Science.gov

Sample records for 12b distribution code

  1. WASP-12b According to the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Lust, Nate B.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew SD; Foster, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  2. A Random Walk on WASP-12b with the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Bowman, Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Foster, Austin James; Stemm, Madison; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  3. An Open-Source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code, and Application to WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Rojo, Patricio M.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Bowman, Matthew O.; Foster, Andrew S.; Stemm, Madison M.; Lust, Nate B.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric retrievals for solar-system planets typically fit, either with a minimizer or by eye, a synthetic spectrum to high-resolution (Δλ/λ ~ 1000-100,000) data with S/N > 100 per point. In contrast, exoplanet data often have S/N ~ 10 per point, and may have just a few points representing bandpasses larger than 1 um. To derive atmospheric constraints and robust parameter uncertainty estimates from such data requires a Bayesian approach. To date there are few investigators with the relevant codes, none of which are publicly available. We are therefore pleased to announce the open-source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. BART uses a Bayesian phase-space explorer to drive a radiative-transfer model through the parameter phase space, producing the most robust estimates available for the thermal profile and chemical abundances in the atmosphere. We present an overview of the code and an initial application to Spitzer eclipse data for WASP-12b. We invite the community to use and improve BART via the open-source development site GitHub.com. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  4. An Open-Source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code, with Application to WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Rojo, Patricio; Loredo, Thomas J.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Stemm, Madison M.; Lust, Nate B.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric retrievals for solar-system planets typically fit, either with a minimizer or by eye, a synthetic spectrum to high-resolution (Δλ/λ ~ 1000-100,000) data with S/N > 100 per point. In contrast, exoplanet data often have S/N ~ 10 per point, and may have just a few points representing bandpasses larger than 1 um. To derive atmospheric constraints and robust parameter uncertainty estimates from such data requires a Bayesian approach. To date there are few investigators with the relevant codes, none of which are publicly available. We are therefore pleased to announce the open-source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. BART uses a Bayesian phase-space explorer to drive a radiative-transfer model through the parameter phase space, producing the most robust estimates available for the thermal profile and chemical abundances in the atmosphere. We present an overview of the code and an initial application to Spitzer eclipse data for WASP-12b. We invite the community to use and improve BART via the open-source development site GitHub.com. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  5. The 1990 vertical distribution of two important halons (F-12B1 and F-13B1) in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, O. N.; Borchers, R.; Lal, Shyam; Subbarya, B. H.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Fabian, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The first vertical profiles of F-12B1 and F-13B1 had been obtained in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere by us in 1987. The measurement of these substances responsible for almost the entire anthropogenic contribution to the stratospheric BrO(x) budget is important in the tropics, as tropical upwelling provides their injection along with that of other pollutants, into the stratosphere. To ascertain the trends of these distributions and foster the data, the 1987 experiment was repeated in April 1990. Like 1987, the MPAE cryogenic whole air sampler was launched on a balloon from Hyderabad, India (17.5 deg N), and 14 samples were collected between 10 and 35 km altitude. The results obtained by means of GC and GC-MS analyses showed that the atmospheric abundance of both F-12B1 and F-13B1 is increasing at a fast rate, respectively by about 15 percent and 10 percent per year. From 1987 to 1990, F-12B1 and F-13B1 tropospheric mixing ratios have been growing from 1.2 and 1.3 ppt to 1.8 and 1.7 ppt, respectively. The vertical profiles will be discussed.

  6. A distributed particle simulation code in C++

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Wingate, C.A.; Ford, P.S.; Junkins, J.S.; Pope, S.C.

    1992-03-01

    Although C++ has been successfully used in a variety of computer science applications, it has just recently begun to be used in scientific applications. We have found that the object-oriented properties of C++ lend themselves well to scientific computations by making maintenance of the code easier, by making the code easier to understand, and by providing a better paradigm for distributed memory parallel codes. We describe here aspects of developing a particle plasma simulation code using object-oriented techniques for use in a distributed computing environment. We initially designed and implemented the code for serial computation and then used the distributed programming toolkit ISIS to run it in parallel. In this connection we describe some of the difficulties presented by using C++ for doing parallel and scientific computation.

  7. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  8. The weight distribution and randomness of linear codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Finding the weight distributions of block codes is a problem of theoretical and practical interest. Yet the weight distributions of most block codes are still unknown except for a few classes of block codes. Here, by using the inclusion and exclusion principle, an explicit formula is derived which enumerates the complete weight distribution of an (n,k,d) linear code using a partially known weight distribution. This expression is analogous to the Pless power-moment identities - a system of equations relating the weight distribution of a linear code to the weight distribution of its dual code. Also, an approximate formula for the weight distribution of most linear (n,k,d) codes is derived. It is shown that for a given linear (n,k,d) code over GF(q), the ratio of the number of codewords of weight u to the number of words of weight u approaches the constant Q = q(-)(n-k) as u becomes large. A relationship between the randomness of a linear block code and the minimum distance of its dual code is given, and it is shown that most linear block codes with rigid algebraic and combinatorial structure also display certain random properties which make them similar to random codes with no structure at all.

  9. Adaptive Source Coding Schemes for Geometrically Distributed Integer Alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K-M.; Smyth, P.

    1993-01-01

    Revisit the Gallager and van Voorhis optimal source coding scheme for geometrically distributed non-negative integer alphabets and show that the various subcodes in the popular Rice algorithm can be derived from the Gallager and van Voorhis code.

  10. Optimal source codes for geometrically distributed integer alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallager, R. G.; Van Voorhis, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is shown for using the Huffman algorithm indirectly to prove the optimality of a code for an infinite alphabet if an estimate concerning the nature of the code can be made. Attention is given to nonnegative integers with a geometric probability assignment. The particular distribution considered arises in run-length coding and in encoding protocol information in data networks. Questions of redundancy of the optimal code are also investigated.

  11. Binary weight distributions of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Arnold, S.

    1992-01-01

    The binary weight distributions of the (7,5) and (15,9) Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and their duals are computed using the MacWilliams identities. Several mappings of symbols to bits are considered and those offering the largest binary minimum distance are found. These results are then used to compute bounds on the soft-decoding performance of these codes in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. These bounds are useful for finding large binary block codes with good performance and for verifying the performance obtained by specific soft-coding algorithms presently under development.

  12. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-15

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.

  13. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  14. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  15. Code CUGEL: A code to unfold Ge(Li) spectrometer polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Born, U.

    1970-01-01

    A FORTRAN code was developed for the Univac 1108 digital computer to unfold lithium-drifted germanium semiconductor spectrometers, polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions. It was designed to analyze the combination continuous and monoenergetic gamma radiation field of radioisotope volumetric sources. The code generates the detector system response matrix function and applies it to monoenergetic spectral components discretely and to the continuum iteratively. It corrects for system drift, source decay, background, and detection efficiency. Results are presented in digital form for differential and integrated photon number and energy distributions, and for exposure dose.

  16. Streamlined Genome Sequence Compression using Distributed Source Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Feng; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We aim at developing a streamlined genome sequence compression algorithm to support alternative miniaturized sequencing devices, which have limited communication, storage, and computation power. Existing techniques that require heavy client (encoder side) cannot be applied. To tackle this challenge, we carefully examined distributed source coding theory and developed a customized reference-based genome compression protocol to meet the low-complexity need at the client side. Based on the variation between source and reference, our protocol will pick adaptively either syndrome coding or hash coding to compress subsequences of changing code length. Our experimental results showed promising performance of the proposed method when compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm (GRS). PMID:25520552

  17. Distributed quantum dense coding with two receivers in noisy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tamoghna; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effect of noisy channels in a classical information transfer through a multipartite state which acts as a substrate for the distributed quantum dense coding protocol between several senders and two receivers. The situation is qualitatively different from the case with one or more senders and a single receiver. We obtain an upper bound on the multipartite capacity which is tightened in the case of the covariant noisy channel. We also establish a relation between the genuine multipartite entanglement of the shared state and the capacity of distributed dense coding using that state, both in the noiseless and the noisy scenarios. Specifically, we find that, in the case of multiple senders and two receivers, the corresponding generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states possess higher dense coding capacities as compared to a significant fraction of pure states having the same multipartite entanglement.

  18. Parallelization of Finite Element Analysis Codes Using Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, Fusun

    1996-01-01

    Performance gains in computer design are quickly consumed as users seek to analyze larger problems to a higher degree of accuracy. Innovative computational methods, such as parallel and distributed computing, seek to multiply the power of existing hardware technology to satisfy the computational demands of large applications. In the early stages of this project, experiments were performed using two large, coarse-grained applications, CSTEM and METCAN. These applications were parallelized on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. It was found that the overall speedup was very low, due to large, inherently sequential code segments present in the applications. The overall execution time T(sub par), of the application is dependent on these sequential segments. If these segments make up a significant fraction of the overall code, the application will have a poor speedup measure.

  19. Spherical-code key-distribution protocols for qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2004-11-01

    Recently spherical codes were introduced as potentially more capable ensembles for quantum key distribution. Here we develop specific key-creation protocols for the two qubit-based spherical codes, the trine and tetrahedron, and analyze them in the context of a suitably tailored intercept/resend attack, both in standard form, and in a 'gentler' version whose back action on the quantum state is weaker. When compared to the standard unbiased basis protocols, Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) and six-state, two distinct advantages are found. First, they offer improved tolerance of eavesdropping, the trine besting its counterpart BB84 and the tetrahedron the six-state protocol. Second, the key error rate may be computed from the sift rate of the protocol itself, removing the need to sacrifice key bits for this purpose. This simplifies the protocol and improves the overall key rate.0.

  20. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  1. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-01-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  2. Sparsey™: event recognition via deep hierarchical sparse distributed codes

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    The visual cortex's hierarchical, multi-level organization is captured in many biologically inspired computational vision models, the general idea being that progressively larger scale (spatially/temporally) and more complex visual features are represented in progressively higher areas. However, most earlier models use localist representations (codes) in each representational field (which we equate with the cortical macrocolumn, “mac”), at each level. In localism, each represented feature/concept/event (hereinafter “item”) is coded by a single unit. The model we describe, Sparsey, is hierarchical as well but crucially, it uses sparse distributed coding (SDC) in every mac in all levels. In SDC, each represented item is coded by a small subset of the mac's units. The SDCs of different items can overlap and the size of overlap between items can be used to represent their similarity. The difference between localism and SDC is crucial because SDC allows the two essential operations of associative memory, storing a new item and retrieving the best-matching stored item, to be done in fixed time for the life of the model. Since the model's core algorithm, which does both storage and retrieval (inference), makes a single pass over all macs on each time step, the overall model's storage/retrieval operation is also fixed-time, a criterion we consider essential for scalability to the huge (“Big Data”) problems. A 2010 paper described a nonhierarchical version of this model in the context of purely spatial pattern processing. Here, we elaborate a fully hierarchical model (arbitrary numbers of levels and macs per level), describing novel model principles like progressive critical periods, dynamic modulation of principal cells' activation functions based on a mac-level familiarity measure, representation of multiple simultaneously active hypotheses, a novel method of time warp invariant recognition, and we report results showing learning/recognition of spatiotemporal

  3. Robust video transmission with distributed source coded auxiliary channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajun; Majumdar, Abhik; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2009-12-01

    We propose a novel solution to the problem of robust, low-latency video transmission over lossy channels. Predictive video codecs, such as MPEG and H.26x, are very susceptible to prediction mismatch between encoder and decoder or "drift" when there are packet losses. These mismatches lead to a significant degradation in the decoded quality. To address this problem, we propose an auxiliary codec system that sends additional information alongside an MPEG or H.26x compressed video stream to correct for errors in decoded frames and mitigate drift. The proposed system is based on the principles of distributed source coding and uses the (possibly erroneous) MPEG/H.26x decoder reconstruction as side information at the auxiliary decoder. The distributed source coding framework depends upon knowing the statistical dependency (or correlation) between the source and the side information. We propose a recursive algorithm to analytically track the correlation between the original source frame and the erroneous MPEG/H.26x decoded frame. Finally, we propose a rate-distortion optimization scheme to allocate the rate used by the auxiliary encoder among the encoding blocks within a video frame. We implement the proposed system and present extensive simulation results that demonstrate significant gains in performance both visually and objectively (on the order of 2 dB in PSNR over forward error correction based solutions and 1.5 dB in PSNR over intrarefresh based solutions for typical scenarios) under tight latency constraints.

  4. Behavioral correlates of the distributed coding of spatial context.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael I; Killing, Sarah; Morris, Caitlin; O'Donoghue, Alan; Onyiagha, Dikennam; Stevenson, Rosemary; Verriotis, Madeleine; Jeffery, Kathryn J

    2006-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells respond heterogeneously to elemental changes of a compound spatial context, suggesting that they form a distributed code of context, whereby context information is shared across a population of neurons. The question arises as to what this distributed code might be useful for. The present study explored two possibilities: one, that it allows contexts with common elements to be disambiguated, and the other, that it allows a given context to be associated with more than one outcome. We used two naturalistic measures of context processing in rats, rearing and thigmotaxis (boundary-hugging), to explore how rats responded to contextual novelty and to relate this to the behavior of place cells. In experiment 1, rats showed dishabituation of rearing to a novel reconfiguration of familiar context elements, suggesting that they perceived the reconfiguration as novel, a behavior that parallels that of place cells in a similar situation. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place preference task on an open-field arena. A change in the arena context triggered renewed thigmotaxis, and yet navigation continued unimpaired, indicating simultaneous representation of both the altered contextual and constant spatial cues. Place cells similarly exhibited a dual population of responses, consistent with the hypothesis that their activity underlies spatial behavior. Together, these experiments suggest that heterogeneous context encoding (or "partial remapping") by place cells may function to allow the flexible assignment of associations to contexts, a faculty that could be useful in episodic memory encoding. PMID:16921500

  5. Non-extensive trends in the size distribution of coding and non-coding DNA sequences in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.

    2006-03-01

    We study the primary DNA structure of four of the most completely sequenced human chromosomes (including chromosome 19 which is the most dense in coding), using non-extensive statistics. We show that the exponents governing the spatial decay of the coding size distributions vary between 5.2 ≤r ≤5.7 for the short scales and 1.45 ≤q ≤1.50 for the large scales. On the contrary, the exponents governing the spatial decay of the non-coding size distributions in these four chromosomes, take the values 2.4 ≤r ≤3.2 for the short scales and 1.50 ≤q ≤1.72 for the large scales. These results, in particular the values of the tail exponent q, indicate the existence of correlations in the coding and non-coding size distributions with tendency for higher correlations in the non-coding DNA.

  6. Pressure distribution based optimization of phase-coded acoustical vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Haixiang; Gao, Lu; Dai, Yafei; Ma, Qingyu; Zhang, Dong

    2014-02-28

    Based on the acoustic radiation of point source, the physical mechanism of phase-coded acoustical vortices is investigated with formulae derivations of acoustic pressure and vibration velocity. Various factors that affect the optimization of acoustical vortices are analyzed. Numerical simulations of the axial, radial, and circular pressure distributions are performed with different source numbers, frequencies, and axial distances. The results prove that the acoustic pressure of acoustical vortices is linearly proportional to the source number, and lower fluctuations of circular pressure distributions can be produced for more sources. With the increase of source frequency, the acoustic pressure of acoustical vortices increases accordingly with decreased vortex radius. Meanwhile, increased vortex radius with reduced acoustic pressure is also achieved for longer axial distance. With the 6-source experimental system, circular and radial pressure distributions at various frequencies and axial distances have been measured, which have good agreements with the results of numerical simulations. The favorable results of acoustic pressure distributions provide theoretical basis for further studies of acoustical vortices.

  7. Non-coding RNAs and complex distributed genetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir

    2011-08-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the mRNA-protein interplay can be dramatically influenced by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Although this new paradigm is now widely accepted, an understanding of the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks is lacking. To clarify what may happen in this case, we propose a mean-field kinetic model describing the influence of ncRNA on a complex genetic network with a distributed architecture including mutual protein-mediated regulation of many genes transcribed into mRNAs. ncRNA is considered to associate with mRNAs and inhibit their translation and/or facilitate degradation. Our results are indicative of the richness of the kinetics under consideration. The main complex features are found to be bistability and oscillations. One could expect to find kinetic chaos as well. The latter feature has however not been observed in our calculations. In addition, we illustrate the difference in the regulation of distributed networks by mRNA and ncRNA.

  8. Adaptive distributed video coding with correlation estimation using expectation propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel

    2012-10-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is rapidly increasing in popularity by the way of shifting the complexity from encoder to decoder, whereas no compression performance degrades, at least in theory. In contrast with conventional video codecs, the inter-frame correlation in DVC is explored at decoder based on the received syndromes of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frame and side information (SI) frame generated from other frames available only at decoder. However, the ultimate decoding performances of DVC are based on the assumption that the perfect knowledge of correlation statistic between WZ and SI frames should be available at decoder. Therefore, the ability of obtaining a good statistical correlation estimate is becoming increasingly important in practical DVC implementations. Generally, the existing correlation estimation methods in DVC can be classified into two main types: pre-estimation where estimation starts before decoding and on-the-fly (OTF) estimation where estimation can be refined iteratively during decoding. As potential changes between frames might be unpredictable or dynamical, OTF estimation methods usually outperforms pre-estimation techniques with the cost of increased decoding complexity (e.g., sampling methods). In this paper, we propose a low complexity adaptive DVC scheme using expectation propagation (EP), where correlation estimation is performed OTF as it is carried out jointly with decoding of the factor graph-based DVC code. Among different approximate inference methods, EP generally offers better tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark state-of-the-art DISCOVER codec and other cases without correlation tracking, and achieves comparable decoding performance but with significantly low complexity comparing with sampling method.

  9. Adaptive Distributed Video Coding with Correlation Estimation using Expectation Propagation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel

    2012-10-15

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is rapidly increasing in popularity by the way of shifting the complexity from encoder to decoder, whereas no compression performance degrades, at least in theory. In contrast with conventional video codecs, the inter-frame correlation in DVC is explored at decoder based on the received syndromes of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frame and side information (SI) frame generated from other frames available only at decoder. However, the ultimate decoding performances of DVC are based on the assumption that the perfect knowledge of correlation statistic between WZ and SI frames should be available at decoder. Therefore, the ability of obtaining a good statistical correlation estimate is becoming increasingly important in practical DVC implementations. Generally, the existing correlation estimation methods in DVC can be classified into two main types: pre-estimation where estimation starts before decoding and on-the-fly (OTF) estimation where estimation can be refined iteratively during decoding. As potential changes between frames might be unpredictable or dynamical, OTF estimation methods usually outperforms pre-estimation techniques with the cost of increased decoding complexity (e.g., sampling methods). In this paper, we propose a low complexity adaptive DVC scheme using expectation propagation (EP), where correlation estimation is performed OTF as it is carried out jointly with decoding of the factor graph-based DVC code. Among different approximate inference methods, EP generally offers better tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark state-of-the-art DISCOVER codec and other cases without correlation tracking, and achieves comparable decoding performance but with significantly low complexity comparing with sampling method.

  10. FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.

  11. On the binary weight distribution of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup M). If each code symbol is represented by a m-tuple over GF(2) using certain basis for GF(2 sup M), a binary (nm,km) linear code is obtained. The weight distribution of a binary linear code obtained in this manner is investigated. Weight enumerators for binary linear codes obtained from Reed-Solomon codes over GF(2 sup M) generated by polynomials, (X-alpha), (X-l)(X-alpha), (X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and (X-l)(X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and their extended codes are presented, where alpha is a primitive element of GF(2 sup M). Binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes are often used for correcting multiple bursts of errors.

  12. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  13. Pharmacokinetics of anti-hepcidin monoclonal antibody Ab 12B9m and hepcidin in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jim J; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Wang, Yow-Ming; Li, Hongyan; Rose, Mark J; Ma, Mark; Wu, Yuling; Hinkle, Beth; Perez-Ruixo, Juan Jose

    2010-12-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator responsible for systemic iron homeostasis. A semi-mechanistic PK model for hepcidin and a fully human anti-hepcidin monoclonal antibody (Ab 12B9m) was developed to describe their total (free + bound) serum concentration-time data after single and multiple weekly intravenous or subcutaneous doses of Ab 12B9m. The model was based on target mediated drug disposition and the IgG-FcRn interaction concepts published previously. Both total Ab 12B9m and total hepcidin exhibited nonlinear kinetics due to saturable Fc-FcRn interaction. Ab 12B9m showed a limited volume of distribution and negligible linear elimination from serum. The nonlinear elimination of Ab 12B9m was attributed to the endosomal degradation of Ab 12B9m that was not bound to the FcRn receptor. The terminal half-life, assumed to be the same for free and total serum Ab 12B9m, was estimated to be 16.5 days. The subcutaneous absorption of Ab 12B9m was described with a first-order absorption rate constant k(a) of 0.0278 h⁻¹, with 86% bioavailability. The model suggested a rapid hepcidin clearance of approximately 800 mL h⁻¹ kg⁻¹. Only the highest-tested Ab 12B9m dose of 300 mg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹ was able to maintain free hepcidin level below the baseline during the dosing intervals. Free Ab 12B9m and free hepcidin concentrations were simulated, and their PK profiles were nonlinear as affected by their binding to each other. Additionally, the total amount of FcRn receptor involved in Ab 12B9m recycling at a given time was calculated empirically, and the temporal changes in the free FcRn levels upon Ab 12B9m administration were inferred. PMID:20737261

  14. Utilities for master source code distribution: MAX and Friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    MAX is a program for the manipulation of FORTRAN master source code (MSC). This is a technique by which one maintains one and only one master copy of a FORTRAN program under a program developing system, which for MAX is assumed to be VAX/VMS. The master copy is not intended to be directly compiled. Instead it must be pre-processed by MAX to produce compilable instances. These instances may correspond to different code versions (for example, double precision versus single precision), different machines (for example, IBM, CDC, Cray) or different operating systems (i.e., VAX/VMS versus VAX/UNIX). The advantage os using a master source is more pronounced in complex application programs that are developed and maintained over many years and are to be transported and executed on several computer environments. The version lag problem that plagues many such programs is avoided by this approach. MAX is complemented by several auxiliary programs that perform nonessential functions. The ensemble is collectively known as MAX and Friends. All of these programs, including MAX, are executed as foreign VAX/VMS commands and can easily be hidden in customized VMS command procedures.

  15. Quantum circuit for optimal eavesdropping in quantum key distribution using phase-time coding

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2010-07-15

    A quantum circuit is constructed for optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution proto- cols using phase-time coding, and its physical implementation based on linear and nonlinear fiber-optic components is proposed.

  16. TEMPEST code simulations of hydrogen distribution in reactor containment structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.

    1985-03-01

    The mass transport version of the TEMPEST computer code was used to simulate hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures. Predicted results of Battelle-Frankfurt hydrogen distribution tests 1 to 6, and 12 are presented. Agreement between predictions and experimental data is good. Best agreement is obtained using the k-epsilon turbulence model in TEMPEST in flow cases where turbulent diffusion and stable stratification are dominant mechanisms affecting transport. The code's general analysis capabilities are summarized.

  17. Adaptive Zero-Coefficient Distribution Scan for Inter Block Mode Coding of H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Su, Alvin W. Y.

    Scanning quantized transform coefficients is an important tool for video coding. For example, the MPEG-4 video coder adopts three different scans to get better coding efficiency. This paper proposes an adaptive zero-coefficient distribution scan in inter block coding. The proposed method attempts to improve H.264/AVC zero coefficient coding by modifying the scan operation. Since the zero-coefficient distribution is changed by the proposed scan method, new VLC tables for syntax elements used in context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) are also provided. The savings in bit-rate range from 2.2% to 5.1% in the high bit-rate cases, depending on different test sequences.

  18. A magnetization study of RCo 12B 6 intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Rosenberg, M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1989-11-01

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline intermetallics RCo 12B 6 with R = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm have been studied in the temperature range 3-300 K and in fields up to 2 T. All compounds order magnetically between Tc=134.3 K for CeCo 12B 6 and Tc=162 K for GdCo 12B 6. YCo 12B 6 has an average Co moment of 0.42μ B. Since the Co moment is constant for all samples the R moments can be easily obtained and they are in good agreement with free R 3+ ion values. Ce is quadripositive in CeCo 12B 6 and therefore nonmagnetic. All light rare-earth compounds are ferromagnetic, while all heavy rare-earth compounds are ferrimagnetic with compensation points between Tcomp=11.6 K ( TmCo12B6) and Tcomp=82.8 K ( TbCo12B6). In the paramagnetic state an effective magnetic moment of 1.94μ B per Co atom has been found. The mean-field approximation yields a 3d-3d exchange integral of {J CoCo}/{k B}=110 K . The 3d-4f exchange integral is much smaller and equal to about {J RCo}/{k B}=6 K .

  19. Computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution of cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietz, Thomas A.; Koschel, Wolfgang W.

    A generalized computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution in a cooled turbine blade is presented. Using an iterative procedure, this program especially allows the coupling of the aerothermodynamic values of the internal flow with the corresponding temperature distribution of the blade material. The temperature distribution of the turbine blade is calculated using a fully three-dimensional finite element computer code, so that the radial heat flux is taken into account. This code was extended to 4-node tetrahedral elements enabling an adaptive grid generation. To facilitate the mesh generation of the usually complex blade geometries, a computer program was developed, which performs the grid generation of blades having basically arbitrary shape on the basis of two-dimensional cuts. The performance of the code is demonstrated with reference to a typical cooling configuration of a modern turbine blade.

  20. Complex phylogenetic distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in green algae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A non-canonical nuclear genetic code, in which TAG and TAA have been reassigned from stop codons to glutamine, has evolved independently in several eukaryotic lineages, including the ulvophycean green algal orders Dasycladales and Cladophorales. To study the phylogenetic distribution of the standard and non-canonical genetic codes, we generated sequence data of a representative set of ulvophycean green algae and used a robust green algal phylogeny to evaluate different evolutionary scenarios that may account for the origin of the non-canonical code. Results This study demonstrates that the Dasycladales and Cladophorales share this alternative genetic code with the related order Trentepohliales and the genus Blastophysa, but not with the Bryopsidales, which is sister to the Dasycladales. This complex phylogenetic distribution whereby all but one representative of a single natural lineage possesses an identical deviant genetic code is unique. Conclusions We compare different evolutionary scenarios for the complex phylogenetic distribution of this non-canonical genetic code. A single transition to the non-canonical code followed by a reversal to the canonical code in the Bryopsidales is highly improbable due to the profound genetic changes that coincide with codon reassignment. Multiple independent gains of the non-canonical code, as hypothesized for ciliates, are also unlikely because the same deviant code has evolved in all lineages. Instead we favor a stepwise acquisition model, congruent with the ambiguous intermediate model, whereby the non-canonical code observed in these green algal orders has a single origin. We suggest that the final steps from an ambiguous intermediate situation to a non-canonical code have been completed in the Trentepohliales, Dasycladales, Cladophorales and Blastophysa but not in the Bryopsidales. We hypothesize that in the latter lineage an initial stage characterized by translational ambiguity was not followed by final

  1. A code switching technique for distributed spread spectrum packet radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, E. S.; Silvester, J. A.

    A protocol for the use of spreading codes in a spread spectrum packet radio network is presented. Throughput results for a single-hop homogeneous network in heavy traffic are given. With the protocol, each terminal is assigned two unique spreading codes: one that the terminal uses to monitor the channel when it is idle, and a different code that the terminal switches to after transmitting an initial addressing header, which is transmitted on the destination's monitoring code. Limiting throughput results are obtained. Under the assumption of exponentially distributed packet lengths a limiting throughput per terminal pair corresponding to a utilization of .3431 for a system with an infinite number of users and infinite bandwidth is obtained.

  2. Hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF) scheme in distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrala, Kiran Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based hybrid decode-amplify-forward scheme in a distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network is proposed. Considering a flat Rayleigh fading channel environment, the MATLAB simulation and analysis are carried out. In the cooperative scheme, two relays are employed, where each relay is transmitting each row Alamouti code. The selection of SNR threshold depends on the target rate information. The closed form expressions of symbol error rate (SER), the outage probability and average channel capacity with tight upper bounds are derived and compared with the simulation done in MATLAB environment. Furthermore, the impact of relay location on the SER performance is analysed. It is observed that the proposed hybrid relaying technique outperforms the individual amplify and forward and decode and forward ones in the distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network.

  3. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  4. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  5. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  6. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  7. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  8. 17 CFR 240.12b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General Requirements As to Contents § 240.12b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a statement or report, there shall...

  9. 17 CFR 240.12b-4 - Supplemental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-4 Supplemental information. The Commission or its staff may, where it is deemed appropriate, request supplemental information concerning the registrant,...

  10. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reported upon with an opinion expressed by an independent public or certified public accountant. Charter. The term “charter” includes articles of incorporation, declarations of trust, articles of association... subsidiaries. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 240.12b-1, see the List of...

  11. Performance and Application of Parallel OVERFLOW Codes on Distributed and Shared Memory Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation discusses recent studies on the performance of the two parallel versions of the aerodynamics CFD code, OVERFLOW_MPI and _MLP. Developed at NASA Ames, the serial version, OVERFLOW, is a multidimensional Navier-Stokes flow solver based on overset (Chimera) grid technology. The code has recently been parallelized in two ways. One is based on the explicit message-passing interface (MPI) across processors and uses the _MPI communication package. This approach is primarily suited for distributed memory systems and workstation clusters. The second, termed the multi-level parallel (MLP) method, is simple and uses shared memory for all communications. The _MLP code is suitable on distributed-shared memory systems. For both methods, the message passing takes place across the processors or processes at the advancement of each time step. This procedure is, in effect, the Chimera boundary conditions update, which is done in an explicit "Jacobi" style. In contrast, the update in the serial code is done in more of the "Gauss-Sidel" fashion. The programming efforts for the _MPI code is more complicated than for the _MLP code; the former requires modification of the outer and some inner shells of the serial code, whereas the latter focuses only on the outer shell of the code. The _MPI version offers a great deal of flexibility in distributing grid zones across a specified number of processors in order to achieve load balancing. The approach is capable of partitioning zones across multiple processors or sending each zone and/or cluster of several zones into a single processor. The message passing across the processors consists of Chimera boundary and/or an overlap of "halo" boundary points for each partitioned zone. The MLP version is a new coarse-grain parallel concept at the zonal and intra-zonal levels. A grouping strategy is used to distribute zones into several groups forming sub-processes which will run in parallel. The total volume of grid points in each

  12. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(Rp /R *)2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day/F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  13. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  14. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth, consistent with a

  15. Non-contact assessment of melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin is a pigment that is highly absorptive in the UV and visible electromagnetic spectra. It is responsible for perceived skin tone, and protects against harmful UV effects. Abnormal melanin distribution is often an indicator for melanoma. We propose a novel approach for non-contact melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding to estimate the two-dimensional melanin distribution based on its absorptive characteristics. In the proposed system, a novel multispectral, cross-polarized, temporally-coded illumination sequence is synchronized with a camera to measure reflectance under both multispectral and ambient illumination. This allows us to eliminate the ambient illumination contribution from the acquired reflectance measurements, and also to determine the melanin distribution in an observed region based on the spectral properties of melanin using the Beer-Lambert law. Using this information, melanin distribution maps can be generated for objective, quantitative assessment of skin type of individuals. We show that the melanin distribution map correctly identifies areas with high melanin densities (e.g., nevi).

  16. 25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust personalty? 18.104 Section 18.104 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...

  17. Examination of nanoparticle dispersion using a novel GPU based radial distribution function code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, Thomas; Wade, Matthew; Phelan, Frederick

    We have developed a novel GPU-based code that rapidly calculates radial distribution function (RDF) for an entire system, with no cutoff, ensuring accuracy. Built on top of this code, we have developed tools to calculate the second virial coefficient (B2) and the structure factor from the RDF, two properties that are directly related to the dispersion of nanoparticles in nancomposite systems. We validate the RDF calculations by comparison with previously published results, and also show how our code, which takes into account bonding in polymeric systems, enables more accurate predictions of g(r) than current state of the art GPU-based RDF codes currently available for these systems. In addition, our code reduces the computational time by approximately an order of magnitude compared to CPU-based calculations. We demonstrate the application of our toolset by the examination of a coarse-grained nanocomposite system and show how different surface energies between particle and polymer lead to different dispersion states, and effect properties such as viscosity, yield strength, elasticity, and thermal conductivity.

  18. Carbon-rich planet formation in a solar composition disk: The example of WASP 12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Dib, M.; Mousis, O.; Petit, J.-M.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-04-01

    The recent observation of WASP 12b, a giant planet with a C/O value larger than that estimated for its host star, poses a conundrum for understanding the origin of this elemental ratio in any given planetary system. We propose a mechanism for enhancing the value of C/O in the disk through the transport and distribution of volatiles.We construct a model that computes the abundances of major C and O bearing volatiles under the influence of gas drag, sublimation, vapor diffusion, condensation and coagulation in a multi-iceline 1+1D protoplanetary disk. We find a gradual depletion in water and carbon monoxide vapors inside the water's iceline with carbon monoxide depleting slower than water.This effect increases the gaseous C/O and decreases the C/H ratio in this region to values similar to those found in WASP 12b's day side atmosphere.

  19. Application of the TEMPEST computer code for simulating hydrogen distribution in model containment structures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.

    1982-09-01

    In this study several aspects of simulating hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures were investigated using the TEMPEST computer code. Of particular interest was the performance of the TEMPEST turbulence model in a density-stratified environment. Computed results illustrated that the TEMPEST numerical procedures predicted the measured phenomena with good accuracy under a variety of conditions and that the turbulence model used is a viable approach in complex turbulent flow simulation.

  20. Spatial information outflow from the hippocampal circuit: distributed spatial coding and phase precession in the subiculum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Steve M; Ganguli, Surya; Frank, Loren M

    2012-08-22

    Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through a combination of spatially selective firing and theta phase precession. The way in which this information influences regions like the subiculum that receive input from the hippocampus remains unclear. The subiculum receives direct inputs from area CA1 of the hippocampus and sends divergent output projections to many other parts of the brain, so we examined the firing patterns of rat subicular neurons. We found a substantial transformation in the subicular code for space from sparse to dense firing rate representations along a proximal-distal anatomical gradient: neurons in the proximal subiculum are more similar to canonical, sparsely firing hippocampal place cells, whereas neurons in the distal subiculum have higher firing rates and more distributed spatial firing patterns. Using information theory, we found that the more distributed spatial representation in the subiculum carries, on average, more information about spatial location and context than the sparse spatial representation in CA1. Remarkably, despite the disparate firing rate properties of subicular neurons, we found that neurons at all proximal-distal locations exhibit robust theta phase precession, with similar spiking oscillation frequencies as neurons in area CA1. Our findings suggest that the subiculum is specialized to compress sparse hippocampal spatial codes into highly informative distributed codes suitable for efficient communication to other brain regions. Moreover, despite this substantial compression, the subiculum maintains finer scale temporal properties that may allow it to participate in oscillatory phase coding and spike timing-dependent plasticity in coordination with other regions of the hippocampal circuit.

  1. Spatial information outflow from the hippocampal circuit: distributed spatial coding and phase precession in the subiculum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steve M.; Ganguli, Surya; Frank, Loren M.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through a combination of spatially-selective firing and theta phase precession. The way in which this information influences regions like the subiculum that receive input from the hippocampus remains unclear. The subiculum receives direct inputs from area CA1 of the hippocampus and sends divergent output projections to many other parts of the brain, so we examined the firing patterns of rat subicular neurons. We found a substantial transformation in the subicular code for space from sparse to dense firing rate representations along a proximal-distal anatomical gradient: neurons in the proximal subiculum are more similar to canonical, sparsely firing hippocampal place cells, whereas neurons in the distal subiculum have higher firing rates and more distributed spatial firing patterns. Using information theory, we found that the more distributed spatial representation in the subiculum carries, on average, more information about spatial location and context than the sparse spatial representation in CA1. Remarkably, despite the disparate firing rate properties of subicular neurons, we found that neurons at all proximal-distal locations exhibit robust theta phase precession, with similar spiking oscillation frequencies as neurons in area CA1. Our findings suggest that the subiculum is specialized to compress sparse hippocampal spatial codes into highly informative distributed codes suitable for efficient communication to other brain regions. Moreover, despite this substantial compression, the subiculum maintains finer scale temporal properties that may allow it to participate in oscillatory phase coding and spike timing-dependent plasticity in coordination with other regions of the hippocampal circuit. PMID:22915100

  2. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data.

    PubMed

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials.

  3. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data.

    PubMed

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials. PMID:26098126

  4. Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl

    Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.

  5. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  6. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-08-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  7. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  8. Complete Distributed Hyper-Entangled-Bell-State Analysis and Quantum Super Dense Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chunhong; Gu, Yongjian; Li, Wendong; Wang, Zhaoming; Zhang, Jiying

    2016-02-01

    We propose a protocol to implement the distributed hyper-entangled-Bell-state analysis (HBSA) for photonic qubits with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, QND photon-number-resolving detection, and some linear optical elements. The distinct feature of our scheme is that the BSA for two different degrees of freedom can be implemented deterministically and nondestructively. Based on the present HBSA, we achieve quantum super dense coding with double information capacity, which makes our scheme more significant for long-distance quantum communication.

  9. The data redundancy method for distributed Storage based on erasure code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Pan, Chao

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a data redundancy method for distributed storage by applying Erasure code to storage system. The method involves some key technologies such as data read and written, failure detection and node redirection, and restoration algorithms. According to the theoretical analysis, this method can efficiently improve the use ratio of storage space as well as enhance reliability and availability for a storage system. Also, it can obtain the same availability of data at the cost of lower redundancy degree compared with many others storage methods. The quantitative analysis of this method's performance is also given in the paper.

  10. The implementation of an aeronautical CFD flow code onto distributed memory parallel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ierotheou, C. S.; Forsey, C. R.; Leatham, M.

    2000-04-01

    The parallelization of an industrially important in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for calculating the airflow over complex aircraft configurations using the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The code discussed is the flow solver module of the SAUNA CFD suite. This suite uses a novel grid system that may include block-structured hexahedral or pyramidal grids, unstructured tetrahedral grids or a hybrid combination of both. To assist in the rapid convergence to a solution, a number of convergence acceleration techniques are employed including implicit residual smoothing and a multigrid full approximation storage scheme (FAS). Key features of the parallelization approach are the use of domain decomposition and encapsulated message passing to enable the execution in parallel using a single programme multiple data (SPMD) paradigm. In the case where a hybrid grid is used, a unified grid partitioning scheme is employed to define the decomposition of the mesh. The parallel code has been tested using both structured and hybrid grids on a number of different distributed memory parallel systems and is now routinely used to perform industrial scale aeronautical simulations. Copyright

  11. A novel method involving Matlab coding to determine the distribution of a collimated ionizing radiation beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioan, M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    In ionizing radiation related experiments, precisely knowing of the involved parameters it is a very important task. Some of these experiments are involving the use of electromagnetic ionizing radiation such are gamma rays and X rays, others make use of energetic charged or not charged small dimensions particles such are protons, electrons, neutrons and even, in other cases, larger accelerated particles such are helium or deuterium nuclei are used. In all these cases the beam used to hit an exposed target must be previously collimated and precisely characterized. In this paper, a novel method to determine the distribution of the collimated beam involving Matlab coding is proposed. The method was implemented by using of some Pyrex glass test samples placed in the beam where its distribution and dimension must be determined, followed by taking high quality pictures of them and then by digital processing the resulted images. By this method, information regarding the doses absorbed in the exposed samples volume are obtained too.

  12. 3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content.

  13. Hydrodynamics and Geochemical Modelling of CO2 Injection at the K12B Gas Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, P.; Oldenburg, C.; van der Meer, B.; Geel, K.; Lions, J.; Gaus, I.; Robelin, C.; Durst, P.; Xu, T.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of CO2 injection into the nearly depleted gas reservoir at the K12B field, North Sea, selected as a demonstration site for the Offshore Re-injection of CO2 project. Simulations have been carried out using two different codes: TOUGHREACT for characterizing the geochemical fluid-rock interactions that may occur during the injection period (case A), and TOUGH2EOS7C for simulating the CO2 sequestration coupled with enhanced methane production (case B). The reactive transport modelling predict a rather low geochemical reactivity induced by such injection as the gas reservoir contained initially 13% of CO2 in the gas phase and therefore geochemical equilibrium has been established before injection starts. The simulations of the CH4 recovery estimate due to injection predict a short breakthrough time of 60 days and one year for the two producers, respectively. At the end of the 10 years of injection, CO2 remains at 96% under gas phase and structural trapping remains the main process for geological sequestration at the K12B field.

  14. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-02-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-} 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5{sigma} level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 {+-} 0.015, a 3{sigma} result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 {+-} 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 {+-} 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m) and 0.5006 {+-} 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 {mu}m). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-}{sup +0.007}{sub -0.006}) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2{sigma}. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1{sigma}; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  15. Monte Carlo N Particle code - Dose distribution of clinical electron beams in inhomogeneous phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Nedaie, H. A.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Allahverdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Electron dose distributions calculated using the currently available analytical methods can be associated with large uncertainties. The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for dose calculation in electron beams. Most of the clinical electron beam simulation studies have been performed using non- MCNP [Monte Carlo N Particle] codes. Given the differences between Monte Carlo codes, this work aims to evaluate the accuracy of MCNP4C-simulated electron dose distributions in a homogenous phantom and around inhomogeneities. Different types of phantoms ranging in complexity were used; namely, a homogeneous water phantom and phantoms made of polymethyl methacrylate slabs containing different-sized, low- and high-density inserts of heterogeneous materials. Electron beams with 8 and 15 MeV nominal energy generated by an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator were investigated. Measurements were performed for a 10 cm × 10 cm applicator at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. Individual parts of the beam-defining system were introduced into the simulation one at a time in order to show their effect on depth doses. In contrast to the first scattering foil, the secondary scattering foil, X and Y jaws and applicator provide up to 5% of the dose. A 2%/2 mm agreement between MCNP and measurements was found in the homogenous phantom, and in the presence of heterogeneities in the range of 1-3%, being generally within 2% of the measurements for both energies in a "complex" phantom. A full-component simulation is necessary in order to obtain a realistic model of the beam. The MCNP4C results agree well with the measured electron dose distributions. PMID:23533162

  16. Inter-bit prediction based on maximum likelihood estimate for distributed video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepko, Robert; Wang, Demin; Huchet, Grégory

    2010-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding paradigm for the systems that require low complexity encoders supported by high complexity decoders. A typical real world application for a DVC system is mobile phones with video capture hardware that have a limited encoding capability supported by base-stations with a high decoding capability. Generally speaking, a DVC system operates by dividing a source image sequence into two streams, key frames and Wyner-Ziv (W) frames, with the key frames being used to represent the source plus an approximation to the W frames called S frames (where S stands for side information), while the W frames are used to correct the bit errors in the S frames. This paper presents an effective algorithm to reduce the bit errors in the side information of a DVC system. The algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood estimation to help predict future bits to be decoded. The reduction in bit errors in turn reduces the number of parity bits needed for error correction. Thus, a higher coding efficiency is achieved since fewer parity bits need to be transmitted from the encoder to the decoder. The algorithm is called inter-bit prediction because it predicts the bit-plane to be decoded from previously decoded bit-planes, one bitplane at a time, starting from the most significant bit-plane. Results provided from experiments using real-world image sequences show that the inter-bit prediction algorithm does indeed reduce the bit rate by up to 13% for our test sequences. This bit rate reduction corresponds to a PSNR gain of about 1.6 dB for the W frames.

  17. Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550

  18. 17 CFR 210.12-12B - Open option contracts written.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Open option contracts written. 210.12-12B Section 210.12-12B Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-12B Open option contracts...

  19. 17 CFR 210.12-12B - Open option contracts written.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open option contracts written. 210.12-12B Section 210.12-12B Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 210.12-12B Open option contracts written. Col. A Col. B Col. C Col. D Col. E Name of issuer 1,2...

  20. 17 CFR 240.12b-5 - Determination of affiliates of banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... banks. 240.12b-5 Section 240.12b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-5 Determination of affiliates of banks. In determining whether a person is an “affiliate” or “parent” of a bank or whether a bank is a “subsidiary” or...

  1. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of filing requirements. 240.12b-37 Section 240.12b-37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Special Provisions § 240.12b-37 Satisfaction of...

  2. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Satisfaction of filing requirements. 240.12b-37 Section 240.12b-37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Special Provisions § 240.12b-37 Satisfaction of...

  3. 3D scene reconstruction based on multi-view distributed video coding in the Zernike domain for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, V.; Carli, M.; Neri, A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper a Multi-view Distributed Video Coding scheme for mobile applications is presented. Specifically a new fusion technique between temporal and spatial side information in Zernike Moments domain is proposed. Distributed video coding introduces a flexible architecture that enables the design of very low complex video encoders compared to its traditional counterparts. The main goal of our work is to generate at the decoder the side information that optimally blends temporal and interview data. Multi-view distributed coding performance strongly depends on the side information quality built at the decoder. At this aim for improving its quality a spatial view compensation/prediction in Zernike moments domain is applied. Spatial and temporal motion activity have been fused together to obtain the overall side-information. The proposed method has been evaluated by rate-distortion performances for different inter-view and temporal estimation quality conditions.

  4. Environmental PCR survey to determine the distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in uncultivable oxymonads.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Audrey P; Noble, Geoffrey P; Heiss, Aaron A; Wong, Jensen; Keeling, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    The universal genetic code is conserved throughout most living systems, but a non-canonical code where TAA and TAG encode glutamine has evolved in several eukaryotes, including oxymonad protists. Most oxymonads are uncultivable, so environmental RT-PCR and PCR was used to examine the distribution of this rare character. A total of 253 unique isolates of four protein-coding genes were sampled from the hindgut community of the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, an environment rich in diversity from two of the five subgroups of oxymonad, saccinobaculids and polymastigids. Four alpha-tubulins were found with non-canonical glutamine codons. Environmental RACE confirmed that these and related genes used only TGA as stop codons, as expected for the non-canonical code, whereas other genes used TAA or TAG as stop codons, as expected for the universal code. We characterized alpha-tubulin from manually isolated Saccinobaculus ambloaxostylus, confirming it uses the universal code and suggesting, by elimination, that the non-canonical code is used by a polymastigid. HSP90 and EF-1alpha phylogenies also showed environmental sequences falling into two distinct groups, and are generally consistent with previous hypotheses that polymastigids and Streblomastix are closely related. Overall, we propose that the non-canonical genetic code arose once in a common ancestor of Streblomastix and a subgroup of polymastigids. PMID:18211267

  5. Environmental PCR survey to determine the distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in uncultivable oxymonads.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Audrey P; Noble, Geoffrey P; Heiss, Aaron A; Wong, Jensen; Keeling, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    The universal genetic code is conserved throughout most living systems, but a non-canonical code where TAA and TAG encode glutamine has evolved in several eukaryotes, including oxymonad protists. Most oxymonads are uncultivable, so environmental RT-PCR and PCR was used to examine the distribution of this rare character. A total of 253 unique isolates of four protein-coding genes were sampled from the hindgut community of the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, an environment rich in diversity from two of the five subgroups of oxymonad, saccinobaculids and polymastigids. Four alpha-tubulins were found with non-canonical glutamine codons. Environmental RACE confirmed that these and related genes used only TGA as stop codons, as expected for the non-canonical code, whereas other genes used TAA or TAG as stop codons, as expected for the universal code. We characterized alpha-tubulin from manually isolated Saccinobaculus ambloaxostylus, confirming it uses the universal code and suggesting, by elimination, that the non-canonical code is used by a polymastigid. HSP90 and EF-1alpha phylogenies also showed environmental sequences falling into two distinct groups, and are generally consistent with previous hypotheses that polymastigids and Streblomastix are closely related. Overall, we propose that the non-canonical genetic code arose once in a common ancestor of Streblomastix and a subgroup of polymastigids.

  6. On distributed memory MPI-based parallelization of SPH codes in massive HPC context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oger, G.; Le Touzé, D.; Guibert, D.; de Leffe, M.; Biddiscombe, J.; Soumagne, J.; Piccinali, J.-G.

    2016-03-01

    Most of particle methods share the problem of high computational cost and in order to satisfy the demands of solvers, currently available hardware technologies must be fully exploited. Two complementary technologies are now accessible. On the one hand, CPUs which can be structured into a multi-node framework, allowing massive data exchanges through a high speed network. In this case, each node is usually comprised of several cores available to perform multithreaded computations. On the other hand, GPUs which are derived from the graphics computing technologies, able to perform highly multi-threaded calculations with hundreds of independent threads connected together through a common shared memory. This paper is primarily dedicated to the distributed memory parallelization of particle methods, targeting several thousands of CPU cores. The experience gained clearly shows that parallelizing a particle-based code on moderate numbers of cores can easily lead to an acceptable scalability, whilst a scalable speedup on thousands of cores is much more difficult to obtain. The discussion revolves around speeding up particle methods as a whole, in a massive HPC context by making use of the MPI library. We focus on one particular particle method which is Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), one of the most widespread today in the literature as well as in engineering.

  7. Subgraphs Matching-Based Side Information Generation for Distributed Multiview Video Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hongkai; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Yongsheng; Song, Li; He, Zhihai; Chen, Tsuhan

    2010-12-01

    We adopt constrained relaxation for distributed multiview video coding (DMVC). The novel framework integrates the graph-based segmentation and matching to generate interview correlated side information without knowing the camera parameters, inspired by subgraph semantics and sparse decomposition of high-dimensional scale invariant feature data. The sparse data as a good hypothesis space aim for a best matching optimization of interview side information with compact syndromes, from inferred relaxed coset. The plausible filling-in from a priori feature constraints between neighboring views could reinforce a promising compensation to interview side-information generation for joint multiview decoding. The graph-based representations of multiview images are adopted as constrained relaxation, which assists the interview correlation matching for subgraph semantics of the original Wyner-Ziv image by the graph-based image segmentation and the associated scale invariant feature detector MSER (maximally stable extremal regions) and descriptor SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform). In order to find a distinctive feature matching with a more stable approximation, linear (PCA-SIFT) and nonlinear projections (Locally linear embedding) are adopted to reduce the dimension SIFT descriptors, and TPS (thin plate spline) warping model is to catch a more accurate interview motion model. The experimental results validate the high-estimation precision and the rate-distortion improvements.

  8. Entanglement distribution over quantum code-division multiple-access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chang-long; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco; Zhang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for quantum entanglement distribution over a so-called code-division multiple-access network, in which two pairs of users share the same quantum channel to transmit information. The main idea of this method is to use different broadband chaotic phase shifts, generated by electro-optic modulators and chaotic Colpitts circuits, to encode the information-bearing quantum signals coming from different users and then recover the masked quantum signals at the receiver side by imposing opposite chaotic phase shifts. The chaotic phase shifts given to different pairs of users are almost uncorrelated due to the randomness of chaos and thus the quantum signals from different pair of users can be distinguished even when they are sent via the same quantum channel. It is shown that two maximally entangled states can be generated between two pairs of users by our method mediated by bright coherent lights, which can be more easily implemented in experiments compared with single-photon lights. Our method is robust under the channel noises if only the decay rates of the information-bearing fields induced by the channel noises are not quite high. Our study opens up new perspectives for addressing and transmitting quantum information in future quantum networks.

  9. Performance Modeling and Measurement of Parallelized Code for Distributed Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance and overhead of parallelizing sequential code using compiler directives for multiprocessing on distributed shared memory (DSM) systems. With increasing popularity of shared address space architectures, it is essential to understand their performance impact on programs that benefit from shared memory multiprocessing. We present a simple model to characterize the performance of programs that are parallelized using compiler directives for shared memory multiprocessing. We parallelized the sequential implementation of NAS benchmarks using native Fortran77 compiler directives for an Origin2000, which is a DSM system based on a cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architecture. We report measurement based performance of these parallelized benchmarks from four perspectives: efficacy of parallelization process; scalability; parallelization overhead; and comparison with hand-parallelized and -optimized version of the same benchmarks. Our results indicate that sequential programs can conveniently be parallelized for DSM systems using compiler directives but realizing performance gains as predicted by the performance model depends primarily on minimizing architecture-specific data locality overhead.

  10. The spatial distribution of fixed mutations within genes coding for proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.; Goodman, M.; Conroy, T.; Czelusniak, J.

    1983-01-01

    An examination has been conducted of the extensive amino acid sequence data now available for five protein families - the alpha crystallin A chain, myoglobin, alpha and beta hemoglobin, and the cytochromes c - with the goal of estimating the true spatial distribution of base substitutions within genes that code for proteins. In every case the commonly used Poisson density failed to even approximate the experimental pattern of base substitution. For the 87 species of beta hemoglobin examined, for example, the probability that the observed results were from a Poisson process was the minuscule 10 to the -44th. Analogous results were obtained for the other functional families. All the data were reasonably, but not perfectly, described by the negative binomial density. In particular, most of the data were described by one of the very simple limiting forms of this density, the geometric density. The implications of this for evolutionary inference are discussed. It is evident that most estimates of total base substitutions between genes are badly in need of revision.

  11. HSPA12B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Xuehan; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Surong; Tu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, He; Li, Rongrong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the HSP70 protein family. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanisms involved. A HUVECs inflammatory model was induced by LPS. Overexpression of HSPA12B in HUVECs was achieved by infection with recombinant adenoviruses encoding green fluorescence protein-HSPA12B. Knockdown of HSPA12B was achieved by siRNA technique. Twenty four hours after virus infection or siRNA transfection, HUVECs were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 hrs. Endothelial cell permeability ability was determined by transwell permeability assay. The binding rate of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with HUVECs was examined using myeloperoxidase assay. Cell migrating ability was determined by the wound-healing assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interested genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The release of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α was measured by ELISA. HSPA12B suppressed LPS-induced HUVEC permeability and reduced PMN adhesion to HUVECs. HSPA12B also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, knockdown of HSPA12B enhanced LPS-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, HSPA12B activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by Wortmannin completely abrogated the protection of HSPA12B against inflammatory response in HUVECs. Our results suggest that HSPA12B attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in HUVECs via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. PMID:25545050

  12. Coding techniques for secure digital communications for unit protection of distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Redfern, M.A.; McGuinness, D.P.; Ormondroyd, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    The dramatic growth in new designs of microprocessor relays has led to a growth in the use digital communications for protection. Unfortunately in any communication system there will always be some corruption of the received data. Part of the art and science of relay design is therefore to take this into account. This paper examines coding techniques designed to minimize the probability of corrupted data being declared as healthy. Message size, coding techniques and interleaving are examined with respect to the choice of a coding strategy for a secure data communication system for unit protection.

  13. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  14. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. PMID:26125336

  15. 17 CFR 210.12-12B - Open option contracts written.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open option contracts written. 210.12-12B Section 210.12-12B Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...

  16. Surveying Multidisciplinary Aspects in Real-Time Distributed Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Braccini, Carlo; Davoli, Franco; Marchese, Mario; Mongelli, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where a multiplicity of sensors observe a physical phenomenon and transmit their measurements to one or more sinks, pertain to the class of multi-terminal source and channel coding problems of Information Theory. In this category, “real-time” coding is often encountered for WSNs, referring to the problem of finding the minimum distortion (according to a given measure), under transmission power constraints, attainable by encoding and decoding functions, with stringent limits on delay and complexity. On the other hand, the Decision Theory approach seeks to determine the optimal coding/decoding strategies or some of their structural properties. Since encoder(s) and decoder(s) possess different information, though sharing a common goal, the setting here is that of Team Decision Theory. A more pragmatic vision rooted in Signal Processing consists of fixing the form of the coding strategies (e.g., to linear functions) and, consequently, finding the corresponding optimal decoding strategies and the achievable distortion, generally by applying parametric optimization techniques. All approaches have a long history of past investigations and recent results. The goal of the present paper is to provide the taxonomy of the various formulations, a survey of the vast related literature, examples from the authors' own research, and some highlights on the inter-play of the different theories. PMID:25633597

  17. Purifying selection shapes the coincident SNP distribution of primate coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ying; Hung, Li-Yuan; Wu, Chan-Shuo; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis has observed an excess of coincident single nucleotide polymorphisms (coSNPs) at human-chimpanzee orthologous positions, and suggested that this is due to cryptic variation in the mutation rate. While this phenomenon primarily corresponds with non-coding coSNPs, the situation in coding sequences remains unclear. Here we calculate the observed-to-expected ratio of coSNPs (coSNPO/E) to estimate the prevalence of human-chimpanzee coSNPs, and show that the excess of coSNPs is also present in coding regions. Intriguingly, coSNPO/E is much higher at zero-fold than at nonzero-fold degenerate sites; such a difference is due to an elevation of coSNPO/E at zero-fold degenerate sites, rather than a reduction at nonzero-fold degenerate ones. These trends are independent of chimpanzee subpopulation, population size, or sequencing techniques; and hold in broad generality across primates. We find that this discrepancy cannot fully explained by sequence contexts, shared ancestral polymorphisms, SNP density, and recombination rate, and that coSNPO/E in coding sequences is significantly influenced by purifying selection. We also show that selection and mutation rate affect coSNPO/E independently, and coSNPs tend to be less damaging and more correlated with human diseases than non-coSNPs. These suggest that coSNPs may represent a "signature" during primate protein evolution. PMID:27255481

  18. Purifying selection shapes the coincident SNP distribution of primate coding sequences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Ying; Hung, Li-Yuan; Wu, Chan-Shuo; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis has observed an excess of coincident single nucleotide polymorphisms (coSNPs) at human-chimpanzee orthologous positions, and suggested that this is due to cryptic variation in the mutation rate. While this phenomenon primarily corresponds with non-coding coSNPs, the situation in coding sequences remains unclear. Here we calculate the observed-to-expected ratio of coSNPs (coSNPO/E) to estimate the prevalence of human-chimpanzee coSNPs, and show that the excess of coSNPs is also present in coding regions. Intriguingly, coSNPO/E is much higher at zero-fold than at nonzero-fold degenerate sites; such a difference is due to an elevation of coSNPO/E at zero-fold degenerate sites, rather than a reduction at nonzero-fold degenerate ones. These trends are independent of chimpanzee subpopulation, population size, or sequencing techniques; and hold in broad generality across primates. We find that this discrepancy cannot fully explained by sequence contexts, shared ancestral polymorphisms, SNP density, and recombination rate, and that coSNPO/E in coding sequences is significantly influenced by purifying selection. We also show that selection and mutation rate affect coSNPO/E independently, and coSNPs tend to be less damaging and more correlated with human diseases than non-coSNPs. These suggest that coSNPs may represent a “signature” during primate protein evolution. PMID:27255481

  19. THE SUB-SATURN MASS TRANSITING PLANET HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius E-mail: jhyoon@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2012-04-15

    We present new photometric data of the transiting planet HAT-P-12b observed in 2011. Our three transit curves are modeled using the JKTEBOP code and adopting the quadratic limb-darkening law. Including our measurements, 18 transit times spanning about 4.2 yr were used to determine the improved ephemeris with a transit epoch of 2,454,187.85560 {+-} 0.00011 BJD and an orbital period of 3.21305961 {+-} 0.00000035 days. The physical properties of the star-planet system are computed using empirical calibrations from eclipsing binary stars and stellar evolutionary models, combined with both our transit parameters and previously known spectroscopic results. We found that the absolute dimensions of the host star are M{sub A} = 0.73 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }, R{sub A} = 0.70 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Sun }, log g{sub A} = 4.61 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub A} = 2.10 {+-} 0.09 {rho}{sub Sun }, and L{sub A} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 L{sub Sun }. The planetary companion has M{sub b} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Jup}, R{sub b} = 0.94 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Jup}, log g{sub b} = 2.77 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub b} = 0.24 {+-} 0.01 {rho}{sub Jup}, and T{sub eq} = 960 {+-} 14 K. Our results agree well with standard models of irradiated gas giants with a core mass of 11.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  20. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING GUARD TOWER S83 ON RIDGE BEHIND MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. FRONT ELEVATION WITH RANGE POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM LEFT SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Applying a Hydrodynamical Treatment of Stream Flow and Accretion Disk Formation in WASP-12/b Exoplanetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Ian; Lopez, Aaron; Macias, Phil

    2016-01-01

    WASP-12b is a hot Jupiter orbiting dangerously close to its parent star WASP-12 at a radius 1/44th the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or roughly 16 times closer than Mercury. WASP-12's gravitational influence at this incredibly close proximity generates tidal forces on WASP-12b that distort the planet into an egg-like shape. As a result, the planet's surface overflows its Roche lobe through L1, transferring mass to the host star at a rate of 270 million metric tonnes per second. This mass transferring stream forms an accretion disk that transits the parent star, which aids sensitive instruments, such as the Kepler spacecraft, whose role is to examine the periodic dimming of main sequence stars in order to detect ones with orbiting planets. The quasi-ballistic stream trajectory is approximated by that of a massless point particle released from analogous initial conditions in 2D. The particle dynamics are shown to deviate negligibly across a broad range of initial conditions, indicating applicability of our model to "WASP-like" systems in general. We then apply a comprehensive fluid treatment by way of hydrodynamical code FLASH in order to directly model the behavior of mass transfer in a non-inertial reference frame and subsequent disk formation. We hope to employ this model to generate virtual spectroscopic signatures and compare them against collected light curve data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).

  4. Sequence Prediction With Sparse Distributed Hyperdimensional Coding Applied to the Analysis of Mobile Phone Use Patterns.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Okko J; Saarinen, Jukka P

    2016-09-01

    Modeling and prediction of temporal sequences is central to many signal processing and machine learning applications. Prediction based on sequence history is typically performed using parametric models, such as fixed-order Markov chains ( n -grams), approximations of high-order Markov processes, such as mixed-order Markov models or mixtures of lagged bigram models, or with other machine learning techniques. This paper presents a method for sequence prediction based on sparse hyperdimensional coding of the sequence structure and describes how higher order temporal structures can be utilized in sparse coding in a balanced manner. The method is purely incremental, allowing real-time online learning and prediction with limited computational resources. Experiments with prediction of mobile phone use patterns, including the prediction of the next launched application, the next GPS location of the user, and the next artist played with the phone media player, reveal that the proposed method is able to capture the relevant variable-order structure from the sequences. In comparison with the n -grams and the mixed-order Markov models, the sparse hyperdimensional predictor clearly outperforms its peers in terms of unweighted average recall and achieves an equal level of weighted average recall as the mixed-order Markov chain but without the batch training of the mixed-order model.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of visual information coding in lateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kadohisa, Mikiko; Kusunoki, Makoto; Petrov, Philippe; Sigala, Natasha; Buckley, Mark J; Gaffan, David; Duncan, John

    2015-01-01

    Prefrontal neurons code many kinds of behaviourally relevant visual information. In behaving monkeys, we used a cued target detection task to address coding of objects, behavioural categories and spatial locations, examining the temporal evolution of neural activity across dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (encompassing parts of areas 9, 46, 45A and 8A), and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Within each hemisphere there was little evidence for regional specialisation, with neurons in dorsal and ventral regions showing closely similar patterns of selectivity for objects, categories and locations. For a stimulus in either visual field, however, there was a strong and temporally specific difference in response in the two cerebral hemispheres. In the first part of the visual response (50–250 ms from stimulus onset), processing in each hemisphere was largely restricted to contralateral stimuli, with strong responses to such stimuli, and selectivity for both object and category. Later (300–500 ms), responses to ipsilateral stimuli also appeared, many cells now responding more strongly to ipsilateral than to contralateral stimuli, and many showing selectivity for category. Activity on error trials showed that late activity in both hemispheres reflected the animal's final decision. As information is processed towards a behavioural decision, its encoding spreads to encompass large, bilateral regions of prefrontal cortex. PMID:25307044

  6. Distributed image coding for digital image recovery from the print-scan channel.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ramin; Mukherjee, Debargha

    2010-03-01

    A printed digital photograph is difficult to reuse because the digital information that generated the print may no longer be available. This paper describes a method for approximating the original digital image by combining a scan of the printed photograph with digital auxiliary information kept together with the print. We formulate and solve the approximation problem using a Wyner-Ziv coding framework. During encoding, the Wyner-Ziv auxiliary information consists of a small amount of digital data composed of a number of sampled luminance pixel blocks and a number of sampled color pixel values to enable subsequent accurate registration and color-reproduction during decoding. The registration and color information is augmented by an additional amount of digital data encoded using Wyner-Ziv coding techniques that recovers residual errors and lost high spatial frequencies. The decoding process consists of scanning the printed photograph, together with a two step decoding process. The first decoding step, using the registration and color auxiliary information, generates a side-information image which registers and color corrects the scanned image. The second decoding step uses the additional Wyner-Ziv layer together with the side-information image to provide a closer approximation of the original, reducing residual errors and restoring the lost high spatial frequencies. The experimental results confirm the reduced digital storage needs when the scanned print assists in the digital reconstruction.

  7. Parallelizing serial code for a distributed processing environment with an application to high frequency electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Work, Paul R.

    1991-12-01

    This thesis investigates the parallelization of existing serial programs in computational electromagnetics for use in a parallel environment. Existing algorithms for calculating the radar cross section of an object are covered, and a ray-tracing code is chosen for implementation on a parallel machine. Current parallel architectures are introduced and a suitable parallel machine is selected for the implementation of the chosen ray-tracing algorithm. The standard techniques for the parallelization of serial codes are discussed, including load balancing and decomposition considerations, and appropriate methods for the parallelization effort are selected. A load balancing algorithm is modified to increase the efficiency of the application, and a high level design of the structure of the serial program is presented. A detailed design of the modifications for the parallel implementation is also included, with both the high level and the detailed design specified in a high level design language called UNITY. The correctness of the design is proven using UNITY and standard logic operations. The theoretical and empirical results show that it is possible to achieve an efficient parallel application for a serial computational electromagnetic program where the characteristics of the algorithm and the target architecture critically influence the development of such an implementation.

  8. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model. PMID:16604671

  9. On-the-fly generation of differential resonance scattering probability distribution functions for Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Sunny, E. E.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Current Monte Carlo codes use one of three models to model neutron scattering in the epithermal energy range: (1) the asymptotic scattering model, (2) the free gas scattering model, or (3) the S({alpha},{beta}) model, depending on the neutron energy and the specific Monte Carlo code. The free gas scattering model assumes the scattering cross section is constant over the neutron energy range, which is usually a good approximation for light nuclei, but not for heavy nuclei where the scattering cross section may have several resonances in the epithermal region. Several researchers in the field have shown that using the free gas scattering model in the vicinity of the resonances in the lower epithermal range can under-predict resonance absorption due to the up-scattering phenomenon. Existing methods all involve performing the collision analysis in the center-of-mass frame, followed by a conversion back to the laboratory frame. In this paper, we will present a new sampling methodology that (1) accounts for the energy-dependent scattering cross sections in the collision analysis and (2) acts in the laboratory frame, avoiding the conversion to the center-of-mass frame. The energy dependence of the scattering cross section was modeled with even-ordered polynomials to approximate the scattering cross section in Blackshaw's equations for the moments of the differential scattering PDFs. These moments were used to sample the outgoing neutron speed and angle in the laboratory frame on-the-fly during the random walk of the neutron. Results for criticality studies on fuel pin and fuel assembly calculations using these methods showed very close comparison to results using the reference Doppler-broadened rejection correction (DBRC) scheme. (authors)

  10. Transmission Probability Code System for Calculating Neutron Flux Distributions in Hexagonal Geometry.

    1991-01-25

    Version 00 TPHEX calculates the multigroup neutron flux distribution in an assembly of hexagonal cells using a transmission probability (interface current) method. It is primarily intended for calculations on hexagonal LWR fuel assemblies but can be used for other purposes subject to the qualifications mentioned in Restrictions/Limitations.

  11. A Multimodal Approach to Coding Discourse: Collaboration, Distributed Cognition, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael A.; Feenstra, Eliot; Ryon, Emily; McNeill, David

    2011-01-01

    Our research aims to identify children's communicative strategies when faced with the task of solving a geometric puzzle in CSCL contexts. We investigated how to identify and trace "distributed cognition" in problem-solving interactions based on discursive cohesion to objects, participants, and prior discursive content, and geometric and…

  12. Diverse and pervasive subcellular distributions for both coding and long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Blotsky, Dmitry; Krause, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous analysis of 2300 mRNAs via whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in cellularizing Drosophila embryos, we found that 70% of the transcripts exhibited some form of subcellular localization. To see whether this prevalence is unique to early Drosophila embryos, we examined ∼8000 transcripts over the full course of embryogenesis and ∼800 transcripts in late third instar larval tissues. The numbers and varieties of new subcellular localization patterns are both striking and revealing. In the much larger cells of the third instar larva, virtually all transcripts observed showed subcellular localization in at least one tissue. We also examined the prevalence and variety of localization mechanisms for >100 long noncoding RNAs. All of these were also found to be expressed and subcellularly localized. Thus, subcellular RNA localization appears to be the norm rather than the exception for both coding and noncoding RNAs. These results, which have been annotated and made available on a recompiled database, provide a rich and unique resource for functional gene analyses, some examples of which are provided. PMID:26944682

  13. Reconstruction for distributed video coding: a Markov random field approach with context-adaptive smoothness prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Xiong, Hongkai; He, Zhihai; Yu, Songyu

    2010-07-01

    An important issue in Wyner-Ziv video coding is the reconstruction of Wyner-Ziv frames with decoded bit-planes. So far, there are two major approaches: the Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) reconstruction and the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) reconstruction algorithms. However, these approaches do not exploit smoothness constraints in natural images. In this paper, we model a Wyner-Ziv frame by Markov random fields (MRFs), and produce reconstruction results by finding an MAP estimation of the MRF model. In the MRF model, the energy function consists of two terms: a data term, MSE distortion metric in this paper, measuring the statistical correlation between side-information and the source, and a smoothness term enforcing spatial coherence. In order to better describe the spatial constraints of images, we propose a context-adaptive smoothness term by analyzing the correspondence between the output of Slepian-Wolf decoding and successive frames available at decoders. The significance of the smoothness term varies in accordance with the spatial variation within different regions. To some extent, the proposed approach is an extension to the MAP and MMSE approaches by exploiting the intrinsic smoothness characteristic of natural images. Experimental results demonstrate a considerable performance gain compared with the MAP and MMSE approaches.

  14. Distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons in the porcine ileum during proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Pidsudko, Z; Kaleczyc, J; Wasowicz, K; Sienkiewicz, W; Majewski, M; Zajac, W; Lakomy, M

    2008-01-01

    Enteric neurons are highly adaptive in their response to various pathological processes including inflammation, so the aim of this study was to describe the chemical coding of neurons in the ileal intramural ganglia in porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). Accordingly, juvenile Large White Polish pigs with clinically diagnosed Lawsonia intracellularis infection (PPE; n=3) and a group of uninfected controls (C; n=3) were studied. Ileal tissue from each animal was processed for dual-labelling immunofluorescence using antiserum specific for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in combination with antiserum to one of: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY) or galanin (GAL). In infected pigs, enteric neurons were found in ganglia located within three intramural plexuses: inner submucosal (ISP), outer submucosal (OSP) and myenteric (MP). Immunofluorescence labelling revealed increases in the number of neurons containing GAL, SOM, VIP and CGRP in pigs with PPE. Neuropeptides may therefore have an important role in the function of porcine enteric local nerve circuits under pathological conditions, when the nervous system is stressed, challenged or afflicted by disease such as PPE. However, further studies are required to determine the exact physiological relevance of the observed adaptive changes. PMID:18061202

  15. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system.

  16. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. PMID:25623487

  17. Discovery of imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives as novel SIRT1 activators.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Disch, Jeremy S; Ng, Pui Yee; Nunes, Joseph J; Milne, Jill C; Carney, David P; Lynch, Amy V; Smith, Jesse J; Lavu, Siva; Lambert, Philip D; Gagne, David J; Jirousek, Michael R; Schenk, Simon; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Perni, Robert B

    2009-03-12

    A series of imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives is shown to activate the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, a potential new therapeutic target to treat various metabolic disorders. This series of compounds was derived from a high throughput screening hit bearing an oxazolopyridine core. Water-solubilizing groups could be installed conveniently at either the C-2 or C-3 position of the imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole ring. The SIRT1 enzyme activity could be adjusted by modifying the amide portion of these imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives. The most potent analogue within this series, namely, compound 29, has demonstrated oral antidiabetic activity in the ob/ob mouse model, the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, and the Zucker fa/fa rat model.

  18. IL-10 regulates Il12b expression via histone deacetylation: implications for intestinal macrophage homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Taku; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Sheikh, Shehzad Z; Russo, Steven M; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Collins, Colm; deZoeten, Edwin F; Karp, Christopher L; Ting, Jenny P Y; Sartor, R Balfour; Plevy, Scott E

    2012-08-15

    To prevent excessive inflammatory responses to commensal microbes, intestinal macrophages, unlike their systemic counterparts, do not produce inflammatory cytokines in response to enteric bacteria. Consequently, loss of macrophage tolerance to the enteric microbiota plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Therefore, we examined whether the hyporesponsive phenotype of intestinal macrophages is programmed by prior exposure to the microbiota. IL-10, but not in vivo exposure to the microbiota, programs intestinal macrophage tolerance, because wild-type (WT) colonic macrophages from germ-free and specific pathogen-free (SPF)-derived mice produce IL-10, but not IL-12 p40, when activated with enteric bacteria. Basal and activated IL-10 expression is mediated through a MyD88-dependent pathway. Conversely, colonic macrophages from germ-free and SPF-derived colitis-prone Il10(-/-) mice demonstrated robust production of IL-12 p40. Next, mechanisms through which IL-10 inhibits Il12b expression were investigated. Although Il12b mRNA was transiently induced in LPS-activated WT bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), expression persisted in Il10(-/-) BMDMs. There were no differences in nucleosome remodeling, mRNA stability, NF-κB activation, or MAPK signaling to explain prolonged transcription of Il12b in Il10(-/-) BMDMs. However, acetylated histone H4 transiently associated with the Il12b promoter in WT BMDMs, whereas association of these factors was prolonged in Il10(-/-) BMDMs. Experiments using histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and HDAC3 short hairpin RNA indicate that HDAC3 is involved in histone deacetylation of the Il12b promoter by IL-10. These results suggest that histone deacetylation on the Il12b promoter by HDAC3 mediates homeostatic effects of IL-10 in macrophages.

  19. MCNP(TM) Release 6.1.1 beta: Creating and Testing the Code Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Casswell, Laura

    2014-06-12

    This report documents the preparations for and testing of the production release of MCNP6™1.1 beta through RSICC at ORNL. It addresses tests on supported operating systems (Linux, MacOSX, Windows) with the supported compilers (Intel, Portland Group and gfortran). Verification and Validation test results are documented elsewhere. This report does not address in detail the overall packaging of the distribution. Specifically, it does not address the nuclear and atomic data collection, the other included software packages (MCNP5, MCNPX and MCNP6) and the collection of reference documents.

  20. Variable continental distribution of polymorphisms in the coding regions of DNA-repair genes.

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, Géraldine; Labuda, Damian; Meloche, Caroline; Wambach, Tina; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    DNA-repair pathways are critical for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material by protecting against mutations due to exposure-induced damages or replication errors. Polymorphisms in the corresponding genes may be relevant in genetic epidemiology by modifying individual cancer susceptibility or therapeutic response. We report data on the population distribution of potentially functional variants in XRCC1, APEX1, ERCC2, ERCC4, hMLH1, and hMSH3 genes among groups representing individuals of European, Middle Eastern, African, Southeast Asian and North American descent. The data indicate little interpopulation differentiation in some of these polymorphisms and typical FST values ranging from 10 to 17% at others. Low FST was observed in APEX1 and hMSH3 exon 23 in spite of their relatively high minor allele frequencies, which could suggest the effect of balancing selection. In XRCC1, hMSH3 exon 21 and hMLH1 Africa clusters either with Middle East and Europe or with Southeast Asia, which could be related to the demographic history of human populations, whereby human migrations and genetic drift rather than selection would account for the observed differences.

  1. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  2. Discovery of novel potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meegalla, Sanath K; Huang, Hui; Illig, Carl R; Parks, Daniel J; Chen, Jinsheng; Lee, Yu-Kai; Wilson, Kenneth J; Patel, Sharmila K; Cheung, Wing S; Lu, Tianbao; Kirchner, Thomas; Askari, Hossein B; Geisler, John; Patch, Raymond J; Gibbs, Alan C; Rady, Brian; Connelly, Margery; Player, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Design and optimization of a novel series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors are described. Compound 31 displays excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was also evaluated as an insulin secretagogue in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27491708

  3. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  4. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  5. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  6. 17 CFR 240.12b-11 - Number of copies; signatures; binding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Number of copies; signatures... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-11 Number of copies; signatures; binding. (a) Except as provided in a particular form, three complete copies of each statement or...

  7. Scaling properties and fractality in the distribution of coding segments in eukaryotic genomes revealed through a block entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Athanasopoulos, Stavros; Karamanos, Kostas; Almirantis, Yannis

    2010-11-01

    Statistical methods, including block entropy based approaches, have already been used in the study of long-range features of genomic sequences seen as symbol series, either considering the full alphabet of the four nucleotides or the binary purine or pyrimidine character set. Here we explore the alternation of short protein-coding segments with long noncoding spacers in entire chromosomes, focusing on the scaling properties of block entropy. In previous studies, it has been shown that the sizes of noncoding spacers follow power-law-like distributions in most chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms from distant taxa. We have developed a simple evolutionary model based on well-known molecular events (segmental duplications followed by elimination of most of the duplicated genes) which reproduces the observed linearity in log-log plots. The scaling properties of block entropy H(n) have been studied in several works. Their findings suggest that linearity in semilogarithmic scale characterizes symbol sequences which exhibit fractal properties and long-range order, while this linearity has been shown in the case of the logistic map at the Feigenbaum accumulation point. The present work starts with the observation that the block entropy of the Cantor-like binary symbol series scales in a similar way. Then, we perform the same analysis for the full set of human chromosomes and for several chromosomes of other eukaryotes. A similar but less extended linearity in semilogarithmic scale, indicating fractality, is observed, while randomly formed surrogate sequences clearly lack this type of scaling. Genomic sequences always present entropy values much lower than their random surrogates. Symbol sequences produced by the aforementioned evolutionary model follow the scaling found in genomic sequences, thus corroborating the conjecture that “segmental duplication-gene elimination” dynamics may have contributed to the observed long rangeness in the coding or noncoding alternation in

  8. Geological Survey investigations in the U12b.01 tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, William H.; Wilmarth, V.R.; McKeown, F.A.; Dickey, D.D.; Botinelly, T.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Roach, C.H.; Byers, F.M.; Izett, G.A.; Johnson, G.R.

    1959-01-01

    The U12b.01 tunnel trends N. 10° W., and connects with the Ul2b tunnel at about 500 feet from the portal (fig. 2).  The U12b,01 tunnel is about 250 feet long and contains an alcove 40 feet long and 20 feet wide, and a shot chamber 17 by 20 feet. The tunnel is irregular and ranges from 6 to 15 feet in width and averages 7 feet in height.  Much of the tunnel has been supported using 6-foot steel sets and wood planks for lagging Vertical and minimum cover over the shot chamber at west end of the tunnel are approximately the same, about 295 feet.

  9. DISCOVERY AND ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GIANT PLANET KEPLER-12b: AN INFLATED RADIUS OUTLIER

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Desert, Jean-Michel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; and others

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of planet Kepler-12b (KOI-20), which at 1.695 {+-} 0.030 R{sub J} is among the handful of planets with super-inflated radii above 1.65 R{sub J}. Orbiting its slightly evolved G0 host with a 4.438 day period, this 0.431 {+-} 0.041 M{sub J} planet is the least irradiated within this largest-planet-radius group, which has important implications for planetary physics. The planet's inflated radius and low mass lead to a very low density of 0.111 {+-} 0.010 g cm{sup -3}. We detect the occultation of the planet at a significance of 3.7{sigma} in the Kepler bandpass. This yields a geometric albedo of 0.14 {+-} 0.04; the planetary flux is due to a combination of scattered light and emitted thermal flux. We use multiple observations with Warm Spitzer to detect the occultation at 7{sigma} and 4{sigma} in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bandpasses, respectively. The occultation photometry timing is consistent with a circular orbit at e < 0.01 (1{sigma}) and e < 0.09 (3{sigma}). The occultation detections across the three bands favor an atmospheric model with no dayside temperature inversion. The Kepler occultation detection provides significant leverage, but conclusions regarding temperature structure are preliminary, given our ignorance of opacity sources at optical wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If Kepler-12b and HD 209458b, which intercept similar incident stellar fluxes, have the same heavy-element masses, the interior energy source needed to explain the large radius of Kepler-12b is three times larger than that of HD 209458b. This may suggest that more than one radius-inflation mechanism is at work for Kepler-12b or that it is less heavy-element rich than other transiting planets.

  10. Inverse and normal magnetocaloric effects in LaFe12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect were studied for LaFe12B6 itinerant-electron system, which presents an antiferromagnetic ground state below 36 K. For certain magnetic fields values, LaFe12B6 exhibits a sequence of two successive magnetic transitions: an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition at low temperature followed by a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, leading to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects, respectively. At finite temperatures, both antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic states can be transformed into a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced metamagnetic transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. Moreover, we reveal that, at low temperatures, the magnetization displays abrupt jumps across the first-order AFM-FM transition, giving rise to an unusual and unique staircase-like behavior. LaFe12B6 exhibits both normal magnetocaloric effect around the Curie temperature and large inverse magnetocaloric effect around the AFM-FM transition temperature; for μ0ΔH = 7 T, ΔSM is found to be -6.8 and 19 J kg-1 K-1 around 38 and 8 K, respectively.

  11. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  12. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-02-16

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques.

  13. Design and Simulation of Material-Integrated Distributed Sensor Processing with a Code-Based Agent Platform and Mobile Multi-Agent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  14. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  15. Determination of neutron flux distribution by using ANISN, a one-dimensional discrete S sub n ordinates transport code with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghorai, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.

  16. Interleukin-12B gene polymorphism frequencies in Egyptians and sex-related susceptibility to hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Abd El Aal, Asmaa Mostafa; Nasr, Amal Soliman; el Zanaty, Taher; Seif, Sameh Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Egypt is the country with the highest HCV infection epidemic in the world. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a cytokine that has been shown to have a potent role as an antiviral cytokine. IL-12 is a heterodimer of the polypeptides p35 and p40. IL-12 B, the gene encoding IL-12 p40, is polymorphic, and a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the 3'-untranslated region at position rs3212227 was associated with apparent resistance to HCV. The genotype distribution of this polymorphism differs by race. This study is sought to identify the genotype distribution of the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism in Egyptians and to assess its role in susceptibility to chronic HCV infection alone or in a sex-dependent way. The study included 238 subjects: 100 healthy controls and 138 patients with HCV infection. The IL-12 SNP rs3212227 was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Results showed a genotype frequency of 46%, 39%, and 15% for AA, AC, and CC IL-12 genotypes, respectively. No significant result (P=0.5) was shown in the differential distribution of the IL-12 SNP genotypes between controls and patients with HCV infection. Nonetheless, this difference in the IL-12 genotype distribution was significant (0.005) when it was stratified according to sex; moreover, the C allele distribution in men and women differed with a statistically high significance (P=0.0001) in controls versus HCV patients. In conclusion, the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism confers a susceptibility to HCV infection in a sex-dependent way in Egyptians.

  17. Distribution and chemical coding of calretinin- and calbindin-expressing enteric neurons in the duodenum of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, M B; Całka, J; Wasowicz, K; Majewski, M

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades has brought significant advances in our knowledge of the chemical coding and function of enteric neurons. Calcium ions are important second messenger involved in many aspects of neuron physiology. In the present study, we analyzed immunohistochemically the presence of calcium binding proteins (calretinin and calbindin) in various subpopulations of enteric neurons from the ovine duodenum. Ten percent of submucous neurons were immunoreactive (IR) to calretinin. The presence of calretinin was not detected in myenteric neurons. Calretinin-expressing nerve fibres were found in both myenteric and submucous ganglia, between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers and in the lamina muscularis mucosae. Calretinin-IR submucous neurons did not exhibit the presence of SP, NPY and VIP. Co-localization of calretinin and serotonin was found only in a small number of submucous neurons. Calbindin was expressed in 35% of myenteric neurons and in 60% of submucous neurons. Nerve fibres containing calbindin were localized in myenteric and submucous ganglia where they frequently formed basket-like formations. Calbindin-positive nerve fibres emerging from myenteric ganglia ran between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. Immunoreactivity to calbindin was also visualized in the lamina muscularis mucosae, around mucosal glands and blood vessels. None of calbindin-IR myenteric neurons revealed immunoreactivity to SP, NPY, VIP and serotonin. Virtually all calbindin-expressing submucous neurons were SP-positive. In moderate numbers of submucous perikarya, co-incidence of calbindin and NPY, calbindin and VIP or calbindin and serotonin was observed. We conclude that in the ovine duodenum, the expression of calretinin and calbindin is species specific. Co-localization studies and distribution patterns indicate that in the duodenum of the sheep, calretinin and calbindin may be present in several functional subclasses of enteric neurons. PMID:20169914

  18. Synthesis and fluorosolvatochromism of 3-arylnaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pithan, Phil M; Decker, David; Sardo, Manlio Sutero; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states. PMID:27340476

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy of {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Iodice, M.; Cusanno, F.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Acha, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Coman, L.; Markowitz, P.; Moteabbed, M.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Aniol, K. A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Baturin, P.; Jiang, X.; McCormick, K.; Bertin, P. Y.; Camsonne, A.; Ferdi, C.; Blomqvist, K. I.

    2007-08-03

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in hall A at Jefferson Lab on a {sup 12}C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state s-wave {lambda} peak and the 11 MeV p-wave {lambda} peak.

  20. Synthesis and fluorosolvatochromism of 3-arylnaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pithan, Phil M; Decker, David; Sardo, Manlio Sutero; Viola, Giampietro; Ihmels, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states. PMID:27340476

  1. WASP-12b as a prolate, inflated and disrupting planet from tidal dissipation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Lin; Miller, N; Lin, Douglas N C; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2010-02-25

    The class of exotic Jupiter-mass planets that orbit very close to their parent stars were not explicitly expected before their discovery. The recently discovered transiting planet WASP-12b has a mass M = 1.4 +/- 0.1 Jupiter masses (M(J)), a mean orbital distance of only 3.1 stellar radii (meaning it is subject to intense tidal forces), and a period of 1.1 days. Its radius 1.79 +/- 0.09R(J) is unexpectedly large and its orbital eccentricity 0.049 +/- 0.015 is even more surprising because such close orbits are usually quickly circularized. Here we report an analysis of its properties, which reveals that the planet is losing mass to its host star at a rate of about 10(-7)M(J) per year. The planet's surface is distorted by the star's gravity and the light curve produced by its prolate shape will differ by about ten per cent from that of a spherical planet. We conclude that dissipation of the star's tidal perturbation in the planet's convective envelope provides the energy source for its large volume. We predict up to 10 mJy CO band-head (2.292 mum) emission from a tenuous disk around the host star, made up of tidally stripped planetary gas. It may also contain a detectable resonant super-Earth, as a hypothetical perturber that continually stirs up WASP-12b's eccentricity. PMID:20182506

  2. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  3. The distribution pattern of genetic variation in the transcript isoforms of the alternatively spliced protein-coding genes in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Lin, Kui

    2015-05-01

    By enabling the transcription of multiple isoforms from the same gene locus, alternative-splicing mechanisms greatly expand the diversity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Currently, the alternatively spliced transcripts from each protein-coding gene locus in the human genome can be classified as either principal or non-principal isoforms, providing that they differ with respect to cross-species conservation or biological features. By mapping the variants from the 1000 Genomes Project onto the coding region of each isoform, an interesting pattern of the genetic variation distributions of the coding regions for these two types of transcript isoforms was revealed on a whole-genome scale: compared with the principal isoform-specific coding regions, the non-principal isoform-specific coding regions are significantly enriched in amino acid-changing variants, particularly those that have a strong impact on protein function and have higher derived allele frequencies, suggesting that non-principal isoform-specific substitutions are less likely to be related to phenotype changes or disease. The results herein can help us better understand the potential consequences of alternatively spliced products from a population perspective.

  4. A PHOTOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR THE CARBON-RICH PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparapu, Ravi kumar; Kasting, James F.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2012-01-20

    The hot-Jupiter WASP-12b is a heavily irradiated exoplanet in a short-period orbit around a G0-star with twice the metallicity of the Sun. A recent thermochemical equilibrium analysis based on Spitzer and ground-based infrared observations suggests that the presence of CH{sub 4} in its atmosphere and the lack of H{sub 2}O features can only be explained if the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the planet's atmosphere is much greater than the solar ratio ([C]/[O] = 0.54). Here, we use a one-dimensional photochemical model to study the effect of disequilibrium chemistry on the observed abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the WASP-12b atmosphere. We consider two cases: one with solar [C]/[O] and another with [C]/[O] = 1.08. The solar case predicts that H{sub 2}O and CO are more abundant than CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as expected, whereas the high [C]/[O] model shows that CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and HCN are more abundant. This indicates that the extra carbon from the high [C]/[O] model is in hydrocarbon species. H{sub 2}O photolysis is the dominant disequilibrium mechanism that alters the chemistry at higher altitudes in the solar [C]/[O] case, whereas photodissociation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN is significant in the super-solar case. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that C{sub 2}H{sub 2} is the major absorber in the atmosphere of WASP-12b and the absorption features detected near 1.6 and 8 {mu}m may be arising from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} rather than CH{sub 4}. The Hubble Space Telescope's WFC3 can resolve this discrepancy, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} has absorption between 1.51 and 1.54 {mu}m, while CH{sub 4} does not.

  5. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-05-05

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Austen B.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD. PMID:27164088

  7. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  8. A near-infrared transmission spectrum for the warm Saturn HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Line, Michael R.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee

    2013-12-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera-3 (WFC3) transmission spectrum for the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-12b. This warm (1000 K) sub-Saturn-mass planet has a smaller mass and a lower temperature than the hot Jupiters that have been studied so far. We find that the planet's measured transmission spectrum lacks the expected water absorption feature for a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere and is instead best described by a model with high-altitude clouds. Using a frequentist hypothesis testing procedure, we can rule out a hydrogen-dominated cloud-free atmosphere to 4.9σ. When combined with other recent WFC3 studies, our observations suggest that clouds may be common in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  9. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  10. METALS IN THE EXOSPHERE OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Carter, A. E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.u E-mail: U.C.Kolb@open.ac.u

    2010-05-10

    We present near-UV transmission spectroscopy of the highly irradiated transiting exoplanet WASP-12b, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra cover three distinct wavelength ranges: NUVA (2539-2580 A), NUVB (2655-2696 A), and NUVC (2770-2811 A). Three independent methods all reveal enhanced transit depths attributable to absorption by resonance lines of metals in the exosphere of WASP-12b. Light curves of total counts in the NUVA and NUVC wavelength ranges show a detection at a 2.5{sigma} level. We detect extra absorption in the Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2800 resonance line cores at the 2.8{sigma} level. The NUVA, NUVB, and NUVC light curves imply effective radii of 2.69 {+-} 0.24 R {sub J}, 2.18 {+-} 0.18 R {sub J}, and 2.66 {+-} 0.22 R {sub J} respectively, suggesting the planet is surrounded by an absorbing cloud which overfills the Roche lobe. We detect enhanced transit depths at the wavelengths of resonance lines of neutral sodium, tin, and manganese, and at singly ionized ytterbium, scandium, manganese, aluminum, vanadium, and magnesium. We also find the statistically expected number of anomalous transit depths at wavelengths not associated with any known resonance line. Our data are limited by photon noise, but taken as a whole the results are strong evidence for an extended absorbing exosphere surrounding the planet. The NUVA data exhibit an early ingress, contrary to model expectations; we speculate this could be due to the presence of a disk of previously stripped material.

  11. Discovery of indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, You-Ren; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Liu, Wangta; Chou, Chon-Kit; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chen, Yeh-Long

    2016-01-27

    We have synthesized certain indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline derivatives for antiproliferative evaluation. Among them, 11-{[3-(dimethylamino)propoxy]imino}-N-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-6-carboxamide (10a) was active against the growth of MDA-MB231, PC-3, and Huh-7 with IC50 values of 0.87 (selectivity index, SI = 36.22), 0.82 (SI = 38.43), and 0.64 μM (SI = 49.23) respectively. Compound 10a was inactive against the growth of normal human fetal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) with an IC50 value of 31.51 μM. Its analogs, 10b and 10c, were also active against the growth of MB231, PC-3, and Huh-7 with IC50 values of <1.0 μM in each case. Our results have also indicated compounds 10a-10c exhibited comparable inhibitory activities against topo I and topo II with the positive compound 2 at a concentration of 10 μM. Mechanism studies indicated that compound 10a induced cell cycle arrest at S phase via activation of caspase-3, -7 and an increase in the protein expression of Bad and Bax but a decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and PARP, which consequently cause cell death. In addition, compound 10a attenuated the levels of phosphorylated Src, Akt-1, and Akt-2 protein levels but did not affect the total protein expression of Akt. We have also implanted human hepatocellular carcinoma cells into the yolk sac of zebrafish larvae and incubated larvae with various concentrations of 10a. Our results of the zebrafish xenograft assay confirmed the anti-tumor effect of 10ain vivo.

  12. Deciphering the atmospheric composition of WASP-12b: A comprehensive analysis of its dayside emission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-08-10

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 μm. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent retrieval approaches. We find that when we exclude absorption due to C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN, which are not universally considered in the literature, our models require implausibly large atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances, regardless of the C/O. By including C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN in our models, we find that a physically plausible carbon-rich solution achieves the best fit to the available photometric and spectroscopic data. In comparison, the best-fit oxygen-rich models have abundances that are inconsistent with the chemical equilibrium expectations for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and are 670 times less probable. Our best-fit solution is also 7.3 × 10{sup 6} times more probable than an isothermal blackbody model.

  13. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  14. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  15. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  16. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  17. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  18. Stability and structure of C12B24N24: A hybrid analog of buckminsterfullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Thomas F.; Bowser, James R.; Jelski, Daniel A.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study of the substituted buckminsterfullerene C12B24N24 are presented. Computational evidence is given for its stability, the molecular structure is discussed, and a possible synthetic route is proposed. The sixty-vertex, truncated icosahedral cluster system known as buckminsterfullerene has attracted increased attention following recent repairs of its laboratory-scale synthesis. Such large clusters provide a bridge between atomic and macroscopic species, and hence have considerable technological importance - for example, in electrochemistry, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. Various efforts to add heteroatoms (especially nucleophiles) to the periphery of C60 frameworks have been successful. Smalley and co-workers doped C60 with boron and nitrogen atoms, with mass spectral evidence for C59B, C59N, C58BN, etc. having been obtained. The C58BN cluster is especially intriguing. The isoelectronic relationship between boron-nitrogen and dicarbon molecular fragments is well documented, and is manifested in a variety of ways. For example, the structural chemistry of boron nitride closely parallels that of elemental carbon-hexagonal BN is an analog of graphite, while Beta-BN is isostructural with diamond.

  19. Modeling of Dose Distribution for a Proton Beam Delivering System with the use of the Multi-Particle Transport Code 'Fluka'

    SciTech Connect

    Mumot, Marta; Agapov, Alexey

    2007-11-26

    We have developed a new delivering system for hadron therapy which uses a multileaf collimator and a range shifter. We simulate our delivering beam system with the multi-particle transport code 'Fluka'. From these simulations we obtained information about the dose distributions, about stars generated in the delivering system elements and also information about the neutron flux. All the informations obtained were analyzed from the point of view of radiation protection, homogeneity of beam delivery to patient body, and also in order to improve some modifiers used.

  20. Synthesis, Photochemical Properties, and Cytotoxicities of 2H-Naphtho[1,2-b]pyran and Its Photodimers.

    PubMed

    Ota, Motohiro; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Onodera, Takefumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    A 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran, prepared by dimerization of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and O-methylation, readily undergoes solid-state [2 + 2] photodimerization to give a photodimer in excellent yield and with excellent selectivity. Retro [2 + 2] cycloaddition can be achieved by irradiation of a solution of the photodimer in chloroform. Interestingly, the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran dimerizes with a skeletal rearrangement to afford 2,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepin dimers upon irradiation in methanol or via irradiation with hexamethylditin. Furthermore, treatment of the resulting dimers with triethylamine regenerates the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran monomer. Significant differences in the color, fluorescence, and cytotoxic properties of the monomer and dimers were observed. PMID:25927340

  1. New imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles as anticancer agents: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Sandrine; Mathieu, Véronique; Pillard, Christelle; Massip, Stéphane; Marchivie, Mathieu; Jarry, Christian; Bernard, Philippe; Kiss, Robert; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2014-09-12

    Synthesis and functionalization strategies of the imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole core were developed giving a rapid access to three series of novel imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole type derivatives: C-2/C-6/C-7 trisubstituted, C-2/C-3/C-6 tri(hetero)arylated and C-2/C-3/C-6/C-7 tetrasubstituted imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles. 39 of the synthetized products were evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity using the MTT colorimetric assay against 5 human and 1 murine cancer cell lines. Promising in vitro growth inhibitory activities were exhibited by some of the target compounds. Of the 39 evaluated products, 4 displayed an IC50 ≤ 10 μM in the 6 cell lines analyzed (compounds 4d, 4g, 9a, 11a). A structure activity relationship analysis is also reported in this paper. PMID:25064349

  2. Pacific Missile Test Center Information Resources Management Organization (code 0300): The ORACLE client-server and distributed processing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, A. L.; Phillips, J. T.

    1990-06-10

    Computing architectures using distributed processing and distributed databases are increasingly becoming considered acceptable solutions for advanced data processing systems. This is occurring even though there is still considerable professional debate as to what truly'' distributed computing actually is and despite the relative lack of advanced relational database management software (RDBMS) capable of meeting database and system integrity requirements for developing reliable integrated systems. This study investigates the functionally of ORACLE data base management software that is performing distributed processing between a MicroVAX/VMS minicomputer and three MS-DOS-based microcomputers. The ORACLE database resides on the MicroVAX and is accessed from the microcomputers with ORACLE SQL*NET, DECnet, and ORACLE PC TOOL PACKS. Data gathered during the study reveals that there is a demonstrable decrease in CPU demand on the MicroVAX, due to distributed processing'', when the ORACLE PC Tools are used to access the database as opposed to database access from dumb'' terminals. Also discovered were several hardware/software constraints that must be considered in implementing various software modules. The results of the study indicate that this distributed data processing architecture is becoming sufficiently mature, reliable, and should be considered for developing applications that reduce processing on central hosts. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Analysis of SRM model nozzle calibration test data in support of IA12B, IA12C and IA36 space shuttle launch vehicle aerodynamics tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of nozzle performance characteristics of the model nozzles used in the Space Shuttle IA12B, IA12C, IA36 power-on launch vehicle test series are shown by comparison between experimental and analytical data. The experimental data are nozzle wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs of the exhaust plume shapes. The exhaust plume shapes were simulated experimentally with cold flow while the analytical data were generated using a method-of-characteristics solution. Exhaust plume boundaries, boundary shockwave locations and nozzle wall pressure measurements calculated analytically agree favorably with the experimental data from the IA12C and IA36 test series. For the IA12B test series condensation was suspected in the exhaust plumes at the higher pressure ratios required to simulate the prototype plume shapes. Nozzle calibration tests for the series were conducted at pressure ratios where condensation either did not occur or if present did not produce a noticeable effect on the plume shapes. However, at the pressure ratios required in the power-on launch vehicle tests condensation probably occurs and could significantly affect the exhaust plume shapes.

  4. Oxidative stress in HEp-2 human laryngeal carcinoma cells induced by combination of vitamins B12b and C.

    PubMed

    Akatov, V S; Solov'eva, M E; Leshchenko, V V; Teplova, V V

    2003-09-01

    Incubation of human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma HEp-2 cells with hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) for 1 h initiated oxidative stress accompanied by damage to mitochondria and increase in intracellular oxidative activity. Studies of the kinetics of these processes showed that the increase in intracellular H2O2 activity and mitochondrial damage are more likely a result, but not the cause of cell apoptosis during the first hour of their incubation with vitamins B12b and C.

  5. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target. PMID:27179807

  6. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  7. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  8. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the printing and mailing of sales literature; (b) A registered, open-end management investment company... company's board of directors, and the directors shall review, at least quarterly, a written report of...

  9. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the printing and mailing of sales literature; (b) A registered, open-end management investment company... company's board of directors, and the directors shall review, at least quarterly, a written report of...

  10. Integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction up to 10 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Colonna, N.; Bosnar, D.; Ventura, A.; Mengoni, A.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Musumarra, A.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2016-04-01

    The integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The total number of 12B nuclei produced per neutron pulse of the n_TOF beam was determined using the activation technique in combination with a time-of-flight technique. The cross section is integrated over the n_TOF neutron energy spectrum from reaction threshold at 13.6MeV to 10GeV. Having been measured up to 1GeV on basis of the 235U(n, f ) reaction, the neutron energy spectrum above 200MeV has been re-evaluated due to the recent extension of the cross section reference for this particular reaction, which is otherwise considered a standard up to 200MeV. The results from the dedicated GEANT4 simulations have been used to evaluate the neutron flux from 1GeV up to 10GeV. The experimental results related to the 12C(n, p)12B reaction are compared with the evaluated cross sections from major libraries and with the predictions of different GEANT4 models, which mostly underestimate the 12B production. On the contrary, a good reproduction of the integral cross section derived from measurements is obtained with TALYS-1.6 calculations, with optimized parameters.

  11. Application of egs4 computer code for determination of gamma ray spectrum and dose rate distribution in gammacell 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raisali, G. R.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1993-10-01

    The EGS4 a Monte Carlo electron-photon transport simulation package together with a locally developed computer program "GCELL" has been used to simulate the transport of the gamma rays in Gammacell 220. An additional lead attenuator has been inserted in the chamber, has been included for those cases where lower dose rates were required. For three cases of 0, 1.35 and 4.0 cm thickness of added lead attenuators, the gamma spectrum, and dose rate distribution inside the chamber have been determined. For the case of no attenuator present, the main shield around the source cage has been included in the simulation program and its albedo effects have been investigated. The calculated dose rate distribution in the Gammacell chamber has been compared against measurements carried out with Fricke, PMMA and Gafchromic film dosimeters.

  12. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  13. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Shi, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiangqian

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes. PMID:26218520

  14. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bergmann, Marcel; Homeier, Derek

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  15. Implementation of a double Gaussian source model for the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and its influence on small fields dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Edgardo; Caprile, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The shape of the radiation source of a linac has a direct impact on the delivered dose distributions, especially in the case of small radiation fields. Traditionally, a single Gaussian source model is used to describe the electron beam hitting the target, although different studies have shown that the shape of the electron source can be better described by a mixed distribution consisting of two Gaussian components. Therefore, this study presents the implementation of a double Gaussian source model into the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The impact of the double Gaussian source model for a 6 MV beam is assessed through the comparison of different dosimetric parameters calculated using a single Gaussian source, previously com-missioned, the new double Gaussian source model and measurements, performed with a diode detector in a water phantom. It was found that the new source can be easily implemented into the BEAMnrc code and that it improves the agreement between measurements and simulations for small radiation fields. The impact of the change in source shape becomes less important as the field size increases and for increasing distance of the collimators to the source, as expected. In particular, for radiation fields delivered using stereotactic collimators located at a distance of 59 cm from the source, it was found that the effect of the double Gaussian source on the calculated dose distributions is negligible, even for radiation fields smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Accurate determination of the shape of the radiation source allows us to improve the Monte Carlo modeling of the linac, especially for treatment modalities such as IMRT, were the radiation beams used could be very narrow, becoming more sensitive to the shape of the source. PMID:27685141

  16. The binary weight distribution of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m-4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomial (x-alpha sup 2) (x-alpha sup 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup m). If each code symbol is represented by a binary m-tuple using a certain basis for GF(2 sup m), a binary (nm,km) linear code called a binary image of the original code is obtained. A lower bound is presented on the minimum weight enumerator for a binary image of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m -4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomical (x - alpha)(x- alpha squared)(x - alpha cubed) and its dual code, where alpha is a primitive element in GF(2 sup m).

  17. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project; dose code recovery activities; Calculation 005

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.

  18. Comparison of depth-dose distributions of proton therapeutic beams calculated by means of logical detectors and ionization chamber modeled in Monte Carlo codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Robert; Konefał, Adam; Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of beta-lactamase coding genes in third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from bloodstream infections in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vlieghe, E R; Huang, T-D; Phe, T; Bogaerts, P; Berhin, C; De Smet, B; Peetermans, W E; Jacobs, J A; Glupczynski, Y

    2015-06-01

    Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Gram-negative bacteria is emerging in Asia. We report the prevalence and distribution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-coding genes in cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from bloodstream infections (BSI) in Cambodia. All Enterobacteriaceae isolated from BSI in adult patients at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of HOPE, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (2007-2010) were assessed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion and MicroScan according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Screening for ESBL, plasmidic AmpC and carbapenemase-coding genes was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing assays. Identification of the ST131 clone was performed in all CTX-M-positive Escherichia coli, using PCR targeting the papB gene. Out of 183 Enterobacteriaceae, 91 (49.7 %) isolates (84 BSI episodes) were cefotaxime-resistant: E. coli (n = 68), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 17) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 6). Most episodes were community-acquired (66/84; 78.3 %). ESBLs were present in 89/91 (97.8 %) cefotaxime-resistant isolates: 86 (96.6 %) were CTX-M, mainly CTX-M-15 (n = 41) and CTX-M-14 (n = 21). CTX-M of group 1 were frequently associated with TEM and/or OXA-1/30 coding genes and with phenotypic combined resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and gentamicin (39/50, 78.0 %). Plasmidic AmpC (CMY-2 and DHA-1 types) were found alone (n = 2) or in combination with ESBL (n = 4). Eighteen E. coli isolates were identified as B2-ST131-O25B: 11 (61.1 %) carried CTX-M-14. No carbapenemase-coding genes were detected. ESBL among Enterobacteriaceae from BSI in Cambodia is common, mainly associated with CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14. These findings warrant urgent action for the containment of antibiotic resistance in Cambodia.

  20. Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J

    2008-08-20

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  1. Interleukin-18, interleukin-12B and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angelo, H D; Gomes Silva, I I F; Oliveira, R D R; Louzada-Júnior, P; Donadi, E A; Crovella, S; Maia, M M D; de Souza, P R E; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ genes are associated with different levels of cytokines expression and have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-18 +105 A/C, IL-12B +1188 A/C and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system PCR from 90 RA patients and 186 healthy individuals. There were significant differences to IL-18 +105 A/C polymorphism between the RA and control groups (odds ratio = 3.77; P < 0.0001). Individual carriers of the variant allele C had a 3.77-fold increased risk of for RA (P = 0.0032). No association was observed for IL-12B and IFN-γ polymorphisms. Our finds suggest a possible role for IL-18 polymorphism in the RA susceptibility in studied population. PMID:26302971

  2. Interleukin-18, interleukin-12B and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angelo, H D; Gomes Silva, I I F; Oliveira, R D R; Louzada-Júnior, P; Donadi, E A; Crovella, S; Maia, M M D; de Souza, P R E; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ genes are associated with different levels of cytokines expression and have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-18 +105 A/C, IL-12B +1188 A/C and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system PCR from 90 RA patients and 186 healthy individuals. There were significant differences to IL-18 +105 A/C polymorphism between the RA and control groups (odds ratio = 3.77; P < 0.0001). Individual carriers of the variant allele C had a 3.77-fold increased risk of for RA (P = 0.0032). No association was observed for IL-12B and IFN-γ polymorphisms. Our finds suggest a possible role for IL-18 polymorphism in the RA susceptibility in studied population.

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of M33N 2015-12b (PNV J01335420+3026108) as a Classical Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a spectrum of nova candidate M33N 2015-12b (PNV J01335420+3026108; see CBAT TOCP) with the SPRAT spectrograph on the 2m Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004) on 2016 January 4.81 UT. The spectrum shows strong Balmer emission and numerous Fe II lines (including multiplets 27, 28 and 42). Na I (D) and O I (7773 & Aring;) emission lines are also present.

  4. Final Technical Report for SBIR entitled Four-Dimensional Finite-Orbit-Width Fokker-Planck Code with Sources, for Neoclassical/Anomalous Transport Simulation of Ion and Electron Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.

    2013-12-03

    Within the US Department of Energy/Office of Fusion Energy magnetic fusion research program, there is an important whole-plasma-modeling need for a radio-frequency/neutral-beam-injection (RF/NBI) transport-oriented finite-difference Fokker-Planck (FP) code with combined capabilities for 4D (2R2V) geometry near the fusion plasma periphery, and computationally less demanding 3D (1R2V) bounce-averaged capabilities for plasma in the core of fusion devices. Demonstration of proof-of-principle achievement of this goal has been carried out in research carried out under Phase I of the SBIR award. Two DOE-sponsored codes, the CQL3D bounce-average Fokker-Planck code in which CompX has specialized, and the COGENT 4D, plasma edge-oriented Fokker-Planck code which has been constructed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory scientists, where coupled. Coupling was achieved by using CQL3D calculated velocity distributions including an energetic tail resulting from NBI, as boundary conditions for the COGENT code over the two-dimensional velocity space on a spatial interface (flux) surface at a given radius near the plasma periphery. The finite-orbit-width fast ions from the CQL3D distributions penetrated into the peripheral plasma modeled by the COGENT code. This combined code demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed 3D/4D code. By combining these codes, the greatest computational efficiency is achieved subject to present modeling needs in toroidally symmetric magnetic fusion devices. The more efficient 3D code can be used in its regions of applicability, coupled to the more computationally demanding 4D code in higher collisionality edge plasma regions where that extended capability is necessary for accurate representation of the plasma. More efficient code leads to greater use and utility of the model. An ancillary aim of the project is to make the combined 3D/4D code user friendly. Achievement of full-coupling of these two Fokker

  5. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM CoRoT-1b AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ming; Swain, Mark R.; Monnier, John D.; Barman, Travis; Hinkley, Sasha

    2012-01-10

    We report a new detection of the H-band thermal emission of CoRoT-1b and two confirmation detections of the Ks-band thermal emission of WASP-12b at secondary eclipses. The H-band measurement of CoRoT-1b shows an eclipse depth of 0.145% {+-} 0.049% with a 3{sigma} percentile between 0.033% and 0.235%. This depth is consistent with the previous conclusions that the planet has an isothermal region with inefficient heat transport from day side to night side, and has a dayside thermal inversion layer at high altitude. The two Ks-band detections of WASP-12b show a joint eclipse depth of 0.299% {+-} 0.065%. This result agrees with the measurement of Croll and collaborators, providing independent confirmation of their measurement. The repeatability of the WASP-12b measurements also validates our data analysis method. Our measurements, in addition to a number of previous results made with other telescopes, demonstrate that ground-based observations are becoming widely available for characterization of atmospheres of hot Jupiters.

  6. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  7. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  8. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  9. The distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons supplying the porcine stomach - the study on normal pigs and on animals suffering from swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Kaleczyc, J; Klimczuk, M; Franke-Radowiecka, A; Sienkiewicz, W; Majewski, M; Łakomy, M

    2007-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the expression of biologically active substances by intramural neurons supplying the stomach in normal (control) pigs and in pigs suffering from dysentery. Eight juvenile female pigs were used. Both dysenteric (n = 4; inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae) and control (n = 4) animals were deeply anaesthetized, transcardially perfused with buffered paraformalehyde, and tissue samples comprising all layers of the wall of the ventricular fundus were collected. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5) and their chemical coding using antibodies against vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), Leu(5)-enkephalin (LENK), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In both inner and outer submucosal plexuses of the control pigs, the majority of neurons were SP (55% and 58%, respectively)- or VAChT (54%)-positive. Many neurons stained also for CGRP (43 and 45%) or GAL (20% and 18%) and solitary perikarya were NOS-, SOM- or VIP-positive. The myenteric plexus neurons stained for NOS (20%), VAChT (15%), GAL (10%), VIP (7%), SP (6%) or CGRP (solitary neurons), but they were SOM-negative. No intramural neurons immunoreactive to LENK were found. The most remarkable difference in the chemical coding of enteric neurons between the control and dysenteric pigs was a very increased number of GAL- and VAChT-positive nerve cells (up to 61% and 85%, respectively) in submucosal plexuses of the infected animals. The present results suggest that GAL and ACh have a specific role in local neural circuits of the inflamed porcine stomach in the course of swine dysentery.

  10. HSPA12B Attenuated Acute Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Maintaining Endothelial Integrity in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiuyue; Dai, Leyang; Wang, Yana; Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Chuanfu; Jiang, Surong; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial damage is a critical mediator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. HSPA12B is an endothelial-cell-specifically expressed heat shock protein. However, the roles of HSPA12B in acute myocardial I/R injury is unknown. Here we reported that myocardial I/R upregulated HSPA12B expression in ventricular tissues, and endothelial overexpression of HSPA12B in transgenic mice (Tg) limited infarct size, attenuated cardiac dysfunction and improved cardiomyocyte survival compared with their wild type littermates. These improvements were accompanied with the diminished myocardial no-reflow phenomenon, decreased microvascular leakage, and better maintained endothelial tight junctions. The I/R-evoked neutrophil infiltration was also suppressed in Tg hearts compared with its wild type (WT) littermates. Moreover, Tg hearts exhibited the enhanced activation of PI3K/Akt//mTOR signaling following I/R challenge. However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K abolished the HSPA12B-induced cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury. The data demonstrate for the first time that the endothelial HSPA12B protected hearts against myocardial I/R injury. This cardioprotective action of HSPA12B was mediated, at least in part, by improving endothelial integrity in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent mechanism. Our study suggests that targeting endothelial HSPA12B could be an alternative approach for the management of patients with myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27644317

  11. HSPA12B Attenuated Acute Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Maintaining Endothelial Integrity in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiuyue; Dai, Leyang; Wang, Yana; Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Chuanfu; Jiang, Surong; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial damage is a critical mediator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. HSPA12B is an endothelial-cell-specifically expressed heat shock protein. However, the roles of HSPA12B in acute myocardial I/R injury is unknown. Here we reported that myocardial I/R upregulated HSPA12B expression in ventricular tissues, and endothelial overexpression of HSPA12B in transgenic mice (Tg) limited infarct size, attenuated cardiac dysfunction and improved cardiomyocyte survival compared with their wild type littermates. These improvements were accompanied with the diminished myocardial no-reflow phenomenon, decreased microvascular leakage, and better maintained endothelial tight junctions. The I/R-evoked neutrophil infiltration was also suppressed in Tg hearts compared with its wild type (WT) littermates. Moreover, Tg hearts exhibited the enhanced activation of PI3K/Akt//mTOR signaling following I/R challenge. However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K abolished the HSPA12B-induced cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury. The data demonstrate for the first time that the endothelial HSPA12B protected hearts against myocardial I/R injury. This cardioprotective action of HSPA12B was mediated, at least in part, by improving endothelial integrity in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent mechanism. Our study suggests that targeting endothelial HSPA12B could be an alternative approach for the management of patients with myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27644317

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021

  13. Over-expression of HSPA12B protects mice against myocardium ischemic/reperfusion injury through a PPARγ-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanjun; Ye, Lincai; Jiang, Chuan; Jiang, Jun; Hong, Haifa; Qiu, Lisheng

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury leads to severe arrhythmias and a high lethality. We aim to determine the effect of heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B), a newly discovered member of the Hsp70 family, on heart injury parameters following MIR surgery. We used HSPA12B transgenic mice to determine its effects on heart function parameters, infarct size and cellular apoptosis following MIR surgery. Proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative products and anti-oxidative enzymes in the myocardium were measured to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of HSPA12B over-expression. The role of PPARs/eNOS/PI3k/Akt pathway was investigated using their inhibitors. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters, histopathological, apoptotic and infarct size caused by MIR was greatly attenuated in HSPA12B over-expressed mice. HSPA12B also greatly mitigated the inflammatory response, demonstrated by the decrease in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a and MPO. Anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, Catalase and GPx) were restored by HSPA12B; oxidative products (8-OHdG, MDA and protein carbonyl) were decreased. HSPA12B activated the PPARγ-dependent eNOS/PI3k/Akt pathway, and the influence of HSPA12B on cardiac function was reversed by the inhibitors of eNOS, PPARγ, Akt and PI3K. Our results present a novel signaling mechanism that HSPA12B protects MIR injury through a PPARγ-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. PMID:26885270

  14. GROUND-BASED, NEAR-INFRARED EXOSPECTROSCOPY. II. TENTATIVE DETECTION OF EMISSION FROM THE EXTREMELY HOT JUPITER WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Barman, Travis

    2012-02-10

    We report the tentative detection of the near-infrared emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b with the low-resolution prism on Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We find a K - H contrast color of 0.137% {+-} 0.054%, corresponding to a blackbody of temperature 2400{sup +1500}{sub -500} K and consistent with previous, photometric observations. We also revisit WASP-12b's energy budget on the basis of secondary eclipse observations: the dayside luminosity is a relatively poorly constrained (2.0-4.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}, but this still allows us to predict a day/night effective temperature contrast of 200-1000 K (assuming A{sub B} = 0). Thus, we conclude that WASP-12b probably does not have both a low albedo and low recirculation efficiency. Our results show the promise and pitfalls of using single-slit spectrographs for characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres, and we suggest future observing techniques and instruments which could lead to further progress. Limiting systematic effects include the use of too narrow a slit on one night-which observers could avoid in the future-and chromatic slit losses (resulting from the variable size of the seeing disk) and variations in telluric transparency-which observers cannot control. Single-slit observations of the type we present remain the best option for obtaining {lambda} > 1.7 {mu}m spectra of transiting exoplanets in the brightest systems. Further and more precise spectroscopy is needed to better understand the atmospheric chemistry, structure, and energetics of this, and other, intensely irradiated planet.

  15. Combined treatment with vitamin B12b and ascorbic acid causes in vitro DNA degradation in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, A I; Akatov, V S; Kreshchenko, N D; Solov'eva, M E; Leshchenko, V V; Lezhnev, E I; Yakubovskaya, R I

    2001-04-01

    Incubation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and HEp-2 human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cells with hydroxycobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbic acid induced generation and accumulation of double-stranded DNA fragments (23,000 b.p. and longer) in cells. The same vitamins alone in the same concentrations produced no such effects. DNA degradation in HEp-2 cells caused by long-term (4 h) incubation with 5-25 microM hydroxycobalamin and ascorbic acid (1:10-1:40 molar ratio) at 37 degrees C was comparable with that induced by gamma-irradiation in a dose of 150 Gy at 4 degrees C.

  16. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION FROM WASP-12b: DETECTIONS OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE IN Ks, H, AND J

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafreniere, David; Albert, Loic; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Murray, Norman

    2011-02-15

    We present Ks, H, and J-band photometry of the very highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-12b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Our photometry brackets the secondary eclipse of WASP-12b in the Ks and H bands, and in J band starts in mid-eclipse and continues until well after the end of the eclipse. We detect its thermal emission in all three near-infrared bands. Our secondary eclipse depths are 0.309{sup +0.013}{sub -0.012}% in Ks band (24{sigma}), 0.176{sup +0.016}{sub -0.021}% in H band (9{sigma}), and 0.131{sup +0.027}{sub -0.029}% in J band (4{sigma}). All three secondary eclipses are best fit with a consistent phase, {phi}, that is compatible with a circular orbit: {phi} = 0.4998{sup +0.0008}{sub -0.0007}. The limits on the eccentricity, e, and argument of periastron, {omega}, of this planet from our photometry alone are thus |ecos {omega}| < 0.0040. By combining our secondary eclipse times with others published in the literature, as well as the radial-velocity and transit-timing data for this system, we show that there is no evidence that WASP-12b is precessing at a detectable rate and that its orbital eccentricity is likely zero. Our thermal-emission measurements also allow us to constrain the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere; our Ks-band eclipse depth argues strongly in favor of inefficient day to nightside redistribution of heat and a low Bond albedo for this very highly irradiated hot Jupiter. The J- and H-band brightness temperatures are slightly cooler than the Ks-band brightness temperature, and thus hint at the possibility of a modest temperature inversion deep in the atmosphere of WASP-12b; the high-pressure, deep atmospheric layers probed by our J- and H-band observations are likely more homogenized than the higher altitude layer probed by our Ks-band observations. Lastly, our best-fit Ks-band eclipse has a marginally longer duration than would otherwise be expected; this may be tentative evidence for

  17. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  18. Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] Thiophene Tetraesters: A New Class of Luminescent Columnar Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Pradhan, Balaram; Pathak, Suraj Kumar; Gupta, Monika; Pal, Santanu Kumar; Sudhakar, Achalkumar Ammathnadu

    2015-07-28

    Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] thiophene tetraesters exhibiting wide-range hexagonal columnar phase have been synthesized. These compounds also exhibit good homeotropic alignment in the liquid-crystalline phase which is very important for the device fabrication. These compounds showed sky-blue luminescence in solution under the long-wavelength UV light. With high solubility and high quantum yield these compounds can serve as standards to measure quantum yields of unknown samples. This new class of materials is promising, considering the emissive nature and stabilization of hexagonal columnar mesophase over a wide thermal range and ease of synthesis. PMID:26077109

  19. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  20. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at JLab Hall C and the new spectroscopy of Λ12B hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Chen, C.; Gogami, T.; Kawama, D.; Han, Y.; Yuan, L.; Matsumura, A.; Okayasu, Y.; Seva, T.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Baturin, P.; Acha, A.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Badui, R.; Baker, O. K.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Bosted, P.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Carlini, R.; Chiba, A.; Christy, M. E.; Cole, L.; Dalton, M. M.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; De Leo, R.; Dharmawardane, V.; Doi, D.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fujii, Y.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Gibson, E. F.; Gueye, P.; Hashimoto, O.; Honda, D.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed V.; Jayalath, C.; Jones, M.; Johnston, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Keppel, C.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Kramer, L.; Lan, K. J.; Li, Y.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Maeda, K.; Malace, S.; Margaryan, A.; Marikyan, G.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Maruyama, N.; Maxwell, V.; Millener, D. J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Motoba, T.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman, Nomura, H.; Nonaka, K.; Ohtani, A.; Oyamada, M.; Perez, N.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Randeniya, S.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Rivera, R.; Roche, J.; Samanta, C.; Sato, Y.; Sawatzky, B.; Segbefia, E. K.; Schott, D.; Shichijo, A.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G.; Song, Y.; Sumihama, M.; Tadevosyan, V.; Takahashi, T.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Tvaskis, V.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wells, S.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Yan, C.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.; HKS JLab E05-115; E01-011 Collaborations

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the (e,e'K+) reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "tilt method," to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet (E05-115) were added to produce new data sets of precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. All three experiments obtained a spectrum for Λ12B, which is the most characteristic p-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the (e,e'K+) reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed Λ12B spectrum.

  1. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Maharaj, Payal D.; Delorey, Mark J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Kinney, Richard M.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. WNV strains isolated in North America, such as the prototype strain NY99, elicit a highly pathogenic response in certain avian species, notably American crows (AMCRs; Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a closely related strain, KN3829, isolated in Kenya, exhibits a low viremic response with limited mortality in AMCRs. Previous work has associated the difference in pathogenicity primarily with a single amino acid mutation at position 249 in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein. The NY99 strain encodes a proline residue at this position, while KN3829 encodes a threonine. Introduction of an NS3-T249P mutation in the KN3829 genetic background significantly increased virulence and mortality; however, peak viremia and mortality were lower than those of NY99. In order to elucidate the viral genetic basis for phenotype variations exclusive of the NS3-249 polymorphism, chimeric NY99/KN3829 viruses were created. We show herein that differences in the NS1-2B region contribute to avian pathogenicity in a manner that is independent of and additive with the NS3-249 mutation. Additionally, NS1-2B residues were found to alter temperature sensitivity when grown in avian cells. PMID:27548738

  2. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  3. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres. PMID:21150901

  4. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  5. Contact radiotherapy using a 50 kV X-ray system: Evaluation of relative dose distribution with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and comparison with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, Olivier; Hachem, Sabet; Franchisseur, Eric; Marcié, Serge; Gérard, Jean-Pierre; Bordy, Jean-Marc

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a dosimetric study concerning the system named "Papillon 50" used in the department of radiotherapy of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France. The machine provides a 50 kVp X-ray beam, currently used to treat rectal cancers. The system can be mounted with various applicators of different diameters or shapes. These applicators can be fixed over the main rod tube of the unit in order to deliver the prescribed absorbed dose into the tumor with an optimal distribution. We have analyzed depth dose curves and dose profiles for the naked tube and for a set of three applicators. Dose measurements were made with an ionization chamber (PTW type 23342) and Gafchromic films (EBT2). We have also compared the measurements with simulations performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Simulations were performed with a detailed geometrical description of the experimental setup and with enough statistics. Results of simulations are made in accordance with experimental measurements and provide an accurate evaluation of the dose delivered. The depths of the 50% isodose in water for the various applicators are 4.0, 6.0, 6.6 and 7.1 mm. The Monte Carlo PENELOPE simulations are in accordance with the measurements for a 50 kV X-ray system. Simulations are able to confirm the measurements provided by Gafchromic films or ionization chambers. Results also demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulations could be helpful to validate the future applicators designed for other localizations such as breast or skin cancers. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations could be a reliable alternative for a rapid evaluation of the dose delivered by such a system that uses multiple designs of applicators.

  6. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  7. Computational quest for spherical C12B68 fullerenes with "magic" π-electrons and quasi-planar tetra-coordinated carbon.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyu; Jiang, De-en; Chen, Zhongfang

    2014-02-01

    Inspired by the exciting properties of B80 clusters and the novel chemical bonding of planar tetra-coordinated carbon (ptC), we computationally investigated C12B68 clusters by substituting 12 boron atoms to 12 carbon in the B80 framework. Three types of C12B68 configurations, namely core-shell, boron-trapped and fullerene-like, were examined. The fullerene-like C12B68 clusters are featured with multiple quasi-planar tetra-coordinated carbon moieties; though with "magic" (72) number of electrons, they are not highly aromatic due to the limitations of Hirsch's rule for clusters with more than 50 π electrons. These C12B68 fullerenes are not global minima, but the appreciable HOMO-LUMO gaps, spherical aromaticity, and the thermal stability indicate their reasonable stabilities.

  8. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  9. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  10. Characterization of AFLP Sequences From Regions of Maize B Chromosome Defined by 12 B-10L Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Yao-Pin; Lin, Bor-yaw

    2005-01-01

    Maize B chromosome sequences have been previously cloned by microdissection, and all are proven to be highly repetitive, to be homologous to the normal complement, and to show no similarity to any published gene other than mobile elements. In this study, we isolated sequences from defined B regions. The strategy involved identification and then mapping of AFLP-derived B fragments before cloning. Of 14 B AFLPs, 13 were mapped by 12 B-10L translocations: 3 around the centromeric knob region, 3 in the proximal euchromatic, 1 around the border of proximal euchromatic and distal heterochromatic, and 6 in the distal heterochromatic region of the B long arm. The AFLP fragments were cloned and sequenced. Analogous to the microdissected sequences, all sequences were repetitive, and all but two were highly homologous to the A chromosomes. FISH signals of all but three clones appeared in pachytene B as well as in somatic A and B chromosomes. None of these clones exhibits identity to any published gene. Six clones displayed homology to two centromeric BACs, four to sequences of chromosomes 3, 4, 7, and 10, four to retrotransposons, and three to no sequence deposited in GenBank. Furthermore, flanking regions of two highly B-specific clones were characterized, showing extension of a B-exclusive nature. The possibility of the presence of novel B repeat(s) is discussed. PMID:15489531

  11. Organic sensitizers featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]-thiophene for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kimin; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Juman; Choi, In Taek; Do, Kwangsuk; Choi, Hyeju; Song, Kihyung; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Ko, Jaejung

    2013-08-01

    An efficient organic sensitizer (JK-306) featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]thiophene as the π-linker of a bridging unit for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized. The sensitizer had a strong molar absorption coefficient and a red-shifted absorption band compared with JK-305, which resulted in a significant increase in the short-circuit photocurrent density. We incorporated a highly congested bulky amino group into the 2',4'-dihexyloxybiphenyl-4-yl moiety, an electron donor, to diminish the charge recombination and to prevent aggregation of the sensitizer. Under standard AM 1.5G solar conditions, JK-306-sensitized cells in the presence of co-adsorbents chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 4-[bis(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (HC-A), which afforded an overall conversion efficiency of 8.37% and 8.52%, respectively. Upon changing the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte to the Co(II) /Co(III) redox couple, the cell gave rise to a significantly improved conversion efficiency of 10.02% with the multifunctional HC-A, which is one of the highest values reported for DSSCs with a cobalt-based electrolyte. Furthermore, the JK-306-based solar cell with a polymer gel electrolyte revealed a high conversion efficiency of 7.61%, which is one of the highest values for cells based on organic sensitizers.

  12. Determination of Evolutionary Relationships of Outbreak-Associated Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Katz, Lee S.; Silk, Benjamin J.; Jackson, Kelly A.; Kucerova, Zuzana; Joseph, Lavin A.; Turnsek, Maryann; Gladney, Lori M.; Halpin, Jessica L.; Xavier, Karen; Gossack, Joseph; Ward, Todd J.; Frace, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outbreaks, suggesting that epidemic potential may be widespread in L. monocytogenes and is not limited to the recognized epidemic clones. Pairwise comparisons between epidemiologically related isolates within clonal complexes showed that genome-level variation differed by 2 orders of magnitude between different comparisons, and the distribution of point mutations (core versus accessory genome) also varied. In addition, genetic divergence between one closely related pair of isolates from a single outbreak was driven primarily by changes in phage regions. The evolutionary analysis showed that the changes could be attributed to horizontal gene transfer; members of the diverse bacterial community found in the production facility could have served as the source of novel genetic material at some point in the production chain. The results raise the question of how to best utilize information contained within the accessory genome in outbreak investigations. The full magnitude and complexity of genetic changes revealed by genome sequencing could not be discerned from traditional subtyping methods, and the results demonstrate the challenges of interpreting genetic variation among isolates recovered from a single outbreak. Epidemiological information remains critical for proper interpretation of nucleotide and structural diversity among isolates recovered during outbreaks and will remain so until we understand more about how various population histories influence genetic variation. PMID:26590286

  13. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  14. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  15. KENO-V code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P/sub 1/ scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes.

  16. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  17. Polymorphisms on IFNG, IL12B and IL12RB1 genes and paracoccidioidomycosis in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M C; Busser, F D; Freitas, V L T; Furucho, C R; Sadahiro, A; Kono, A S G; Criado, P R; Moretti, M L; Sato, P K; Shikanai-Yasuda, M A

    2016-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic chronic mycosis, endemic in Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the eighth leading cause of death among chronic and recurrent infectious diseases. PCM infection is characterized by the presence of Th1 immune response; the acute form, by a mixed Th2/Th9, while the chronic form is characterized by Th17/Th22 profiles. The occurrence and severity of human PCM may also be associated with genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on cytokines encoding genes. We investigated the association between these polymorphisms and the different clinical forms of PCM. We included 156 patients with PCM (40 with the acute form, 99 with the chronic multifocal and 17 with the chronic unifocal form) and assayed their DNA samples for IFNG +874 T/A SNP by PCR-ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutational System), IL12B +1188 A/C SNP on 3' UTR and IL12RB1 641 A/G SNP on exon 7 by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). We found similar genotypic and allelic frequencies of the investigated SNPs among the clinical forms of PCM. Considering male patients, the IL12RB1 641 AA genotype was more frequent in the chronic multifocal form while heterozygosis was in the chronic unifocal form of PCM (p=0.048). Although our data suggest that the AA genotype (IL12RB1) may be associated with the more disseminated chronic disease, more patients of the chronic unifocal PCM group need to be analyzed as well as the secretion patterns of IFN-γ combined with the IL-12Rβ1 expression for a better comprehension of this association. PMID:27223631

  18. Clues to tRNA Evolution from the Distribution of Class II tRNAs and Serine Codons in the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Harold S

    2016-01-01

    We have previously proposed that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA and glycine was the first amino acid incorporated into the genetic code. The next two amino acids incorporated would have been the other two small hydrophilic amino acids serine and aspartic acid, which occurred through the duplication of the tRNA(Gly) sequence, followed by mutation of its anticodon by single C to U transition mutations, possibly through spontaneous deamination. Interestingly, however, tRNA(Ser) has a different structure than most other tRNAs, possessing a long variable arm; because of this tRNA(Ser) is classified as a class II tRNA. Also, serine codons are found not only in the bottom right-hand corner of the genetic code table next to those for glycine and aspartic acid, but also in the top row of the table, next to those for two of the most hydrophobic amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. In the following, I propose that the class II tRNA structure of tRNA(Ser) and the arrangement of serine codons in the genetic code provide clues to the early evolution of tRNA and the genetic code. In addition, I address Di Giulio's recent criticism of our proposal that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA, and discuss how early peptides produced from a restricted amino acid alphabet of glycine, serine and aspartic acid might have possessed proteolytic activity, which is possibly important for the early recycling of amino acid monomers. PMID:26927183

  19. Clues to tRNA Evolution from the Distribution of Class II tRNAs and Serine Codons in the Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Harold S.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously proposed that tRNAGly was the first tRNA and glycine was the first amino acid incorporated into the genetic code. The next two amino acids incorporated would have been the other two small hydrophilic amino acids serine and aspartic acid, which occurred through the duplication of the tRNAGly sequence, followed by mutation of its anticodon by single C to U transition mutations, possibly through spontaneous deamination. Interestingly, however, tRNASer has a different structure than most other tRNAs, possessing a long variable arm; because of this tRNASer is classified as a class II tRNA. Also, serine codons are found not only in the bottom right-hand corner of the genetic code table next to those for glycine and aspartic acid, but also in the top row of the table, next to those for two of the most hydrophobic amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. In the following, I propose that the class II tRNA structure of tRNASer and the arrangement of serine codons in the genetic code provide clues to the early evolution of tRNA and the genetic code. In addition, I address Di Giulio’s recent criticism of our proposal that tRNAGly was the first tRNA, and discuss how early peptides produced from a restricted amino acid alphabet of glycine, serine and aspartic acid might have possessed proteolytic activity, which is possibly important for the early recycling of amino acid monomers. PMID:26927183

  20. MCNP code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

  1. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  2. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  3. RE-EVALUATING WASP-12b: STRONG EMISSION AT 2.315 {mu}m, DEEPER OCCULTATIONS, AND AN ISOTHERMAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Tanaka, Ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2012-12-01

    We revisit the atmospheric properties of the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b in light of several new developments. First, we present new narrowband (2.315 {mu}m) secondary eclipse photometry, which exhibits a planet/star flux ratio of 0.45% {+-} 0.06%, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 3640 {+-} 230 K; second, recent Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations; and third, a recently observed star only 1'' from WASP-12, which has diluted previous observations and which we further characterize here. We correct past WASP-12b eclipse measurements for the presence of this object, and we revisit the interpretation of WASP-12b's dilution-corrected emission spectrum. The resulting planetary emission spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody, and consequently our primary conclusion is that the planet's infrared photosphere is nearly isothermal. Thus, secondary eclipse spectroscopy is relatively ill suited to constrain WASP-12b's atmospheric abundances, and transmission spectroscopy may be necessary to achieve this goal.

  4. Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outb...

  5. Identification of phosphorylated MYL12B as a potential plasma biomarker for septic acute kidney injury using a quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Dong, Xiu-Juan; Li, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Qiu-Lin; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and increasingly encountered complication in hospitalized patients with critical illness in intensive care units (ICU). According to the etiology, Sepsis-induced AKI (SAKI) is a leading contributor to AKI and significantly has very poor prognosis, which might be related to the late detection when the elevation of BUN and serum creatinine (SCr) is used. Many genes are up-regulated in the damaged kidney with the corresponding protein products appearing in plasma and urine. Some of these are candidate biomarkers for more timely diagnosis of SAKI. Therefore, extensive research efforts over this past decade have been directed at the discovery and validation of novel SAKI biomarkers to detect injury prior to changes in kidney function, a number of serum and urinary proteins, including NGAL, KIM-1, cystatin-C, IL-18, and L-FABP, have been identified for predicting SAKI before a rise in BUN and serum creatinine in several experimental and clinical trainings. Unfortunately, an ideal biomarker of SAKI with highly sensitivity and specificity has not been identified yet. Recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to discover biomarkers for SAKI. In the present study, kidney tissue samples from SAKI mice were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 4 up-regulated proteins, which were actin (ACTB), myosin regulatory light chain 12B (MYL12B), myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9), and myosin regulatory light chain 12A (MYL12A) were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Among all the varied proteins, MYL12B was validated by western blot. Interestingly, there was no change between the SAKI and control kidney tissues, however, phosphorylated MYL12B was detected to be consistent with the proteomics data. Furthermore, phosphorylated MYL12B was found similarly to be increased in SAKI plasma

  6. Identification of phosphorylated MYL12B as a potential plasma biomarker for septic acute kidney injury using a quantitative proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Dong, Xiu-Juan; Li, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Qiu-Lin; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and increasingly encountered complication in hospitalized patients with critical illness in intensive care units (ICU). According to the etiology, Sepsis-induced AKI (SAKI) is a leading contributor to AKI and significantly has very poor prognosis, which might be related to the late detection when the elevation of BUN and serum creatinine (SCr) is used. Many genes are up-regulated in the damaged kidney with the corresponding protein products appearing in plasma and urine. Some of these are candidate biomarkers for more timely diagnosis of SAKI. Therefore, extensive research efforts over this past decade have been directed at the discovery and validation of novel SAKI biomarkers to detect injury prior to changes in kidney function, a number of serum and urinary proteins, including NGAL, KIM-1, cystatin-C, IL-18, and L-FABP, have been identified for predicting SAKI before a rise in BUN and serum creatinine in several experimental and clinical trainings. Unfortunately, an ideal biomarker of SAKI with highly sensitivity and specificity has not been identified yet. Recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to discover biomarkers for SAKI. In the present study, kidney tissue samples from SAKI mice were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 4 up-regulated proteins, which were actin (ACTB), myosin regulatory light chain 12B (MYL12B), myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9), and myosin regulatory light chain 12A (MYL12A) were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Among all the varied proteins, MYL12B was validated by western blot. Interestingly, there was no change between the SAKI and control kidney tissues, however, phosphorylated MYL12B was detected to be consistent with the proteomics data. Furthermore, phosphorylated MYL12B was found similarly to be increased in SAKI plasma

  7. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  8. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  9. COOH-terminal association of human smooth muscle calcium channel Ca(v)1.2b with Src kinase protein binding domains: effect of nitrotyrosylation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minho; Ross, Gracious R; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2007-12-01

    The carboxyl terminus of the calcium channel plays an important role in the regulation of calcium entry, signal transduction, and gene expression. Potential protein-protein interaction sites within the COOH terminus of the L-type calcium channel include those for the SH3 and SH2 binding domains of c-Src kinase that regulates calcium currents in smooth muscle. In this study, we examined the binding sites involved in Src kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the human voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)) 1.2b (hCav1.2b) and the effect of nitrotyrosylation. Cotransfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells with hCa(v)1.2b and c-Src resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the calcium channel, which was prevented by nitration of tyrosine residues by peroxynitrite. Whole cell calcium currents were reduced by 58 + 5% by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 and 64 + 6% by peroxynitrite. Nitrotyrosylation prevented Src-mediated regulation of the currents. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the distal COOH terminus of hCa(v)1.2b (1809-2138) bound to SH2 domain of Src following tyrosine phosphorylation, while binding to SH3 required the presence of the proline-rich motif. Site-directed mutation of Y(2134) prevented SH2 binding and resulted in reduced phosphorylation of hCa(v)1.2b. Within the distal COOH terminus, single, double, or triple mutations of Y(1837), Y(1861), and Y(2134) were constructed and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The inhibitory effects of PP2 and peroxynitrite on calcium currents were significantly reduced in the double mutant Y(1837-2134F). These data demonstrate that the COOH terminus of hCa(v)1.2b contains sites for the SH2 and SH3 binding of Src kinase. Nitrotyrosylation of these sites prevents Src kinase regulation and may be importantly involved in calcium influx regulation during inflammation.

  10. Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Kim, J.; Mo, Fan

    1999-01-01

    Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the schemes is obtained using computer simulations. There are three sections in this report. First section is the introduction. The fundamental knowledge about coding, block coding and convolutional coding is discussed. In the second section, the basic concepts of convolutional turbo codes are introduced and the performance of turbo codes, especially high rate turbo codes, is provided from the simulation results. After introducing all the parameters that help turbo codes achieve such a good performance, it is concluded that output weight distribution should be the main consideration in designing turbo codes. Based on the output weight distribution, the performance bounds for turbo codes are given. Then, the relationships between the output weight distribution and the factors like generator polynomial, interleaver and puncturing pattern are examined. The criterion for the best selection of system components is provided. The puncturing pattern algorithm is discussed in detail. Different puncturing patterns are compared for each high rate. For most of the high rate codes, the puncturing pattern does not show any significant effect on the code performance if pseudo - random interleaver is used in the system. For some special rate codes with poor performance, an alternative puncturing algorithm is designed which restores their performance close to the Shannon limit. Finally, in section three, for iterative decoding of block codes, the method of building trellis for block codes, the structure of the iterative decoding system and the calculation of extrinsic values are discussed.

  11. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode

  12. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling of Substituted Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    Alchab, Faten; Ettouati, Laurent; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Bollacke, Andre; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Gertzen, Christoph G.W.; Gohlke, Holger; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Guillon, Jean; Fenet, Bernard; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Due to their system of annulated 6-5-5-6-membered rings, indenoindoles have sparked great interest for the design of ATP-competitive inhibitors of human CK2. In the present study, we prepared twenty-one indeno[1,2-b]indole derivatives, all of which were tested in vitro on human CK2. The indenoindolones 5a and 5b inhibited human CK2 with an IC50 of 0.17 and 0.61 µM, respectively. The indeno[1,2-b]indoloquinone 7a also showed inhibitory activity on CK2 at a submicromolar range (IC50 = 0.43 µM). Additionally, a large number of indenoindole derivatives was evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the cell lines 3T3, WI-38, HEK293T and MEF. PMID:26061121

  13. Parallel tree code for large N-body simulation: Dynamic load balance and data distribution on a CRAY T3D system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.; Ansaloni, R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Erbacci, G.; Gambera, M.; Pagliaro, A.

    1997-10-01

    N-body algorithms for long-range unscreened interactions like gravity belong to a class of highly irregular problems whose optimal solution is a challenging task for present-day massively parallel computers. In this paper we describe a strategy for optimal memory and work distribution which we have applied to our parallel implementation of the Barnes & Hut (1986) recursive tree scheme on a Cray T3D using the CRAFT programming environment. We have performed a series of tests to find an optimal data distribution in the T3D memory, and to identify a strategy for the Dynamic Load Balance in order to obtain good performances when running large simulations (more than 10 million particles). The results of tests show that the step duration depends on two main factors: the data locality and the T3D network contention. Increasing data locality we are able to minimize the step duration if the closest bodies (direct interaction) tend to be located in the same PE local memory (contiguous block subdivision, high granularity), whereas the tree properties have a fine grain distribution. In a very large simulation, due to network contention, an unbalanced load arises. To remedy this we have devised an automatic work redistribution mechanism which provided a good Dynamic Load Balance at the price of an insignificant overhead.

  14. OPTICAL AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF M31N 2007-12b: AN EXTRAGALACTIC RECURRENT NOVA WITH A DETECTED PROGENITOR?

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Hilton, T.; Shafter, A. W.; Page, K. L.; Smirnova, O.; Anupama, G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report combined optical and X-ray observations of nova M31N 2007-12b. Optical spectroscopy obtained 5 days after the 2007 December outburst shows evidence of very high ejection velocities (FWHM Halpha approx = 4500 km s{sup -1}). In addition, Swift X-ray data show that M31N 2007-12b is associated with a Super-Soft Source (SSS) which appeared between 21 and 35 days post-outburst and turned off between then and day 169. Our analysis implies that M {sub WD} approx> 1.3 M {sub sun} in this system. The optical light curve, spectrum, and X-ray behavior are consistent with those of a recurrent nova. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the pre-outburst location of M31N 2007-12b reveal the presence of a coincident stellar source with magnitude and color very similar to the Galactic recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi at quiescence, where the red giant secondary dominates the emission. We believe that this is the first occasion on which a nova progenitor system has been identified in M31. However, the greatest similarities of outburst optical spectrum and SSS behavior are with the supposed Galactic recurrent nova V2491 Cygni. A previously implied association of M31N 2007-12b with nova M31N 1969-08a is shown to be erroneous, and this has important lessons for future searches for recurrent novae in extragalactic systems. Overall, we show that suitable complementary X-ray and optical observations can be used not only to identify recurrent nova candidates in M31, but also to determine subtypes and important physical parameters of these systems. Prospects are therefore good for extending studies of recurrent novae into the Local Group with the potential to explore in more detail such important topics as their proposed link to Type Ia Supernovae.

  15. Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) for the retrieval of vertical aerosol properties from combined lidar/radiometer data: development and distribution in EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovsky, A.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Bril, A.; Goloub, P.; Tanré, D.; Pappalardo, G.; Wandinger, U.; Chaikovskaya, L.; Denisov, S.; Grudo, Y.; Lopatin, A.; Karol, Y.; Lapyonok, T.; Amiridis, V.; Ansmann, A.; Apituley, A.; Allados-Arboledas, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Boselli, A.; D'Amico, G.; Freudenthaler, V.; Giles, D.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Kokkalis, P.; Nicolae, D.; Oshchepkov, S.; Papayannis, A.; Perrone, M. R.; Pietruczuk, A.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sicard, M.; Slutsker, I.; Talianu, C.; De Tomasi, F.; Tsekeri, A.; Wagner, J.; Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of LIRIC (LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code) algorithm for simultaneous processing of coincident lidar and radiometric (sun photometric) observations for the retrieval of the aerosol concentration vertical profiles. As the lidar/radiometric input data we use measurements from European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars and collocated sun-photometers of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The LIRIC data processing provides sequential inversion of the combined lidar and radiometric data by the estimations of column-integrated aerosol parameters from radiometric measurements followed by the retrieval of height-dependent concentrations of fine and coarse aerosols from lidar signals using integrated column characteristics of aerosol layer as a priori constraints. The use of polarized lidar observations allows us to discriminate between spherical and non-spherical particles of the coarse aerosol mode. The LIRIC software package was implemented and tested at a number of EARLINET stations. Intercomparison of the LIRIC-based aerosol retrievals was performed for the observations by seven EARLNET lidars in Leipzig, Germany on 25 May 2009. We found close agreement between the aerosol parameters derived from different lidars that supports high robustness of the LIRIC algorithm. The sensitivity of the retrieval results to the possible reduction of the available observation data is also discussed.

  16. Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) for the retrieval of vertical aerosol properties from combined lidar/radiometer data: development and distribution in EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Bril, Andrey; Goloub, Philippe; Tanré, Didier; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Wandinger, Ulla; Chaikovskaya, Ludmila; Denisov, Sergey; Grudo, Jan; Lopatin, Anton; Karol, Yana; Lapyonok, Tatsiana; Amiridis, Vassilis; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Allados-Arboledas, Lucas; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Boselli, Antonella; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Freudenthaler, Volker; Giles, David; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Kokkalis, Panayotis; Nicolae, Doina; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Papayannis, Alex; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Alexander; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sicard, Michaël; Slutsker, Ilya; Talianu, Camelia; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Wagner, Janet; Wang, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of LIRIC (LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code) algorithm for simultaneous processing of coincident lidar and radiometric (sun photometric) observations for the retrieval of the aerosol concentration vertical profiles. As the lidar/radiometric input data we use measurements from European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars and collocated sun-photometers of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The LIRIC data processing provides sequential inversion of the combined lidar and radiometric data. The algorithm starts with the estimations of column-integrated aerosol parameters from radiometric measurements followed by the retrieval of height dependent concentrations of fine and coarse aerosols from lidar signals using integrated column characteristics of aerosol layer as a priori constraints. The use of polarized lidar observations allows us to discriminate between spherical and non-spherical particles of the coarse aerosol mode.The LIRIC software package was implemented and tested at a number of EARLINET stations. Intercomparison of the LIRIC-based aerosol retrievals was performed for the observations by seven EARLINET lidars in Leipzig, Germany on 25 May 2009. We found close agreement between the aerosol parameters derived from different lidars that supports high robustness of the LIRIC algorithm. The sensitivity of the retrieval results to the possible reduction of the available observation data is also discussed.

  17. Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical materials: Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwei; Liu, Lijuan; Jin, Shifeng; Yao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yihe; Chen, Chuangtian

    2013-12-11

    Deep-UV coherent light generated by nonlinear optical (NLO) materials possesses highly important applications in photonic technologies. Beryllium borates comprising anionic planar layers have been shown to be the most promising deep UV NLO materials. Here, two novel NLO beryllium borates Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 have been developed through cationic structural engineering. The most closely arranged [Be2BO5]∞ planar layers, connected by the flexible [B2O5] groups, have been found in their structures. This structural regulation strategy successfully resulted in the largest second harmonic generation (SHG) effects in the layered beryllium borates, which is ~1.3 and 1.4 times that of KDP for Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33, respectively. The deep-UV optical transmittance spectra based on single crystals indicated their short-wavelength cut-offs are down to ~170 nm. These results demonstrated that Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 possess very promising application as deep-UV NLO crystals.

  18. Phospho-ΔNp63α regulates AQP3, ALOX12B, CASP14 and CLDN1 expression through transcription and microRNA modulation.

    PubMed

    Ratovitski, Edward A

    2013-11-01

    Cisplatin-induced and ATM-phosphorylated (p)-ΔNp63α regulates the expression of epidermal differentiation and skin barrier regulators (AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B, and CLDN1) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells by dual transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. We found that p-ΔNp63α bound to target gene promoters, and regulated the activity of the tested promoters in vitro. P-ΔNp63α was shown to upregulate miR-185-5p and downregulate let7-5p, which subsequently modulated AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B and CLDN1 through their respective 3'-untranslated regions. The introduction of miR-185-5p into resistant SCC-11M cells, which are unable to phosphorylate ΔNp63α, render these cells more sensitive to cisplatin treatment. Further studies of the AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B, and CLDN1 contributions to chemoresistance may assist in developing novel microRNA-based therapies for human SCC. PMID:24070899

  19. Synthesis and characterization of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based copolymers for polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sora; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Sang Kyu; Ahn, Taek

    2015-09-01

    Two benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based copolymers, poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl) thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-5,8-(2,3-bis(4-octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P1) and poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-5,7-(2,3-bis(4- octyloxy)phenyl)thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine] (P2), are synthesized and used as donor materials in polymer solar cells (PSCs). To obtain a low band gap polymer, we use a copolymerized donor-acceptor structure. The optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers are investigated. The results indicate that the acceptor units in the copolymers influenced the band gap, electronic energy levels, and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers significantly. The band gaps of the copolymers are in the range 1.34 - 1.75 eV. Under optimized conditions, the BDT-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) for the PSCs in the range 1.46 - 2.05% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2).

  20. MCP1 SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis in cohorts from West Africa, the USA and Argentina: lack of association or epistasis with IL12B polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Velez Edwards, Digna R; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Wejse, Christian; Hill, Philip C; Morris, Gerard A J; Edwards, Todd L; Gilbert, John R; Myers, Jamie L; Park, Yo Son; Stryjewski, Martin E; Abbate, Eduardo; Estevan, Rosa; Rabna, Paulo; Novelli, Giuseppe; Hamilton, Carol D; Adegbola, Richard; Østergaar, Lars; Williams, Scott M; Scott, William K; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes to M. tuberculosis infection sites, and previous studies have reported that genetic variants in MCP1 are associated with differential susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We examined eight MCP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic, case-control design that included: 321 cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau, 258 cases and 271 controls from The Gambia, 295 cases and 179 controls from the U.S. (African-Americans), and an additional set of 237 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the U.S. and Argentina. Two locus interactions were also examined for polymorphisms in MCP1 and interleukin 12B (IL12B), another gene implicated in PTB risk. Examination of previously associated MCP1 SNPs rs1024611 (-2581A/G), rs2857656 (-362G/C) and rs4586 (+900C/T) did not show evidence for association. One interaction between rs2857656 and IL12B SNP rs2288831 was observed among Africans but the effect was in the opposite direction in Guineans (OR = 1.90, p = 0.001) and Gambians (OR = 0.64, p = 0.024). Our data indicate that the effect of genetic variation within MCP1 is not clear cut and additional studies will be needed to elucidate its role in TB susceptibility.

  1. Applications of Coding in Network Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Christopher SungWook

    2012-01-01

    This thesis uses the tool of network coding to investigate fast peer-to-peer file distribution, anonymous communication, robust network construction under uncertainty, and prioritized transmission. In a peer-to-peer file distribution system, we use a linear optimization approach to show that the network coding framework significantly simplifies…

  2. RNA editing of the transcript coding for subunit 4 of NADH dehydrogenase in wheat mitochondria: uneven distribution of the editing sites among the four exons.

    PubMed Central

    Lamattina, L; Grienenberger, J M

    1991-01-01

    The wheat mitochondrial (mt) NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene (nad4) has been localized and sequenced. This gene, about 8 kb long, is composed of four exons separated by three class II introns. The nad4 gene exists as a single copy in the wheat mitochondrial genome and it is transcribed into one abundant mRNA of 1.8 kb, whose extremities have been mapped. The complete cDNA sequence corresponding to the nad4 transcript has been determined by combining the direct sequencing of uncloned cDNA and a method involving cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification using specific oligonucleotides as primers, followed by cloning and sequencing of the amplification product. Comparison of the genomic sequence with that of the cDNA shows that all nad4 transcripts are fully edited at 23 positions, with an uneven distribution of the editing sites between the different exons: While exon 1 and exon 4 are extensively edited (with a change of 11% of the amino acid sequence), exon 2 is not edited at all and exon 3 is 0.5% edited. This uneven distribution is discussed. Images PMID:1712098

  3. Exon Junction Complexes Show a Distributional Bias toward Alternatively Spliced mRNAs and against mRNAs Coding for Ribosomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Christian; Sieber, Jana; Schwarzl, Thomas; Hollerer, Ina; Curk, Tomaz; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) connects spliced mRNAs to posttranscriptional processes including RNA localization, transport, and regulated degradation. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of bona fide EJC binding sites across the transcriptome including all four RNA binding EJC components eIF4A3, BTZ, UPF3B, and RNPS1. Integration of these data sets permits definition of high-confidence EJC deposition sites as well as assessment of whether EJC heterogeneity drives alternative nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathways. Notably, BTZ (MLN51 or CASC3) emerges as the EJC subunit that is almost exclusively bound to sites 20-24 nucleotides upstream of exon-exon junctions, hence defining EJC positions. By contrast, eIF4A3, UPF3B, and RNPS1 display additional RNA binding sites suggesting accompanying non-EJC functions. Finally, our data show that EJCs are largely distributed across spliced RNAs in an orthodox fashion, with two notable exceptions: an EJC deposition bias in favor of alternatively spliced transcripts and against the mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins. PMID:27475226

  4. Regularized robust coding for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2013-05-01

    Recently the sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been proposed for robust face recognition (FR). In SRC, the testing image is coded as a sparse linear combination of the training samples, and the representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1 -norm of the coding residual. Such a sparse coding model assumes that the coding residual follows Gaussian or Laplacian distribution, which may not be effective enough to describe the coding residual in practical FR systems. Meanwhile, the sparsity constraint on the coding coefficients makes the computational cost of SRC very high. In this paper, we propose a new face coding model, namely regularized robust coding (RRC), which could robustly regress a given signal with regularized regression coefficients. By assuming that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed, the RRC seeks for a maximum a posterior solution of the coding problem. An iteratively reweighted regularized robust coding (IR(3)C) algorithm is proposed to solve the RRC model efficiently. Extensive experiments on representative face databases demonstrate that the RRC is much more effective and efficient than state-of-the-art sparse representation based methods in dealing with face occlusion, corruption, lighting, and expression changes, etc.

  5. HAT-P-12b: A LOW-DENSITY SUB-SATURN MASS PLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR K DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Pal, A.; Latham, D. W.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Kovacs, Gabor; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.

    2009-11-20

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-12b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V approx 12.8 K4 dwarf GSC 03033 - 00706, with a period P = 3.2130598 +- 0.0000021 d, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454419.19556 +- 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.0974 +- 0.0006 d. The host star has a mass of 0.73 +- 0.02 M{sub sun}, radius of 0.70{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01} R{sub sun}, effective temperature 4650 +- 60 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.29 +- 0.05. We find a slight correlation between the observed spectral line bisector spans and the radial velocity, so we consider, and rule out, various blend configurations including a blend with a background eclipsing binary, and hierarchical triple systems where the eclipsing body is a star or a planet. We conclude that a model consisting of a single star with a transiting planet best fits the observations, and show that a likely explanation for the apparent correlation is contamination from scattered moonlight. Based on this model, the planetary companion has a mass of 0.211 +- 0.012 M{sub J} and radius of 0.959{sup +0.029}{sub -0.021} R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.295 +- 0.025 g cm{sup -3}. Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-12b is consistent with a approx1-4.5 Gyr, mildly irradiated, H/He-dominated planet with a core mass M{sub C} approx< 10 M {sub +}. HAT-P-12b is thus the least massive H/He-dominated gas giant planet found to date. This record was previously held by Saturn.

  6. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.

  7. The NYU inverse swept wing code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Mcfadden, G.

    1983-01-01

    An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.

  8. Multi-site campaign for transit timing variations of WASP-12 b: possible detection of a long-period signal of planetary origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Raetz, St.; Bukowiecki, Ł.; Kitze, M.; Errmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Popov, V.; Marka, C.; Goździewski, K.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ohlert, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, C.-U.; Yoon, J.-N.; Berndt, A.; Gilbert, H.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Mugrauer, M.; Röll, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Tetzlaff, N.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ciceri, S.; Zambelli, R.; Corfini, G.; Takahashi, H.; Tachihara, K.; Benkő, J. M.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabo, Gy. M.; Varga, T. N.; Vaňko, M.; Joshi, Y. C.; Chen, W. P.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: The transiting planet WASP-12 b was identified as a potential target for transit-timing studies because a departure from a linear ephemeris has been reported in the literature. Such deviations could be caused by an additional planet in the system. We attempt to confirm the claimed variations in transit timing and interpret their origin. Methods: We organised a multi-site campaign to observe transits by WASP-12 b in three observing seasons, using 0.5-2.6-metre telescopes. Results: We obtained 61 transit light curves, many of them with sub-millimagnitude precision. The simultaneous analysis of the best-quality datasets allowed us to obtain refined system parameters, which agree with values reported in previous studies. The residuals versus a linear ephemeris reveal a possible periodic signal that may be approximated by a sinusoid with an amplitude of 0.00068 ± 0.00013 d and period of 500 ± 20 orbital periods of WASP-12 b. The joint analysis of timing data and published radial velocity measurements results in a two-planet model that explains observations better than do single-planet scenarios. We hypothesise that WASP-12 b might not be the only planet in the system, and there might be the additional 0.1 MJup body on a 3.6-d eccentric orbit. A dynamical analysis indicates that the proposed two-planet system is stable on long timescales. Partly based on (1) data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, (2) observations made at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), (3) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, and (4) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated

  9. Gold-Catalyzed β-Regioselective Formal [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Ynamides with Pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yinghua; Chen, Gui; Zhu, Lei; Liao, Yun; Wu, Yufeng; Huang, Xueliang

    2016-09-16

    Here, we report an unprecedented gold(I)-induced β-site regioselective formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of ynamides with pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles, giving 3-amido-7-(pyrid-2'-yl)indoles in good to excellent yields. A complex of gold(I) catalyst with ynamide was isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis for the first time. Mechanistic investigations suggest the reaction pathway involves a gold-stabilized carbocation intermediate, which in turn participated in sequential C-H bond functionalization of the ortho-position of the phenyl ring. PMID:27569125

  10. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  11. Warm Spitzer Photometry of Three Hot Jupiters: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-01

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%^{+0.015%}_{-0.030%} (3.6 μm) and 0.094%^{+0.016%}_{-0.009%} (4.5 μm). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%^{+0.014%}_{-0.016%} (3.6 μm) and 0.122%^{+0.012%}_{-0.014%}(4.5 μm). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3σ upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 μm) and <0.085% (4.5 μm). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3σ upper limits on the |e cos ω| quantity (where e is eccentricity and ω is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  12. Palladium(II)-catalyzed intramolecular carboxypalladation-olefin insertion cascade: direct access to indeno[1,2-b]furan-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, Perumal; Vivekanand, Thavaraj; Suryavanshi, Padmakar A; Menéndez, J Carlos; Sasai, Hiroaki; Sridharan, Vellaisamy

    2015-05-14

    A catalytic, atom-economical, domino 5-endo-dig cyclization-intramolecular olefin insertion sequence was developed under mild conditions. Aryl alkynoic acids bearing a tethered enone partner afforded the indeno[1,2-b]furan-2-ones, the core skeleton present in a number of biologically significant molecules including the natural product solanacol, under ligand-free, palladium-catalyzed reaction conditions in high yields. The competitive β-hydride elimination in the final step leading to the conjugated analogs was avoided by the addition of lithium bromide. A plausible mechanism for this domino sequence is proposed involving intramolecular carboxypalladation and olefin insertion steps.

  13. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  14. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue. PMID:26633789

  15. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  16. To Code or Not To Code?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Brian; Sandhu, Parveen; Lacorte, Manel; Gourlay, Lesley

    1998-01-01

    This article considers arguments for and against the use of coding systems in classroom-based language research and touches on some relevant considerations from ethnographic and conversational analysis approaches. The four authors each explain and elaborate on their practical decision to code or not to code events or utterances at a specific point…

  17. Converting potent indeno[1,2-b]indole inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 into selective inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Jabor Gozzi, Gustavo; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Aichele, Dagmar; Nacereddine, Abdelhamid; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Zeinyeh, Waël; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Lacoudre, Aline; Pinaud, Noël; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives were synthesized as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors contained a N(5)-isopropyl substituent on the C-ring. The same series of compounds was found to also inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 but with totally different structure-activity relationships: a N(5)-phenethyl substituent was critical, and additional hydrophobic substituents at position 7 or 8 of the D-ring or a methoxy at phenethyl position ortho or meta also contributed to inhibition. The best ABCG2 inhibitors, such as 4c, 4h, 4i, 4j, and 4k, behaved as very weak inhibitors of CK2, whereas the most potent CK2 inhibitors, such as 4a, 4p, and 4e, displayed limited interaction with ABCG2. It was therefore possible to convert, through suitable substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione scaffold, potent CK2 inhibitors into selective ABCG2 inhibitors and vice versa. In addition, some of the best ABCG2 inhibitors, which displayed a very low cytotoxicity, thus giving a high therapeutic ratio, and appeared not to be transported, constitute promising candidates for further investigations.

  18. A 1,100-year-old founder effect mutation in IL12B gene is responsible for Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease in Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Mekki, Najla; Patin, Etienne; Harmant, Christine; Bouguila, Jihène; Elloumi-Zghal, Houda; Harbi, Abdelaziz; Béjaoui, Mohamed; Boughammoura, Lamia; Chemli, Jalel; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare disorder predisposing apparently healthy individuals to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria such as bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), environmental mycobacteria, and poorly virulent Salmonella strains. IL-12p40 deficiency is the first reported human disease due to a cytokine gene defect and is one of the deficiencies that cause MSMD. Nine mutant alleles only have been identified in the IL12B gene, and three of them are recurrent mutations due to a founder effect in specific populations. IL-12p40 deficiency has been identified especially in countries where consanguinity is high and where BCG vaccination at birth is universal. We investigated, in such settings, the clinical, cellular, and molecular features of six IL-12p40-deficient Tunisian patients having the same mutation in IL12B gene (c.298_305del). We found that this mutation is inherited as a common founder mutation arousing ~1,100 years ago. This finding facilitates the development of a preventive approach by genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis especially in affected families.

  19. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  20. Bare Code Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Jean J.

    1980-05-01

    The Bare code system will be used, in every market and supermarket. The code, which is normalised in US and Europe (code EAN) gives informations on price, storage, nature and allows in real time the gestion of theshop.

  1. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  2. Turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    Turbo codes were recently proposed by Berrou, Glavieux, and Thitimajshima, and it has been claimed these codes achieve near-Shannon-limit error correction performance with relatively simple component codes and large interleavers. A required E(b)/N(o) of 0.7 dB was reported for a bit error rate of 10(exp -5), using a rate 1/2 turbo code. However, some important details that are necessary to reproduce these results were omitted. This article confirms the accuracy of these claims, and presents a complete description of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for deep-space applications, where lower rate codes can be used. We describe a new simple method for trellis termination, analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and introduce the use of unequal rate component codes, which yield better performance.

  3. Exploring atmospheres of hot mini-Neptune and extrasolar giant planets orbiting different stars with application to HD 97658b, WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, and HD 189733b

    SciTech Connect

    Miguel, Y.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2014-01-10

    We calculated an atmospheric grid for hot mini-Neptune and giant exoplanets that links astrophysical observable parameters—orbital distance and stellar type—with the chemical atmospheric species expected. The grid can be applied to current and future observations to characterize exoplanet atmospheres and serves as a reference to interpret atmospheric retrieval analysis results. To build the grid, we developed a one-dimensional code for calculating the atmospheric thermal structure and linked it to a photochemical model that includes disequilibrium chemistry (molecular diffusion, vertical mixing, and photochemistry). We compare the thermal profiles and atmospheric composition of planets at different semimajor axes (0.01 AU ≤ a ≤ 0.1 AU) orbiting F, G, K, and M stars. Temperature and UV flux affect chemical species in the atmosphere. We explore which effects are due to temperature and which are due to stellar characteristics, showing the species most affected in each case. CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O are the most sensitive to UV flux, H displaces H{sub 2} as the most abundant gas in the upper atmosphere for planets receiving a high UV flux. CH{sub 4} is more abundant for cooler planets. We explore vertical mixing, to inform degeneracies on our models and in the resulting spectral observables. For lower pressures, observable species like H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2} can indicate the efficiency of vertical mixing, with larger mixing ratios for a stronger mixing. By establishing the grid, testing the sensitivity of the results, and comparing our model to published results, our paper provides a tool to estimate what observations could yield. We apply our model to WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, HD189733b, and HD97658b.

  4. Development of probabilistic multimedia multipathway computer codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Biwer, B. M.; Cheng, J.-J.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Mo, T.; Abu-Eid, R.; Thaggard, M.; Sallo, A., III.; Peterson, H., Jr.; Williams, W. A.; Environmental Assessment; NRC; EM

    2002-01-01

    The deterministic multimedia dose/risk assessment codes RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD have been widely used for many years for evaluation of sites contaminated with residual radioactive materials. The RESRAD code applies to the cleanup of sites (soils) and the RESRAD-BUILD code applies to the cleanup of buildings and structures. This work describes the procedure used to enhance the deterministic RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes for probabilistic dose analysis. A six-step procedure was used in developing default parameter distributions and the probabilistic analysis modules. These six steps include (1) listing and categorizing parameters; (2) ranking parameters; (3) developing parameter distributions; (4) testing parameter distributions for probabilistic analysis; (5) developing probabilistic software modules; and (6) testing probabilistic modules and integrated codes. The procedures used can be applied to the development of other multimedia probabilistic codes. The probabilistic versions of RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes provide tools for studying the uncertainty in dose assessment caused by uncertain input parameters. The parameter distribution data collected in this work can also be applied to other multimedia assessment tasks and multimedia computer codes.

  5. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Unsymmetrical Indenofluorene Analogues: Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[1,2-b]thiophene and Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[2,1-b]thiophene.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jonathan L; O'Neal, Nathaniel J; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two benzo-indaceno-thiophene compounds (anti-BIT and syn-BIT) are described. Two sequential Suzuki cross-couplings utilizing the halogen selectivity of this reaction permit modular assembly of unsymmetrical indeno[1,2-b]fluorene analogues. Analysis of their cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectra reveal that the optical and electrochemical properties of the BITs lie between those of indeno[1,2-b]fluorenes and indacenodithiophene.

  7. Software infrastructure progress in the RAVEN code

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Rabiti, Cristian; Permann, Cody J.

    2015-03-01

    The milestones have been achieved. RAVEN has been migrated to Gitlab which adds new abilities for code review and management. Standalone RAVEN framework packages have been created for OSX and two Linux distributions.

  8. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald P.; Franke, Brian C.; Laub, Thomas W.

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  9. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with anmore » input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.« less

  10. Development of new highly potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines targeting Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Moine, Espérance; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Logé, Cédric; Pénichon, Mélanie; Moiré, Nathalie; Delehouzé, Claire; Foll-Josselin, Béatrice; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Gueiffier, Alain; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Denevault-Sabourin, Caroline

    2015-11-13

    Using a structure-based design approach, we have developed a new series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines, targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase-1 (CDPK1) from Toxoplasma gondii. Twenty derivatives were thus synthesized. Structure-activity relationships and docking studies confirmed the binding mode of these inhibitors within the ATP binding pocket of TgCDPK1. Two lead compounds (16a and 16f) were then identified, which were able to block TgCDPK1 enzymatic activity at low nanomolar concentrations, with a good selectivity profile against a panel of mammalian kinases. The potential of these inhibitors was confirmed in vitro on T. gondii growth, with EC50 values of 100 nM and 70 nM, respectively. These best candidates also displayed low toxicity to mammalian cells and were selected for further in vivo investigations on murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:26479029

  11. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing. PMID:27140224

  12. Estimation of the release and migration of nickel through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    An assessment was performed to evaluate release and transport of nickel from large metal components containing nickel-bearing alloys at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The potential for nickel within the components to enter groundwater under the burial site was investigated by examining available data on the site`s geology, geochemistry, and geohydrology to develop a conceptual model for release and transport of nickel from the components. In addition, laboratory studies were performed to provide information needed for the model, but which was not available from existing databases. Estimates of future concentrations of nickel radioisotopes ({sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni) and total elemental nickel in the unconfined aquifer and in the Columbia River were developed based on this information.

  13. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  14. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  15. Crystal structure of 1-ferrocenyl-2-(4-methyl-benzo-yl)spiro-[11H-pyrrolidizine-3,11'-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline].

    PubMed

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2014-09-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C34H28N3O)], the four-fused-rings system of the 11H-indeno-[1,2-b]quinoxaline unit is approximately planar [maximum deviation = 0.167 (4) Å] and forms a dihedral angle of 37.25 (6)° with the plane of the benzene ring of the methyl-benzoyl group. Both pyrrolidine rings adopt a twist conformation. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming double chains extending parallel to the c axis.

  16. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  17. Development of new highly potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines targeting Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Moine, Espérance; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Logé, Cédric; Pénichon, Mélanie; Moiré, Nathalie; Delehouzé, Claire; Foll-Josselin, Béatrice; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Gueiffier, Alain; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Denevault-Sabourin, Caroline

    2015-11-13

    Using a structure-based design approach, we have developed a new series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines, targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase-1 (CDPK1) from Toxoplasma gondii. Twenty derivatives were thus synthesized. Structure-activity relationships and docking studies confirmed the binding mode of these inhibitors within the ATP binding pocket of TgCDPK1. Two lead compounds (16a and 16f) were then identified, which were able to block TgCDPK1 enzymatic activity at low nanomolar concentrations, with a good selectivity profile against a panel of mammalian kinases. The potential of these inhibitors was confirmed in vitro on T. gondii growth, with EC50 values of 100 nM and 70 nM, respectively. These best candidates also displayed low toxicity to mammalian cells and were selected for further in vivo investigations on murine model of acute toxoplasmosis.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and effect of indeno[1,2-b]indole derivatives on prostate cancer in vitro. Potential effect against MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Gricela; Monasterios, Melina; Rodrigues, Juan; Gamboa, Neira; Capparelli, Mario V; Martínez-Cuevas, Javier; Lein, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Abramjuk, Claudia; Charris, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    A highly regiospecific synthesis of a series of indenoindoles is reported, together with X-ray studies and their activity against human prostate cancer cells PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro. The most effective compound 7,7-dimethyl-5-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)]-(4bRS,9bRS)-dihydroxy-4b,5,6,7,8,9bhexahydro-indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione 7q reduced the viability in both cell lines in a time and dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory effects were also observed on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of the prostate cancer cells as well as on clonogenic possibly by inhibition of MMP-9 activity. Molecular docking of 7q and 6k into MMP-9 human active site was also performed to determine the probable binding mode.

  19. FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

  20. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, affects the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes encoding key enzymes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Su, Lian-Tai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2013-12-10

    Isoflavones play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are potentially important for human nutrition and health. To study the regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis in soybean, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor GmMYB12B2 was isolated and characterized. Yeast expression experiments demonstrated that GmMYB12B2 showed transcriptional activity. GmMYB12B2 was localized in the nucleus when it was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GmMYB12B2 transcription was increased in roots and mature seeds compared with other organs. The gene expression level in immature embryos was consistent with the accumulation of isoflavones. CHS8 is a key enzyme in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Transient expression experiments in soybean calli demonstrated that CHS8 was regulated by GmMYB12B2 and produced more fluorescence. The expression levels of some key enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The results showed that the expression levels of PAL1, CHS and FLS in transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild type plants. However, the expression level of DFR was lower, and the expression levels of CHI, F3H and F3'H were the same in all lines. GmMYB12B2 expression caused a constitutive increase in the accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared with wild type plants. PMID:24060295

  1. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, affects the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes encoding key enzymes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Su, Lian-Tai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2013-12-10

    Isoflavones play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are potentially important for human nutrition and health. To study the regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis in soybean, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor GmMYB12B2 was isolated and characterized. Yeast expression experiments demonstrated that GmMYB12B2 showed transcriptional activity. GmMYB12B2 was localized in the nucleus when it was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GmMYB12B2 transcription was increased in roots and mature seeds compared with other organs. The gene expression level in immature embryos was consistent with the accumulation of isoflavones. CHS8 is a key enzyme in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Transient expression experiments in soybean calli demonstrated that CHS8 was regulated by GmMYB12B2 and produced more fluorescence. The expression levels of some key enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The results showed that the expression levels of PAL1, CHS and FLS in transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild type plants. However, the expression level of DFR was lower, and the expression levels of CHI, F3H and F3'H were the same in all lines. GmMYB12B2 expression caused a constitutive increase in the accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared with wild type plants.

  2. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  3. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallonn, M.; Nascimbeni, V.; Weingrill, J.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Herrero, E.; Sada, P. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Künstler, A.; Bernt, I.; Granzer, T.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. Aims: We want to investigate the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b for an increased absorption at the very blue wavelength regions caused by scattering. Furthermore, we aim for a refinement of the transit parameters and the orbital ephemeris. Methods: We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. Results: We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit parameters, the ephemeris and perform a TTV analysis in which we found no indication for an unseen companion. The host star showed a mild non-periodic variability of up to 1%. However, no stellar rotation period could be detected to high confidence.

  4. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  5. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2014-10-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes, which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality-preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established that allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

  6. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  7. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  8. Turbo Codes with Modified Code Matched Interleaver for Coded-Cooperation in Half-Duplex Wireless Relay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Saqib; Yang, Feng-Fan

    2015-03-01

    The parallel encoding and decoding structure of turbo codes makes them natural candidate for coded-cooperative scenarios. In this paper, we focus on one of the key components of turbo codes i.e., interleaver, and analyze its effect on the performance of coded-cooperative communication. The impact of an interleaver on the overall performance of cooperative systems depends on the type of an interleaver and its location in the cooperative encoding scheme. We consider code matched interleaver (CMI) as an optimum choice and present its role in a coded-cooperation scenario. The search and convergence of CMI for long interleaver sizes is an issue; therefore, a modification in the search conditions is included without any compromise on the performance of CMI. We also present analytical method to determine maximum S-constraint length for a CMI design. Further, we analyze the performance of two different encoding schemes of turbo codes, i.e., distributed turbo code (DTC) and distributed multiple turbo code (DMTC) after inclusion of CMI. Monte Carlo simulations show that CMI increases the diversity gain relative to other conventional interleavers such as uniform random interleaver. The channel is assumed to be Rayleigh fading among all communication nodes.

  9. Fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyang; Vyas, Raul; Dwyer, Chris

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, resonance energy transfer (RET) networks between chromophores are used to implement fluorescent taggants with temporally coded signatures. Because the temporal signature of such a fluorescent taggant is a phase-type distribution defined by the geometry of its RET network, the taggant design is not constrained by resolvable dyes and has a significantly larger coding capacity than spectrally or lifetime coded fluorescent taggants. Meanwhile, the detection process becomes highly efficient when the signatures are coded in the time domain. The taggant identification method is based on the multinomial distribution of detected photons and Maximum Likelihood Estimation, which guarantees high accuracy even with only a few hundred photons and also applies to a mixture of taggants in multiplex detection. Therefore, these temporally coded fluorescent taggants have great potential for both in situ and Lidar applications. PMID:27410827

  10. Nonbinary Quantum Convolutional Codes Derived from Negacyclic Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Li, Jianping; Yang, Fan; Huang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, some families of nonbinary quantum convolutional codes are constructed by using negacyclic codes. These nonbinary quantum convolutional codes are different from quantum convolutional codes in the literature. Moreover, we construct a family of optimal quantum convolutional codes.

  11. Reversibility and efficiency in coding protein information.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Boaz; Priel, Avner

    2010-12-21

    Why the genetic code has a fixed length? Protein information is transferred by coding each amino acid using codons whose length equals 3 for all amino acids. Hence the most probable and the least probable amino acid get a codeword with an equal length. Moreover, the distributions of amino acids found in nature are not uniform and therefore the efficiency of such codes is sub-optimal. The origins of these apparently non-efficient codes are yet unclear. In this paper we propose an a priori argument for the energy efficiency of such codes resulting from their reversibility, in contrast to their time inefficiency. Such codes are reversible in the sense that a primitive processor, reading three letters in each step, can always reverse its operation, undoing its process. We examine the codes for the distributions of amino acids that exist in nature and show that they could not be both time efficient and reversible. We investigate a family of Zipf-type distributions and present their efficient (non-fixed length) prefix code, their graphs, and the condition for their reversibility. We prove that for a large family of such distributions, if the code is time efficient, it could not be reversible. In other words, if pre-biotic processes demand reversibility, the protein code could not be time efficient. The benefits of reversibility are clear: reversible processes are adiabatic, namely, they dissipate a very small amount of energy. Such processes must be done slowly enough; therefore time efficiency is non-important. It is reasonable to assume that early biochemical complexes were more prone towards energy efficiency, where forward and backward processes were almost symmetrical. PMID:20868696

  12. AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2002-11-01

    An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The δ W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ω problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

  13. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  14. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  15. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  16. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  17. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  18. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  19. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  20. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  1. Effect of Fluorine Substitution on Photovoltaic Properties of Alkoxyphenyl Substituted Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-Based Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Beibei; Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Xuxian; He, Dingjun; Qiu, Lixia; Zou, Yingping; Zhang, Zhi-guo; Li, Yongfang

    2015-11-18

    Two new small molecules, C3T-BDTP and C3T-BDTP-F with alkoxyphenyl-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and meta-fluorinated-alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT as the central donor blocks, respectively, have been synthesized and used as donor materials in organic solar cells (OSCs). With the addition of 0.4% v/v 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), the blend of C3T-BDTP-F/PC71BM showed a higher hole mobility of 8.67 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) compared to that of the blend of C3T-BDTP/PC71BM. Two types of interlayers, zirconium acetylacetonate (ZrAcac) and perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives (PDINO and PDIN), were used to further optimize the performance of OSCs. With a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/donor:PC71BM/PDIN/Al, the OSCs based on C3T-BDTP delivered a satisfying power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.27% with an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.91 V, whereas the devices based on C3T-BDTP-F showed an enhanced PCE of 5.42% with a higher V(oc) of 0.97 V. PMID:26517574

  2. Efficient all polymer solar cells employing donor polymer based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guanqun; Yuan, Jianyu; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zeke; Shi, Guozheng; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Jiexiong; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Ma, Wanli

    2015-11-01

    We reported all polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) employing BDT-based donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (PyTZ) (PBPT-8 and PBPT-12) as donor and NDI-based n-type polymer Poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) (N2200) as acceptor. The influence of thermal annealing on the performance of all-PSCs was systematically investigated and discussed. It was found that the pre-annealing of the active blend films could significantly improve the all-PSCs performance. Both PBPT-8/PBPT-12:N2200 systems can deliver promising PCEs (4.12% and 4.25%) at the optimal annealing temperature of 160 oC due to the promoted film quality and charge transport properties. Morphology investigation and carrier mobility measurements have been carried out to analyze the effect of thermal annealing. This study suggests that BDT-based polymer:N2200 systems can be promising candidates for all-PSCs, with thermal annealing as an effective approach to promote the device performance.

  3. Phenolic indeno[1,2-b]indoles as ABCG2-selective potent and non-toxic inhibitors stimulating basal ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Honorat, Mylène; Guragossian, Nathalie; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    Ketonic indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives, initially designed as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors, were recently shown to be converted into efficient inhibitors of drug efflux by the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 upon suited substitutions including a N (5)-phenethyl on C-ring and hydrophobic groups on D-ring. A series of ten phenolic and seven p-quinonic derivatives were synthesized and screened for inhibition of both CK2 and ABCG2 activities. The best phenolic inhibitors were about threefold more potent against ABCG2 than the corresponding ketonic derivatives, and showed low cytotoxicity. They were selective for ABCG2 over both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), whereas the ketonic derivatives also interacted with MRP1, and they additionally displayed a lower interaction with CK2. Quite interestingly, they strongly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity, in contrast to ketonic derivatives, suggesting distinct binding sites. In contrast, the p-quinonic indenoindoles were cytotoxic and poor ABCG2 inhibitors, whereas a partial inhibition recovery could be reached upon hydrophobic substitutions on D-ring, similarly to the ketonic derivatives.

  4. New benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based small molecules containing alkoxyphenyl side chains for high efficiency solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Wen, Shuguang; Qiao, Shanlin; Liu, Qian; Ouyang, Dan; Wang, Ning; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-12-01

    A new acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecule, namely, BDT-PO-DPP, based on the alkoxyphenyl (PO)-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) derivative and the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit was synthesized as an electron donor for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs). BDT-PO-DPP exhibited good thermal stability, with a 5 % weight-lost temperature at 401 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. BDT-PO-DPP exhibited a lower HOMO energy level of -5.25 eV and a weaker aggregation ability than alkoxy-substituted BDT-O-DPP. A bulk heterojunction SMOSC device based on BDT-PO-DPP and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester was prepared, and it showed a power conversion efficiency up to 5.63% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, a short circuit current density of 11.23 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 60.37% by using 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the co-solvent after thermal annealing at 110 °C. The results indicate that the alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT derivative is a promising electron-donor building block for constructing highly efficient solution-processed SMOSCs.

  5. Discovery of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives: selective and orally available Mps1 (TTK) kinase inhibitors exhibiting remarkable antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Ken-Ichi; Ide, Nobuyuki; Daigo, Yataro; Itoh, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozu, Kohei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Tadano, Genta; Tagashira, Sachie; Higashino, Kenichi; Okano, Yousuke; Sato, Yuji; Inoue, Makiko; Iguchi, Motofumi; Kanazawa, Takayuki; Ishioka, Yukichi; Dohi, Keiji; Kido, Yasuto; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ando, Shigeru; Maeda, Masahiro; Higaki, Masayo; Baba, Yoshiyasu; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2015-02-26

    Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) is an attractive oncology target due to its high expression level in cancer cells as well as the correlation of its expression levels with histological grades of cancers. An imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine 10a was identified during an HTS campaign. Although 10a exhibited good biochemical activity, its moderate cellular as well as antiproliferative activities needed to be improved. The cocrystal structure of an analogue of 10a guided our lead optimization to introduce substituents at the 6-position of the scaffold, giving the 6-aryl substituted 21b which had improved cellular activity but no oral bioavailability in rat. Property-based optimization at the 6-position and a scaffold change led to the discovery of the imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-based 27f, an extremely potent (cellular Mps1 IC50 = 0.70 nM, A549 IC50 = 6.0 nM), selective Mps1 inhibitor over 192 kinases, which could be orally administered and was active in vivo. This 27f demonstrated remarkable antiproliferative activity in the nanomolar range against various tissue cancer cell lines. PMID:25625617

  6. 3-alkoxy-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazolines as selective androgen receptor modulators with ideal physicochemical properties for transdermal administration.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Thomas; Sasmal, Sanjita; Boorgu, Venkatesham; Pasagadi, Srinivasu; Cheera, Srisailam; Rajagopalan, Sujatha; Bhumireddy, Archana; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Chelur, Shekar; Belliappa, Charamanna; Pandit, Chetan; Krishnamurthy, Narasimharao; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Ramanathan, Anuradha; Ghadiyaram, Chakshusmathi; Ramachandra, Murali; Santos, Paulo G; Lagu, Bharat; Bock, Mark G; Perrone, Mark H; Weiler, Sven; Keller, Hansjoerg

    2014-09-11

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of 3-alkoxy-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazolines as novel selective androgen receptor (AR) modulators that possess excellent physicochemical properties for transdermal administration. Compound 26 bound to human AR with an IC50 of 0.7 nM with great selectivity over other nuclear hormone receptors and potently activated AR in a C2C12 muscle cell reporter gene assay with an EC50 of 0.5 nM. It showed high aqueous solubility of 1.3 g/L at pH 7.4, and an in silico model as well as a customized parallel artificial membrane permeability assay indicated good skin permeation. Indeed, when measuring skin permeation through excised human skin, an excellent flux of 2 μg/(cm(2)·h) was determined without any permeation enhancers. In a 2 week Hershberger model using castrated rats, the compound showed dose-dependent effects fully restoring skeletal muscle weight at 0.3 mg/kg/day after subcutaneous administration with high selectivity over prostate stimulation.

  7. Cytotoxic Activities and DNA Binding Properties of 1-Methyl-7H-indeno[1,2-b]Quinolinium-7-(4-dimethylamino) Benzylidene Triflate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Ji, Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) with a novel synthesized pyrazolo[1,5-a]indole compound 1-methyl-7H-indeno[1,2-b]quinolinium-7-(4-dimethylamino) benzylidene triflate (MIDBT) was extensively studied by various spectroscopic techniques, viscosity measurements, and gel electrophoresis. The UV-visible observation implied that the compound interacted with ct-DNA by two binding modes, intercalating into the DNA base pairs and attaching to the helix exterior of DNA. The results of the fluorescent quenching and viscosity measurements showed that MIDBT could intercalate into DNA base pairs deeply in a classical intercalative mode. Circular dichroism results showed that the binding of MIDBT shifted ct-DNA conformation from B to A at low concentrations. In the gel electrophoresis, the compound was found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR 322 DNA effectively. Furthermore, cytotoxic studies of this compound against eleven selected tumor cell lines have been done. The values of 50% cytotoxic concentration (IC50) were in the range of 1.09–18.84 μM, exhibiting the potent cytotoxic properties. PMID:22277048

  8. Phenolic indeno[1,2-b]indoles as ABCG2-selective potent and non-toxic inhibitors stimulating basal ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Honorat, Mylène; Guragossian, Nathalie; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    Ketonic indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives, initially designed as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors, were recently shown to be converted into efficient inhibitors of drug efflux by the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 upon suited substitutions including a N5-phenethyl on C-ring and hydrophobic groups on D-ring. A series of ten phenolic and seven p-quinonic derivatives were synthesized and screened for inhibition of both CK2 and ABCG2 activities. The best phenolic inhibitors were about threefold more potent against ABCG2 than the corresponding ketonic derivatives, and showed low cytotoxicity. They were selective for ABCG2 over both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), whereas the ketonic derivatives also interacted with MRP1, and they additionally displayed a lower interaction with CK2. Quite interestingly, they strongly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity, in contrast to ketonic derivatives, suggesting distinct binding sites. In contrast, the p-quinonic indenoindoles were cytotoxic and poor ABCG2 inhibitors, whereas a partial inhibition recovery could be reached upon hydrophobic substitutions on D-ring, similarly to the ketonic derivatives. PMID:26170632

  9. New benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based small molecules containing alkoxyphenyl side chains for high efficiency solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Wen, Shuguang; Qiao, Shanlin; Liu, Qian; Ouyang, Dan; Wang, Ning; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-12-01

    A new acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecule, namely, BDT-PO-DPP, based on the alkoxyphenyl (PO)-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) derivative and the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit was synthesized as an electron donor for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs). BDT-PO-DPP exhibited good thermal stability, with a 5 % weight-lost temperature at 401 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. BDT-PO-DPP exhibited a lower HOMO energy level of -5.25 eV and a weaker aggregation ability than alkoxy-substituted BDT-O-DPP. A bulk heterojunction SMOSC device based on BDT-PO-DPP and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester was prepared, and it showed a power conversion efficiency up to 5.63% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, a short circuit current density of 11.23 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 60.37% by using 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the co-solvent after thermal annealing at 110 °C. The results indicate that the alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT derivative is a promising electron-donor building block for constructing highly efficient solution-processed SMOSCs. PMID:25346491

  10. Pcigale: Porting Code Investigating Galaxy Emission to Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehlly, Y.; Burgarella, D.; Buat, V.; Boquien, M.; Ciesla, L.; Heinis, S.

    2014-05-01

    We present pcigale, the port to Python of CIGALE (Code Investigating Galaxy Emission) a Fortran spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code developed at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. After recalling the specifics of the SED fitting method, we show the gains in modularity and versatility offered by Python, as well as the drawbacks compared to the compiled code.

  11. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  12. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  13. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  14. DLLExternalCode

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read frommore » files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.« less

  15. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungordu, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes [Phys. Rev. A 90, 042326 (2014)] which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. Our results show that parafermions can achieve a better encoding rate than Majorana fermions. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation. This work was supported in part by the NSF under Grants No. Phy-1415600 and No. NSF-EPSCoR 1004094.

  16. Multiple turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we introduce multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders. We analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and we describe simulation results on the improved performance of these new codes.

  17. Multineuronal codes in retinal signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Meister, M

    1996-01-01

    The visual world is presented to the brain through patterns of action potentials in the population of optic nerve fibers. Single-neuron recordings show that each retinal ganglion cell has a spatially restricted receptive field, a limited integration time, and a characteristic spectral sensitivity. Collectively, these response properties define the visual message conveyed by that neuron's action potentials. Since the size of the optic nerve is strictly constrained, one expects the retina to generate a highly efficient representation of the visual scene. By contrast, the receptive fields of nearby ganglion cells often overlap, suggesting great redundancy among the retinal output signals. Recent multineuron recordings may help resolve this paradox. They reveal concerted firing patterns among ganglion cells, in which small groups of nearby neurons fire synchronously with delays of only a few milliseconds. As there are many more such firing patterns than ganglion cells, such a distributed code might allow the retina to compress a large number of distinct visual messages into a small number of optic nerve fibers. This paper will review the evidence for a distributed coding scheme in the retinal output. The performance limits of such codes are analyzed with simple examples, illustrating that they allow a powerful trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:8570603

  18. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  19. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  20. Neuronal codes for visual perception and memory.

    PubMed

    Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In this review, I describe and contrast the representation of stimuli in visual cortical areas and in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). While cortex is characterized by a distributed and implicit coding that is optimal for recognition and storage of semantic information, the MTL shows a much sparser and explicit coding of specific concepts that is ideal for episodic memory. I will describe the main characteristics of the coding in the MTL by the so-called concept cells and will then propose a model of the formation and recall of episodic memory based on partially overlapping assemblies. PMID:26707718

  1. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.

  2. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problemsmore » and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.« less

  3. Industrial Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1991-01-01

    The industrial codes will consist of modules of 2-D and simplified 2-D or 1-D codes, intended for expeditious parametric studies, analysis, and design of a wide variety of seals. Integration into a unified system is accomplished by the industrial Knowledge Based System (KBS), which will also provide user friendly interaction, contact sensitive and hypertext help, design guidance, and an expandable database. The types of analysis to be included with the industrial codes are interfacial performance (leakage, load, stiffness, friction losses, etc.), thermoelastic distortions, and dynamic response to rotor excursions. The first three codes to be completed and which are presently being incorporated into the KBS are the incompressible cylindrical code, ICYL, and the compressible cylindrical code, GCYL.

  4. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  5. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  6. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  7. Multi-level bandwidth efficient block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The multilevel technique is investigated for combining block coding and modulation. There are four parts. In the first part, a formulation is presented for signal sets on which modulation codes are to be constructed. Distance measures on a signal set are defined and their properties are developed. In the second part, a general formulation is presented for multilevel modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate Euclidean distances. The distance properties, Euclidean weight distribution and linear structure of multilevel modulation codes are investigated. In the third part, several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are proposed. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of code C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C. In the last part, error performance of block modulation codes is analyzed for an AWGN channel based on soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding. Error probabilities of some specific codes are evaluated based on their Euclidean weight distributions and simulation results.

  8. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  9. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  10. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  11. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  12. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  13. Random aggregation models for the formation and evolution of coding and non-coding DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provata, A.

    A random aggregation model with influx is proposed for the formation of the non-coding DNA regions via random co-aggregation and influx of biological macromolecules such as viruses, parasite DNA, and replication segments. The constant mixing (transpositions) and influx drives the system in an out-of-equilibrium steady state characterised by a power law size distribution. The model predicts the long range distributions found in the noncoding eucaryotic DNA and explains the observed correlations. For the formation of coding DNA a random closed aggregation model is proposed which predicts short range coding size distributions. The closed aggregation process drives the system in an almost “frozen” stable state which is robust to external perturbations and which is characterised by well defined space and time scales, as observed in coding sequences.

  14. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  15. Facile construction of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones via a redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade reaction and discovery of novel topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanchao; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shengzheng; Shi, Wencai; Fang, Kun; Chen, Shuqiang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-21

    An efficient redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade process from trans-4-hydroxyproline and 2-formylbenzoic acids has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones. Compound 3h was identified as a new potent dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor. PMID:27400278

  16. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  17. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  18. HATS-11b AND HATS-12b: Two Transiting Hot Jupiters Orbiting Subsolar Metallicity Stars Selected for the K2 Campaign 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, M.; Jordán, A.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Brahm, R.; Penev, K.; Ciceri, S.; Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Mancini, L.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Csbury, Z.; Sato, B.; Tan, T.-G.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Bento, J.; Suc, V.; Noyes, R.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets from the HATSouth survey. HATS-11, a V = 14.1 G0-star shows a periodic 12.9 mmag dip in its light curve every 3.6192 days and a radial velocity variation consistent with a Keplerian orbit. HATS-11 has a mass of 1.000+/- 0.060 {M}⊙ , a radius of 1.444+/- 0.057 {R}⊙ and an effective temperature of 6060+/- 150 K, while its companion is a 0.85+/- 0.12 {M}{{J}}, 1.510+/- 0.078 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. HATS-12 shows a periodic 5.1 mmag flux decrease every 3.1428 days and Keplerian RV variations around a V = 12.8 F-star. HATS-12 has a mass of 1.489+/- 0.071 {M}⊙ , a radius of 2.21+/- 0.21 {R}⊙ , and an effective temperature of 6408+/- 75 K. For HATS-12b, our measurements indicate that this is a 2.38+/- 0.11 {M}{{J}}, 1.35+/- 0.17 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. Both host stars show subsolar metallicities of -0.390+/- 0.060 dex and -0.100+/- 0.040 dex, respectively, and are (slightly) evolved stars. In fact, HATS-11 is among the most metal-poor and, HATS-12, with a {log}{g}\\star of 3.923+/- 0.065, is among the most evolved stars hosting a hot-Jupiter planet. Importantly, HATS-11 and HATS-12 have been observed in long cadence by Kepler as part of K2 campaign 7 (EPIC216414930 and EPIC218131080 respectively). The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based in part on

  19. LincRNA-Cox2 modulates TNF-α-induced transcription of Il12b gene in intestinal epithelial cells through regulation of Mi-2/NuRD-mediated epigenetic histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang; Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Lin, Chengchi; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Jing; Hu, Guoku; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) can regulate the transcription of inflammatory genes and thus may represent a new group of inflammatory mediators with a potential pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. Here, our genome-wide transcriptomic data show that TNF-α stimulation caused up-regulation of 171 lincRNAs and down-regulation of 196 lincRNAs in murine intestinal epithelial cells in culture. One of the up-regulated lincRNAs, lincRNA-Cox2, is an early-responsive lincRNA induced by TNF-α through activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Knockdown of lincRNA-Cox2 resulted in reprogramming of the gene expression profile in intestinal epithelial cells in response to TNF-α stimulation. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 silencing significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of Il12b, a secondary late-responsive gene induced by TNF-α. Mechanistically, lincRNA-Cox2 promoted the recruitment of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (Mi-2/NuRD) repressor complex to the Il12b promoter region. Recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD complex was associated with decreased H3K27 acetylation and increased H3K27 dimethylation at the Il12b promoter region, which might contribute to Il12b trans-suppression by lincRNA-Cox2. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic modulation by lincRNA-Cox2 on Il12b transcription, supporting an important role for lincRNAs in the regulation of intestinal epithelial inflammatory responses.

  20. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  1. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  2. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  3. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  4. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  5. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  6. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  7. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  8. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  9. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  10. Quantum convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingsu; Huang, Xinmei; Tang, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, three families of quantum convolutional codes are constructed. The first one and the second one can be regarded as a generalization of Theorems 3, 4, 7 and 8 [J. Chen, J. Li, F. Yang and Y. Huang, Int. J. Theor. Phys., doi:10.1007/s10773-014-2214-6 (2014)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q ≡ 1 (mod 4). Furthermore, the second one and the third one attain the quantum generalized Singleton bound.

  11. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  12. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  13. Species independence of mutual information in coding and noncoding DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Ivo; Herzel, Hanspeter; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-05-01

    We explore if there exist universal statistical patterns that are different in coding and noncoding DNA and can be found in all living organisms, regardless of their phylogenetic origin. We find that (i) the mutual information function I has a significantly different functional form in coding and noncoding DNA. We further find that (ii) the probability distributions of the average mutual information I¯ are significantly different in coding and noncoding DNA, while (iii) they are almost the same for organisms of all taxonomic classes. Surprisingly, we find that I¯ is capable of predicting coding regions as accurately as organism-specific coding measures.

  14. Properties of bcr-abl-transformed mouse 12B1 cells secreting interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF): II. Adverse effects of GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Petráčková, Martina; Staněk, Libor; Mandys, Václav; Dundr, Pavel; Vonka, Vladimír

    2012-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is considered to be the most effective immunostimulating factor for the construction of gene-engineered anti-cancer vaccines. In some tumour cells, this type of genetic modification has resulted in the loss of the oncogenic potential. This was not the case with bcr-abl-transformed mouse 12B1 cells. A cell line, designated 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 producing more than 100 ng/106 cells/24 h, displayed higher pathogenicity than the parental, non-transduced cells. Although the tumours induced by the parental 12B1 cells and 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 cells appeared nearly at the same time and then grew at an approximately equal rate, the latter mice were in a much poorer clinical condition. In these animals the growth of the tumours was associated with gradually increasing blood levels of GM-CSF. In both groups of animals splenomegaly was observed; it was much more pronounced in the case of 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5-inoculated animals. While in the case of animals inoculated with the parental cells the splenomegaly was probably mainly due to infiltration with tumour cells, in the animals inoculated with the GM-CSF-secreting cells splenomegaly and derangement of parenchymal organs, such as lungs, liver and kidneys, were more complex, including congestion and infiltration with hemopoietic cells, predominantly immature cells of myeloid lineage. The most conspicuous of these changes was the hyperaemia of the lungs. No such alterations were seen in animals inoculated with the parental cells. On the other hand, the contents of T regulatory cells were comparable in both groups and they increased in parallel at the end of the observation period. When GM-CSF neutralizing antibody was administered to animals inoculated with the 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 cells, the pathological changes observed within the organs were suppressed, this proving that the overproduced GM-CSF and not any other substance, played the key role in their induction.

  15. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    2012-12-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, fault rupture and earthquake nucleation, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physcial behaviors both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. Themore » resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems; ploblems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; fault rupture modeling and seismic risk assessment; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for , e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release. CPAC's secondary applications include modeling fault evolution for predicting the statistical distribution of earthquake events and to capture granular materials behavior under different load paths.« less

  16. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, fault rupture and earthquake nucleation, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physcial behaviors both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems; ploblems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; fault rupture modeling and seismic risk assessment; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for , e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release. CPAC's secondary applications include modeling fault evolution for predicting the statistical distribution of earthquake events and to capture granular materials behavior under different load paths.

  17. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  18. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  19. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  20. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  1. Effect of annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of the maraging steel N9K17M14-nanoamorphous alloy Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. G.; Sevost'yanov, M. A.; Molokanov, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Umnov, P. P.; Umnova, N. V.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of annealing on the structure, mechanical properties, and fracture of a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a microwire made of maraging N9K17M14 steel with a surface layer of a eutectic soft magnetic Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy is studied. The optimum temperature of annealing of the composite material is found; as a result, high strength characteristics are achieved at good plasticity. The composite material with a nanoamorphous layer is shown to have the high strength characteristics of the matrix maraging steel at significantly higher plasticity. When the Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy is deformed in the composition of the composite material, it exhibits a plasticity effect, and this alloy fails in a brittle manner when deformed in the form of a wire or a ribbon. This effect becomes more pronounced upon annealing.

  2. Deformation and fracture of a composite material based on a high-strength maraging steel covered with a melt-quenched Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevost'yanov, M. A.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Molokanov, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Umnov, P. P.; Umnova, N. V.

    2011-04-01

    Multifractal analysis is used to study the deformation and fracture of a promising composite material consisting of a wire base made of K17N9M14 maraging steel covered with a surface layer made from a Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 amorphous alloy. As compared to its components, this material has a substantially better set of the mechanical properties.

  3. Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging.

    PubMed

    Llull, Patrick; Liao, Xuejun; Yuan, Xin; Yang, Jianbo; Kittle, David; Carin, Lawrence; Sapiro, Guillermo; Brady, David J

    2013-05-01

    We use mechanical translation of a coded aperture for code division multiple access compression of video. We discuss the compressed video's temporal resolution and present experimental results for reconstructions of > 10 frames of temporal data per coded snapshot.

  4. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  5. Induction technology optimization code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-08-21

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. The Induction Technology Optimization Study (ITOS) was undertaken to examine viable combinations of a linear induction accelerator and a relativistic klystron (RK) for high power microwave production. It is proposed, that microwaves from the RK will power a high-gradient accelerator structure for linear collider development. Previous work indicates that the RK will require a nominal 3-MeV, 3-kA electron beam with a 100-ns flat top. The proposed accelerator-RK combination will be a high average power system capable of sustained microwave output at a 300-Hz pulse repetition frequency. The ITOS code models many combinations of injector, accelerator, and pulse power designs that will supply an RK with the beam parameters described above.

  6. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  7. Estimating statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo efficiency-gain in the context of a correlated sampling Monte Carlo code for brachytherapy treatment planning with non-normal dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Sampson, Andrew J; Deniz, Daniel; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Williamson, Jeffrey; Malusek, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    Correlated sampling Monte Carlo methods can shorten computing times in brachytherapy treatment planning. Monte Carlo efficiency is typically estimated via efficiency gain, defined as the reduction in computing time by correlated sampling relative to conventional Monte Carlo methods when equal statistical uncertainties have been achieved. The determination of the efficiency gain uncertainty arising from random effects, however, is not a straightforward task specially when the error distribution is non-normal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the F distribution and standardized uncertainty propagation methods (widely used in metrology to estimate uncertainty of physical measurements) for predicting confidence intervals about efficiency gain estimates derived from single Monte Carlo runs using fixed-collision correlated sampling in a simplified brachytherapy geometry. A bootstrap based algorithm was used to simulate the probability distribution of the efficiency gain estimates and the shortest 95% confidence interval was estimated from this distribution. It was found that the corresponding relative uncertainty was as large as 37% for this particular problem. The uncertainty propagation framework predicted confidence intervals reasonably well; however its main disadvantage was that uncertainties of input quantities had to be calculated in a separate run via a Monte Carlo method. The F distribution noticeably underestimated the confidence interval. These discrepancies were influenced by several photons with large statistical weights which made extremely large contributions to the scored absorbed dose difference. The mechanism of acquiring high statistical weights in the fixed-collision correlated sampling method was explained and a mitigation strategy was proposed.

  8. Mutual Information, Fisher Information, and Efficient Coding.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xue-Xin; Stocker, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    Fisher information is generally believed to represent a lower bound on mutual information (Brunel & Nadal, 1998), a result that is frequently used in the assessment of neural coding efficiency. However, we demonstrate that the relation between these two quantities is more nuanced than previously thought. For example, we find that in the small noise regime, Fisher information actually provides an upper bound on mutual information. Generally our results show that it is more appropriate to consider Fisher information as an approximation rather than a bound on mutual information. We analytically derive the correspondence between the two quantities and the conditions under which the approximation is good. Our results have implications for neural coding theories and the link between neural population coding and psychophysically measurable behavior. Specifically, they allow us to formulate the efficient coding problem of maximizing mutual information between a stimulus variable and the response of a neural population in terms of Fisher information. We derive a signature of efficient coding expressed as the correspondence between the population Fisher information and the distribution of the stimulus variable. The signature is more general than previously proposed solutions that rely on specific assumptions about the neural tuning characteristics. We demonstrate that it can explain measured tuning characteristics of cortical neural populations that do not agree with previous models of efficient coding.

  9. Ranking search for probabilistic fingerprinting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Marcel; Berchtold, Waldemar; Steinebach, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Digital transaction watermarking today is a widely accepted mechanism to discourage illegal distribution of multimedia. The transaction watermark is a user-specific message that is embedded in all copies of one content and thus makes it individual. Therewith it allows to trace back copyright infringements. One major threat on transaction watermarking are collusion attacks. Here, multiple individualized copies of the work are compared and/or combined to attack the integrity or availability of the embedded watermark message. One solution to counter such attacks are mathematical codes called collusion secure fingerprinting codes. Problems arise when applying such codes to multimedia files with small payload, e.g. short audio tracks or images. Therefore the code length has to be shortened which increases the error rates and/or the effort of the tracing algorithm. In this work we propose an approach whether to use as an addition to probabilistic fingerprinting codes for a reduction of the effort and increment of security, as well as a new separate method providing shorter codes at a very fast and high accurate tracing algorithm.

  10. A database coding system for vascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Harris, K A; DeRose, G; Jamieson, W

    1991-01-01

    A coding system was developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in data registry and retrieval from a national audit. In vascular surgery operations are frequently combined, and neither the OHIP fee schedule of codes (Ontario, Canada) nor the ICD-9 system provides sufficient detail for most vascular surgeons to retrieve information for long-term follow-up. However, some wish to record minimal data on their operative procedures. A numeric classification system was developed. A five-digit number is used, the first two digits classifying the operative procedure and anatomic details. Two decimal digits code the classification of operation (e.g., aortic aneurysm, tube graft, aortoiliac, or aortobifemoral) and the final digit may be used as a modifier. "Holes" in the numeric system allow for new operations to be added as they develop. Codes are stored in a database with the following fields: 1) codes; 2) description of operation; 3) translation. The translation field may be modified to permit translation of any existing databases into the system. This database has been distributed with a data registry program free of charge to vascular surgeons in Canada to allow nationwide registry of vascular surgery patients. A numeric code eliminates spelling and abbreviation errors, and can be sufficiently broad-based to allow all surgeons to participate in a nationwide audit.

  11. New Methods for Lossless Image Compression Using Arithmetic Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1992-01-01

    Identifies four components of a good predictive lossless image compression method: (1) pixel sequence, (2) image modeling and prediction, (3) error modeling, and (4) error coding. Highlights include Laplace distribution and a comparison of the multilevel progressive method for image coding with the prediction by partial precision matching method.…

  12. 1 CFR 12.2 - Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.2 Code of Federal Regulations.... (b) Legislative, judicial, and executive agencies of the Federal Government may obtain additional... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Code of Federal Regulations. 12.2 Section...

  13. 1 CFR 12.2 - Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.2 Code of Federal Regulations.... (b) Legislative, judicial, and executive agencies of the Federal Government may obtain additional... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Code of Federal Regulations. 12.2 Section...

  14. 1 CFR 12.2 - Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.2 Code of Federal Regulations.... (b) Legislative, judicial, and executive agencies of the Federal Government may obtain additional... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Code of Federal Regulations. 12.2 Section...

  15. 1 CFR 12.2 - Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.2 Code of Federal Regulations.... (b) Legislative, judicial, and executive agencies of the Federal Government may obtain additional... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Code of Federal Regulations. 12.2 Section...

  16. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  17. Adaptation and visual coding

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Visual coding is a highly dynamic process and continuously adapting to the current viewing context. The perceptual changes that result from adaptation to recently viewed stimuli remain a powerful and popular tool for analyzing sensory mechanisms and plasticity. Over the last decade, the footprints of this adaptation have been tracked to both higher and lower levels of the visual pathway and over a wider range of timescales, revealing that visual processing is much more adaptable than previously thought. This work has also revealed that the pattern of aftereffects is similar across many stimulus dimensions, pointing to common coding principles in which adaptation plays a central role. However, why visual coding adapts has yet to be fully answered. PMID:21602298

  18. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a codemore » obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.« less

  19. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  20. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    PubMed

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  1. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  2. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  3. 45 CFR 162.1002 - Medical data code sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Biologics. (4) Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature, as maintained and distributed by the American Dental Association, for dental services. (5) The combination of Health Care Financing Administration... following: (i) Physician services. (ii) Physical and occupational therapy services. (iii)...

  4. Visual Coding in Locust Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, Olivier; Juusola, Mikko

    2008-01-01

    Information capture by photoreceptors ultimately limits the quality of visual processing in the brain. Using conventional sharp microelectrodes, we studied how locust photoreceptors encode random (white-noise, WN) and naturalistic (1/f stimuli, NS) light patterns in vivo and how this coding changes with mean illumination and ambient temperature. We also examined the role of their plasma membrane in shaping voltage responses. We found that brightening or warming increase and accelerate voltage responses, but reduce noise, enabling photoreceptors to encode more information. For WN stimuli, this was accompanied by broadening of the linear frequency range. On the contrary, with NS the signaling took place within a constant bandwidth, possibly revealing a ‘preference’ for inputs with 1/f statistics. The faster signaling was caused by acceleration of the elementary phototransduction current - leading to bumps - and their distribution. The membrane linearly translated phototransduction currents into voltage responses without limiting the throughput of these messages. As the bumps reflected fast changes in membrane resistance, the data suggest that their shape is predominantly driven by fast changes in the light-gated conductance. On the other hand, the slower bump latency distribution is likely to represent slower enzymatic intracellular reactions. Furthermore, the Q10s of bump duration and latency distribution depended on light intensity. Altogether, this study suggests that biochemical constraints imposed upon signaling change continuously as locust photoreceptors adapt to environmental light and temperature conditions. PMID:18478123

  5. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  6. Codes with Monotonic Codeword Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Julia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the minimum average codeword length coding under the constraint that the codewords are monotonically nondecreasing in length. Bounds on the average length of an optimal monotonic code are derived, and sufficient conditions are given such that algorithms for optimal alphabetic codes can be used to find the optimal monotonic code. (six…

  7. Parallelizing the XSTAR Photoionization Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, M. S.; Ji, L.; Young, A.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    We describe two means by which XSTAR, a code which computes physical conditions and emission spectra of photoionized gases, has been parallelized. The first is pvmxstar, a wrapper which can be used in place of the serial xstar2xspec script to foster concurrent execution of the XSTAR command line application on independent sets of parameters. The second is pmodel, a plugin for the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS) which allows arbitrary components of a broad range of astrophysical models to be distributed across processors during fitting and confidence limits calculations, by scientists with little training in parallel programming. Plugging the XSTAR family of analytic models into pmodel enables multiple ionization states (e.g., of a complex absorber/emitter) to be computed simultaneously, alleviating the often prohibitive expense of the traditional serial approach. Initial performance results indicate that these methods substantially enlarge the problem space to which XSTAR may be applied within practical timeframes.

  8. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  9. The revised genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninio, Jacques

    1990-03-01

    Recent findings on the genetic code are reviewed, including selenocysteine usage, deviations in the assignments of sense and nonsense codons, RNA editing, natural ribosomal frameshifts and non-orthodox codon-anticodon pairings. A multi-stage codon reading process is presented.

  10. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  11. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  12. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  13. Odor Coding Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kenshi

    Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

  14. Sharing the Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Colleges and universities are beginning to consider collaborating on open-source-code projects as a way to meet critical software and computing needs. Points out the attractive features of noncommercial open-source software and describes some examples in use now, especially for the creation of Web infrastructure. (SLD)

  15. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  16. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  17. The Redox Code

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O2 and H2O2 contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Recent Advances: Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Critical Issues: Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Future Directions: Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 734–746. PMID:25891126

  18. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  19. On fuzzy semantic similarity measure for DNA coding.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tang; Bhuiyan, Md Al-Amin

    2016-02-01

    A coding measure scheme numerically translates the DNA sequence to a time domain signal for protein coding regions identification. A number of coding measure schemes based on numerology, geometry, fixed mapping, statistical characteristics and chemical attributes of nucleotides have been proposed in recent decades. Such coding measure schemes lack the biologically meaningful aspects of nucleotide data and hence do not significantly discriminate coding regions from non-coding regions. This paper presents a novel fuzzy semantic similarity measure (FSSM) coding scheme centering on FSSM codons׳ clustering and genetic code context of nucleotides. Certain natural characteristics of nucleotides i.e. appearance as a unique combination of triplets, preserving special structure and occurrence, and ability to own and share density distributions in codons have been exploited in FSSM. The nucleotides׳ fuzzy behaviors, semantic similarities and defuzzification based on the center of gravity of nucleotides revealed a strong correlation between nucleotides in codons. The proposed FSSM coding scheme attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 36-133% as compared to other existing coding measure schemes tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms.

  20. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  1. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  2. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  3. Non coding RNA in muscle differentiation and disease.

    PubMed

    Morlando, Mariangela; Rosa, Alessandro; Caffarelli, Elisa; Fatica, Alessandro; Bozzoni, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Non coding RNAs have provided in the last decades a very exciting research field with the discovery that a largely unexplored fraction of our genome encodes for RNA without protein coding activity. Here we revise the current knowledge of how non coding RNAs impact on muscle differentiation and homeostasis in normal and disease conditions and how they can provide powerful tools for therapeutic interventions and disease diagnosis. Moreover, we discuss new insights into additional mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation involving a new class of long non coding RNAs shown to impact on the distribution of microRNA molecules on their mRNA targets.

  4. Writing and Reading the Tubulin Code.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ian; Garnham, Christopher P; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2015-07-10

    Microtubules give rise to intracellular structures with diverse morphologies and dynamics that are crucial for cell division, motility, and differentiation. They are decorated with abundant and chemically diverse posttranslational modifications that modulate their stability and interactions with cellular regulators. These modifications are important for the biogenesis and maintenance of complex microtubule arrays such as those found in spindles, cilia, neuronal processes, and platelets. Here we discuss the nature and subcellular distribution of these posttranslational marks whose patterns have been proposed to constitute a tubulin code that is interpreted by cellular effectors. We review the enzymes responsible for writing the tubulin code, explore their functional consequences, and identify outstanding challenges in deciphering the tubulin code.

  5. National Combustion Code: Parallel Implementation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, A.; Ryder, R.; Norris, A.; Liu, N.-S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. CORSAIR-CCD is the current baseline reacting flow solver for NCC. This is a parallel, unstructured grid code which uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC flow solver to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This paper describes the parallel implementation of the NCC flow solver and summarizes its current parallel performance on an SGI Origin 2000. Earlier parallel performance results on an IBM SP-2 are also included. The performance improvements which have enabled a turnaround of less than 15 hours for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation are described.

  6. Environmentally-Safe Conditions for a Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C3-Arylation with High Turn Over Frequency of Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines Using Aryl Bromides and Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, Sabah; Djebbar, Safia; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri

    2016-09-01

    Pd(OAc)2 was found to catalyze very efficiently the direct arylation of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine at C3-position under a very low catalyst loading and phosphine-free conditions. The reaction can be performed in very high TOFs and TONs employing as little as 0.1-0.05 mol % catalyst using a wide range of aryl bromides. In addition, some electron-deficient aryl chlorides were also found to be suitable substrates. Moreover, 31 examples of the cross couplings were reported using green, safe, and renewable solvents, such as pentan-1-ol, diethylcarbonate or cyclopentyl methyl ether, without loss of efficiency. PMID:27380613

  7. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  8. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  9. The NIMROD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  10. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Wellman, G.; Gartling, D.

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.

  11. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  12. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  13. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Smith, M.; Sjaardema, G.

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or to another format.

  14. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  15. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  16. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  17. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  18. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic.

  19. Achieving unequal error protection with convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, D. G.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Palazzo, R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the unequal error protection capabilities of convolutional codes. Both time-invariant and periodically time-varying convolutional encoders are examined. The effective free distance vector is defined and is shown to be useful in determining the unequal error protection (UEP) capabilities of convolutional codes. A modified transfer function is used to determine an upper bound on the bit error probabilities for individual input bit positions in a convolutional encoder. The bound is heavily dependent on the individual effective free distance of the input bit position. A bound relating two individual effective free distances is presented. The bound is a useful tool in determining the maximum possible disparity in individual effective free distances of encoders of specified rate and memory distribution. The unequal error protection capabilities of convolutional encoders of several rates and memory distributions are determined and discussed.

  20. The Fireball integrated code package

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  1. Structural coding versus free-energy predictive coding.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on visual perceptual organization, this article contrasts the free-energy (FE) version of predictive coding (a recent Bayesian approach) to structural coding (a long-standing representational approach). Both use free-energy minimization as metaphor for processing in the brain, but their formal elaborations of this metaphor are fundamentally different. FE predictive coding formalizes it by minimization of prediction errors, whereas structural coding formalizes it by minimization of the descriptive complexity of predictions. Here, both sides are evaluated. A conclusion regarding competence is that FE predictive coding uses a powerful modeling technique, but that structural coding has more explanatory power. A conclusion regarding performance is that FE predictive coding-though more detailed in its account of neurophysiological data-provides a less compelling cognitive architecture than that of structural coding, which, for instance, supplies formal support for the computationally powerful role it attributes to neuronal synchronization.

  2. Computer-Based Coding of Occupation Codes for Epidemiological Analyses.

    PubMed

    Russ, Daniel E; Ho, Kwan-Yuet; Johnson, Calvin A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-05-01

    Mapping job titles to standardized occupation classification (SOC) codes is an important step in evaluating changes in health risks over time as measured in inspection databases. However, manual SOC coding is cost prohibitive for very large studies. Computer based SOC coding systems can improve the efficiency of incorporating occupational risk factors into large-scale epidemiological studies. We present a novel method of mapping verbatim job titles to SOC codes using a large table of prior knowledge available in the public domain that included detailed description of the tasks and activities and their synonyms relevant to each SOC code. Job titles are compared to our knowledge base to find the closest matching SOC code. A soft Jaccard index is used to measure the similarity between a previously unseen job title and the knowledge base. Additional information such as standardized industrial codes can be incorporated to improve the SOC code determination by providing additional context to break ties in matches. PMID:25221787

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  4. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: http://www.ascl.net/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Wallin, J. F.

    1999-05-01

    Submissions are invited to the newly formed Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). Original codes that have generated significant results for any paper published in a refereed astronomy or astrophysics journal are eligible for inclusion in ASCL. All submissions and personalized correspondence will be handled electronically. ASCL will not claim copyright on any of its archived codes, but will not archive codes without permission from the copyright owners. ASCL archived source codes will be indexed on the World Wide Web and made freely available for non-commercial purposes. Many results reported in astrophysics are derived though the writing and implementation of source codes. Small or large, few source codes are ever made publicly available. Because of the effort involved in the creation of scientific codes and their impact in astrophysics, we have created a site which archives and distribute codes which were used in astrophysical publications. Goals in the creation of ASCL include increasing the availability, falsifiability, and utility of source codes important to astrophysicists. ASCL is an experimental concept in its formative year - its value will be assessed from author response and user feedback in one years' time.

  5. Parallel solid mechanics codes at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1994-08-01

    Computational physicists at Sandia National Laboratories have moved their production codes to distributed memory parallel computers. The codes include the multi-material CTH Eulerian code, structural mechanics code. This presentation discusses our experiences moving the codes to parallel computers and experiences running the codes. Moving large production codes onto parallel computers require developing parallel algorithms, parallel data bases and parallel support tools. We rewrote the Eulerian CTH code for parallel computers. We were able to move both ALEGRA and PRONTO to parallel computers with only a modest number of modifications. We restructured the restart and graphics data bases to make them parallel and minimize the I/O to the parallel computer. We developed mesh decomposition tools to divide a rectangular or arbitrary connectivity mesh into sub-meshes. The sub-meshes map to processors and minimize the communication between processors. We developed new visualization tools to process the very large, parallel data bases. This presentation also discusses our experiences running these codes on Sandia`s 1840 compute node Intel Paragon, 1024 processor nCUBE and networked workstations. The parallel version of CTH uses the Paragon and nCUBE for production calculations. The ALEGRA and PRONTO codes are moving off networked workstations onto the Paragon and nCUBE massively parallel computers.

  6. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  7. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  8. Peniciadametizine A, a Dithiodiketopiperazine with a Unique Spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] Skeleton, and a Related Analogue, Peniciadametizine B, from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Mándi, Attila; Li, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Ling-Hong; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-06-05

    Peniciadametizine A (1); a new dithiodiketopiperazine derivative possessing a unique spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton, together with a highly oxygenated new analogue, peniciadametizine B (2); as well as two known compounds, brasiliamide A (3); and viridicatumtoxin (4), were isolated and identified from Penicillium adametzioides AS-53, a fungus obtained from an unidentified marine sponge. The unambiguous assignment of the relative and absolute configuration for the spiro center C-2 of compound 1 was solved by the combination of NMR and ECD measurements with Density-Functional Theory (DFT) conformational analysis and Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory-Electronic Circular Dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. The spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton of 1 has not been reported yet among natural products and the biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicae.

  9. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  10. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  11. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  12. Experience with advanced nodal codes at YAEC

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has been performing reload licensing analysis since 1969. The basic pressurized water reactor (PWR) methodology involves the use of LEOPARD for cross-section generation, PDQ for radial power distributions and integral control rod worth, and SIMULATE for axial power distributions and differential control rod worth. In 1980, YAEC began performing reload licensing analysis for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). The basic BWR methodology involves the use of CASMO for cross-section generation and SIMULATE for three-dimensional power distributions. In 1986, YAEC began investigating the use of CASMO-3 for cross-section generation and the advanced nodal code SIMULATE-3 for power distribution analysis. Based on the evaluation, the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methodology satisfied all requirements. After careful consideration, the cost of implementing the new methodology is expected to be offset by reduced computing costs, improved engineering productivity, and fuel-cycle performance gains.

  13. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  14. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  15. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  16. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less

  17. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Forsythe, C.

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases into a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.

  18. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  19. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  20. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  1. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  2. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) - A Brief History

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G J; Miller, E K; Poggio, A J

    2004-01-20

    The Numerical Electromagnetics Code, NEC as it is commonly known, continues to be one of the more widely used antenna modeling codes in existence. With several versions in use that reflect different levels of capability and availability, there are now 450 copies of NEC4 and 250 copies of NEC3 that have been distributed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to a limited class of qualified recipients, and several hundred copies of NEC2 that had a recorded distribution by LLNL. These numbers do not account for numerous copies (perhaps 1000s) that were acquired through other means capitalizing on the open source code, the absence of distribution controls prior to NEC3 and the availability of versions on the Internet. In this paper we briefly review the history of the code that is concisely displayed in Figure 1. We will show how it capitalized on the research of prominent contributors in the early days of computational electromagnetics, how a combination of events led to the tri-service-supported code development program that ultimately led to NEC and how it evolved to the present day product. The authors apologize that space limitations do not allow us to provide a list of references or to acknowledge the numerous contributors to the code both of which can be found in the code documents.

  3. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  5. Two-terminal video coding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  6. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  7. New optimal quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shixin; Wang, Liqi; Kai, Xiaoshan

    2015-04-01

    One of the most challenges to prove the feasibility of quantum computers is to protect the quantum nature of information. Quantum convolutional codes are aimed at protecting a stream of quantum information in a long distance communication, which are the correct generalization to the quantum domain of their classical analogs. In this paper, we construct some classes of quantum convolutional codes by employing classical constacyclic codes. These codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the Singleton bound for pure convolutional stabilizer codes.

  8. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes. PMID:25008961

  9. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  10. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  11. EMdeCODE: a novel algorithm capable of reading words of epigenetic code to predict enhancers and retroviral integration sites and to identify H3R2me1 as a distinctive mark of coding versus non-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Federico Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Existence of some extra-genetic (epigenetic) codes has been postulated since the discovery of the primary genetic code. Evident effects of histone post-translational modifications or DNA methylation over the efficiency and the regulation of DNA processes are supporting this postulation. EMdeCODE is an original algorithm that approximate the genomic distribution of given DNA features (e.g. promoter, enhancer, viral integration) by identifying relevant ChIPSeq profiles of post-translational histone marks or DNA binding proteins and combining them in a supermark. EMdeCODE kernel is essentially a two-step procedure: (i) an expectation-maximization process calculates the mixture of epigenetic factors that maximize the Sensitivity (recall) of the association with the feature under study; (ii) the approximated density is then recursively trimmed with respect to a control dataset to increase the precision by reducing the number of false positives. EMdeCODE densities improve significantly the prediction of enhancer loci and retroviral integration sites with respect to previous methods. Importantly, it can also be used to extract distinctive factors between two arbitrary conditions. Indeed EMdeCODE identifies unexpected epigenetic profiles specific for coding versus non-coding RNA, pointing towards a new role for H3R2me1 in coding regions.

  12. Transferring ecosystem simulation codes to supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, J. W.; Schulbach, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Many ecosystem simulation computer codes have been developed in the last twenty-five years. This development took place initially on main-frame computers, then mini-computers, and more recently, on micro-computers and workstations. Supercomputing platforms (both parallel and distributed systems) have been largely unused, however, because of the perceived difficulty in accessing and using the machines. Also, significant differences in the system architectures of sequential, scalar computers and parallel and/or vector supercomputers must be considered. We have transferred a grassland simulation model (developed on a VAX) to a Cray Y-MP/C90. We describe porting the model to the Cray and the changes we made to exploit the parallelism in the application and improve code execution. The Cray executed the model 30 times faster than the VAX and 10 times faster than a Unix workstation. We achieved an additional speedup of 30 percent by using the compiler's vectoring and 'in-line' capabilities. The code runs at only about 5 percent of the Cray's peak speed because it ineffectively uses the vector and parallel processing capabilities of the Cray. We expect that by restructuring the code, it could execute an additional six to ten times faster.

  13. The Scylla Multi-Code Comparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maller, Ariyeh; Stewart, Kyle; Bullock, James; Oñorbe, Jose; Scylla Team

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are one of the main techniques used to understand galaxy formation and evolution. However, it is far from clear to what extent different numerical techniques and different implementations of feedback yield different results. The Scylla Multi-Code Comparison Project seeks to address this issue by running idenitical initial condition simulations with different popular hydrodynamic galaxy formation codes. Here we compare simulations of a Milky Way mass halo using the codes enzo, ramses, art, arepo and gizmo-psph. The different runs produce galaxies with a variety of properties. There are many differences, but also many similarities. For example we find that in all runs cold flow disks exist; extended gas structures, far beyond the galactic disk, that show signs of rotation. Also, the angular momentum of warm gas in the halo is much larger than the angular momentum of the dark matter. We also find notable differences between runs. The temperature and density distribution of hot gas can differ by over an order of magnitude between codes and the stellar mass to halo mass relation also varies widely. These results suggest that observations of galaxy gas halos and the stellar mass to halo mass relation can be used to constarin the correct model of feedback.

  14. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  15. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  16. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  17. Aryne [3 + 2] cycloaddition with N-sulfonylpyridinium imides and in situ generated N-sulfonylisoquinolinium imides: a potential route to pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles and indazolo[3,2-a]isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Li, Pan; Wu, Chunrui; Chen, Hongli; Ai, Wenying; Sun, Renhong; Ren, Hailong; Larock, Richard C; Shi, Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aryne [3 + 2] cycloaddition process with pyridinium imides breaks the aromaticity of the pyridine ring. By equipping the imide nitrogen with a sulfonyl group, the intermediate readily eliminates a sulfinate anion to restore the aromaticity, leading to the formation of pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles. The scope and limitation of this reaction are discussed. As an extension of this chemistry, N-tosylisoquinolinium imides, generated in situ from N'-(2-alkynylbenzylidene)-tosylhydrazides via an AgOTf-catalyzed 6-endo-dig electrophilic cyclization, readily undergo aryne [3 + 2] cycloaddition to afford indazolo[3,2-a]-isoquinolines in the same pot, offering a highly efficient route to these potential anticancer agents.

  18. Three-component, one-pot synthesis of benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine derivatives under catalyst free conditions and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Yasodakrishna; Vulupala, Hanmanth Reddy; Bantu, Rajashaker; Nagarapu, Lingaiah; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu

    2016-02-01

    An efficient three-component protocol is described for the synthesis of benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine derivatives using β-chloroacroleins, 1,3-dicarbonyls and ammonium acetate under catalyst free conditions by using ethanol as reaction media. The mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity and high yields are the advantages of this protocol and the broad scope of this one-pot reaction makes this procedure promising for practical usages. All the final compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Among the compounds tested, the compounds 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5f, and 5k exhibited significant inhibition of IL-1β and MCP-1 secretion as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Some easily analyzable convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

  20. Interframe vector wavelet coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wus, John P.; Li, Weiping

    1997-01-01

    Wavelet coding is often used to divide an image into multi- resolution wavelet coefficients which are quantized and coded. By 'vectorizing' scalar wavelet coding and combining this with vector quantization (VQ), vector wavelet coding (VWC) can be implemented. Using a finite number of states, finite-state vector quantization (FSVQ) takes advantage of the similarity between frames by incorporating memory into the video coding system. Lattice VQ eliminates the potential mismatch that could occur using pre-trained VQ codebooks. It also eliminates the need for codebook storage in the VQ process, thereby creating a more robust coding system. Therefore, by using the VWC coding method in conjunction with the FSVQ system and lattice VQ, the formulation of a high quality very low bit rate coding systems is proposed. A coding system using a simple FSVQ system where the current state is determined by the previous channel symbol only is developed. To achieve a higher degree of compression, a tree-like FSVQ system is implemented. The groupings are done in this tree-like structure from the lower subbands to the higher subbands in order to exploit the nature of subband analysis in terms of the parent-child relationship. Class A and Class B video sequences from the MPEG-IV testing evaluations are used in the evaluation of this coding method.

  1. On the decoder error probability of linear codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1989-01-01

    By using coding and combinatorial techniques, an approximate formula for the weight distribution of decodable words of most linear block codes is evaluated. This formula is then used to give an approximate expression for the decoder error probability P(sub E)(u) of linear block codes, given that an error pattern of weight u has occurred. It is shown that P(sub E)(u) approaches the constant Q as u gets large, where Q is the probability that a completely random error pattern will cause decoder error.

  2. Bit-wise arithmetic coding for data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the problem of compressing a uniformly quantized independent and identically distributed (IID) source. We present a new compression technique, bit-wise arithmetic coding, that assigns fixed-length codewords to the quantizer output and uses arithmetic coding to compress the codewords, treating the codeword bits as independent. We examine the performance of this method and evaluate the overhead required when used block-adaptively. Simulation results are presented for Gaussian and Laplacian sources. This new technique could be used as the entropy coder in a transform or subband coding system.

  3. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    SciTech Connect

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  4. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  5. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  6. Transfer reaction code with nonlocal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, L. J.; Ross, A.; Nunes, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of codes (NLAT for nonlocal adiabatic transfer) to calculate the transfer cross section for single-nucleon transfer reactions, (d , N) or (N , d) , including nonlocal nucleon-target interactions, within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. For this purpose, we implement an iterative method for solving the second order nonlocal differential equation, for both scattering and bound states. The final observables that can be obtained with NLAT are differential angular distributions for the cross sections of A(d , N) B or B(N , d) A. Details on the implementation of the T-matrix to obtain the final cross sections within the adiabatic distorted wave approximation method are also provided. This code is suitable to be applied for deuteron induced reactions in the range of Ed =10-70 MeV, and provides cross sections with 4% accuracy.

  7. Probabilistic structural analysis computer code (NESSUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analysis has been developed to analyze the effects of fluctuating loads, variable material properties, and uncertain analytical models especially for high performance structures such as SSME turbopump blades. The computer code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress) was developed to serve as a primary computation tool for the characterization of the probabilistic structural response due to the stochastic environments by statistical description. The code consists of three major modules NESSUS/PRE, NESSUS/FEM, and NESSUS/FPI. NESSUS/PRE is a preprocessor which decomposes the spatially correlated random variables into a set of uncorrelated random variables using a modal analysis method. NESSUS/FEM is a finite element module which provides structural sensitivities to all the random variables considered. NESSUS/FPI is Fast Probability Integration method by which a cumulative distribution function or a probability density function is calculated.

  8. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  9. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  10. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  11. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  12. Block error correction codes for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Wafaa R.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2011-06-01

    Face recognition is one of the most desirable biometric-based authentication schemes to control access to sensitive information/locations and as a proof of identity to claim entitlement to services. The aim of this paper is to develop block-based mechanisms, to reduce recognition errors that result from varying illumination conditions with emphasis on using error correction codes. We investigate the modelling of error patterns in different parts/blocks of face images as a result of differences in illumination conditions, and we use appropriate error correction codes to deal with the corresponding distortion. We test the performance of our proposed schemes using the Extended Yale-B Face Database, which consists of face images belonging to 5 illumination subsets depending on the direction of light source from the camera. In our experiments each image is divided into three horizontal regions as follows: region1, three rows above the eyebrows, eyebrows and eyes; region2, nose region and region3, mouth and chin region. By estimating statistical parameters for errors in each region we select suitable BCH error correction codes that yield improved recognition accuracy for that particular region in comparison to applying error correction codes to the entire image. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to a depth of 3 is used for face feature extraction, followed by global/local binarization of coefficients in each subbands. We shall demonstrate that the use of BCH improves separation of the distribution of Hamming distances of client-client samples from the distribution of Hamming distances of imposter-client samples.

  13. Variable Coded Modulation software simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielicki, Thomas A.; Hamkins, Jon; Thorsen, Denise

    This paper reports on the design and performance of a new Variable Coded Modulation (VCM) system. This VCM system comprises eight of NASA's recommended codes from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, including four turbo and four AR4JA/C2 low-density parity-check codes, together with six modulations types (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK). The signaling protocol for the transmission mode is based on a CCSDS recommendation. The coded modulation may be dynamically chosen, block to block, to optimize throughput.

  14. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  15. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  16. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  17. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  18. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  19. MEMOPS: data modelling and automatic code generation.

    PubMed

    Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Ionides, John M C; Vranken, Wim F; Stevens, Tim J; Laue, Ernest D

    2010-03-25

    In recent years the amount of biological data has exploded to the point where much useful information can only be extracted by complex computational analyses. Such analyses are greatly facilitated by metadata standards, both in terms of the ability to compare data originating from different sources, and in terms of exchanging data in standard forms, e.g. when running processes on a distributed computing infrastructure. However, standards thrive on stability whereas science tends to constantly move, with new methods being developed and old ones modified. Therefore maintaining both metadata standards, and all the code that is required to make them useful, is a non-trivial problem. Memops is a framework that uses an abstract definition of the metadata (described in UML) to generate internal data structures and subroutine libraries for data access (application programming interfaces--APIs--currently in Python, C and Java) and data storage (in XML files or databases). For the individual project these libraries obviate the need for writing code for input parsing, validity checking or output. Memops also ensures that the code is always internally consistent, massively reducing the need for code reorganisation. Across a scientific domain a Memops-supported data model makes it easier to support complex standards that can capture all the data produced in a scientific area, share them among all programs in a complex software pipeline, and carry them forward to deposition in an archive. The principles behind the Memops generation code will be presented, along with example applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and structural biology.

  20. In search of coding and non-coding regions of DNA sequences based on balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of coding regions in DNA sequences remains challenging. Various methods have been proposed, but these are limited by species-dependence and the need for adequate training sets. The elements in DNA coding regions are known to be distributed in a quasi-random way, while those in non-coding regions have typical similar structures. For short sequences, these statistical characteristics cannot be extracted correctly and cannot even be detected. This paper introduces a new way to solve the problem: balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE).

  1. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  2. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  3. A realistic model under which the genetic code is optimal.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; van der Gulik, Peter T S; Klau, Gunnar W; Schaffner, Christian; Speijer, Dave; Stougie, Leen

    2013-10-01

    The genetic code has a high level of error robustness. Using values of hydrophobicity scales as a proxy for amino acid character, and the mean square measure as a function quantifying error robustness, a value can be obtained for a genetic code which reflects the error robustness of that code. By comparing this value with a distribution of values belonging to codes generated by random permutations of amino acid assignments, the level of error robustness of a genetic code can be quantified. We present a calculation in which the standard genetic code is shown to be optimal. We obtain this result by (1) using recently updated values of polar requirement as input; (2) fixing seven assignments (Ile, Trp, His, Phe, Tyr, Arg, and Leu) based on aptamer considerations; and (3) using known biosynthetic relations of the 20 amino acids. This last point is reflected in an approach of subdivision (restricting the random reallocation of assignments to amino acid subgroups, the set of 20 being divided in four such subgroups). The three approaches to explain robustness of the code (specific selection for robustness, amino acid-RNA interactions leading to assignments, or a slow growth process of assignment patterns) are reexamined in light of our findings. We offer a comprehensive hypothesis, stressing the importance of biosynthetic relations, with the code evolving from an early stage with just glycine and alanine, via intermediate stages, towards 64 codons carrying todays meaning.

  4. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-01-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  5. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-10-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  6. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control.

  7. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  8. Indices for Testing Neural Codes

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jonathan D.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical challenges in systems neuroscience is determining the neural code. A principled framework for addressing this can be found in information theory. With this approach, one can determine whether a proposed code can account for the stimulus-response relationship. Specifically, one can compare the transmitted information between the stimulus and the hypothesized neural code with the transmitted information between the stimulus and the behavioral response. If the former is smaller than the latter (i.e., if the code cannot account for the behavior), the code can be ruled out. The information-theoretic index most widely used in this context is Shannon’s mutual information. The Shannon test, however, is not ideal for this purpose: while the codes it will rule out are truly nonviable, there will be some nonviable codes that it will fail to rule out. Here we describe a wide range of alternative indices that can be used for ruling codes out. The range includes a continuum from Shannon information to measures of the performance of a Bayesian decoder. We analyze the relationship of these indices to each other and their complementary strengths and weaknesses for addressing this problem. PMID:18533812

  9. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  10. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  11. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  12. QPhiX Code Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-16

    A simple code-generator to generate the low level code kernels used by the QPhiX Library for Lattice QCD. Generates Kernels for Wilson-Dslash, and Wilson-Clover kernels. Can be reused to write other optimized kernels for Intel Xeon Phi(tm), Intel Xeon(tm) and potentially other architectures.

  13. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  14. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  15. South Carolina TEC Student Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. A., Ed.; Kiser, J. A., Ed.

    This student code has statewide application to South Carolina Technical Colleges and Technical Education Centers (TEC). Provisions are divided into eight articles: (1) General Provisions, including the purpose of a student code, the precept of internal solution of problems, and definitions; (2) Student Rights, including Bill of Rights protections;…

  16. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  17. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  18. Tristan code and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    Since TRISTAN: The 3-D Electromagnetic Particle Code was introduced in 1990, it has been used for many applications including the simulations of global solar windmagnetosphere interaction. The most essential ingridients of this code have been published in the ISSS-4 book. In this abstract we describe some of issues and an application of this code for the study of global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction including a substorm study. The basic code (tristan.f) for the global simulation and a local simulation of reconnection with a Harris model (issrec2.f) are available at http:/www.physics.rutger.edu/˜kenichi. For beginners the code (isssrc2.f) with simpler boundary conditions is suitable to start to run simulations. The future of global particle simulations for a global geospace general circulation (GGCM) model with predictive capability (for Space Weather Program) is discussed.

  19. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  20. Energy coding in neural network with inhibitory neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin; Fang, Ruiyan

    2015-04-01

    This paper aimed at assessing and comparing the effects of the inhibitory neurons in the neural network on the neural energy distribution, and the network activities in the absence of the inhibitory neurons to understand the nature of neural energy distribution and neural energy coding. Stimulus, synchronous oscillation has significant difference between neural networks with and without inhibitory neurons, and this difference can be quantitatively evaluated by the characteristic energy distribution. In addition, the synchronous oscillation difference of the neural activity can be quantitatively described by change of the energy distribution if the network parameters are gradually adjusted. Compared with traditional method of correlation coefficient analysis, the quantitative indicators based on nervous energy distribution characteristics are more effective in reflecting the dynamic features of the neural network activities. Meanwhile, this neural coding method from a global perspective of neural activity effectively avoids the current defects of neural encoding and decoding theory and enormous difficulties encountered. Our studies have shown that neural energy coding is a new coding theory with high efficiency and great potential.