI tract physiology and pathophysiology. Currently it is not known whether miRNAs can regulate the expression of the human AT1R (hAT1R) in the GI system. PCR and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that miR-802 was abundantly expressed in human colon and intestine. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-802 could directly interact with the bioinformatics-predicted target site harbored within the 3′-untranslated region of the hAT1R mRNA. To validate that the levels of miR-802 were physiologically relevant in the GI system, we demonstrated that miR-802 “loss-of-function” experiments resulted in augmented hAT1R levels and enhanced Ang II-induced signaling in a human intestinal epithelial cell line. These results suggest that miR-802 can modulate the expression of the hAT1R in the GI tract and ultimately play a role in regulating the biological efficacy of Ang II in this system. PMID:20558762

  15. Angiotensin II contributes to podocyte injury by increasing TRPC6 expression via an NFAT-mediated positive feedback signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Tom; Sloan, Alexis J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Flesche, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Kistler, Andreas D; Bakker, Marinka; Bindels, Rene J M; de Boer, Rudolf A; Möller, Clemens C; Hamming, Inge; Navis, Gerjan; Wetzels, Jack F M; Berden, Jo H M; Reiser, Jochen; Faul, Christian; van der Vlag, Johan

    2011-10-01

    The transient receptor potential channel C6 (TRPC6) is a slit diaphragm-associated protein in podocytes involved in regulating glomerular filter function. Gain-of-function mutations in TRPC6 cause hereditary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and several human acquired proteinuric diseases show increased glomerular TRPC6 expression. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key contributor to glomerular disease and may regulate TRPC6 expression in nonrenal cells. We demonstrate that AngII regulates TRPC6 mRNA and protein levels in cultured podocytes and that AngII infusion enhances glomerular TRPC6 expression in vivo. In animal models for human FSGS (doxorubicin nephropathy) and increased renin-angiotensin system activity (Ren2 transgenic rats), glomerular TRPC6 expression was increased in an AngII-dependent manner. TRPC6 expression correlated with glomerular damage markers and glomerulosclerosis. We show that the regulation of TRPC6 expression by AngII and doxorubicin requires TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) influx and the activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin and its substrate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, calcineurin inhibition by cyclosporine decreased TRPC6 expression and reduced proteinuria in doxorubicin nephropathy, whereas podocyte-specific inducible expression of a constitutively active NFAT mutant increased TRPC6 expression and induced severe proteinuria. Our findings demonstrate that the deleterious effects of AngII on podocytes and its pathogenic role in glomerular disease involve enhanced TRPC6 expression via a calcineurin/NFAT positive feedback signaling pathway. PMID:21839714

  16. The Nox1/4 Dual Inhibitor GKT137831 or Nox4 Knockdown Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Adult Mouse Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation and Migration. AT1 Physically Associates With Nox4.

    PubMed

    Somanna, Naveen K; Valente, Anthony J; Krenz, Maike; Fay, William P; Delafontaine, Patrice; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2016-05-01

    Both oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to chronic hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis and adverse cardiac remodeling. Here we investigated whether angiotensin (Ang)-II-induced fibroblast proliferation and migration are NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4/ROS and IL-18 dependent. Our results show that the potent induction of mouse cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation and migration by Ang-II is markedly attenuated by Nox4 knockdown and the Nox inhibitor DPI. Further, Nox4 knockdown and DPI pre-treatment attenuated Ang-II-induced IL-18, IL-18Rα and collagen expression, and MMP9 and LOX activation. While neutralization of IL-18 blunted Ang-II-induced CF proliferation and migration, knockdown of MMP9 attenuated CF migration. The antioxidant NAC and the cell-permeable SOD mimetics Tempol, MnTBAP, and MnTMPyP attenuated oxidative stress and inhibited CF proliferation and migration. The Nox1/Nox4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 also blunted Ang-II-induced H2 O2 production and CF proliferation and migration. Further, AT1 bound Nox4, and Ang-II enhanced their physical association. Notably, GKT137831 attenuated the AT1/Nox4 interaction. These results indicate that Ang-II induces CF proliferation and migration in part via Nox4/ROS-dependent IL-18 induction and MMP9 activation, and may involve AT1/Nox4 physical association. Thus, either (i) neutralizing IL-18, (ii) blocking AT1/Nox4 interaction or (iii) use of the Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor GKT137831 may have therapeutic potential in chronic hypertension-induced adverse cardiac remodeling.

  17. Slow-pressor angiotensin II hypertension and concomitant dendritic NMDA receptor trafficking in estrogen receptor β-containing neurons of the mouse hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus are sex and age dependent.

    PubMed

    Marques-Lopes, Jose; Van Kempen, Tracey; Waters, Elizabeth M; Pickel, Virginia M; Iadecola, Costantino; Milner, Teresa A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of hypertension increases after menopause. Similar to humans, "slow-pressor" doses of angiotensin II (AngII) increase blood pressure in young males, but not in young female mice. However, AngII increases blood pressure in aged female mice, paralleling reproductive hormonal changes. These changes could influence receptor trafficking in central cardiovascular circuits and contribute to hypertension. Increased postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is crucial for the sympathoexcitation driving AngII hypertension. Estrogen receptors β (ERβs) are present in PVN neurons. We tested the hypothesis that changes in ovarian hormones with age promote susceptibility to AngII hypertension, and influence NMDA receptor NR1 subunit trafficking in ERβ-containing PVN neurons. Transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ERβ-containing cells were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering AngII (600 ng/kg/min) or saline for 2 weeks. AngII increased blood pressure in 2-month-old males and 18-month-old females, but not in 2-month-old females. By electron microscopy, NR1-silver-intensified immunogold (SIG) was mainly in ERβ-EGFP dendrites. At baseline, NR1-SIG density was greater in 2-month-old females than in 2-month-old males or 18-month-old females. After AngII infusion, NR1-SIG density was decreased in 2-month-old females, but increased in 2-month-old males and 18-month-old females. These findings suggest that, in young female mice, NR1 density is decreased in ERβ-PVN dendrites thus reducing NMDA receptor activity and preventing hypertension. Conversely, in young males and aged females, NR1 density is upregulated in ERβ-PVN dendrites and ultimately leads to the neurohumoral dysfunction driving hypertension. PMID:24639345

  18. Angiotensin II Triggers Expression of the Adrenal Gland Zona Glomerulosa-Specific 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme through De Novo Protein Synthesis of the Orphan Nuclear Receptors NGFIB and NURR1

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Takumi; Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Yarimizu, Daisuke; Okada, Kazuki; Murai, Iori; Hayashi, Hida; Kunisue, Sumihiro; Nakagawa, Yuuki; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme crucial for steroid synthesis. Two different 3β-HSD isoforms exist in humans. Classically, HSD3B2 was considered the principal isoform present in the adrenal. However, we recently showed that the alternative isoform, HSD3B1, is expressed specifically within the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), where aldosterone is produced, raising the question of why this isozyme needs to be expressed in this cell type. Here we show that in both human and mouse, expression of the ZG isoform 3β-HSD is rapidly induced upon angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. AngII is the key peptide hormone regulating the capacity of aldosterone synthesis. Using the human adrenocortical H295R cells as a model system, we show that the ZG isoform HSD3B1 differs from HSD3B2 in the ability to respond to AngII. Mechanistically, the induction of HSD3B1 involves de novo protein synthesis of the nuclear orphan receptors NGFIB and NURR1. The HSD3B1 promoter contains a functional NGFIB/NURR1-responsive element to which these proteins bind in response to AngII. Knockdown of these proteins and overexpression of a dominant negative NGFIB both reduce the AngII responsiveness of HSD3B1. Thus, the AngII-NGFIB/NURR1 pathway controls HSD3B1. Our work reveals HSD3B1 as a new regulatory target of AngII. PMID:25092869

  19. Sanguinarine inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac cells via restoring reactive oxygen species-mediated decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN; JIAO, RONG; MA, ZHEN-GUO; LIU, WEI; WU, QING-QING; YANG, ZHENG; LI, FANG-FANG; YUAN, YUAN; BIAN, ZHOU-YAN; TANG, QI-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) has a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sanguinarine (SAN), a drug which was proved to have anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and immune enhancing effects, can abolish cell apoptosis induced by Ang II. In the present study, H9c2 cardiac cells were stimulated with 10 µM Ang II with or without SAN. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed using JC-1 staining. Furthermore, mRNA expression of NOX2 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) as well as cleaved (c)-caspase 3 and -9 were detected by western blot analysis, and the activity of caspase 3 and -9 was detected using an ELISA. The results of the present study showed that NOX2 expression and ROS generation induced by Ang II were inhibited by SAN, and the Ang 2-induced MMP loss was also ameliorated. Furthermore, Ang II-induced H9c2 cardiac cell apoptosis as well as c-caspase 3 and -9 levels were significantly reduced by SAN. Investigation of the possible pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of SAN showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while that of Bax was increased following stimulation with Ang II, which was reversed following treatment with SAN. In addition, Ang II enhanced the activity of caspase 9 and cleaved downstream caspases such as caspase-3, initiating the caspase cascade, while pre-treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with SAN blocked these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that SAN inhibits the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac cells induced by Ang II, most likely via restoring

  20. Pioglitazone reduces angiotensin II-induced COX-2 expression through inhibition of ROS production and ET-1 transcription in vascular cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Girón, Jose V; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Aguado, Andrea; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Barrús, María T; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J

    2014-06-01

    Glitazones have anti-inflammatory properties by interfering with the transcription of proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and with ROS production, which are increased in hypertension. This study analyzed whether pioglitazone modulates COX-2 expression in hypertension by interfering with ROS and endothelin (ET)-1. In vivo, pioglitazone (2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 28 days) reduced the greater levels of COX-2, pre-pro-ET-1, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity as well as O2 (·-) production found in aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ANG II increased COX-2 and pre-pro-ET-1 levels more in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats. The ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHR cells. ANG II also increased NOX-1 expression, NOX activity, and superoxide production in SHR cells; the selective NOX-1 inhibitor ML-171 and catalase reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 and ET-1 transcription. ANG II also increased c-Jun transcription and phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-c-Jun, and p65 NF-κB subunit nuclear protein expression. SP-600125 and lactacystin, JNK and NF-κB inhibitors, respectively, reduced ANG II-induced ET-1, COX-2, and NOX-1 levels and NOX activity. Pioglitazone reduced the effects of ANG II on NOX activity, NOX-1, pre-pro-ET-1, COX-2, and c-Jun mRNA levels, JNK activation, and nuclear phospho-c-Jun and p65 expression. In conclusion, ROS production and ET-1 are involved in ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHRs, explaining the greater COX-2 expression observed in this strain. Furthermore, pioglitazone inhibits ANG II-induced COX-2 expression likely by interfering with NF-κB and activator protein-1 proinflammatory pathways and downregulating ROS production and ET-1 transcription, thus contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of glitazones.

  1. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  2. Brain and peripheral angiotensin II play a major role in stress.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Benicky, Julius

    2007-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the active principle of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), was discovered as a vasoconstrictive, fluid retentive circulating hormone. It was revealed later that there are local RAS in many organs, including the brain. The physiological receptor for Ang II, the AT(1) receptor type, was found to be highly expressed in many tissues and brain areas involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress and in the sympathoadrenal system. The production of circulating and local Ang II, and the expression of AT(1) receptors increase during stress. Blockade of peripheral and brain AT(1) receptors with receptor antagonists administered peripherally prevented the hormonal and sympathoadrenal response to isolation stress, the stress-related alterations in cortical CRF(1) and benzodiazepine receptors, part of the GABA(A) complex, and reduced anxiety in rodents. AT(1) receptor blockade prevented the ulcerations of the gastric mucosa produced by cold-restraint stress, by preservation of the gastric blood flow, prevention of the stress-induced inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa, and partial blockade of the sympathoadrenal response to the stress. Our observations demonstrate that Ang II is an important stress hormone, and that blockade of AT(1) receptors could be proposed as a potentially useful therapy for stress-induced disorders.

  3. Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lingling; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Ru; Wang, Zhuoyun; Xu, Yiming; Zhang, Hanwen; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xudong; Ben, Jingjing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that participates in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Here we evaluated the role of SR-A in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling. Chronic infusion of Ang II leads to an increased systolic blood pressure both in SR-A knockout (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (SR-A(+/+)) mice with no significant difference between these two groups. SR-A(-/-) hypertensive mice, however, exhibited a marked augmentation of arterial wall thickening and vascular cell proliferation compared with SR-A(+/+) hypertensive mice. M1 macrophage markers were increased whereas M2 macrophage markers were decreased in vascular tissues of SR-A(-/-) mice. Co-culture experiments revealed that more pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α were produced by SR-A(-/-) peritoneal macrophages leading to a stronger proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In addition, SR-A(-/-) macrophages were more prone to lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 differentiation while resisting interleukin-4-induced M2 differentiation. Importantly, transplantation of SR-A(-/-) bone marrow into SR-A(+/+) mice significantly augmented Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. These results show that SR-A is critical for Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating macrophage polarization. Therefore, SR-A may be a useful therapeutic target for the intervention of hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:24875449

  4. Cleavage of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and nuclear accumulation of the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Cook, Julia L; Mills, Sarah J; Naquin, Ryan T; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2007-04-01

    Our published studies show that the distribution of the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor (AT(1)R), expressed as a enhanced yellow fluorescent fusion (YFP) protein (AT(1)R/EYFP), is altered upon cellular treatment with ANG II or coexpression with intracellular ANG II. AT(1)R accumulates in nuclei of cells only in the presence of ANG II. Several transmembrane receptors are known to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. The present study was designed to determine whether the AT(1)R is cleaved before nuclear transport. A plasmid encoding a rat AT(1)R labeled at the amino terminus with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and at the carboxy terminus with EYFP was employed. Image analyses of this protein in COS-7 cells, CCF-STTG1 glial cells, and A10 vascular smooth muscle cells show the two fluorescent moieties to be largely spatially colocalized in untreated cells. ANG II treatment, however, leads to a separation of the fluorescent moieties with yellow fluorescence accumulating in more than 30% of cellular nuclei. Immunoblot analyses of extracts and conditioned media from transfected cells indicate that the CFP domain fused to the extracellular amino-terminal AT(1)R domain is cleaved from the membrane and that the YFP domain, together with the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R, is also cleaved from the membrane-bound receptor. The carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R is essential for cleavage; cleavage does not occur in protein deleted with respect to this region. Overexpressed native AT(1)R (nonfusion) is also cleaved; the intracellular 6-kDa cytoplasmic domain product accumulates to a significantly higher level with ANG II treatment.

  5. The nitroxyl donor, Angeli's salt, reduces chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Longhi-Balbinot, Daniela T; Rossaneis, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Bertozzi, Mariana M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Alves-Filho, José C; Cunha, Thiago M; Peron, Jean P S; Miranda, Katrina M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-08-25

    Chronic pain is a major health problem worldwide. We have recently demonstrated the analgesic effect of the nitroxyl donor, Angeli's salt (AS) in models of inflammatory pain. In the present study, the acute and chronic analgesic effects of AS was investigated in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. Acute (7th day after CCI) AS treatment (1 and 3 mg/kg; s.c.) reduced CCI-induced mechanical, but not thermal hyperalgesia. The acute analgesic effect of AS was prevented by treatment with 1H-[1,2, 4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), KT5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G [PKG]) or glibenclamide (GLB, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker). Chronic (7-14 days after CCI) treatment with AS (3 mg/kg, s.c.) promoted a sustained reduction of CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Acute AS treatment reduced CCI-induced spinal cord allograft inflammatory factor 1 (known as Iba-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and ST2 receptor mRNA expression. Chronic AS treatment reduced CCI-induced spinal cord glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Iba-1, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-33 (IL-33) and ST2 mRNA expression. Chronic treatment with AS (3 mg/kg, s.c.) did not alter aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea or creatinine plasma levels. Together, these results suggest that the acute analgesic effect of AS depends on activating the cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway. Moreover, chronic AS diminishes CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia by reducing the activation of spinal cord microglia and astrocytes, decreasing TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-33 cytokines expression. This spinal cord immune modulation was more prominent in the chronic treatment with AS. Thus, nitroxyl limits CCI-induced neuropathic pain by reducing spinal cord glial cells activation. PMID:27287419

  6. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats. PMID:26421009

  7. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A. K.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  8. Acute tumour response to a bispecific Ang-2-VEGF-A antibody: insights from multiparametric MRI and gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lauren CJ; Boult, Jessica KR; Thomas, Markus; Koehler, Astrid; Nayak, Tapan; Tessier, Jean; Ooi, Chia-Huey; Birzele, Fabian; Belousov, Anton; Zajac, Magdalena; Horn, Carsten; LeFave, Clare; Robinson, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess antivascular effects, and evaluate clinically translatable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of tumour response in vivo, following treatment with vanucizumab, a bispecific human antibody against angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Methods: Colo205 colon cancer xenografts were imaged before and 5 days after treatment with a single 10 mg kg−1 dose of either vanucizumab, bevacizumab (anti-human VEGF-A), LC06 (anti-murine/human Ang-2) or omalizumab (anti-human IgE control). Volumetric response was assessed using T2-weighted MRI, and diffusion-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and susceptibility contrast MRI used to quantify tumour water diffusivity (apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), × 106 mm2 s−1), vascular perfusion/permeability (Ktrans, min−1) and fractional blood volume (fBV, %) respectively. Pathological correlates were sought, and preliminary gene expression profiling performed. Results: Treatment with vanucizumab, bevacizumab or LC06 induced a significant (P<0.01) cytolentic response compared with control. There was no significant change in tumour ADC in any treatment group. Uptake of Gd-DTPA was restricted to the tumour periphery in all post-treatment groups. A significant reduction in tumour Ktrans (P<0.05) and fBV (P<0.01) was determined 5 days after treatment with vanucizumab only. This was associated with a significant (P<0.05) reduction in Hoechst 33342 uptake compared with control. Gene expression profiling identified 20 human genes exclusively regulated by vanucizumab, 6 of which are known to be involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Conclusions: Vanucizumab is a promising antitumour and antiangiogenic treatment, whose antivascular activity can be monitored using DCE and susceptibility contrast MRI. Differential gene expression in vanucizumab-treated tumours is regulated by the combined effect of Ang-2 and VEGF-A inhibition. PMID:27529514

  9. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; P<0.05) compared to 65%±11% before and 73%±11% after 30 days of atorvastatin treatment. Plasma angiotensin levels increased significantly after irbesartan treatment (Ang II: 17±22 before vs 52±40 pg/mL after [p = 0.048]; Ang-(1–7): 18±10 before vs 37±14 pg/mL after [p = 0.002]) compared to atorvastatin treatment (Ang II: 9±4 vs 11±10 pg/mL [p = 0.40]; Ang-(1–7): 24±9 vs 32±8 pg/mL [p = 0.023]). Our study suggests that statin treatment does not elicit major changes in angiotensin II-mediated venoconstriction or in circulating angiotensin II levels whereas angiotensin-(1–7) levels increased modestly. The discrepancy between local vascular and systemic angiotensin II responses might suggest that statin treatment interferes with blood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  10. Angiotensin II (de)sensitization: Fluid intake studies with implications for cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and hypertension is the most common risk factor for death. Although many anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapies are approved for use in the United States, rates of hypertension have increased over the past decade. This review article summarizes a presentation given at the 2015 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior. The presentation described work performed in our laboratory that uses angiotensin II-induced drinking as a model system to study behavioral and cardiovascular effects of the renin-angiotensin system, a key component of blood pressure regulation, and a common target of anti-hypertensives. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent dipsogen, but the drinking response shows a rapid desensitization after repeated injections of AngII. This desensitization appears to be dependent upon the timing of the injections, requires activation of the AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor, requires activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members, and involves the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region as a critical site of action. Moreover, the response does not appear to be the result of a more general suppression of behavior, a sensitized pressor response to AngII, or an aversive state generated by the treatment. More recent studies suggest that the treatment regimen used to produce desensitization in our laboratory also prevents the sensitization that occurs after daily bolus injections of AngII. Our hope is that these findings can be used to support future basic research on the topic that could lead to new developments in treatments for hypertension.

  11. Angiotensin II (de)sensitization: Fluid intake studies with implications for cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and hypertension is the most common risk factor for death. Although many anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapies are approved for use in the United States, rates of hypertension have increased over the past decade. This review article summarizes a presentation given at the 2015 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior. The presentation described work performed in our laboratory that uses angiotensin II-induced drinking as a model system to study behavioral and cardiovascular effects of the renin-angiotensin system, a key component of blood pressure regulation, and a common target of anti-hypertensives. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent dipsogen, but the drinking response shows a rapid desensitization after repeated injections of AngII. This desensitization appears to be dependent upon the timing of the injections, requires activation of the AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor, requires activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members, and involves the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region as a critical site of action. Moreover, the response does not appear to be the result of a more general suppression of behavior, a sensitized pressor response to AngII, or an aversive state generated by the treatment. More recent studies suggest that the treatment regimen used to produce desensitization in our laboratory also prevents the sensitization that occurs after daily bolus injections of AngII. Our hope is that these findings can be used to support future basic research on the topic that could lead to new developments in treatments for hypertension. PMID:26801390

  12. Global stability for an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cuifang; Huang, Lihong; Yuan, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response is investigated. One main feature of this model is that an eclipse stage for the infected cells is included and a portion of these cells is reverted to uninfected cells. We derive the basic reproduction number R1 and the immune response reproduction number R2 for the HIV-1 infection model. By constructing Lyapunov functions, the global stabilities for the equilibria have been analyzed.

  13. Design and fabrication of 6.1-.ANG. family semiconductor devices using semi-insulating A1Sb substrate

    DOEpatents

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick Hong; Wu, Kuang Jen J.

    2007-05-29

    For the first time, an aluminum antimonide (AlSb) single crystal substrate is utilized to lattice-match to overlying semiconductor layers. The AlSb substrate establishes a new design and fabrication approach to construct high-speed, low-power electronic devices while establishing inter-device isolation. Such lattice matching between the substrate and overlying semiconductor layers minimizes the formation of defects, such as threaded dislocations, which can decrease the production yield and operational life-time of 6.1-.ANG. family heterostructure devices.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (P<0.05) in LXSN rats (23+/-1, 37+/-2, and 52+/-2 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng). Importantly, treating LSN-HHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  15. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  16. The angiotensin II-AT1 receptor stimulates reactive oxygen species within the cell nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Karl D.; Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Grayson, Jason M.; Chappell, Mark C.

    2009-06-26

    We and others have reported significant expression of the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) on renal nuclei; thus, the present study assessed the functional pathways and distribution of the intracellular AT1R on isolated nuclei. Ang II (1 nM) stimulated DCF fluorescence, an intranuclear indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the AT1R antagonist losartan or the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor DPI abolished the increase in ROS. Dual labeling of nuclei with antibodies against nucleoporin 62 (Nup62) and AT1R or the NADPH oxidase isoform NOX4 revealed complete overlap of the Nup62 and AT1R (99%) by flow cytometry, while NOX4 was present on 65% of nuclei. Treatment of nuclei with a PKC agonist increased ROS while the PKC inhibitor GF109203X or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abolished Ang II stimulation of ROS. We conclude that the Ang II-AT1R-PKC axis may directly influence nuclear function within the kidney through a redox sensitive pathway.

  17. Qiliqiangxin inhibits angiotensin II-induced transdifferentiation of rat cardiac fibroblasts through suppressing interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingmin; Jiang, Kun; Ding, Xuefeng; Fu, Mingqiang; Wang, Shijun; Zhu, Lingti; He, Tao; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Aijun; Hu, Kai; Chen, Li; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL), a traditional Chinese medicine, had long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) into myofibroblasts played an important role in cardiac remodelling and development of heart failure, however, little was known about the underlying mechanism and whether QL treatment being involved. This study aimed to investigate the effects of QL on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced CFs transdifferentiation. Study was performed on in vitro cultured CFs from Sprague–Dawley rats. CFs differentiation was induced by AngII, which was attenuated by QL through reducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our data showed that AngII-induced IL-6 mRNA as well as typeI and typeIII collagens were reduced by QL. IL-6 deficiency could suppress TGF-β1 and α-SMA, and both IL-6 siRNA and QL-mediated such effect was reversed by foresed expression of recombined IL-6. Increase in actin stress fibres reflected the process of CFs differentiation, we found stress fibres were enhanced after AngII stimulation, which was attenuated by pre-treating CFs with QL or IL-6 siRNA, and re-enhanced after rIL-6 treatment. Importantly, we showed that calcineurin-dependent NFAT3 nuclear translocation was essential to AngII-mediated IL-6 transcription, QL mimicked the effect of FK506, the calcineurin inhibitor, on suppression of IL-6 expression and stress fibres formation. Collectively, our data demonstrated the negative regulation of CFs differentiation by QL through an IL-6 transcriptional mechanism that depends on inhibition of calcineurin/NFAT3 signalling. PMID:25752645

  18. Characterization of Angiotensin II Molecular Determinants Involved in AT1 Receptor Functional Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Domazet, Ivana; Holleran, Brian J; Richard, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Camille; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    The octapeptide angiotensin II (AngII) exerts a variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1), a G protein-coupled receptor. The AT1 receptor engages and activates several signaling pathways, including heterotrimeric G proteins Gq and G12, as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Additionally, following stimulation, βarrestin is recruited to the AT1 receptor, leading to receptor desensitization. It is increasingly recognized that specific ligands selectively bind and favor the activation of some signaling pathways over others, a concept termed ligand bias or functional selectivity. A better understanding of the molecular basis of functional selectivity may lead to the development of better therapeutics with fewer adverse effects. In the present study, we developed assays allowing the measurement of six different signaling modalities of the AT1 receptor. Using a series of AngII peptide analogs that were modified in positions 1, 4, and 8, we sought to better characterize the molecular determinants of AngII that underlie functional selectivity of the AT1 receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results reveal that position 1 of AngII does not confer functional selectivity, whereas position 4 confers a bias toward ERK signaling over Gq signaling, and position 8 confers a bias toward βarrestin recruitment over ERK activation and Gq signaling. Interestingly, the analogs modified in position 8 were also partial agonists of the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK pathway via atypical PKC isoforms PKCζ and PKCι.

  19. The apelin receptor inhibits the angiotensin II type 1 receptor via allosteric trans-inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Siddiquee, K; Hampton, J; McAnally, D; May, LT; Smith, LH

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The apelin receptor (APJ) is often co-expressed with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1) and acts as an endogenous counter-regulator. Apelin antagonizes Ang II signalling, but the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Understanding this interaction may lead to new therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Experimental Approach The physical interaction of APJ and AT1 receptors was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Functional and pharmacological interactions were measured by G-protein-dependent signalling and recruitment of β-arrestin. Allosterism and cooperativity between APJ and AT1 were measured by radioligand binding assays. Key Results Apelin, but not Ang II, induced APJ : AT1 heterodimerization forced AT1 into a low-affinity state, reducing Ang II binding. Likewise, apelin mediated a concentration-dependent depression in the maximal production of inositol phosphate (IP1) and β-arrestin recruitment to AT1 in response to Ang II. The signal depression approached a limit, the magnitude of which was governed by the cooperativity indicative of a negative allosteric interaction. Fitting the data to an operational model of allosterism revealed that apelin-mediated heterodimerization significantly reduces Ang II signalling efficacy. These effects were not observed in the absence of apelin. Conclusions and Implications Apelin-dependent heterodimerization between APJ and AT1 causes negative allosteric regulation of AT1 function. As AT1 is significant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, these findings suggest that impaired apelin and APJ function may be a common underlying aetiology. Linked Article This article is commented on by Goupil et al., pp. 1101–1103 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12040 PMID:22935142

  20. Reduced proximal tubule angiotensin II receptor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H F; Burns, K D; Harris, R C

    1994-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, including decreases in glomerular angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor density. Since Ang II regulates proximal tubule transport function, the present studies examined whether diabetes altered expression of proximal tubule receptors. In basolateral membranes from 14 day streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, specific binding of 125I Ang II was decreased to 53 +/- 8% of control (3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 fmol/mg protein; N = 7; P < 0.02). Similarly, in proximal tubule brush border membranes from diabetic animals, specific binding was decreased to 63 +/- 11% of control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 fmol/mg protein; N = 9; P < 0.05). Concomitant insulin treatment reversed the decrease in specific binding of 125I Ang II to basolateral membranes (109 +/- 26% of control; N = 3) and to brush border membranes (85 +/- 17% of control; N = 6). In order to determine if changes in expression of type-1 Ang II receptors (AT1R) accompanied the changes in binding, quantitative polymerase chain reaction of AT1R mRNA was performed and expressed as the ratio of the amplified AT1R to that of an Msc1/Msc1 internal deletion mutant and normalized to that of beta-actin. In total RNA from proximal tubule suspensions of diabetic animals, AT1R mRNA expression decreased by 38% (21 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); N = 4; P < 0.0025). Insulin treatment reverted AT1R mRNA expression to control levels (22 +/- 3 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); P < 0.001 compared to the untreated group).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7700017

  1. Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart. Conclusion The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:24028210

  2. Angiotensin II enhances adenylyl cyclase signaling via Ca2+/calmodulin. Gq-Gs cross-talk regulates collagen production in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Naugle, Jennifer E; Hase, Miki; Gregorian, Caroline; Swaney, James S; Insel, Paul A; Brunton, Laurence L; Meszaros, J Gary

    2003-07-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts regulate formation of extracellular matrix in the heart, playing key roles in cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. In this study, we sought to characterize cross-talk between Gq and Gs signaling pathways and its impact on modulating collagen synthesis by cardiac fibroblasts. Angiotensin II (ANG II) activates cell proliferation and collagen synthesis but also potentiates cyclic AMP (cAMP) production stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR). The potentiation of beta-AR-stimulated cAMP production by ANG II is reduced by phospholipase C inhibition and enhanced by overexpression of Gq. Ionomycin and thapsigargin increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and potentiated isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, whereas chelation of Ca2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid/AM inhibited such potentiation. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, protein kinase C, or Gbetagamma did not alter this cross-talk. Immunoblot analyses showed prominent expression of adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), a Ca2+-activated isoform, along with AC2, AC4, AC5, AC6, and AC7. Of those isoforms, only AC3 and AC5/6 proteins were detected in caveolin-rich fractions. Overexpression of AC6 increased betaAR-stimulated cAMP accumulation but did not alter the size of the ANG II potentiation, suggesting that the cross-talk is AC isoform-specific. Isoproterenol-mediated inhibition of serum-stimulated collagen synthesis increased from 31 to 48% in the presence of ANG II, indicating that betaAR-regulated collagen synthesis increased in the presence of ANG II. These data indicate that ANG II potentiates cAMP formation via Ca2+-dependent activation of AC activity, which in turn attenuates collagen synthesis and demonstrates one functional consequence of cross-talk between Gq and Gs signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:12711600

  3. Angiotensin II enhances adenylyl cyclase signaling via Ca2+/calmodulin. Gq-Gs cross-talk regulates collagen production in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Naugle, Jennifer E; Hase, Miki; Gregorian, Caroline; Swaney, James S; Insel, Paul A; Brunton, Laurence L; Meszaros, J Gary

    2003-07-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts regulate formation of extracellular matrix in the heart, playing key roles in cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. In this study, we sought to characterize cross-talk between Gq and Gs signaling pathways and its impact on modulating collagen synthesis by cardiac fibroblasts. Angiotensin II (ANG II) activates cell proliferation and collagen synthesis but also potentiates cyclic AMP (cAMP) production stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR). The potentiation of beta-AR-stimulated cAMP production by ANG II is reduced by phospholipase C inhibition and enhanced by overexpression of Gq. Ionomycin and thapsigargin increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and potentiated isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, whereas chelation of Ca2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid/AM inhibited such potentiation. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, protein kinase C, or Gbetagamma did not alter this cross-talk. Immunoblot analyses showed prominent expression of adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), a Ca2+-activated isoform, along with AC2, AC4, AC5, AC6, and AC7. Of those isoforms, only AC3 and AC5/6 proteins were detected in caveolin-rich fractions. Overexpression of AC6 increased betaAR-stimulated cAMP accumulation but did not alter the size of the ANG II potentiation, suggesting that the cross-talk is AC isoform-specific. Isoproterenol-mediated inhibition of serum-stimulated collagen synthesis increased from 31 to 48% in the presence of ANG II, indicating that betaAR-regulated collagen synthesis increased in the presence of ANG II. These data indicate that ANG II potentiates cAMP formation via Ca2+-dependent activation of AC activity, which in turn attenuates collagen synthesis and demonstrates one functional consequence of cross-talk between Gq and Gs signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts.

  4. The Attenuation of Central Angiotensin II-dependent Pressor Response and Intra-neuronal Signaling by Intracarotid Injection of Nanoformulated Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaugh, Erin G.; Roat, James; Gao, Lie; Yang, Rui-Fang; Manickam, Devika S.; Yin, Jing-Xiang; Schultz, Harold D.; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Batrakova, Elena V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Zucker, Irving H.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of the intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the brain attenuates central angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular responses. However, the therapeutic potential for adenoviral vectors is weakened by toxicity and the inability of adenoviral vectors to target the brain following peripheral administration. Therefore, we developed a non-viral delivery system in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to a synthetic poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEI-PEG) polymer to form a polyion complex (CuZnSOD nanozyme). We hypothesized that PEI-PEG polymer increases transport of functional CuZnSOD to neurons, which inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. The AngII-induced increase in O2•−, as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, was significantly inhibited in CuZnSOD nanozyme-treated neurons compared to free CuZnSOD- and non-treated neurons. CuZnSOD nanozyme also attenuated the AngII-induced inhibition of K+ current in neurons. Intracarotid injection of CuZnSOD nanozyme into rabbits significantly inhibited the pressor response of intracerebroventricular-delivered AngII; however, intracarotid injection of free CuZnSOD or PEI-PEG polymer alone failed to inhibit this response. Importantly, neither the PEI-PEG polymer alone nor the CuZnSOD nanozyme induced neuronal toxicity. These findings indicate that CuZnSOD nanozyme inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20378166

  5. Effects of linagliptin and liraglutide on glucose- and angiotensin II-induced collagen formation and cytoskeleton degradation in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-wei; Zhang, Fen-xi; Yang, Fen; Ding, Zu-feng; Agarwal, Nidhi; Guo, Zhi-kun; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors can not only lower blood glucose levels, but also alleviate cardiac remodeling after myocardial ischemia and hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor (linagliptin) and a GLP-1 activator (liraglutide) on glucose- and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced collagen formation and cytoskeleton reorganization in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro, and elucidated the related mechanisms. Methods: Cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from the hearts of 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice, and then exposed to different concentrations of glucose or Ang II for 24 h. The expression of fibrotic signals (fibronectin, collagen-1, -3 and -4), as well as ERK1/2 and NF-κB-p65 in the fibroblasts was examined using Western blotting assays. F-actin degradation was detected under inverted laser confocal microscope in fibroblasts stained with Rhodamine phalloidin. Results: Glucose (1–40 mmol/L) and Ang II (10−8–10−5 mol/L) dose-dependently increased the expression of fibronectin, collagens, phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-NF-κB-p65 in cardiac fibroblasts. High concentrations of glucose (≥40 mmol/L) and Ang II (≥10−6 mol/L) caused a significant degradation of F-actin (less assembly F-actin fibers and more disassembly fibers). ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) and NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 (10 μmol/L) both markedly suppressed glucose- and angiotensin II-induced fibronectin and collagen expressions in cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, pretreatment with liraglutide (10–100 nmol/L) or linagliptin (3 and 30 nmol/L) significantly decreased glucose- and Ang II-induced expression of fibrotic signals, phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-NF-κB-p65 in cardiac fibroblasts. Moreover, pretreatment with liraglutide (30 nmol/L) or liraglutide (100 nmol/L) markedly inhibited glucose-induced F-actin degradation, however, only liraglutide inhibited Ang II-induced F-actin degradation. Conclusion

  6. Angiotensin II: multitasking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Juan M; Benicky, Julius; Zhou, Jin

    2006-03-01

    In addition to controlling systemic blood pressure, angiotensin II (Ang II) has several roles in the brain, including the regulation of cerebrovascular flow and the reaction to stress. In order to clarify the central effects of Ang II and its type 1 (AT1) receptors, we reviewed the literature reporting recent research on the effects of pretreatment with the AT1-receptor blocker, candesartan, on experimental ischemia, cerebrovascular remodeling, and inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and the responses to stress induced by isolation and by cold-restraint. Angiotensin II regulates the brain circulation through stimulation of AT1-receptors located in the cerebrovascular endothelium and central pathways. SHRs express greater numbers of endothelial AT1-receptors and a central sympathetic overdrive, resulting in pathological cerebrovascular growth, inflammation, decreased cerebrovascular compliance, and enhanced vulnerability to brain ischemia. Sustained central AT1-receptor antagonism reverses these effects. Sustained reduction of AT1-receptor stimulation before stress prevents the hormonal and sympathoadrenal stress responses during isolation and prevents the gastric ulceration stress response to cold-restraint, indicating that increased AT1-receptor stimulation is essential to enhance the central sympathetic response and the formation and release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin that occur during stress. AT1-receptor blocking agents reverse the cortical alterations in CRF1 and benzodiazepine receptors characteristic of isolation stress, effects probably related to their anti-anxiety effect in rodents. Sustained reduction of Ang II tone by AT1-receptor antagonism could be considered as a preventive and therapeutic approach for brain ischemia and stress-related and mood disorders. Additional preclinical studies and controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this novel therapeutic approach.

  7. Visual assessment method of angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays by use of the ANG test pattern: effect of ambient illuminance and effectiveness of modified scoring.

    PubMed

    Ikushima, Yoichiro; Morishita, Junji; Akamine, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    A visual assessment method of the angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by use of the "ANG test pattern" was proposed by Badano and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Our goals were to examine the effect of ambient illuminance on the visual assessment, and to investigate whether our modified visual assessment (with the ANG test pattern) can be used instead of the conventional assessment based on luminance measurements. As the ambient illuminance increased, the original scores obtained with the visual assessment decreased. The modified score of the visual assessment was in reasonable agreement with the results of the luminance-based assessment. We conclude that the visual assessment with the ANG test pattern should be performed in a room with constant ambient illuminance, and the modified visual assessment could have the potential to be used instead of the luminance-based assessment for quality assurance of medical LCDs.

  8. Angiotensin II-regulated microRNA 483-3p directly targets multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jacqueline R; Unal, Hamiyet; Desnoyer, Russell; Yue, Hong; Bhatnagar, Anushree; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2014-10-01

    Improper regulation of signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by angiotensin II (AngII) can lead to hypertension, vascular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. The extent to which the homeostatic levels of the components of signaling networks are regulated through microRNAs (miRNA) modulated by AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) in VSMCs is not fully understood. Whether AT1R blockers used to treat vascular disorders modulate expression of miRNAs is also not known. To report differential miRNA expression following AT1R activation by AngII, we performed microarray analysis in 23 biological and technical replicates derived from humans, rats and mice. Profiling data revealed a robust regulation of miRNA expression by AngII through AT1R, but not the AngII type 2 receptor (AT2R). The AT1R-specific blockers, losartan and candesartan antagonized >90% of AT1R-regulated miRNAs and AngII-activated AT2R did not modulate their expression. We discovered VSMC-specific modulation of 22 miRNAs by AngII, and validated AT1R-mediated regulation of 17 of those miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We selected miR-483-3p as a novel representative candidate for further study because mRNAs of multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) were predicted to contain the target sequence for this miRNA. MiR-483-3p inhibited the expression of luciferase reporters bearing 3'-UTRs of four different RAS genes and the inhibition was reversed by antagomir-483-3p. The AT1R-regulated expression levels of angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE-1) proteins in VSMCs are modulated specifically by miR-483-3p. Our study demonstrates that the AT1R-regulated miRNA expression fingerprint is conserved in VSMCs of humans and rodents. Furthermore, we identify the AT1R-regulated miR-483-3p as a potential negative regulator of steady-state levels of RAS components in VSMCs. Thus, miRNA-regulation by AngII to affect cellular signaling is a novel aspect of RAS biology

  9. Modulation of angiotensin II signaling following exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D; Patel, Kaushik P; Wang, Hanjun

    2015-04-15

    Sympathetic activation is a consistent finding in the chronic heart failure (CHF) state. Current therapy for CHF targets the renin-angiotensin II (ANG II) and adrenergic systems. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ANG II receptor blockers are standard treatments along with β-adrenergic blockade. However, the mortality and morbidity of this disease is still extremely high, even with good medical management. Exercise training (ExT) is currently being used in many centers as an adjunctive therapy for CHF. Clinical studies have shown that ExT is a safe, effective, and inexpensive way to improve quality of life, work capacity, and longevity in patients with CHF. This review discusses the potential neural interactions between ANG II and sympatho-excitation in CHF and the modulation of this interaction by ExT. We briefly review the current understanding of the modulation of the angiotensin type 1 receptor in sympatho-excitatory areas of the brain and in the periphery (i.e., in the carotid body and skeletal muscle). We discuss possible cellular mechanisms by which ExT may impact the sympatho-excitatory process by reducing oxidative stress, increasing nitric oxide. and reducing ANG II. We also discuss the potential role of ACE2 and Ang 1-7 in the sympathetic response to ExT. Fruitful areas of further investigation are the role and mechanisms by which pre-sympathetic neuronal metabolic activity in response to individual bouts of exercise regulate redox mechanisms and discharge at rest in CHF and other sympatho-excitatory states. PMID:25681422

  10. Discharge of RVLM vasomotor neurons is not increased in anesthetized angiotensin II-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pedrino, Gustavo R; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Cravo, Sergio L; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-12-01

    Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are critical for generating and regulating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Systemic administration of ANG II combined with a high-salt diet induces hypertension that is postulated to involve elevated SNA. However, a functional role for RVLM vasomotor neurons in ANG II-salt hypertension has not been established. Here we tested the hypothesis that RVLM vasomotor neurons have exaggerated resting discharge in rats with ANG II-salt hypertension. Rats in the hypertensive (HT) group consumed a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet and received an infusion of ANG II (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) for 14 days. Rats in the normotensive (NT) group consumed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet and were infused with normal saline. Telemetric recordings in conscious rats revealed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased in HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.001). Under anesthesia (urethane/chloralose), MAP remained elevated in HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.01). Extracellular single unit recordings in HT (n = 28) and NT (n = 22) rats revealed that barosensitive RVLM neurons in both groups (HT, 23 cells; NT, 34 cells) had similar cardiac rhythmicity and resting discharge. However, a greater (P < 0.01) increase of MAP was needed to silence discharge of neurons in HT (17 cells, 44 ± 5 mmHg) than in NT (28 cells, 29 ± 3 mmHg) rats. Maximum firing rates during arterial baroreceptor unloading were similar across groups. We conclude that heightened resting discharge of sympathoexcitatory RVLM neurons is not required for maintenance of neurogenic ANG II-salt hypertension. PMID:24124187

  11. Differential Phenotypes of Tissue-Infiltrating T Cells during Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zihui; Spizzo, Iresha; Diep, Henry; Drummond, Grant R.; Widdop, Robert E.; Vinh, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Experimental hypertension is associated with increased T cell infiltration into blood pressure-controlling organs, such as the aorta and kidney; importantly in absence of T cells of the adaptive immune system, experimental hypertension is significantly blunted. However, the function and phenotype of these T cell infiltrates remains speculative and undefined in the setting of hypertension. The current study compared T cell-derived cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from normotensive and hypertensive mice. Splenic, blood, aortic, kidney and brain T cells were isolated from C57BL/6J mice following 14-day vehicle or angiotensin (Ang) II (0.7 mg/kg/day, s.c.) infusion. T cell infiltration was increased in aorta, kidney and brain from hypertensive mice. Cytokine analysis in stimulated T cells indicated an overall Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype, but a similar proportion (flow cytometry) and quantity (cytometric bead array) of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-17 between vehicle- and Ang II- treated groups. Strikingly, elevated T cell-derived production of a chemokine, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), was observed in aorta (∼6-fold) and kidney in response to Ang II, but not in brain, spleen or blood. Moreover, T cell-derived ROS production in aorta was elevated ∼3 -fold in Ang II-treated mice (n = 7; P<0.05). Ang II-induced hypertension does not affect the overall T cell cytokine profile, but enhanced T cell-derived ROS production and/or leukocyte recruitment due to elevated CCL2, and this effect may be further amplified with increased infiltration of T cells. We have identified a potential hypertension-specific T cell phenotype that may represent a functional contribution of T cells to the development of hypertension, and likely several other associated vascular disorders. PMID:25501574

  12. Discharge of RVLM vasomotor neurons is not increased in anesthetized angiotensin II-salt hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Pedrino, Gustavo R.; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann; Cravo, Sergio L.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are critical for generating and regulating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Systemic administration of ANG II combined with a high-salt diet induces hypertension that is postulated to involve elevated SNA. However, a functional role for RVLM vasomotor neurons in ANG II-salt hypertension has not been established. Here we tested the hypothesis that RVLM vasomotor neurons have exaggerated resting discharge in rats with ANG II-salt hypertension. Rats in the hypertensive (HT) group consumed a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet and received an infusion of ANG II (150 ng·kg−1·min−1 sc) for 14 days. Rats in the normotensive (NT) group consumed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet and were infused with normal saline. Telemetric recordings in conscious rats revealed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased in HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.001). Under anesthesia (urethane/chloralose), MAP remained elevated in HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.01). Extracellular single unit recordings in HT (n = 28) and NT (n = 22) rats revealed that barosensitive RVLM neurons in both groups (HT, 23 cells; NT, 34 cells) had similar cardiac rhythmicity and resting discharge. However, a greater (P < 0.01) increase of MAP was needed to silence discharge of neurons in HT (17 cells, 44 ± 5 mmHg) than in NT (28 cells, 29 ± 3 mmHg) rats. Maximum firing rates during arterial baroreceptor unloading were similar across groups. We conclude that heightened resting discharge of sympathoexcitatory RVLM neurons is not required for maintenance of neurogenic ANG II-salt hypertension. PMID:24124187

  13. Early administration of nifedipine protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through regulating CaMKII-SERCA2a pathway and apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Zhang, Wei-dong; Du, Yi-meng

    2016-04-01

    The calcium channel blocker (CCB), nifedipine, is a more effective treatment for early- than late-stage cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated the effects of early- and late-stage nifedipine administration on calcium homeostasis, CaMKII (Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) activity and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under hypertrophic stimulation with angiotensin II (AngII). Primary rat cardiomyocytes were divided into five treatment groups: AK, AngII plus the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93; AN-1 (early-stage), AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; AN-2 (late-stage), AngII × 48 h, then AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; C, untreated; and A, AngII × 48 h. The t1/2β [time required for intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) to decline to one half of the peak value] decreased; however, CaMKII and SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase 2a) activities increased in the AN-1 group compared with the AK group. In the AN-2 group compared with the AN-1 group, CaMKII activity, t1/2α [time required for [Ca(2+) ]i to increase from the bottom to one half of peak value], t1/2β, and apoptosis increased. These results indicate that the timing of CCB administration affects the calcium concentration and apoptosis of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes through the CaMKII-SERCA2a signalling pathway, thereby influencing the drug's protective activity against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26968727

  14. Effect of angiotensin II on uterine and systemic vasculature in pregnant sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Naden, R P; Rosenfeld, C R

    1981-01-01

    The response of uteroplacental blood flow (UBF) to angiotensin II is controversial. Moreover, the relationship of the uterine and systemic responses to infused angiotensin II is not well understood. Thus, in eight chronically instrumented, near-term pregnant sheep, we have determined the relationships between the dose and duration of constant systemic infusions of angiotensin II ([Val5] ANG II) and changes in UBF, uterine vascular resistance (UVR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). [Val5] ANG II caused dose-dependent increases in UVR and MAP at all doses studied (P less than 0.05). The response in UBF was bidirectional, with increases at doses less than or equal to 1.15 microgram/min and decreases at greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min (P less than 0.05). Increases in UBP occurred when the relative rise (delta) in MAP greater than delta UVR, whereas UBF was unchanged when delta MAP = delta UVR and decreased when delta MAP less than delta UVR. SVR also rose in a dose-dependent fashion (P less than 0.05); delta SVR was greater than delta UVR at doses less than or equal to 2.29 micrograms [Val5] ANG II/min (P less than 0.01). In studies of the effect of duration of [Val5] ANG II infusions, UBF increased at all doses during the 1st min, followed by stabilization at 4--5 min, with eventual decreases at doses greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min and increases at doses less than 2.29 micrograms/min. The relationship between the changes in MAP and UVR to the response of UBF was as noted above. It is evident that (a) [Val5] NAG II is uterine vasoconstrictor, (b) changes in UBF are dependent upon relative changes in perfusion pressure and UVR, which in turn are dependent upon both the dose and duration of a [Val5] ANG II infusion, and (c) the uteroplacental vasculature is relatively refractory to the vasoconstricting effects of low doses of [Val5] ANG II. PMID:7263862

  15. Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hernanz, R; Martínez-Revelles, S; Palacios, R; Martín, A; Cachofeiro, V; Aguado, A; García-Redondo, L; Barrús, M T; de Batista, P R; Briones, A M; Salaices, M; Alonso, M J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling contributes to inflammatory cardiovascular diseases, but its role in hypertension and the associated vascular damage is not known. We investigated whether TLR4 activation contributed to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and the associated vascular structural, mechanical and functional alterations. Experimental Approach AngII was infused (1.44 mg·kg−1·day−1, s.c.) for 2 weeks in C57BL6 mice, treated with a neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibody or IgG (1 μg·day−1); systolic BP (SBP) and aortic cytokine levels were measured. Structural, mechanical and contractile properties of aortic and mesenteric arterial segments were measured with myography and histology. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to analyse these tissues and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from hypertensive rats (SHR). Key Results Aortic TLR4 mRNA levels were raised by AngII infusion. Anti-TLR4 antibody treatment of AngII-treated mice normalised: (i) increased SBP and TNF-α, IL-6 and CCL2 levels; (ii) vascular structural and mechanical changes; (iii) altered aortic phenylephrine- and ACh-induced responses; (iv) increased NOX-1 mRNA levels, superoxide anion production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity and effects of catalase, apocynin, ML-171 and Mito-TEMPO on vascular responses; and (v) reduced NO release and effects of L-NAME on phenylephrine-induced contraction. In VSMC, the MyD88 inhibitor ST-2825 reduced AngII-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activity. The TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 reduced AngII-induced increased phospho-JNK1/2 and p65 NF-κB subunit nuclear protein expression. Conclusions and Implications TLR4 up-regulation by AngII contributed to the inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling and stiffness associated with hypertension by mechanisms involving oxidative stress. MyD88-dependent activation and JNK/NF-κB signalling pathways participated in these alterations. PMID:25712370

  16. Deficiency of Smad7 Enhances Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Angiotensin II Infusion in a Mouse Model of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li Hua; Huang, Xiao Ru; Zhang, Yang; Li, You Qi; Chen, Hai-yong; Heuchel, Rainer; Yan, Bryan P.; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Lan, Hui Yao

    2013-01-01

    Smad7 has been shown to negatively regulate fibrosis and inflammation, but its role in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive cardiac remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of Smad7 in hypertensive cardiopathy induced by angiotensin II infusion. Hypertensive cardiac disease was induced in Smad7 gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by subcutaneous infusion of Ang II (1.46 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Although equal levels of high blood pressure were developed in both Smad7 KO and WT mice, Smad7 KO mice developed more severe cardiac injury as demonstrated by impairing cardiac function including a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) mass (P<0.01),reduction of LV ejection fraction(P<0.001) and fractional shortening(P<0.001). Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry detected that deletion of Smad7 significantly enhanced Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis and inflammation, including upregulation of collagen I, α-SMA, interleukin-1β, TNF-α, and infiltration of CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Further studies revealed that enhanced activation of the Sp1-TGFβ/Smad3-NF-κB pathways and downregulation of miR-29 were mechanisms though which deletion of Smad7 promoted Ang II-mediated cardiac remodeling. In conclusions, Smad7 plays a protective role in AngII-mediated cardiac remodeling via mechanisms involving the Sp1-TGF-β/Smad3-NF.κB-miR-29 regulatory network. PMID:23894614

  17. M2 macrophage accumulation in the aortic wall during angiotensin II infusion in mice is associated with fibrosis, elastin loss, and elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey P; Vinh, Antony; Tuck, Kellie L; Sakkal, Samy; Krishnan, Shalini M; Chan, Christopher T; Lieu, Maggie; Samuel, Chrishan S; Diep, Henry; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Tare, Marianne; Ricardo, Sharon D; Guzik, Tomasz J; Sobey, Christopher G; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in blood vessels during hypertension. However, their contribution to vessel remodeling is unknown. In the present study, we examined the polarization state of macrophages (M1/M2) in aortas of mice during hypertension and investigated whether antagonism of chemokine receptors involved in macrophage accumulation reduces vessel remodeling and blood pressure (BP). Mice treated with ANG II (0.7 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 14 days) had elevated systolic BP (158 ± 3 mmHg) compared with saline-treated animals (122 ± 3 mmHg). Flow cytometry revealed that ANG II infusion increased numbers of CD45(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes and CD45(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) macrophages by 10- and 2-fold, respectively. The majority of macrophages were positive for the M2 marker CD206 but negative for the M1 marker inducible nitric oxide synthase. Expression of other M2 genes (arginase-1, Fc receptor-like S scavenger receptor, and receptor-1) was elevated in aortas from ANG II-treated mice, whereas M1 genes [TNF and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2] were unaltered. A PCR array to identify chemokine receptor targets for intervention revealed chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) to be upregulated in aortas from ANG II-treated mice, while flow cytometry identified Ly6C(hi) monocytes as the main CCR2-expressing cell type. Intervention with a CCR2 antagonist (INCB3344; 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), 7 days after the commencement of ANG II infusion, reduced aortic macrophage numbers. INCB334 also reduced aortic collagen deposition, elastin loss, and BP in ANG II-treated mice. Thus, ANG II-dependent hypertension in mice is associated with Ly6C(hi) monocyte and M2 macrophage accumulation in the aorta. Inhibition of macrophage accumulation with a CCR2 antagonist prevents ANG II-induced vessel fibrosis and elevated BP, highlighting this as a promising approach for the future treatment of vessel remodeling/stiffening in hypertension.

  18. Activation of calcineurin in human failing heart ventricle by endothelin-1, angiotensin II and urotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, Joan; Wang, Jianchun; Russell, Fraser D; Molenaar, Peter

    2005-06-01

    1 The calcineurin (CaN) enzyme-transcriptional pathway is critically involved in hypertrophy of heart muscle in some animal models. Currently there is no information concerning the regulation of CaN activation by endogenous agonists in human heart. 2 Human right ventricular trabeculae from explanted human (14 male/2 female) failing hearts were set up in a tissue bath and electrically paced at 1 Hz and incubated with or without 100 nM endothelin-1 (ET-1), 10 M, angiotensin-II (Ang II) or 20 nM human urotensin-II (hUII) for 30 min. Tissues from four patients were incubated with 200 nM tacrolimus (FK506) for 30 min and then incubated in the presence or absence of ET-1 for a further 30 min. 3 ET-1 increased contractile force in all 13 patients (P<0.001). Ang II and hUII increased contractile force in three out of eight and four out of 10 patients but overall nonsignificantly (P>0.1). FK506 had no effect on contractile force (P=0.12). 4 ET-1, Ang II and hUII increased calcineurin activity by 32, 71 and 15%, respectively, while FK506 reduced activity by 34%. ET-1 in the presence of FK506 did not restore calcineurin activity (P=0.1). 5 There was no relationship between basal CaN activity and expression levels in the right ventricle. Increased levels of free phosphate were detected in ventricular homogenates that were incubated with PKC(epsilon) compared to samples incubated without PKC(epsilon). 6 Endogenous cardiostimulants which activate G(alpha)q-coupled receptors increase the activity of calcineurin in human heart following acute (30 min) exposure. PKC may contribute to this effect by increasing levels of phosphorylated calcineurin substrate.

  19. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes in rat renal preglomerular vessels.

    PubMed

    De León, H; Garcia, R

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique to isolate rat renal preglomerular vessels is described. Kidneys were pressed against a 0.3 mm stainless steel grid. The whole vascular tree, including the interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries, as well as the afferent arterioles, remained on the grid surface from where they were recovered. Extensive washing yielded a highly pure preparation of renal microvessels. Radioligand binding experiments were performed to characterize 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]-ANG II binding sites in preglomerular microvessel membranes. Equilibrium saturation binding experiments revealed the presence of one group of high affinity receptors (Kd = 1.22 +/- 0.171 nM; Bmax = 209 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein). Competitive inhibition experiments with two highly specific nonpeptide ANG II antagonists, losartan (DuP 753), which is specific for the AT1 receptor subtype, and PD123319, which is specific for the AT2 subtype, demonstrated that the large majority of, if not all, ANG II receptors in rat renal preglomerular vessels correspond to the AT1 subtype. PMID:1299411

  20. Diminazene aceturate, an angiotensin-converting enzyme II activator, prevents gastric mucosal damage in mice: Role of the angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luan Kelves M; Nicolau, Lucas A D; Sousa, Nayara A; Araújo, Thiago S L; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Costa, Douglas S; Souza, Fabiana M; Pacífico, Dvison M; Martins, Conceição S; Silva, Renan O; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-07-15

    The angiotensin (Ang) II converting enzyme (ACE II) pathway has recently been shown to be associated with several beneficial effects in various organisms, including gastroprotection. ACE II is responsible for converting Ang II into an active peptide, Ang-(1-7), which in turn binds the Mas receptor. Recent studies have shown that diminazene aceturate (Dize) a trypanocidal used in animals, activates ACE II. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of Dize via the ACE II/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and acetic acid in mice. The results showed that Dize could promote gastric protection via several mechanisms, including increased levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors (e.g., decreasing tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression and reducing myeloperoxidase activity), maturation of collagen fibers, and promotion of re-epithelialization and regeneration of gastric tissue in different injury models. Thus, Dize represents a novel potential gastroprotective agent. PMID:27241079

  1. Phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway mediates angiotensin II-dependent apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts expressing AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Raul; Soto, Cristian; Copaja, Miguel; Mateluna, Francisca; Aranguiz, Pablo; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chiong, Mario; Garcia, Lorena; Letelier, Alan; Thomas, Walter G; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are the major non-myocyte cell constituent in the myocardium, and they are involved in heart remodeling. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediates the established actions of angiotensin II (Ang II), and changes in its expression have been reported in cardiac fibroblasts after myocardial infarction. However, the AT1R-dependent signaling pathways involved in cardiac fibroblast death remain unknown. Using adenovirus, we ectopically expressed AT1R in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and investigated the role of the phospholipase (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway on Ang II-dependent death. Ang II induced cardiac fibroblast death characterized by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. All these effects were prevented by the AT1R antagonist losartan, PLC inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor Gö6976. We conclude that Ang II stimulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in cultured cardiac fibroblasts by the AT1R/PLC/PKC signaling pathway. PMID:18670360

  2. Renal transporter activation during angiotensin-II hypertension is blunted in interferon-γ-/- and interleukin-17A-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Nikhil V; Thabet, Salim R; Xiao, Liang; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kirabo, Annet; Madhur, Meena S; Delpire, Eric; Harrison, David G; McDonough, Alicia A

    2015-03-01

    Ample genetic and physiological evidence establishes that renal salt handling is a critical regulator of blood pressure. Studies also establish a role for the immune system, T-cell infiltration, and immune cytokines in hypertension. This study aimed to connect immune cytokines, specifically interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A), to sodium transporter regulation in the kidney during angiotensin-II (Ang-II) hypertension. C57BL/6J (wild-type) mice responded to Ang-II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute, 2 weeks) with a rise in blood pressure (170 mm Hg) and a significant decrease in the rate of excretion of a saline challenge. In comparison, mice that lacked the ability to produce either IFN-γ (IFN-γ(-/-)) or IL-17A (IL-17A(-/-)) exhibited a blunted rise in blood pressure (<150 mm Hg), and both the genotypes maintained baseline diuretic and natriuretic responses to a saline challenge. Along the distal nephron, Ang-II infusion increased abundance of the phosphorylated forms of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, Na-Cl cotransporter, and Ste20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase, in both the wild-type and the IL-17A(-/-) but not in IFN-γ(-/-) mice; epithelial Na channel abundance increased similarly in all the 3 genotypes. In the proximal nephron, Ang-II infusion significantly decreased abundance of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 and the motor myosin VI in IL-17A(-/-) and IFN-γ(-/-), but not in wild-type; the Na-phosphate cotransporter decreased in all the 3 genotypes. Our results suggest that during Ang-II hypertension both IFN-γ and IL-17A production interfere with the pressure natriuretic decrease in proximal tubule sodium transport and that IFN-γ production is necessary to activate distal sodium reabsorption. PMID:25601932

  3. DL-propargylglycine reduces blood pressure and renal injury but increases kidney weight in angiotensin-II infused rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Nynke R; Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Snijder, Pauline M; Slaats, Gisela G; Yazdani, Saleh; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Giles, Rachel H; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A; van Goor, Harry

    2015-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) share signaling and vasorelaxant properties and are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Inhibiting NO production or availability induces hypertension and proteinuria, which is prevented by concomitant blockade of the H2S producing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by d,l-propargylglycine (PAG). We hypothesized that blocking H2S production ameliorates Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and renal injury in a rodent model. Effects of concomitant administration of PAG or saline were therefore studied in healthy (CON) and AngII hypertensive rats. In CON rats, PAG did not affect systolic blood pressure (SBP), but slightly increased proteinuria. In AngII rats PAG reduced SBP, proteinuria and plasma creatinine (180 ± 12 vs. 211 ± 19 mmHg; 66 ± 35 vs. 346 ± 92 mg/24 h; 24 ± 6 vs. 47 ± 15 μmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, kidney to body weight ratio was increased in all groups by PAG (p < 0.05). Renal injury induced by AngII was reduced by PAG (p < 0.001). HO-1 gene expression was increased by PAG alone (p < 0.05). PAG increased inner cortical tubular cell proliferation after 1 week and decreased outer cortical tubular nucleus number/field after 4 weeks. In vitro proximal tubular cell size increased after exposure to PAG. In summary, blocking H2S production with PAG reduced SBP and renal injury in AngII infused rats. Independent of the cardiovascular and renal effects, PAG increased HO-1 gene expression and kidney weight. PAG alone increased tubular cell size and proliferation in-vivo and in-vitro. Our results are indicative of a complex interplay of gasotransmitter signaling/action of mutually compensatory nature in the kidney.

  4. Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitochondrial autophagy and improves cell survival in angiotensin II-exposed cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongyan; Li, Yongqiang; Yan, Lijie; Yang, Haitao; Wu, Jintao; Qian, Peng; Li, Bing; Wang, Shanling

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial autophagy is an important adaptive stress response and can be modulated by various key molecules. A previous study found that the regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) may regulate mitochondrial autophagy and cause mitochondria degradation in neurocytes. However, the effect of Rcan1-1L on cardiomyocytes has not been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Rcan1-1L in angiotensin II (Ang II)-exposed human cardiomyocytes. Above all, Human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs) were exposed to 200 nmol/L Ang II for 4 days. Enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, cytochrome C release and mitochondrial permeability were observed in these cells, which were blocked by valsartan. Consistently, Ang II exposure significantly reduced cardiomyocyte viability. However, transfection of Rcan1-1L vector promoted cell viability and ameliorated the apoptosis caused by Ang II. Rcan1-1L clearly promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs, with elevated autophagy protein (ATG) 5 and light chain 3 (LC3) expression. Transient mitochondrial biogenesis and reduced cytochrome C release was also induced by Rcan1-1L. Additionally, Rcan1-1L significantly inhibited calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. We thus conclude that Rcan1-1L may play a protective role in Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes through the induction of mitochondrial autophagy, and may be an alternative method of cardiac protection. - Highlights: • Transfection of Rcan1-1L into HACMs promoted cell viability and reduced apoptosis. • Transfection of Rcan1-1L promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs. • Rcan1-1L inhibited the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling.

  5. Ang-(1-7) activates the NO/cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channels pathway to induce peripheral antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aline; Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; Silva, Grazielle; Cortes, Steyner; Santos, Robson; Duarte, Igor

    2014-02-15

    Angiotensin-(1-7) is a bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system that is formed endogenously and induces nitric oxide release in several tissues. The L-arginine/NO/cyclic GMP pathway and ATP-sensitive K+ channels have been proposed as the mechanism of action for the peripheral antinociception of several groups of drug and endogenous substances, including opioids, non-steroidal analgesics, acetylcholine and others. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the L-arginine/NO/cGMP and KATP+ pathway on antinociception induced by angiotensin-(1-7). Paw pressure in rats was used to induce hyperalgesia via an intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2 μg/paw). Ang-(1-7) (2, 3 and 4 μg/paw) elicited a local peripheral antinociceptive effect that was antagonized by the nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NOarg and the selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor L-NPA. The selective inhibition of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) NOS by L-NIO and L-NIL, respectively, was ineffective at blocking the effects of a local Ang-(1-7) injection. In addition, the level of nitrite in the homogenized paw tissue, as determined by a colorimetric assay, indicated that exogenous Ang-(1-7) is able to induce NO release. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the specific blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels glibenclamide (40, 80 and 160 μg/paw) antagonized the Ang-(1-7) response. The results provide evidence that Ang-(1-7) most likely induces peripheral antinociceptive effects via the L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway and KATP+ pathway activation.

  6. UAP56 is an important mediator of Angiotensin II/platelet derived growth factor induced vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Angiotensin II/PDGF induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ► UAP56 is a positive regulator of E2F transcriptional activation. ► UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low flow carotid arteries. -- Abstract: Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reported that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease.

  7. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  8. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  9. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively). PMID:26107984

  10. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively).

  11. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects chan