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Sample records for 12b distribution code

  1. A Random Walk on WASP-12b with the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Bowman, Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Foster, Austin James; Stemm, Madison; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  2. WASP-12b According to the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Lust, Nate B.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew SD; Foster, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  3. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... registered open-end management investment company. 270.12b-1 Section 270.12b-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.12b-1 Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company. (a)(1... the printing and mailing of sales literature; (b) A registered, open-end management investment...

  4. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... registered open-end management investment company. 270.12b-1 Section 270.12b-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.12b-1 Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company. (a)(1) Except as provided in this section, it shall be unlawful for any registered open-end...

  5. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... registered open-end management investment company. 270.12b-1 Section 270.12b-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.12b-1 Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company. (a)(1) Except as provided in this section, it shall be unlawful for any registered open-end...

  6. The 1990 vertical distribution of two important halons (F-12B1 and F-13B1) in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, O. N.; Borchers, R.; Lal, Shyam; Subbarya, B. H.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Fabian, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The first vertical profiles of F-12B1 and F-13B1 had been obtained in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere by us in 1987. The measurement of these substances responsible for almost the entire anthropogenic contribution to the stratospheric BrO(x) budget is important in the tropics, as tropical upwelling provides their injection along with that of other pollutants, into the stratosphere. To ascertain the trends of these distributions and foster the data, the 1987 experiment was repeated in April 1990. Like 1987, the MPAE cryogenic whole air sampler was launched on a balloon from Hyderabad, India (17.5 deg N), and 14 samples were collected between 10 and 35 km altitude. The results obtained by means of GC and GC-MS analyses showed that the atmospheric abundance of both F-12B1 and F-13B1 is increasing at a fast rate, respectively by about 15 percent and 10 percent per year. From 1987 to 1990, F-12B1 and F-13B1 tropospheric mixing ratios have been growing from 1.2 and 1.3 ppt to 1.8 and 1.7 ppt, respectively. The vertical profiles will be discussed.

  7. UNIX code management and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, T.; Kunz, P.F.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a code management and distribution system based on tools freely available for the UNIX systems. At the master site, version control is managed with CVS, which is a layer on top of RCS, and distribution is done via NFS mounted file systems. At remote sites, small modifications to CVS provide for interactive transactions with the CVS system at the master site such that remote developers are true peers in the code development process.

  8. Colour cyclic code for Brillouin distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Rochat, Etienne

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, a colour cyclic coding (CCC) is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated for Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) distributed sensors. Compared to traditional intensity-modulated cyclic codes, the code presents an additional gain of √2 while keeping the same number of sequences as for a colour coding. A comparison with a standard BOTDA sensor is realized and validates the theoretical coding gain.

  9. Distribution Coding in the Visual Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, A. C.; Kozak, W. M.; Calvert, T. W.

    1973-01-01

    Although a variety of types of spike interval histograms have been reported, little attention has been given to the spike interval distribution as a neural code and to how different distributions are transmitted through neural networks. In this paper we present experimental results showing spike interval histograms recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the cat. These results exhibit a clear correlation between spike interval distribution and stimulus condition at the retinal ganglion cell level. The averaged mean rates of the cells studied were nearly the same in light as in darkness whereas the spike interval histograms were much more regular in light than in darkness. We present theoretical models which illustrate how such a distribution coding at the retinal level could be “interpreted” or recorded at some higher level of the nervous system such as the lateral geniculate nucleus. Interpretation is an essential requirement of a neural code which has often been overlooked in modeling studies. Analytical expressions are derived describing the role of distribution coding in determining the transfer characteristics of a simple interaction model and of a lateral inhibition network. Our work suggests that distribution coding might be interpreted by simply interconnected neural networks such as relay cell networks, in general, and the primary thalamic sensory nuclei in particular. PMID:4697235

  10. Robust entanglement distribution via quantum network coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2016-10-01

    Many protocols of quantum information processing, like quantum key distribution or measurement-based quantum computation, ‘consume’ entangled quantum states during their execution. When participants are located at distant sites, these resource states need to be distributed. Due to transmission losses quantum repeater become necessary for large distances (e.g. ≳ 300 {{km}}). Here we generalize the concept of the graph state repeater to D-dimensional graph states and to repeaters that can perform basic measurement-based quantum computations, which we call quantum routers. This processing of data at intermediate network nodes is called quantum network coding. We describe how a scheme to distribute general two-colourable graph states via quantum routers with network coding can be constructed from classical linear network codes. The robustness of the distribution of graph states against outages of network nodes is analysed by establishing a link to stabilizer error correction codes. Furthermore we show, that for any stabilizer error correction code there exists a corresponding quantum network code with similar error correcting capabilities.

  11. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  12. Frequency-coded quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Matthieu; McLaughlin, Steven W; Merolla, Jean-Marc; Patois, Frédéric

    2007-02-01

    We report an intrinsically stable quantum key distribution scheme based on genuine frequency-coded quantum states. The qubits are efficiently processed without fiber interferometers by fully exploiting the nonlinear interaction occurring in electro-optic phase modulators. The system requires only integrated off-the-shelf devices and could be used with a true single-photon source. Preliminary experiments have been performed with weak laser pulses and have demonstrated the feasibility of this new setup.

  13. Time coded distribution via broadcasting stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschiutta, S.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of standard time signals via AM and FM broadcasting stations presents the distinct advantages to offer a wide area coverage and to allow the use of inexpensive receivers, but the signals are radiated a limited number of times per day, are not usually available during the night, and no full and automatic synchronization of a remote clock is possible. As an attempt to overcome some of these problems, a time coded signal with a complete date information is diffused by the IEN via the national broadcasting networks in Italy. These signals are radiated by some 120 AM and about 3000 FM and TV transmitters around the country. In such a way, a time ordered system with an accuracy of a couple of milliseconds is easily achieved.

  14. The weight distribution and randomness of linear codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Finding the weight distributions of block codes is a problem of theoretical and practical interest. Yet the weight distributions of most block codes are still unknown except for a few classes of block codes. Here, by using the inclusion and exclusion principle, an explicit formula is derived which enumerates the complete weight distribution of an (n,k,d) linear code using a partially known weight distribution. This expression is analogous to the Pless power-moment identities - a system of equations relating the weight distribution of a linear code to the weight distribution of its dual code. Also, an approximate formula for the weight distribution of most linear (n,k,d) codes is derived. It is shown that for a given linear (n,k,d) code over GF(q), the ratio of the number of codewords of weight u to the number of words of weight u approaches the constant Q = q(-)(n-k) as u becomes large. A relationship between the randomness of a linear block code and the minimum distance of its dual code is given, and it is shown that most linear block codes with rigid algebraic and combinatorial structure also display certain random properties which make them similar to random codes with no structure at all.

  15. Distributed source coding using chaos-based cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junwei; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Chen, Jianyong

    2012-12-01

    A distributed source coding scheme is proposed by incorporating a chaos-based cryptosystem in the Slepian-Wolf coding. The punctured codeword generated by the chaos-based cryptosystem results in ambiguity at the decoder side. This ambiguity can be removed by the maximum a posteriori decoding with the help of side information. In this way, encryption and source coding are performed simultaneously. This leads to a simple encoder structure with low implementation complexity. Simulation results show that the encoder complexity is lower than that of existing distributed source coding schemes. Moreover, at small block size, the proposed scheme has a performance comparable to existing distributed source coding schemes.

  16. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  17. Distributed joint source-channel coding in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuqi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Considering the fact that sensors are energy-limited and the wireless channel conditions in wireless sensor networks, there is an urgent need for a low-complexity coding method with high compression ratio and noise-resisted features. This paper reviews the progress made in distributed joint source-channel coding which can address this issue. The main existing deployments, from the theory to practice, of distributed joint source-channel coding over the independent channels, the multiple access channels and the broadcast channels are introduced, respectively. To this end, we also present a practical scheme for compressing multiple correlated sources over the independent channels. The simulation results demonstrate the desired efficiency.

  18. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-15

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.

  19. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215

  20. Link-Adaptive Distributed Coding for Multisource Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Alfonso; Wang, Tairan; Ribeiro, Alejandro; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2007-12-01

    Combining multisource cooperation and link-adaptive regenerative techniques, a novel protocol is developed capable of achieving diversity order up to the number of cooperating users and large coding gains. The approach relies on a two-phase protocol. In Phase 1, cooperating sources exchange information-bearing blocks, while in Phase 2, they transmit reencoded versions of the original blocks. Different from existing approaches, participation in the second phase does not require correct decoding of Phase 1 packets. This allows relaying of soft information to the destination, thus increasing coding gains while retaining diversity properties. For any reencoding function the diversity order is expressed as a function of the rank properties of the distributed coding strategy employed. This result is analogous to the diversity properties of colocated multi-antenna systems. Particular cases include repetition coding, distributed complex field coding (DCFC), distributed space-time coding, and distributed error-control coding. Rate, diversity, complexity and synchronization issues are elaborated. DCFC emerges as an attractive choice because it offers high-rate, full spatial diversity, and relaxed synchronization requirements. Simulations confirm analytically established assessments.

  1. Error resiliency of distributed video coding in wireless video communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuiming; Ouaret, Mourad; Dufaux, Frederic; Ansorge, Michael; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2008-08-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new paradigm in video coding, based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems. DVC offers a number of potential advantages: flexible partitioning of the complexity between the encoder and decoder, robustness to channel errors due to intrinsic joint source-channel coding, codec independent scalability, and multi-view coding without communications between the cameras. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DVC in an error-prone wireless communication environment. We also present a hybrid spatial and temporal error concealment approach for DVC. Finally, we perform a comparison with a state-of-the-art AVC/H.264 video coding scheme in the presence of transmission errors.

  2. Code CUGEL: A code to unfold Ge(Li) spectrometer polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Born, U.

    1970-01-01

    A FORTRAN code was developed for the Univac 1108 digital computer to unfold lithium-drifted germanium semiconductor spectrometers, polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions. It was designed to analyze the combination continuous and monoenergetic gamma radiation field of radioisotope volumetric sources. The code generates the detector system response matrix function and applies it to monoenergetic spectral components discretely and to the continuum iteratively. It corrects for system drift, source decay, background, and detection efficiency. Results are presented in digital form for differential and integrated photon number and energy distributions, and for exposure dose.

  3. Streamlined Genome Sequence Compression using Distributed Source Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Feng; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We aim at developing a streamlined genome sequence compression algorithm to support alternative miniaturized sequencing devices, which have limited communication, storage, and computation power. Existing techniques that require heavy client (encoder side) cannot be applied. To tackle this challenge, we carefully examined distributed source coding theory and developed a customized reference-based genome compression protocol to meet the low-complexity need at the client side. Based on the variation between source and reference, our protocol will pick adaptively either syndrome coding or hash coding to compress subsequences of changing code length. Our experimental results showed promising performance of the proposed method when compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm (GRS). PMID:25520552

  4. Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuqi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Considering the fact that sensors are energy-limited and the wireless channel conditions in wireless sensor networks, there is an urgent need for a low-complexity coding method with high compression ratio and noise-resisted features. This paper reviews the progress made in distributed joint source-channel coding which can address this issue. The main existing deployments, from the theory to practice, of distributed joint source-channel coding over the independent channels, the multiple access channels and the broadcast channels are introduced, respectively. To this end, we also present a practical scheme for compressing multiple correlated sources over the independent channels. The simulation results demonstrate the desired efficiency. PMID:22408560

  5. A MCTF video coding scheme based on distributed source coding principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2005-07-01

    Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering (MCTF) has proved to be an efficient coding tool in the design of open-loop scalable video codecs. In this paper we propose a MCTF video coding scheme based on lifting where the prediction step is implemented using PRISM (Power efficient, Robust, hIgh compression Syndrome-based Multimedia coding), a video coding framework built on distributed source coding principles. We study the effect of integrating the update step at the encoder or at the decoder side. We show that the latter approach allows to improve the quality of the side information exploited during decoding. We present the analytical results obtained by modeling the video signal along the motion trajectories as a first order auto-regressive process. We show that the update step at the decoder allows to half the contribution of the quantization noise. We also include experimental results with real video data that demonstrate the potential of this approach when the video sequences are coded at low bitrates.

  6. Achieving H.264-like compression efficiency with distributed video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Simone; Wang, Jiajun; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a new class of distributed source coding (DSC) based video coders has been proposed to enable low-complexity encoding. However, to date, these low-complexity DSC-based video encoders have been unable to compress as efficiently as motion-compensated predictive coding based video codecs, such as H.264/AVC, due to insufficiently accurate modeling of video data. In this work, we examine achieving H.264-like high compression efficiency with a DSC-based approach without the encoding complexity constraint. The success of H.264/AVC highlights the importance of accurately modeling the highly non-stationary video data through fine-granularity motion estimation. This motivates us to deviate from the popular approach of approaching the Wyner-Ziv bound with sophisticated capacity-achieving channel codes that require long block lengths and high decoding complexity, and instead focus on accurately modeling video data. Such a DSC-based, compression-centric encoder is an important first step towards building a robust DSC-based video coding framework.

  7. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  8. Parallelization of Finite Element Analysis Codes Using Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, Fusun

    1996-01-01

    Performance gains in computer design are quickly consumed as users seek to analyze larger problems to a higher degree of accuracy. Innovative computational methods, such as parallel and distributed computing, seek to multiply the power of existing hardware technology to satisfy the computational demands of large applications. In the early stages of this project, experiments were performed using two large, coarse-grained applications, CSTEM and METCAN. These applications were parallelized on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. It was found that the overall speedup was very low, due to large, inherently sequential code segments present in the applications. The overall execution time T(sub par), of the application is dependent on these sequential segments. If these segments make up a significant fraction of the overall code, the application will have a poor speedup measure.

  9. FIBWR: a steady-state core flow distribution code for boiling water reactors code verification and qualification report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, A.F.; Gay, R.R.; Gitnick, B.J.

    1981-07-01

    A steady-state core flow distribution code (FIBWR) is described. The ability of the recommended models to predict various pressure drop components and void distribution is shown by comparison to the experimental data. Application of the FIBWR code to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station is shown by comparison to the plant measured data.

  10. Practical distributed video coding in packet lossy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Linbo; Masala, Enrico; He, Xiaohai

    2013-07-01

    Improving error resilience of video communications over packet lossy channels is an important and tough task. We present a framework to optimize the quality of video communications based on distributed video coding (DVC) in practical packet lossy network scenarios. The peculiar characteristics of DVC indeed require a number of adaptations to take full advantage of its intrinsic robustness when dealing with data losses of typical real packet networks. This work proposes a new packetization scheme, an investigation of the best error-correcting codes to use in a noisy environment, a practical rate-allocation mechanism, which minimizes decoder feedback, and an improved side-information generation and reconstruction function. Performance comparisons are presented with respect to a conventional packet video communication using H.264/advanced video coding (AVC). Although currently the H.264/AVC rate-distortion performance in case of no loss is better than state-of-the-art DVC schemes, under practical packet lossy conditions, the proposed techniques provide better performance with respect to an H.264/AVC-based system, especially at high packet loss rates. Thus the error resilience of the proposed DVC scheme is superior to the one provided by H.264/AVC, especially in the case of transmission over packet lossy networks.

  11. Distributed Coding/Decoding Complexity in Video Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Paulo J.; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality. PMID:22736972

  12. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-01-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  13. Sparsey™: event recognition via deep hierarchical sparse distributed codes

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    The visual cortex's hierarchical, multi-level organization is captured in many biologically inspired computational vision models, the general idea being that progressively larger scale (spatially/temporally) and more complex visual features are represented in progressively higher areas. However, most earlier models use localist representations (codes) in each representational field (which we equate with the cortical macrocolumn, “mac”), at each level. In localism, each represented feature/concept/event (hereinafter “item”) is coded by a single unit. The model we describe, Sparsey, is hierarchical as well but crucially, it uses sparse distributed coding (SDC) in every mac in all levels. In SDC, each represented item is coded by a small subset of the mac's units. The SDCs of different items can overlap and the size of overlap between items can be used to represent their similarity. The difference between localism and SDC is crucial because SDC allows the two essential operations of associative memory, storing a new item and retrieving the best-matching stored item, to be done in fixed time for the life of the model. Since the model's core algorithm, which does both storage and retrieval (inference), makes a single pass over all macs on each time step, the overall model's storage/retrieval operation is also fixed-time, a criterion we consider essential for scalability to the huge (“Big Data”) problems. A 2010 paper described a nonhierarchical version of this model in the context of purely spatial pattern processing. Here, we elaborate a fully hierarchical model (arbitrary numbers of levels and macs per level), describing novel model principles like progressive critical periods, dynamic modulation of principal cells' activation functions based on a mac-level familiarity measure, representation of multiple simultaneously active hypotheses, a novel method of time warp invariant recognition, and we report results showing learning/recognition of spatiotemporal

  14. Sparsey™: event recognition via deep hierarchical sparse distributed codes.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Gerard J

    2014-01-01

    The visual cortex's hierarchical, multi-level organization is captured in many biologically inspired computational vision models, the general idea being that progressively larger scale (spatially/temporally) and more complex visual features are represented in progressively higher areas. However, most earlier models use localist representations (codes) in each representational field (which we equate with the cortical macrocolumn, "mac"), at each level. In localism, each represented feature/concept/event (hereinafter "item") is coded by a single unit. The model we describe, Sparsey, is hierarchical as well but crucially, it uses sparse distributed coding (SDC) in every mac in all levels. In SDC, each represented item is coded by a small subset of the mac's units. The SDCs of different items can overlap and the size of overlap between items can be used to represent their similarity. The difference between localism and SDC is crucial because SDC allows the two essential operations of associative memory, storing a new item and retrieving the best-matching stored item, to be done in fixed time for the life of the model. Since the model's core algorithm, which does both storage and retrieval (inference), makes a single pass over all macs on each time step, the overall model's storage/retrieval operation is also fixed-time, a criterion we consider essential for scalability to the huge ("Big Data") problems. A 2010 paper described a nonhierarchical version of this model in the context of purely spatial pattern processing. Here, we elaborate a fully hierarchical model (arbitrary numbers of levels and macs per level), describing novel model principles like progressive critical periods, dynamic modulation of principal cells' activation functions based on a mac-level familiarity measure, representation of multiple simultaneously active hypotheses, a novel method of time warp invariant recognition, and we report results showing learning/recognition of spatiotemporal patterns.

  15. Non-extensive trends in the size distribution of coding and non-coding DNA sequences in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.

    2006-03-01

    We study the primary DNA structure of four of the most completely sequenced human chromosomes (including chromosome 19 which is the most dense in coding), using non-extensive statistics. We show that the exponents governing the spatial decay of the coding size distributions vary between 5.2 ≤r ≤5.7 for the short scales and 1.45 ≤q ≤1.50 for the large scales. On the contrary, the exponents governing the spatial decay of the non-coding size distributions in these four chromosomes, take the values 2.4 ≤r ≤3.2 for the short scales and 1.50 ≤q ≤1.72 for the large scales. These results, in particular the values of the tail exponent q, indicate the existence of correlations in the coding and non-coding size distributions with tendency for higher correlations in the non-coding DNA.

  16. Visualization of scattering angular distributions with the SAP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. E.; Scot, V.; Basile, S.

    2010-07-01

    SAP (Scattering Angular distribution Plot) is a graphical tool developed at the University of Bologna to compute and plot Rayleigh and Compton differential cross-sections (atomic and electronic), form-factors (FFs) and incoherent scattering functions (SFs) for single elements, compounds and mixture of compounds, for monochromatic excitation in the range of 1-1000 keV. The computation of FFs and SFs may be performed in two ways: (a) by interpolating Hubbell's data from EPDL97 library and (b) by using semi-empirical formulas as described in the text. Two kinds of normalization permit to compare the plots of different magnitudes, by imposing a similar scale. The characteristics of the code SAP are illustrated with one example.

  17. Distributed reservation-based code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieselthier, J. E.; Ephremides, A.

    1984-11-01

    The use of spread spectrum signaling, motivated primarily by its antijamming capabilities in military applications, leads naturally to the use of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques that permit the successful simultaneous transmission by a number of users over a wideband channel. In this paper we address some of the major issues that are associated with the design of multiple access protocols for spread spectrum networks. We then propose, analyze, and evaluate a distributed reservation-based multiple access protocol that does in fact exploit CDMA properties. Especially significant is the fact that no acknowledgment or feedback information from the destination is required (thus facilitating communication with a radio-silent mode), nor is any form of coordination among the users necessary.

  18. Probability Distribution Estimation for Autoregressive Pixel-Predictive Image Coding.

    PubMed

    Weinlich, Andreas; Amon, Peter; Hutter, Andreas; Kaup, André

    2016-03-01

    Pixelwise linear prediction using backward-adaptive least-squares or weighted least-squares estimation of prediction coefficients is currently among the state-of-the-art methods for lossless image compression. While current research is focused on mean intensity prediction of the pixel to be transmitted, best compression requires occurrence probability estimates for all possible intensity values. Apart from common heuristic approaches, we show how prediction error variance estimates can be derived from the (weighted) least-squares training region and how a complete probability distribution can be built based on an autoregressive image model. The analysis of image stationarity properties further allows deriving a novel formula for weight computation in weighted least-squares proofing and generalizing ad hoc equations from the literature. For sparse intensity distributions in non-natural images, a modified image model is presented. Evaluations were done in the newly developed C++ framework volumetric, artificial, and natural image lossless coder (Vanilc), which can compress a wide range of images, including 16-bit medical 3D volumes or multichannel data. A comparison with several of the best available lossless image codecs proofs that the method can achieve very competitive compression ratios. In terms of reproducible research, the source code of Vanilc has been made public.

  19. Adaptive Distributed Video Coding with Correlation Estimation using Expectation Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is rapidly increasing in popularity by the way of shifting the complexity from encoder to decoder, whereas no compression performance degrades, at least in theory. In contrast with conventional video codecs, the inter-frame correlation in DVC is explored at decoder based on the received syndromes of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frame and side information (SI) frame generated from other frames available only at decoder. However, the ultimate decoding performances of DVC are based on the assumption that the perfect knowledge of correlation statistic between WZ and SI frames should be available at decoder. Therefore, the ability of obtaining a good statistical correlation estimate is becoming increasingly important in practical DVC implementations. Generally, the existing correlation estimation methods in DVC can be classified into two main types: pre-estimation where estimation starts before decoding and on-the-fly (OTF) estimation where estimation can be refined iteratively during decoding. As potential changes between frames might be unpredictable or dynamical, OTF estimation methods usually outperforms pre-estimation techniques with the cost of increased decoding complexity (e.g., sampling methods). In this paper, we propose a low complexity adaptive DVC scheme using expectation propagation (EP), where correlation estimation is performed OTF as it is carried out jointly with decoding of the factor graph-based DVC code. Among different approximate inference methods, EP generally offers better tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark state-of-the-art DISCOVER codec and other cases without correlation tracking, and achieves comparable decoding performance but with significantly low complexity comparing with sampling method. PMID:23750314

  20. Adaptive Distributed Video Coding with Correlation Estimation using Expectation Propagation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel

    2012-10-15

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is rapidly increasing in popularity by the way of shifting the complexity from encoder to decoder, whereas no compression performance degrades, at least in theory. In contrast with conventional video codecs, the inter-frame correlation in DVC is explored at decoder based on the received syndromes of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frame and side information (SI) frame generated from other frames available only at decoder. However, the ultimate decoding performances of DVC are based on the assumption that the perfect knowledge of correlation statistic between WZ and SI frames should be available at decoder. Therefore, the ability of obtaining a good statistical correlation estimate is becoming increasingly important in practical DVC implementations. Generally, the existing correlation estimation methods in DVC can be classified into two main types: pre-estimation where estimation starts before decoding and on-the-fly (OTF) estimation where estimation can be refined iteratively during decoding. As potential changes between frames might be unpredictable or dynamical, OTF estimation methods usually outperforms pre-estimation techniques with the cost of increased decoding complexity (e.g., sampling methods). In this paper, we propose a low complexity adaptive DVC scheme using expectation propagation (EP), where correlation estimation is performed OTF as it is carried out jointly with decoding of the factor graph-based DVC code. Among different approximate inference methods, EP generally offers better tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark state-of-the-art DISCOVER codec and other cases without correlation tracking, and achieves comparable decoding performance but with significantly low complexity comparing with sampling method.

  1. Suppressing feedback in a distributed video coding system by employing real field codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Daniel J.; Kaneko, Haruhiko

    2013-12-01

    Single-view distributed video coding (DVC) is a video compression method that allows for the computational complexity of the system to be shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The reduced encoding complexity makes DVC attractive for use in systems where processing power or energy use at the encoder is constrained, for example, in wireless devices and surveillance systems. One of the biggest challenges in implementing DVC systems is that the required rate must be known at the encoder. The conventional approach is to use a feedback channel from the decoder to control the rate. Feedback channels introduce their own difficulties such as increased latency and buffering requirements, which makes the resultant system unsuitable for some applications. Alternative approaches, which do not employ feedback, suffer from either increased encoder complexity due to performing motion estimation at the encoder, or an inaccurate rate estimate. Inaccurate rate estimates can result in a reduced average rate-distortion performance, as well as unpleasant visual artifacts. In this paper, the authors propose a single-view DVC system that does not require a feedback channel. The consequences of inaccuracies in the rate estimate are addressed by using codes defined over the real field and a decoder employing successive refinement. The result is a codec with performance that is comparable to that of a feedback-based system at low rates without the use of motion estimation at the encoder or a feedback path. The disadvantage of the approach is a reduction in average rate-distortion performance in the high-rate regime for sequences with significant motion.

  2. FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.

  3. Statistical analysis of the distribution of amino acids in Borrelia burgdorferi genome under different genetic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, José A.; Alvarez, Samantha; Flores, Alejandro; Govezensky, Tzipe; Bobadilla, Juan R.; José, Marco V.

    2004-10-01

    The genetic code is considered to be universal. In order to test if some statistical properties of the coding bacterial genome were due to inherent properties of the genetic code, we compared the autocorrelation function, the scaling properties and the maximum entropy of the distribution of distances of amino acids in sequences obtained by translating protein-coding regions from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi, under different genetic codes. Overall our results indicate that these properties are very stable to perturbations made by altering the genetic code. We also discuss the evolutionary likely implications of the present results.

  4. On the binary weight distribution of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup M). If each code symbol is represented by a m-tuple over GF(2) using certain basis for GF(2 sup M), a binary (nm,km) linear code is obtained. The weight distribution of a binary linear code obtained in this manner is investigated. Weight enumerators for binary linear codes obtained from Reed-Solomon codes over GF(2 sup M) generated by polynomials, (X-alpha), (X-l)(X-alpha), (X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and (X-l)(X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and their extended codes are presented, where alpha is a primitive element of GF(2 sup M). Binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes are often used for correcting multiple bursts of errors.

  5. 33 CFR 157.12b - Implementation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12b Implementation requirements. Oil discharge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Implementation requirements. 157.12b Section 157.12b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  6. 33 CFR 157.12b - Implementation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12b Implementation requirements. Oil discharge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Implementation requirements. 157.12b Section 157.12b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  7. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11.12b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the...

  8. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  9. SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.

  10. A New Solution of Distributed Disaster Recovery Based on Raptor Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kai; Wang, Kaiyun; Ma, Danyang

    For the large cost, low data availability in the condition of multi-node storage and poor capacity of intrusion tolerance of traditional disaster recovery which is based on simple copy, this paper put forward a distributed disaster recovery scheme based on raptor codes. This article introduces the principle of raptor codes, and analyses its coding advantages, and gives a comparative analysis between this solution and traditional solutions through the aspects of redundancy, data availability and capacity of intrusion tolerance. The results show that the distributed disaster recovery solution based on raptor codes can achieve higher data availability as well as better intrusion tolerance capabilities in the premise of lower redundancy.

  11. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate. PMID:27754339

  12. A Cooperative Downloading Method for VANET Using Distributed Fountain Code.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhang; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Li, Shibao; Chen, Haihua; Cui, Xuerong; Sun, Yi

    2016-10-12

    Cooperative downloading is one of the effective methods to improve the amount of downloaded data in vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET). However, the poor channel quality and short encounter time bring about a high packet loss rate, which decreases transmission efficiency and fails to satisfy the requirement of high quality of service (QoS) for some applications. Digital fountain code (DFC) can be utilized in the field of wireless communication to increase transmission efficiency. For cooperative forwarding, however, processing delay from frequent coding and decoding as well as single feedback mechanism using DFC cannot adapt to the environment of VANET. In this paper, a cooperative downloading method for VANET using concatenated DFC is proposed to solve the problems above. The source vehicle and cooperative vehicles encodes the raw data using hierarchical fountain code before they send to the client directly or indirectly. Although some packets may be lost, the client can recover the raw data, so long as it receives enough encoded packets. The method avoids data retransmission due to packet loss. Furthermore, the concatenated feedback mechanism in the method reduces the transmission delay effectively. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing amount of downloaded data and data receiving rate.

  13. SADDE (Scaled Absorbed Dose Distribution Evaluator): A code to generate input for VARSKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Durham, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The VARSKIN computer code has been limited to the isotopes for which the scaled absorbed dose distributions were provided by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee or to data that could be interpolated from isotopes that had similar spectra. This document describes the methodology to calculate the scaled absorbed dose distribution data for any isotope (including emissions by the daughter isotopes) and its implementation by a computer code called SADDE (Scaled Absorbed Dose Distribution Evaluator). The SADDE source code is provided along with input examples and verification calculations. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Utilities for master source code distribution: MAX and Friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    MAX is a program for the manipulation of FORTRAN master source code (MSC). This is a technique by which one maintains one and only one master copy of a FORTRAN program under a program developing system, which for MAX is assumed to be VAX/VMS. The master copy is not intended to be directly compiled. Instead it must be pre-processed by MAX to produce compilable instances. These instances may correspond to different code versions (for example, double precision versus single precision), different machines (for example, IBM, CDC, Cray) or different operating systems (i.e., VAX/VMS versus VAX/UNIX). The advantage os using a master source is more pronounced in complex application programs that are developed and maintained over many years and are to be transported and executed on several computer environments. The version lag problem that plagues many such programs is avoided by this approach. MAX is complemented by several auxiliary programs that perform nonessential functions. The ensemble is collectively known as MAX and Friends. All of these programs, including MAX, are executed as foreign VAX/VMS commands and can easily be hidden in customized VMS command procedures.

  15. Quantum circuit for optimal eavesdropping in quantum key distribution using phase-time coding

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2010-07-15

    A quantum circuit is constructed for optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution proto- cols using phase-time coding, and its physical implementation based on linear and nonlinear fiber-optic components is proposed.

  16. Energy distribution property and energy coding of a structural neural network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    Studying neural coding through neural energy is a novel view. In this paper, based on previously proposed single neuron model, the correlation between the energy consumption and the parameters of the cortex networks (amount of neurons, coupling strength, and transform delay) under an oscillational condition were researched. We found that energy distribution varies orderly as these parameters change, and it is closely related to the synchronous oscillation of the neural network. Besides, we compared this method with traditional method of relative coefficient, which shows energy method works equal to or better than the traditional one. It is novel that the synchronous activity and neural network parameters could be researched by assessing energy distribution and consumption. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will refine the framework of neural coding theory and contribute to our understanding of the coding mechanism of the cerebral cortex. It provides a strong theoretical foundation of a novel neural coding theory—energy coding. PMID:24600382

  17. Energy distribution property and energy coding of a structural neural network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    Studying neural coding through neural energy is a novel view. In this paper, based on previously proposed single neuron model, the correlation between the energy consumption and the parameters of the cortex networks (amount of neurons, coupling strength, and transform delay) under an oscillational condition were researched. We found that energy distribution varies orderly as these parameters change, and it is closely related to the synchronous oscillation of the neural network. Besides, we compared this method with traditional method of relative coefficient, which shows energy method works equal to or better than the traditional one. It is novel that the synchronous activity and neural network parameters could be researched by assessing energy distribution and consumption. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will refine the framework of neural coding theory and contribute to our understanding of the coding mechanism of the cerebral cortex. It provides a strong theoretical foundation of a novel neural coding theory-energy coding.

  18. 17 CFR 240.12b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Title of securities. 240.12b-3 Section 240.12b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General §...

  19. 17 CFR 240.12b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Title of securities. 240.12b-3 Section 240.12b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General §...

  20. 17 CFR 240.12b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Title of securities. 240.12b-3 Section 240.12b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General §...

  1. 17 CFR 240.12b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Title of securities. 240.12b-3 Section 240.12b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General §...

  2. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  3. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the United States shall be labeled or marked in accordance with...

  4. 17 CFR 240.12b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preference, if any; and if convertible, a statement to that effect. (b) In the case of funded debt, the rate... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title of securities. 240.12b-3 Section 240.12b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  5. High-capacity quantum Fibonacci coding for key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2013-03-01

    Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to securely share encryption keys between two parties. Here, we present an approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information theory and the theory of light scattering of aperiodic photonic media. We propose a unique type of entangled-photon source, as well as a physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. The key-sharing protocol combines entanglement with the mathematical properties of a recursive sequence to allow a realization of the physical conditions necessary for implementation of the no-cloning principle for QKD, while the source produces entangled photons whose orbital angular momenta (OAM) are in a superposition of Fibonacci numbers. The source is used to implement a particular physical realization of the protocol by randomly encoding the Fibonacci sequence onto entangled OAM states, allowing secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike in polarization-based protocols, reference frame alignment is unnecessary, while the required experimental setup is simpler than other OAM-based protocols capable of achieving the same capacity and its complexity grows less rapidly with increasing range of OAM used.

  6. Geological investigations in the U12b.03 and U12b.04 tunnels, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, W.H.; Wilmarth, V. R.; McKeown, F.A.; Dickey, D.D.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Botinelly, T.; Roach, C.H.; Byers, F.M.; Hawley, C.C.; Izett, G.A.; Clebsch, Alfred

    1959-01-01

    The U12b.03 and .04 tunnels are part of the U12b (Rainier) tunnel complex that was driven northwestward from the steep east slope of Rainier Mesa (a prominent topographic feature in the northwest part of the Test Site (fig . 2)). The U12b.03 tunnel trends north from a point about 980 feet from the portal of the U12b tunnel (fig. 3). The U12b.03 tunnel consists of 620 feet of tunnel, two alcoves, and a shot chamber. The tunnel is irregular, ranging from 6 to 10 feet in width, and 6 to 9 feet in height. The shot chamber at the north end of the tunnel is 22 feet on each sidee The vertical and minimum cover over the shot chamber are 610 and 510 feet, respectively.

  7. Development of MCNPX-ESUT computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazl Hosseini, Seyed; Vosoughi, Naser; Zangian, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the development of the MCNPX-ESUT (MCNPX-Energy Engineering of Sharif University of Technology) computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution is reported. Since liquid organic scintillators like NE-213 are well suited and routinely used for spectrometry in mixed neutron/gamma fields, this type of detectors is selected for simulation in the present study. The proposed algorithm for simulation includes four main steps. The first step is the modeling of the neutron/gamma particle transport and their interactions with the materials in the environment and detector volume. In the second step, the number of scintillation photons due to charged particles such as electrons, alphas, protons and carbon nuclei in the scintillator material is calculated. In the third step, the transport of scintillation photons in the scintillator and lightguide is simulated. Finally, the resolution corresponding to the experiment is considered in the last step of the simulation. Unlike the similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and PHRESP, the developed computer code is applicable to both neutron and gamma sources. Hence, the discrimination of neutron and gamma in the mixed fields may be performed using the MCNPX-ESUT computer code. The main feature of MCNPX-ESUT computer code is that the neutron/gamma pulse height simulation may be performed without needing any sort of post processing. In the present study, the pulse height distributions due to a monoenergetic neutron/gamma source in NE-213 detector using MCNPX-ESUT computer code is simulated. The simulated neutron pulse height distributions are validated through comparing with experimental data (Gohil et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 664 (2012) 304-309.) and the results obtained from similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and Geant4. The simulated gamma pulse height distribution for a 137Cs

  8. Hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF) scheme in distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrala, Kiran Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based hybrid decode-amplify-forward scheme in a distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network is proposed. Considering a flat Rayleigh fading channel environment, the MATLAB simulation and analysis are carried out. In the cooperative scheme, two relays are employed, where each relay is transmitting each row Alamouti code. The selection of SNR threshold depends on the target rate information. The closed form expressions of symbol error rate (SER), the outage probability and average channel capacity with tight upper bounds are derived and compared with the simulation done in MATLAB environment. Furthermore, the impact of relay location on the SER performance is analysed. It is observed that the proposed hybrid relaying technique outperforms the individual amplify and forward and decode and forward ones in the distributed Alamouti-coded cooperative network.

  9. Performance and Application of Parallel OVERFLOW Codes on Distributed and Shared Memory Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation discusses recent studies on the performance of the two parallel versions of the aerodynamics CFD code, OVERFLOW_MPI and _MLP. Developed at NASA Ames, the serial version, OVERFLOW, is a multidimensional Navier-Stokes flow solver based on overset (Chimera) grid technology. The code has recently been parallelized in two ways. One is based on the explicit message-passing interface (MPI) across processors and uses the _MPI communication package. This approach is primarily suited for distributed memory systems and workstation clusters. The second, termed the multi-level parallel (MLP) method, is simple and uses shared memory for all communications. The _MLP code is suitable on distributed-shared memory systems. For both methods, the message passing takes place across the processors or processes at the advancement of each time step. This procedure is, in effect, the Chimera boundary conditions update, which is done in an explicit "Jacobi" style. In contrast, the update in the serial code is done in more of the "Gauss-Sidel" fashion. The programming efforts for the _MPI code is more complicated than for the _MLP code; the former requires modification of the outer and some inner shells of the serial code, whereas the latter focuses only on the outer shell of the code. The _MPI version offers a great deal of flexibility in distributing grid zones across a specified number of processors in order to achieve load balancing. The approach is capable of partitioning zones across multiple processors or sending each zone and/or cluster of several zones into a single processor. The message passing across the processors consists of Chimera boundary and/or an overlap of "halo" boundary points for each partitioned zone. The MLP version is a new coarse-grain parallel concept at the zonal and intra-zonal levels. A grouping strategy is used to distribute zones into several groups forming sub-processes which will run in parallel. The total volume of grid points in each

  10. Multiple description distributed image coding with side information for mobile wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Song, Daewon; Chen, Chang Wen

    2005-03-01

    Multiple description coding (MDC) is a source coding technique that involves coding the source information into multiple descriptions, and then transmitting them over different channels in packet network or error-prone wireless environment to achieve graceful degradation if parts of descriptions are lost at the receiver. In this paper, we proposed a multiple description distributed wavelet zero tree image coding system for mobile wireless transmission. We provide two innovations to achieve an excellent error resilient capability. First, when MDC is applied to wavelet subband based image coding, it is possible to introduce correlation between the descriptions in each subband. We consider using such a correlation as well as potentially error corrupted description as side information in the decoding to formulate the MDC decoding as a Wyner Ziv decoding problem. If only part of descriptions is lost, however, their correlation information is still available, the proposed Wyner Ziv decoder can recover the description by using the correlation information and the error corrupted description as side information. Secondly, in each description, single bitstream wavelet zero tree coding is very vulnerable to the channel errors. The first bit error may cause the decoder to discard all subsequent bits whether or not the subsequent bits are correctly received. Therefore, we integrate the multiple description scalar quantization (MDSQ) with the multiple wavelet tree image coding method to reduce error propagation. We first group wavelet coefficients into multiple trees according to parent-child relationship and then code them separately by SPIHT algorithm to form multiple bitstreams. Such decomposition is able to reduce error propagation and therefore improve the error correcting capability of Wyner Ziv decoder. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only exhibits an excellent error resilient performance but also demonstrates graceful degradation over the packet

  11. Performance Analysis of the Link-16/JTIDS Waveform with Concatenated Coding, Soft Decision Reed-Solomon Decoding, and Noise-Normalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    OF THE LINK-16/ JTIDS WAVEFORM WITH CONCATENATED CODING, SOFT DECISION REED-SOLOMON DECODING AND NOISE- NORMALIZATION by Katsaros Charalampos...of the Link-16/ JTIDS Waveform with Concatenated Coding, Soft Decision Reed-Solomon Decoding, and Noise-Normalization 6. AUTHOR(S) Charalampos...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System ( JTIDS ) is a

  12. Non-contact assessment of melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin is a pigment that is highly absorptive in the UV and visible electromagnetic spectra. It is responsible for perceived skin tone, and protects against harmful UV effects. Abnormal melanin distribution is often an indicator for melanoma. We propose a novel approach for non-contact melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding to estimate the two-dimensional melanin distribution based on its absorptive characteristics. In the proposed system, a novel multispectral, cross-polarized, temporally-coded illumination sequence is synchronized with a camera to measure reflectance under both multispectral and ambient illumination. This allows us to eliminate the ambient illumination contribution from the acquired reflectance measurements, and also to determine the melanin distribution in an observed region based on the spectral properties of melanin using the Beer-Lambert law. Using this information, melanin distribution maps can be generated for objective, quantitative assessment of skin type of individuals. We show that the melanin distribution map correctly identifies areas with high melanin densities (e.g., nevi).

  13. Examination of nanoparticle dispersion using a novel GPU based radial distribution function code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, Thomas; Wade, Matthew; Phelan, Frederick

    We have developed a novel GPU-based code that rapidly calculates radial distribution function (RDF) for an entire system, with no cutoff, ensuring accuracy. Built on top of this code, we have developed tools to calculate the second virial coefficient (B2) and the structure factor from the RDF, two properties that are directly related to the dispersion of nanoparticles in nancomposite systems. We validate the RDF calculations by comparison with previously published results, and also show how our code, which takes into account bonding in polymeric systems, enables more accurate predictions of g(r) than current state of the art GPU-based RDF codes currently available for these systems. In addition, our code reduces the computational time by approximately an order of magnitude compared to CPU-based calculations. We demonstrate the application of our toolset by the examination of a coarse-grained nanocomposite system and show how different surface energies between particle and polymer lead to different dispersion states, and effect properties such as viscosity, yield strength, elasticity, and thermal conductivity.

  14. Side information and noise learning for distributed video coding using optical flow and clustering.

    PubMed

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-12-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm that exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers transform domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes using optical flow to improve side information generation and clustering to improve the noise modeling. The optical flow technique is exploited at the decoder side to compensate for weaknesses of block-based methods, when using motion-compensation to generate side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded WZ frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side information for low density parity check accumulate decoding. The proposed decoder side techniques for side information and noise learning (SING) are integrated in a TDWZ scheme. On test sequences, the proposed SING codec robustly improves the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC. For WZ frames using a GOP size of 2, up to 4-dB improvement or an average (Bjøntegaard) bit-rate savings of 37% is achieved compared with DISCOVER.

  15. A distributed coding approach for stereo sequences in the tree structured Haar transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancellaro, M.; Carli, M.; Neri, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this contribution, a novel method for distributed video coding for stereo sequences is proposed. The system encodes independently the left and right frames of the stereoscopic sequence. The decoder exploits the side information to achieve the best reconstruction of the correlated video streams. In particular, a syndrome coder approach based on a lifted Tree Structured Haar wavelet scheme has been adopted. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Scenario-Based Projections of Wounded-in-Action Patient Condition Code Distributions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-13

    quantitative process has been developed to estimate these patient streams. Objective The objective of this research was to develop a methodology that...developed that allows the user to select one of these methods to easily calculate the patient distributions. Approach Two approaches to estimate PC code...describes a methodology that uses International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD- 9) diagnostic data to estimate the composition of the

  17. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... registrant or any of its parents or subsidiaries. Business combination related shell company: The term business combination related shell company means a shell company (as defined in § 240.12b-2) that is: (1) Formed by an entity that is not a shell company solely for the purpose of changing the corporate...

  18. DISTRIBUTED CONTAINER FAILURE MODELS FOR THE DUST-MS COMPUTER CODE.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.; DE LEMOS,F.

    2001-02-24

    Improvements to the DUST-MS computer code have been made that permit simulation of distributed container failure rates. The new models permit instant failure of all containers within a computational volume, uniform failure of these containers over time, or a normal distribution in container failures. Incorporation of a distributed failure model requires wasteform releases to be calculated using a convolution integral. In addition, the models permit a unique time of emplacement for each modeled container and allow a fraction of the containers to fail at emplacement. Implementation of these models, verification testing, and an example problem comparing releases from a wasteform with a two-species decay chain as a function of failure distribution are presented in the paper.

  19. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  20. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth, consistent with a

  1. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data.

    PubMed

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials.

  2. Measurement error and outcome distributions: Methodological issues in regression analyses of behavioral coding data

    PubMed Central

    Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non-normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased type-I and type-II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally-technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in supplementary materials. PMID:26098126

  3. Spatial correlation-based side information refinement for distributed video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taieb, Mohamed Haj; Chouinard, Jean-Yves; Wang, Demin

    2013-12-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) architecture designs, based on distributed source coding principles, have benefitted from significant progresses lately, notably in terms of achievable rate-distortion performances. However, a significant performance gap still remains when compared to prediction-based video coding schemes such as H.264/AVC. This is mainly due to the non-ideal exploitation of the video sequence temporal correlation properties during the generation of side information (SI). In fact, the decoder side motion estimation provides only an approximation of the true motion. In this paper, a progressive DVC architecture is proposed, which exploits the spatial correlation of the video frames to improve the motion-compensated temporal interpolation (MCTI). Specifically, Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames are divided into several spatially correlated groups that are then sent progressively to the receiver. SI refinement (SIR) is performed as long as these groups are being decoded, thus providing more accurate SI for the next groups. It is shown that the proposed progressive SIR method leads to significant improvements over the Discover DVC codec as well as other SIR schemes recently introduced in the literature.

  4. ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.

  5. Power Allocation Strategies for Distributed Space-Time Codes in Amplify-and-Forward Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maham, Behrouz; Hjørungnes, Are

    2009-12-01

    We consider a wireless relay network with Rayleigh fading channels and apply distributed space-time coding (DSTC) in amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. It is assumed that the relays have statistical channel state information (CSI) of the local source-relay channels, while the destination has full instantaneous CSI of the channels. It turns out that, combined with the minimum SNR based power allocation in the relays, AF DSTC results in a new opportunistic relaying scheme, in which the best relay is selected to retransmit the source's signal. Furthermore, we have derived the optimum power allocation between two cooperative transmission phases by maximizing the average received SNR at the destination. Next, assuming M-PSK and M-QAM modulations, we analyze the performance of cooperative diversity wireless networks using AF opportunistic relaying. We also derive an approximate formula for the symbol error rate (SER) of AF DSTC. Assuming the use of full-diversity space-time codes, we derive two power allocation strategies minimizing the approximate SER expressions, for constrained transmit power. Our analytical results have been confirmed by simulation results, using full-rate, full-diversity distributed space-time codes.

  6. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  7. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  8. Inferential multi-spectral image compression based on distributed source coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xian-yun; Li, Yun-song; Wu, Cheng-ke; Kong, Fan-qiang

    2008-08-01

    Based on the analyses of the interferential multispectral imagery(IMI), a new compression algorithm based on distributed source coding is proposed. There are apparent push motions between the IMI sequences, the relative shift between two images is detected by the block match algorithm at the encoder. Our algorithm estimates the rate of each bitplane with the estimated side information frame. then our algorithm adopts a ROI coding algorithm, in which the rate-distortion lifting procedure is carried out in rate allocation stage. Using our algorithm, the FBC can be removed from the traditional scheme. The compression algorithm developed in the paper can obtain up to 3dB's gain comparing with JPEG2000 and significantly reduce the complexity and storage consumption comparing with 3D-SPIHT at the cost of slight degrade in PSNR.

  9. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  10. A novel method involving Matlab coding to determine the distribution of a collimated ionizing radiation beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioan, M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    In ionizing radiation related experiments, precisely knowing of the involved parameters it is a very important task. Some of these experiments are involving the use of electromagnetic ionizing radiation such are gamma rays and X rays, others make use of energetic charged or not charged small dimensions particles such are protons, electrons, neutrons and even, in other cases, larger accelerated particles such are helium or deuterium nuclei are used. In all these cases the beam used to hit an exposed target must be previously collimated and precisely characterized. In this paper, a novel method to determine the distribution of the collimated beam involving Matlab coding is proposed. The method was implemented by using of some Pyrex glass test samples placed in the beam where its distribution and dimension must be determined, followed by taking high quality pictures of them and then by digital processing the resulted images. By this method, information regarding the doses absorbed in the exposed samples volume are obtained too.

  11. Prioritized Degree Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks with a Network Coded Data Collection Method

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jan; Xiong, Naixue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qinchao; Wan, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious ‘cliff effect’ may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the ‘cliff effect’ is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected. PMID:23235451

  12. Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Smith, Philip J; Krainer, Adrian R; Zhang, Michael Q

    2005-01-01

    Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are pre-mRNA cis-acting elements required for splice-site recognition. We previously developed a web-based program called ESEfinder that scores any sequence for the presence of ESE motifs recognized by the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SRp40, SRp55 and SC35 (http://rulai.cshl.edu/tools/ESE/). Using ESEfinder, we have undertaken a large-scale analysis of ESE motif distribution in human protein-coding genes. Significantly higher frequencies of ESE motifs were observed in constitutive internal protein-coding exons, compared with both their flanking intronic regions and with pseudo exons. Statistical analysis of ESE motif frequency distributions revealed a complex relationship between splice-site strength and increased or decreased frequencies of particular SR protein motifs. Comparison of constitutively and alternatively spliced exons demonstrated slightly weaker splice-site scores, as well as significantly fewer ESE motifs, in the alternatively spliced group. Our results underline the importance of ESE-mediated SR protein function in the process of exon definition, in the context of both constitutive splicing and regulated alternative splicing.

  13. Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanshan; Lei, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

  14. The decay of the T=1 isospin triplet in A=12 systems: IV. The energy dependence of the asymmetry coefficientsα _{β ^ mp } of the beta-ray angular distribution in aligned12B and12N and the induced pseudotensor interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, L.; Behrens, H.

    1980-12-01

    The asymmetry parametersα _{β ^ mp } of the beta-ray emitted from aligned12B and12N are evaluated as a function of the energy. The agreement with experimental differential data is excellent for bothα _{β ^ - } ( W) andα _{β ^ + } ( W). This work confirms, using available nuclear model information, that no induced pseudotensor (IPT) interaction is required for a correct theoretical interpretation of the data. An upper limit for the IPT coupling constant f T is determined from a simultaneous fit ofα _{β ^ - } ( W) andα _{β ^ + } ( W).

  15. Probing the extreme planetary atmosphere of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Mark; Deroo, Pieter; Tinetti, Giovanna; Hollis, Morgan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Line, Michael; Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka; Showman, Adam P.; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2013-07-01

    We report near-infrared measurements of the terminator region transmission spectrum and dayside emission spectrum of the exoplanet WASP-12b obtained using the HST WFC3 instrument. The disk-average dayside brightness temperature averages about 2900 K, peaking to 3200 K around 1.46 μm. We modeled a range of atmospheric cases for both the emission and transmission spectrum and confirm the recent finding by Crossfield et al. (Crossfield, I., Barman, T., Hansen, B., Tanaka, I., Kodama, T. [2012b]. arXiv: 1210.4836C) that there is no evidence for C/O > 1 in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. Assuming a physically plausible atmosphere, we find evidence that the presence of a number of molecules is consistent with the data, but the justification for inclusion of these opacity sources based on the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) is marginal. We also find the near-infrared primary eclipse light curve is consistent with small amounts of prolate distortion. As part of the calibration effort for these data, we conducted a detailed study of instrument systematics using 65 orbits of WFC3-IR grims observations. The instrument systematics are dominated by detector-related affects, which vary significantly depending on the detector readout mode. The 256 × 256 subarray observations of WASP-12 produced spectral measurements within 15% of the photon-noise limit using a simple calibration approach. Residual systematics are estimated to be ⩽70 ppm.

  16. 25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trust personalty? No. All trust personalty will be distributed in accordance with the American Indian... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust personalty? 18.104 Section 18.104 Indians BUREAU OF...

  17. 25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... trust personalty? No. All trust personalty will be distributed in accordance with the American Indian... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust personalty? 18.104 Section 18.104 Indians BUREAU OF...

  18. Unraveling the distributed neural code of facial identity through spatiotemporal pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Adrian; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-06-14

    Face individuation is one of the most impressive achievements of our visual system, and yet uncovering the neural mechanisms subserving this feat appears to elude traditional approaches to functional brain data analysis. The present study investigates the neural code of facial identity perception with the aim of ascertaining its distributed nature and informational basis. To this end, we use a sequence of multivariate pattern analyses applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. First, we combine information-based brain mapping and dynamic discrimination analysis to locate spatiotemporal patterns that support face classification at the individual level. This analysis reveals a network of fusiform and anterior temporal areas that carry information about facial identity and provides evidence that the fusiform face area responds with distinct patterns of activation to different face identities. Second, we assess the information structure of the network using recursive feature elimination. We find that diagnostic information is distributed evenly among anterior regions of the mapped network and that a right anterior region of the fusiform gyrus plays a central role within the information network mediating face individuation. These findings serve to map out and characterize a cortical system responsible for individuation. More generally, in the context of functionally defined networks, they provide an account of distributed processing grounded in information-based architectures.

  19. Effect of error distribution in channel coding failure on MPEG wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, P. M.; Darwish, Ahmed M.; Reed, Jeffrey H.

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the interaction between digital video and channel coding in a wireless communication system. Digital video is a high-bandwidth, computationally intensive application. The recent allocation of large tracks of spectrum by the FCC has made possible the design and implementation of personal wireless digital video devices for several applications, from personal communications to surveillance. A simulation tool was developed to explore the video/channel coding relationship. This tool simulates a packet-based digital wireless transmission in various noise and interference environments. The basic communications system models the DAVIC (Digital Audio-Visual Council) layout for the LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) system and includes several error control algorithms and a packetizing algorithm that is MPEG-compliant. The Bit-Error-Rate (BER) is a basic metric used in digital communications system design. This work presents simulation results that prove that BER is not a sufficient metric to predict video quality based on channel parameters. Evidence will be presented to show that the relative positioning of bit errors, regardless of absolute positioning and the relative occurrence of these bit error bursts are the main factors that must be observed in a physical layer to design a digital video wireless system.

  20. Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550

  1. Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-09

    We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust.

  2. Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust.

  3. Neutrons Flux Distributions of the Pu-Be Source and its Simulation by the MCNP-4B Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, F.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Hadad, K.

    Neutron Fluence rate of a low intense Pu-Be source is measured by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of 197Au foils. Also, the neutron fluence rate distribution versus energy is calculated using the MCNP-4B code based on ENDF/B-V library. Theoretical simulation as well as our experimental performance are a new experience for Iranians to make reliability with the code for further researches. In our theoretical investigation, an isotropic Pu-Be source with cylindrical volume distribution is simulated and relative neutron fluence rate versus energy is calculated using MCNP-4B code. Variation of the fast and also thermal neutrons fluence rate, which are measured by NAA method and MCNP code, are compared.

  4. On the Orbit of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Ragozzine, Darin; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-02-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by López-Morales et al. (0.510 ± 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5σ level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 ± 0.015, a 3σ result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 ± 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 ± 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 μm) and 0.5006 ± 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 μm). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of López-Morales et al. (0.510 ±+0.007 -0.006) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2σ. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1σ a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  5. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-02-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-} 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5{sigma} level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 {+-} 0.015, a 3{sigma} result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 {+-} 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 {+-} 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m) and 0.5006 {+-} 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 {mu}m). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-}{sup +0.007}{sub -0.006}) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2{sigma}. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1{sigma}; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  6. High-precision photometry of WASP-12 b transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Errmann, R.; Raetz, St.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The transiting extrasolar planet WASP-12 b was found to be one of the most intensely irradiated exoplanets. It is unexpectedly bloated and is losing mass that may accrete into the host star. Our aim was to refine the parameters of this intriguing system and search for signs of transit timing variations. Methods: We gathered high-precision light curves for two transits of WASP-12 b. Assuming various limb-darkening laws, we generated best-fitting models and redetermined the parameters of the system. Error estimates were derived by the prayer-bead method and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: System parameters obtained by us are found to agree with previous studies within one sigma. Use of the non-linear limb-darkening laws results in the best-fitting models. With two new mid-transit times, the ephemeris was refined to BJDTDB = (2 454 508.97682 ± 0.00020) + (1.09142245 ± 0.00000033)E. Interestingly, indications of transit timing variation are detected at the level of 3.4 sigma. This signal can be induced by an additional planet in the system. Simplified numerical simulations show that a perturber could be a terrestrial-type planet if both planets are in a low-order orbital resonance. However, we emphasise that further observations are needed to confirm variation and to constrain properties of the perturber. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A65

  7. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Satisfaction of filing requirements. 240.12b-37 Section 240.12b-37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Special Provisions § 240.12b-37 Satisfaction of...

  8. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of filing requirements. 240.12b-37 Section 240.12b-37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Special Provisions § 240.12b-37 Satisfaction of...

  9. 17 CFR 210.12-12B - Open option contracts written.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Open option contracts written. 210.12-12B Section 210.12-12B Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-12B Open option contracts...

  10. Performance Modeling and Measurement of Parallelized Code for Distributed Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance and overhead of parallelizing sequential code using compiler directives for multiprocessing on distributed shared memory (DSM) systems. With increasing popularity of shared address space architectures, it is essential to understand their performance impact on programs that benefit from shared memory multiprocessing. We present a simple model to characterize the performance of programs that are parallelized using compiler directives for shared memory multiprocessing. We parallelized the sequential implementation of NAS benchmarks using native Fortran77 compiler directives for an Origin2000, which is a DSM system based on a cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architecture. We report measurement based performance of these parallelized benchmarks from four perspectives: efficacy of parallelization process; scalability; parallelization overhead; and comparison with hand-parallelized and -optimized version of the same benchmarks. Our results indicate that sequential programs can conveniently be parallelized for DSM systems using compiler directives but realizing performance gains as predicted by the performance model depends primarily on minimizing architecture-specific data locality overhead.

  11. On distributed memory MPI-based parallelization of SPH codes in massive HPC context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oger, G.; Le Touzé, D.; Guibert, D.; de Leffe, M.; Biddiscombe, J.; Soumagne, J.; Piccinali, J.-G.

    2016-03-01

    Most of particle methods share the problem of high computational cost and in order to satisfy the demands of solvers, currently available hardware technologies must be fully exploited. Two complementary technologies are now accessible. On the one hand, CPUs which can be structured into a multi-node framework, allowing massive data exchanges through a high speed network. In this case, each node is usually comprised of several cores available to perform multithreaded computations. On the other hand, GPUs which are derived from the graphics computing technologies, able to perform highly multi-threaded calculations with hundreds of independent threads connected together through a common shared memory. This paper is primarily dedicated to the distributed memory parallelization of particle methods, targeting several thousands of CPU cores. The experience gained clearly shows that parallelizing a particle-based code on moderate numbers of cores can easily lead to an acceptable scalability, whilst a scalable speedup on thousands of cores is much more difficult to obtain. The discussion revolves around speeding up particle methods as a whole, in a massive HPC context by making use of the MPI library. We focus on one particular particle method which is Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), one of the most widespread today in the literature as well as in engineering.

  12. The spatial distribution of fixed mutations within genes coding for proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.; Goodman, M.; Conroy, T.; Czelusniak, J.

    1983-01-01

    An examination has been conducted of the extensive amino acid sequence data now available for five protein families - the alpha crystallin A chain, myoglobin, alpha and beta hemoglobin, and the cytochromes c - with the goal of estimating the true spatial distribution of base substitutions within genes that code for proteins. In every case the commonly used Poisson density failed to even approximate the experimental pattern of base substitution. For the 87 species of beta hemoglobin examined, for example, the probability that the observed results were from a Poisson process was the minuscule 10 to the -44th. Analogous results were obtained for the other functional families. All the data were reasonably, but not perfectly, described by the negative binomial density. In particular, most of the data were described by one of the very simple limiting forms of this density, the geometric density. The implications of this for evolutionary inference are discussed. It is evident that most estimates of total base substitutions between genes are badly in need of revision.

  13. Real-time distributed video coding for 1K-pixel visual sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanca, Jan; Deligiannis, Nikos; Munteanu, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Many applications in visual sensor networks (VSNs) demand the low-cost wireless transmission of video data. In this context, distributed video coding (DVC) has proven its potential to achieve state-of-the-art compression performance while maintaining low computational complexity of the encoder. Despite their proven capabilities, current DVC solutions overlook hardware constraints, and this renders them unsuitable for practical implementations. This paper introduces a DVC architecture that offers highly efficient wireless communication in real-world VSNs. The design takes into account the severe computational and memory constraints imposed by practical implementations on low-resolution visual sensors. We study performance-complexity trade-offs for feedback-channel removal, propose learning-based techniques for rate allocation, and investigate various simplifications of side information generation yielding real-time decoding. The proposed system is evaluated against H.264/AVC intra, Motion-JPEG, and our previously designed DVC prototype for low-resolution visual sensors. Extensive experimental results on various data show significant improvements in multiple configurations. The proposed encoder achieves real-time performance on a 1k-pixel visual sensor mote. Real-time decoding is performed on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer or a low-end notebook PC. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed codec is the first practical DVC deployment on low-resolution VSNs.

  14. Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and Navigation Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    channel interference mitigation for underwater acoustic MIMO-OFDM. 3) Turbo equalization for OFDM modulated physical layer network coding. 4) Blind CFO...Localization and tracking of underwater physical systems. 7) NAMS: A networked acoustic modem system for underwater applications . 8) OFDM receiver design in...3) Turbo Equalization for OFDM Modulated Physical Layer Network Coding. We have investigated a practical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

  15. Contribution of IL-12A and IL-12B polymorphisms to Chlamydia trachomatis-specific cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Öhman, H; Natividad, A; Bailey, R; Ragoussis, J; Johnson, L-L; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M; Paavonen, J; Surcel, H-M

    2015-03-01

    Inherited variance in the IL-12B gene is associated with susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced tubal factor infertility and disease severity. In this study, our aim was to discover how polymorphisms in IL-12-coding genes influence C. trachomatis-induced immune responses and IL-12 production. The study population consisted of 240 women. IL-12A and IL-12B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined from isolated DNA using the Sequenom system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We studied lymphocyte proliferative (LP) responses to C. trachomatis strains E and F elementary bodies (EBs) and recombinant chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 (CHSP60) antigen. IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 levels were measured using the BD Flex Set method. We found a statistically significant association between the C. trachomatis EB antigen-specific LP response and the rs2853694 SNP (P = 0.02). Our study demonstrates that the IL-12 cytokine family is involved in C. trachomatis-specific immune responses. Moreover, C. trachomatis-induced IL-12 production and the IL-12B rs2853694 SNP partially explain individual variation in the C. trachomatis LP response.

  16. Comparison of experimental pulse-height distributions in germanium detectors with integrated-tiger-series-code predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A. ); Knott, D.P. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports pulse-height distributions in two different types of Ge detectors measured for a variety of medium-energy x-ray bremsstrahlung spectra. These measurements have been compared to predictions using the integrated tiger series (ITS) Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code. In general, the authors find excellent agreement between experiments and predictions using no free parameters. These results demonstrate that the ITS codes can predict the combined bremsstrahlung production and energy deposition with good precision (within measurement uncertainties). The one region of disagreement observed occurs for low-energy (<50 keV) photons using low-energy bremsstrahlung spectra. In this case the ITS codes appear to underestimate the produced and/or absorbed radiation by almost an order of magnitude.

  17. Results of Two USARIEM Self-Report Job Analysis Questionnaires (JAQ’s) Conducted with Combat Engineers (MOS 12B)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    settings. More differences than similarities were found between the tasks 12B’s rated as important compared to 12B subject matter experts. Finally, 12B’s identified three tasks not previously addressed.

  18. Secret information reconciliation based on punctured low-density parity-check codes for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue-Qin; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2017-02-01

    Achieving information theoretic security with practical complexity is of great interest to continuous-variable quantum key distribution in the postprocessing procedure. In this paper, we propose a reconciliation scheme based on the punctured low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the well-known multidimensional reconciliation scheme, the present scheme has lower time complexity. Especially when the chosen punctured LDPC code achieves the Shannon capacity, the proposed reconciliation scheme can remove the information that has been leaked to an eavesdropper in the quantum transmission phase. Therefore, there is no information leaked to the eavesdropper after the reconciliation stage. This indicates that the privacy amplification algorithm of the postprocessing procedure is no more needed after the reconciliation process. These features lead to a higher secret key rate, optimal performance, and availability for the involved quantum key distribution scheme.

  19. Hybrid Raman/Brillouin-optical-time-domain-analysis-distributed optical fiber sensors based on cyclic pulse coding.

    PubMed

    Taki, M; Signorini, A; Oton, C J; Nannipieri, T; Di Pasquale, F

    2013-10-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of cyclic pulse coding for distributed strain and temperature measurements in hybrid Raman/Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) optical fiber sensors. The highly integrated proposed solution effectively addresses the strain/temperature cross-sensitivity issue affecting standard BOTDA sensors, allowing for simultaneous meter-scale strain and temperature measurements over 10 km of standard single mode fiber using a single narrowband laser source only.

  20. Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Radar Signals Using the Wigner Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    INTERCEPT ( LPI ) RADAR SIGNALS USING THE WIGNER DISTRIBUTION by Jen-Yu Gau September 2002 Thesis Advisor: Phillip E. Pace Thesis Co...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept ( LPI ) Radar Signals Using The Wigner Distribution 6. AUTHOR (S...distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT The parameters of Low Probability of Intercept ( LPI ) radar signals are hard to identify by

  1. Surveying Multidisciplinary Aspects in Real-Time Distributed Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Braccini, Carlo; Davoli, Franco; Marchese, Mario; Mongelli, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where a multiplicity of sensors observe a physical phenomenon and transmit their measurements to one or more sinks, pertain to the class of multi-terminal source and channel coding problems of Information Theory. In this category, “real-time” coding is often encountered for WSNs, referring to the problem of finding the minimum distortion (according to a given measure), under transmission power constraints, attainable by encoding and decoding functions, with stringent limits on delay and complexity. On the other hand, the Decision Theory approach seeks to determine the optimal coding/decoding strategies or some of their structural properties. Since encoder(s) and decoder(s) possess different information, though sharing a common goal, the setting here is that of Team Decision Theory. A more pragmatic vision rooted in Signal Processing consists of fixing the form of the coding strategies (e.g., to linear functions) and, consequently, finding the corresponding optimal decoding strategies and the achievable distortion, generally by applying parametric optimization techniques. All approaches have a long history of past investigations and recent results. The goal of the present paper is to provide the taxonomy of the various formulations, a survey of the vast related literature, examples from the authors' own research, and some highlights on the inter-play of the different theories. PMID:25633597

  2. Surveying multidisciplinary aspects in real-time distributed coding for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Carlo; Davoli, Franco; Marchese, Mario; Mongelli, Maurizio

    2015-01-27

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where a multiplicity of sensors observe a physical phenomenon and transmit their measurements to one or more sinks, pertain to the class of multi-terminal source and channel coding problems of Information Theory. In this category, "real-time" coding is often encountered for WSNs, referring to the problem of finding the minimum distortion (according to a given measure), under transmission power constraints, attainable by encoding and decoding functions, with stringent limits on delay and complexity. On the other hand, the Decision Theory approach seeks to determine the optimal coding/decoding strategies or some of their structural properties. Since encoder(s) and decoder(s) possess different information, though sharing a common goal, the setting here is that of Team Decision Theory. A more pragmatic vision rooted in Signal Processing consists of fixing the form of the coding strategies (e.g., to linear functions) and, consequently, finding the corresponding optimal decoding strategies and the achievable distortion, generally by applying parametric optimization techniques. All approaches have a long history of past investigations and recent results. The goal of the present paper is to provide the taxonomy of the various formulations, a survey of the vast related literature, examples from the authors' own research, and some highlights on the inter-play of the different theories.

  3. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed white... at least 2 points. (d)(1) All Exchange Act filings and submissions must be in the English...

  4. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed white... at least 2 points. (d)(1) All Exchange Act filings and submissions must be in the English...

  5. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed white... at least 2 points. (d)(1) All Exchange Act filings and submissions must be in the English...

  6. Population Structure of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:b:− Strains and Likely Sources of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Junker, Ernst; Fruth, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is a monophasic serovar not able to express the second-phase flagellar antigen (H2 antigen). In Germany, the serovar is occasionally isolated from poultry, reptiles, fish, food, and humans. In this study, a selection of 67 epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− strains isolated in Germany between 2000 and 2011 from the environment, animal, food, and humans was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods to better understand the population structure and to identify potential sources of human infections. Strains of this monophasic serovar were highly diverse. Within the 67 strains analyzed, we identified 52 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles, 12 different multilocus sequence types (STs), and 18 different pathogenicity array types. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was in good agreement with grouping by MLST. S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− is distributed across multiple unrelated eBurst groups and consequently is highly polyphyletic. Two sequence types (ST88 and ST127) were linked to S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (d-tartrate positive), two single-locus variants of ST1583 were linked to S. enterica serovar Abony, and one sequence type (ST1484) was associated with S. enterica serovar Mygdal, a recently defined, new serovar. From the characterization of clinical isolates and those of nonhuman origin, it can be concluded that the potential sources of sporadic human infections with S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:b:− most likely are mushrooms, shellfish/fish, and poultry. PMID:23793625

  7. Void fraction distribution in a boiling water reactor fuel assembly and the evaluation of subchannel analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akira; Futakuchi, Masanobu; Yagi, Makoto; Mitsutake, Toru; Morooka, Shinichi

    1995-12-01

    Void fraction measurement tests for boiling water reactor (BWR) simulated nuclear fuel assemblies have been conducted using an X-ray computed tomography scanner.there are two types of fuel assemblies concerning water rods. One fuel assembly has two water rods; the other has one large water rod. The effects of the water rods on radial void fraction distributions are measured within the fuel assemblies. The results show that the water rod effect does not make a large difference in void fraction distribution. The subchannel analysis codes COBRA/BWR and THERMIT-2 were compared with subchannel-averaged void fractions. The prediction accuracy of COBRA/BWR and THERMIT-2 for the subchannel-averaged void fraction was {Delta}{alpha} = {minus}3.6%, {sigma} = 4.8% and {Delta}{alpha} = {minus}4.1%, {sigma} = 4.5%, respectively, where {Delta}{alpha} is the average of the difference measured and calculated values. The subchannel analysis codes are highly applicable for the prediction of a two-phase flow distribution within BWR fuel assemblies.

  8. Runaway electron distributions obtained with the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code under tokamak disruption conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; Chan, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    Runaway of electrons to high energy during plasma disruptions occurs due to large induced toroidal electric fields which tend to maintain the toroidal plasma current, in accord with Lenz law. This has been observed in many tokamaks. Within the closed flux surfaces, the bounce-averaged CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is well suited to obtain the resulting electron distributions, nonthermal contributions to electrical conductivity, and runaway rates. The time-dependent 2D in momentum-space (p{sub {parallel}} and p{sub {perpendicular}}) distributions axe calculated on a radial array of noncircular flux surfaces, including bounce-averaging of the Fokker-Planck equation to account for toroidal trapping effects. In the steady state, the resulting distributions represent a balance between applied toroidal electric field, relativistic Coulomb collisions, and synchrotron radiation. The code can be run in a mode where the electrons are sourced at low velocity and run off the high velocity edge of the computational mesh, giving runaway rates at steady state. At small minor radius, the results closely match previous results reported by Kulsrud et al. It is found that the runaway rate has a strong dependence on inverse aspect ratio e, decreasing by a factor {approx} 5 as e increases from 0.0 to 0.3. The code can also be run with a radial diffusion and pinching term, simulating radial transport with plasma pinching to maintain a given density profile. Results show a transport reduction of runaways in the plasma center, and an enhancement towards the edge due to the electrons from the plasma center. Avalanching of runaways due to a knock-on electron source is being included.

  9. Multi-Code Ab Initio Calculation of Ionization Distributions and Radiation Losses for Tungsten in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Foster, M.; Zhang, H. L.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Bauche, J.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.; Bowen, C.; Faussurier, G.; Chung, H.-K.; Hansen, S. B.; Lee, R. W.; Scott, H.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Poirier, M.; Golovkin, I.; Novikov, V.

    2009-09-10

    We present calculations of ionization balance and radiative power losses for tungsten in magnetic fusion plasmas. The simulations were performed within the framework of Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) Code Comparison Workshops utilizing several independent collisional-radiative models. The calculations generally agree with each other; however, a clear disagreement with experimental ionization distributions at low temperatures 2 keV

  10. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model.

  11. Development of a δ f code for studying the effect of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions on SRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.; Krommes, J. A.

    2000-10-01

    It has been shown that non-Maxwellian velocity distributions resulting from non-classical heating and transport in laser fusion-type plasmas can significantly affect the linear kinetic response of such systems(B. B. Afeyan et al.), Phys.Rev.Lett. 80, 2322 (1998).. In particular for the electron plasma waves (EPW), the reduction in their Landau damping may have a strong effect on the gain of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). We are presently developing a δ f code that should enable the simulation of the fully non-linear evolution of SRS, while accurately taking account of the critical non-Maxwellian tails of the background distributions. Different techniques developed for carrying out nonlocal transport simulations(S. Brunner, E. Valeo, and J. A. Krommes, Phys.Plasmas 7), 2810 (2000). will be used to provide the backgrounds to these microinstability simulations.

  12. THE SUB-SATURN MASS TRANSITING PLANET HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius E-mail: jhyoon@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2012-04-15

    We present new photometric data of the transiting planet HAT-P-12b observed in 2011. Our three transit curves are modeled using the JKTEBOP code and adopting the quadratic limb-darkening law. Including our measurements, 18 transit times spanning about 4.2 yr were used to determine the improved ephemeris with a transit epoch of 2,454,187.85560 {+-} 0.00011 BJD and an orbital period of 3.21305961 {+-} 0.00000035 days. The physical properties of the star-planet system are computed using empirical calibrations from eclipsing binary stars and stellar evolutionary models, combined with both our transit parameters and previously known spectroscopic results. We found that the absolute dimensions of the host star are M{sub A} = 0.73 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }, R{sub A} = 0.70 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Sun }, log g{sub A} = 4.61 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub A} = 2.10 {+-} 0.09 {rho}{sub Sun }, and L{sub A} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 L{sub Sun }. The planetary companion has M{sub b} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Jup}, R{sub b} = 0.94 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Jup}, log g{sub b} = 2.77 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub b} = 0.24 {+-} 0.01 {rho}{sub Jup}, and T{sub eq} = 960 {+-} 14 K. Our results agree well with standard models of irradiated gas giants with a core mass of 11.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  13. A Multimodal Approach to Coding Discourse: Collaboration, Distributed Cognition, and Geometric Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael A.; Feenstra, Eliot; Ryon, Emily; McNeill, David

    2011-01-01

    Our research aims to identify children's communicative strategies when faced with the task of solving a geometric puzzle in CSCL contexts. We investigated how to identify and trace "distributed cognition" in problem-solving interactions based on discursive cohesion to objects, participants, and prior discursive content, and geometric and…

  14. Code Optimization for the Choi-Williams Distribution for ELINT Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Applied Mathematics Series-55, Issued June 1964, Seventh Printing, May 1968, with corrections. [13] Oppenheim & Schafer, Digital Signal Processing ... Phillip E. Pace i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...PAGES 98 14. SUBJECT TERMS Choi-Williams Distribution, Signal Processing , Algorithm Optimization, C programming, Low Probability of Intercept (LPI

  15. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM LEFT SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING GUARD TOWER S83 ON RIDGE BEHIND MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. FRONT ELEVATION WITH RANGE POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Diverse and pervasive subcellular distributions for both coding and long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Blotsky, Dmitry; Krause, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous analysis of 2300 mRNAs via whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in cellularizing Drosophila embryos, we found that 70% of the transcripts exhibited some form of subcellular localization. To see whether this prevalence is unique to early Drosophila embryos, we examined ∼8000 transcripts over the full course of embryogenesis and ∼800 transcripts in late third instar larval tissues. The numbers and varieties of new subcellular localization patterns are both striking and revealing. In the much larger cells of the third instar larva, virtually all transcripts observed showed subcellular localization in at least one tissue. We also examined the prevalence and variety of localization mechanisms for >100 long noncoding RNAs. All of these were also found to be expressed and subcellularly localized. Thus, subcellular RNA localization appears to be the norm rather than the exception for both coding and noncoding RNAs. These results, which have been annotated and made available on a recompiled database, provide a rich and unique resource for functional gene analyses, some examples of which are provided. PMID:26944682

  19. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system.

  20. MCNP(TM) Release 6.1.1 beta: Creating and Testing the Code Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Casswell, Laura

    2014-06-12

    This report documents the preparations for and testing of the production release of MCNP6™1.1 beta through RSICC at ORNL. It addresses tests on supported operating systems (Linux, MacOSX, Windows) with the supported compilers (Intel, Portland Group and gfortran). Verification and Validation test results are documented elsewhere. This report does not address in detail the overall packaging of the distribution. Specifically, it does not address the nuclear and atomic data collection, the other included software packages (MCNP5, MCNPX and MCNP6) and the collection of reference documents.

  1. Clinical CT-based calculations of dose and positron emitter distributions in proton therapy using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Sommerer, F.; Paganetti, H.

    2007-07-01

    Clinical investigations on post-irradiation PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) imaging for in vivo verification of treatment delivery and, in particular, beam range in proton therapy are underway at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Within this project, we have developed a Monte Carlo framework for CT-based calculation of dose and irradiation-induced positron emitter distributions. Initial proton beam information is provided by a separate Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation modelling the treatment head. Particle transport in the patient is performed in the CT voxel geometry using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The implementation uses a discrete number of different tissue types with composition and mean density deduced from the CT scan. Scaling factors are introduced to account for the continuous Hounsfield unit dependence of the mass density and of the relative stopping power ratio to water used by the treatment planning system (XiO (Computerized Medical Systems Inc.)). Resulting Monte Carlo dose distributions are generally found in good correspondence with calculations of the treatment planning program, except a few cases (e.g. in the presence of air/tissue interfaces). Whereas dose is computed using standard FLUKA utilities, positron emitter distributions are calculated by internally combining proton fluence with experimental and evaluated cross-sections yielding 11C, 15O, 14O, 13N, 38K and 30P. Simulated positron emitter distributions yield PET images in good agreement with measurements. In this paper, we describe in detail the specific implementation of the FLUKA calculation framework, which may be easily adapted to handle arbitrary phase spaces of proton beams delivered by other facilities or include more reaction channels based on additional cross-section data. Further, we demonstrate the effects of different acquisition time regimes (e.g., PET imaging during or after irradiation) on the intensity and spatial distribution of the irradiation

  2. Implementation of polarization-coded free-space BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-S.; Jeong, Y.-C.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2008-06-01

    We report on the implementation of a Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol over a free-space optical path on an optical table. Attenuated laser pulses and Pockels cells driven by a pseudorandom number generator are employed to prepare polarization-encoded photons. The sifted key generation rate of 23.6 kbits per second and the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 3% have been demonstrated at the average photon number per pulse μ = 0.16. This QBER is sufficiently low to extract final secret keys from shared sifted keys via error correction and privacy amplification. We also tested the long-distance capability of our system by adding optical losses to the quantum channel and found that the QBER remains the same regardless of the loss.

  3. CaNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/: a new boride of the SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/ structure type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshko, L.V.; Kuz'ma, Yu.B.

    1987-11-01

    The structure of CaNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/ has been examined from the diffraction pattern (DRON-3.0, Cu K/sub ..cap alpha../ radiation). When the pattern had been indexed to the hexagonal system, the cell parameters were found as ..cap alpha.. = 9.542 (3); c = 7.420 (3) A. The coordinates of the Ca and Ni atoms were refined via the PMNK program with an SM-4 computer, with the initial coordinates those for the metal atoms in SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/. The coordinates of the boron atoms were not refined, being taken the same as in SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/. The final values for the coordinates (space group R3m) are Ca at 3 (..cap alpha..) 000, B = 3.3 (5) A/sup 2/; 18 Nil at 18 (g) (x = 0.369(2)), B = 0.7(1) A/sup 2/; 18Ni2 at 18 (h) (x = 0.426(1), z = 0.031(2)), B = 0.5(1) A/sup 2/; 18B at 18 (h) (x = 0.191, z = 0.042), B = 3.3(5) A/sup 2/. The intensities were calculated for these coordinates, reliability factor R = 0.108

  4. Variable continental distribution of polymorphisms in the coding regions of DNA-repair genes.

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, Géraldine; Labuda, Damian; Meloche, Caroline; Wambach, Tina; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    DNA-repair pathways are critical for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material by protecting against mutations due to exposure-induced damages or replication errors. Polymorphisms in the corresponding genes may be relevant in genetic epidemiology by modifying individual cancer susceptibility or therapeutic response. We report data on the population distribution of potentially functional variants in XRCC1, APEX1, ERCC2, ERCC4, hMLH1, and hMSH3 genes among groups representing individuals of European, Middle Eastern, African, Southeast Asian and North American descent. The data indicate little interpopulation differentiation in some of these polymorphisms and typical FST values ranging from 10 to 17% at others. Low FST was observed in APEX1 and hMSH3 exon 23 in spite of their relatively high minor allele frequencies, which could suggest the effect of balancing selection. In XRCC1, hMSH3 exon 21 and hMLH1 Africa clusters either with Middle East and Europe or with Southeast Asia, which could be related to the demographic history of human populations, whereby human migrations and genetic drift rather than selection would account for the observed differences.

  5. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sarah J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Ralph, T. C.; Symul, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates.

  6. Scaling properties and fractality in the distribution of coding segments in eukaryotic genomes revealed through a block entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Athanasopoulos, Stavros; Karamanos, Kostas; Almirantis, Yannis

    2010-11-01

    Statistical methods, including block entropy based approaches, have already been used in the study of long-range features of genomic sequences seen as symbol series, either considering the full alphabet of the four nucleotides or the binary purine or pyrimidine character set. Here we explore the alternation of short protein-coding segments with long noncoding spacers in entire chromosomes, focusing on the scaling properties of block entropy. In previous studies, it has been shown that the sizes of noncoding spacers follow power-law-like distributions in most chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms from distant taxa. We have developed a simple evolutionary model based on well-known molecular events (segmental duplications followed by elimination of most of the duplicated genes) which reproduces the observed linearity in log-log plots. The scaling properties of block entropy H(n) have been studied in several works. Their findings suggest that linearity in semilogarithmic scale characterizes symbol sequences which exhibit fractal properties and long-range order, while this linearity has been shown in the case of the logistic map at the Feigenbaum accumulation point. The present work starts with the observation that the block entropy of the Cantor-like binary symbol series scales in a similar way. Then, we perform the same analysis for the full set of human chromosomes and for several chromosomes of other eukaryotes. A similar but less extended linearity in semilogarithmic scale, indicating fractality, is observed, while randomly formed surrogate sequences clearly lack this type of scaling. Genomic sequences always present entropy values much lower than their random surrogates. Symbol sequences produced by the aforementioned evolutionary model follow the scaling found in genomic sequences, thus corroborating the conjecture that “segmental duplication-gene elimination” dynamics may have contributed to the observed long rangeness in the coding or noncoding alternation in

  7. Association of IL-12B gene rs6887695 polymorphism with hereditary susceptibility and clinical characterization of psoriasis vulgaris in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yumei; Lu, Zhiyong; Chen, Yingwei; Xue, Feng; Chen, Xiaoying; Pan, Meng; Zheng, Jie

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of IL-12B gene polymorphism (rs6887695) in the disease susceptibility and clinical phenotypes of psoriasis vulgaris patients in the Chinese Han population. The genotype data of the IL-12B gene polymorphism (rs6887695) in 575 psoriasis patients and 1,403 normal controls were investigated using TaqMan technology. The Chi-square test was used to compare the genotype and allele frequency distribution among the groups. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs6887695 in the IL-12B gene between the cases and controls, as well as between the guttate and plaque psoriasis cases, were statistically significant (P genotype <0.01, P allele <0.01). However, the differences between the pediatric and adult onset psoriasis patients, between familial and sporadic cases, and between female and male cases were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The genetic polymorphism of the IL-12B gene (rs6887695) may be associated with the psoriasis susceptibility in the Chinese Han population, especially for the plaque cases, but not associated with the age at onset, family history, or sex.

  8. 17 CFR 240.12b-33 - Annual reports to other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual reports to other... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exhibits § 240.12b-33 Annual reports to other Federal agencies. Notwithstanding any rule or other requirement to the contrary, whenever copies of an annual report by a...

  9. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  10. EPOCH code simulation of a non-thermal distribution driven by neutral beam injection in a high-beta plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necas, A.; Tajima, T.; Nicks, S.; Magee, R.; Clary, R.; Roche, T.; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2016-10-01

    In Tri Alpha Energy's C-2U experiment, advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas were sustained via tangential neutral beam injection. The dominant fast ion population made a dramatic impact on the overall plasma performance. To explain an experimentally observed anomalous neutron signal (100x thermonuclear), we use EPOCH PIC code to simulate possible beam driven non-destructive instabilities that transfer energy from fast ions to the plasma, causing phase space bunching. We propose that the hydrogen beam ion population drives collective modes in the deuterium target plasma, giving rise to the instability and increased fusion rate. The instability changes character from electrostatic in the low beta edge to fully electromagnetic in the core, with an associated reduction in growth rates. The DD reactivity enhancement is calculated using a two-body correlation function and compared to the experimentally observed neutron yield. The high-energy tails in the distributions of the plasma deuterons and beam protons are observed via a mass-resolving Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic. This observation is qualitatively consistent with EPOCH simulation of the beam-plasma instability.

  11. Application of CORSIKA Simulation Code to Study Lateral and Longitudinal Distribution of Fluorescence Light in Cosmic Ray Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Zahra; Davoudifar, Pantea; Rastegarzadeh, Gohar; Shayan, Milad

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we used CORSIKA code to understand the characteristics of cosmic ray induced showers at extremely high energy as a function of energy, detector distance to shower axis, number, and density of secondary charged particles and the nature particle producing the shower. Based on the standard properties of the atmosphere, lateral and longitudinal development of the shower for photons and electrons has been investigated. Fluorescent light has been collected by the detector for protons, helium, oxygen, silicon, calcium and iron primary cosmic rays in different energies. So we have obtained a number of electrons per unit area, distance to the shower axis, shape function of particles density, percentage of fluorescent light, lateral distribution of energy dissipated in the atmosphere and visual field angle of detector as well as size of the shower image. We have also shown that location of highest percentage of fluorescence light is directly proportional to atomic number of elements. Also we have shown when the distance from shower axis increases and the shape function of particles density decreases severely. At the first stages of development, shower axis distance from detector is high and visual field angle is small; then with shower moving toward the Earth, angle increases. Overall, in higher energies, the fluorescent light method has more efficiency. The paper provides standard calibration lines for high energy showers which can be used to determine the nature of the particles.

  12. Design and Simulation of Material-Integrated Distributed Sensor Processing with a Code-Based Agent Platform and Mobile Multi-Agent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550

  13. Design and simulation of material-integrated distributed sensor processing with a code-based agent platform and mobile multi-agent systems.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Stefan

    2015-02-16

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques.

  14. Determination of neutron flux distribution by using ANISN, a one-dimensional discrete S sub n ordinates transport code with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghorai, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.

  15. Geological Survey investigations in the U12b.01 tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, William H.; Wilmarth, V.R.; McKeown, F.A.; Dickey, D.D.; Botinelly, T.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Roach, C.H.; Byers, F.M.; Izett, G.A.; Johnson, G.R.

    1959-01-01

    The U12b.01 tunnel trends N. 10° W., and connects with the Ul2b tunnel at about 500 feet from the portal (fig. 2).  The U12b,01 tunnel is about 250 feet long and contains an alcove 40 feet long and 20 feet wide, and a shot chamber 17 by 20 feet. The tunnel is irregular and ranges from 6 to 15 feet in width and averages 7 feet in height.  Much of the tunnel has been supported using 6-foot steel sets and wood planks for lagging Vertical and minimum cover over the shot chamber at west end of the tunnel are approximately the same, about 295 feet.

  16. DISCOVERY AND ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GIANT PLANET KEPLER-12b: AN INFLATED RADIUS OUTLIER

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Desert, Jean-Michel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; and others

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of planet Kepler-12b (KOI-20), which at 1.695 {+-} 0.030 R{sub J} is among the handful of planets with super-inflated radii above 1.65 R{sub J}. Orbiting its slightly evolved G0 host with a 4.438 day period, this 0.431 {+-} 0.041 M{sub J} planet is the least irradiated within this largest-planet-radius group, which has important implications for planetary physics. The planet's inflated radius and low mass lead to a very low density of 0.111 {+-} 0.010 g cm{sup -3}. We detect the occultation of the planet at a significance of 3.7{sigma} in the Kepler bandpass. This yields a geometric albedo of 0.14 {+-} 0.04; the planetary flux is due to a combination of scattered light and emitted thermal flux. We use multiple observations with Warm Spitzer to detect the occultation at 7{sigma} and 4{sigma} in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bandpasses, respectively. The occultation photometry timing is consistent with a circular orbit at e < 0.01 (1{sigma}) and e < 0.09 (3{sigma}). The occultation detections across the three bands favor an atmospheric model with no dayside temperature inversion. The Kepler occultation detection provides significant leverage, but conclusions regarding temperature structure are preliminary, given our ignorance of opacity sources at optical wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If Kepler-12b and HD 209458b, which intercept similar incident stellar fluxes, have the same heavy-element masses, the interior energy source needed to explain the large radius of Kepler-12b is three times larger than that of HD 209458b. This may suggest that more than one radius-inflation mechanism is at work for Kepler-12b or that it is less heavy-element rich than other transiting planets.

  17. Magnetic properties of GdCo12B6 compound under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Z.; Isnard, O.; Mayot, H.; Skorokhod, Y.; Kamarád, J.; Míšek, M.

    2012-07-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar on Curie temperature TC, compensation temperature TCOMP and spontaneous magnetization MS of ferrimagnetic GdCo12B6 compound have been studied. Two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices that are carrying magnetization of typically 0.42 μB/Co atom and 7 μB/Gd cancel out at compensation temperature at about 50 K and magnetic ordering temperature TC=163±2 K. The volume dependence of intrinsic magnetic properties of the GdCo12B6 compound has been determined by studying it under hydrostatic pressure. The observed increase of MS with pressure (dMS/dp=+0.005 μB kbar-1 at 5 K) is attributed predominantly to the pressure induced decrease of Co magnetic moments. The crucial role of Co in this behavior is confirmed by the change of sign of the pressure slope at temperatures above TCOMP and by the fact that the estimated decrease of mCo is also quite comparable with pressure induced decrease of MS in YCo12B6 (dMS/dp=-0.007 μB kbar-1). The decrease of mCo is also responsible for the increase of TCOMP with pressure (dTCOMP/dp=+0.06 K kbar-1). The decrease of TC with pressure (dTC/dp=-0.55 K kbar-1) is comparable to the decrease observed on RCo12B6 compounds with non-magnetic R and can be attributed to the volume dependence of Co-Co exchange interactions. The remarkable role of the hybridization as a consequence of small distances between Co and B atoms could be a background of this rather unexpected volume stability of magnetic properties.

  18. Measurement of the beta spectral shapes of sup 12 B and sup 12 N

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The spectral shapes of the {sup 12}B and {sup 12}N beta decays have been measured with a beta spectrograph specifically designed to examine the spectral effect of weak magnetism. Writing the weak magnetism correction to the beta spectra as (1+{alpha}{sub {plus minus}}{ital E}) we find the difference {alpha}{sub {minus}}{minus}{alpha}{sub +}=(1.24{plus minus}0.42)%/MeV, in agreement with the conserved vector current prediction.

  19. Discovery and Atmospheric Characterization of Giant Planet Kepler-12b: An Inflated Radius Outlier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Désert, Jean-Michel; Rowe, Jason; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Nutzman, Philip; Jenkins, Jon M.; Howard, Andrew; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather A.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; Fressin, François; Deming, Drake; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Miller, Neil; Seager, Sara; Fischer, Debra A.; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack J.; Haas, Michael R.; Still, Martin; Lucas, Philip; Gillon, Michael; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Geary, John C.

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of planet Kepler-12b (KOI-20), which at 1.695 ± 0.030 R J is among the handful of planets with super-inflated radii above 1.65 R J. Orbiting its slightly evolved G0 host with a 4.438 day period, this 0.431 ± 0.041 M J planet is the least irradiated within this largest-planet-radius group, which has important implications for planetary physics. The planet's inflated radius and low mass lead to a very low density of 0.111 ± 0.010 g cm-3. We detect the occultation of the planet at a significance of 3.7σ in the Kepler bandpass. This yields a geometric albedo of 0.14 ± 0.04; the planetary flux is due to a combination of scattered light and emitted thermal flux. We use multiple observations with Warm Spitzer to detect the occultation at 7σ and 4σ in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bandpasses, respectively. The occultation photometry timing is consistent with a circular orbit at e < 0.01 (1σ) and e < 0.09 (3σ). The occultation detections across the three bands favor an atmospheric model with no dayside temperature inversion. The Kepler occultation detection provides significant leverage, but conclusions regarding temperature structure are preliminary, given our ignorance of opacity sources at optical wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If Kepler-12b and HD 209458b, which intercept similar incident stellar fluxes, have the same heavy-element masses, the interior energy source needed to explain the large radius of Kepler-12b is three times larger than that of HD 209458b. This may suggest that more than one radius-inflation mechanism is at work for Kepler-12b or that it is less heavy-element rich than other transiting planets.

  20. High pressure structural and magnetic studies of LaFe12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Arnold, Z.; Itié, J. P.; Kastil, J.; Kamarad, J.

    2017-02-01

    The study of the structural and magnetic properties of LaFe12B6 under high pressure has been performed by combining angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction at room temperature up to 14 GPa and magnetization measurements up to 1 GPa. At ambient pressure, the itinerant-electron compound LaFe12B6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic ground state below TN=36 K. It is demonstrated that the antiferromagnetic state can be transformed into a ferromagnetic state via a field-induced first-order metamagnetic transition accompanied with a large magnetic hysteresis. The x-ray diffraction measurements under pressure reveal that the ambient pressure crystal structure of LaFe12B6 is preserved up to 14 GPa with a decrease of the unit cell parameters. A compressibility value of κ=4.90 10-3 GPa-1 has been determined. The application of an external pressure leads also to the progressive decrease of the Néel temperature dTN/dP=-4.5 K GPa-1. In addition a large pressure effect on the critical field μ0Hcr of the metamagnetic transition, dμ0Hcr/dP=24 T GPa-1, was discovered. This clearly indicates the crucial role of volume effect on the itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition.

  1. Development of a computer code to calculate the distribution of radionuclides within the human body by the biokinetic models of the ICRP.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu; Hayakawa, Nobuhiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the Basic Radionuclide vAlue for Internal Dosimetry (BRAID) code, which was developed to calculate the time-dependent activity distribution in each organ and tissue characterised by the biokinetic compartmental models provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Translocation from one compartment to the next is taken to be governed by first-order kinetics, which is formulated by the first-order differential equations. In the source program of this code, the conservation equations are solved for the mass balance that describes the transfer of a radionuclide between compartments. This code is applicable to the evaluation of the radioactivity of nuclides in an organ or tissue without modification of the source program. It is also possible to handle easily the cases of the revision of the biokinetic model or the application of a uniquely defined model by a user, because this code is designed so that all information on the biokinetic model structure is imported from an input file. The sample calculations are performed with the ICRP model, and the results are compared with the analytic solutions using simple models. It is suggested that this code provides sufficient result for the dose estimation and interpretation of monitoring data.

  2. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  3. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  4. Interleukin-12B gene polymorphism frequencies in Egyptians and sex-related susceptibility to hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Abd El Aal, Asmaa Mostafa; Nasr, Amal Soliman; el Zanaty, Taher; Seif, Sameh Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Egypt is the country with the highest HCV infection epidemic in the world. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a cytokine that has been shown to have a potent role as an antiviral cytokine. IL-12 is a heterodimer of the polypeptides p35 and p40. IL-12 B, the gene encoding IL-12 p40, is polymorphic, and a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the 3'-untranslated region at position rs3212227 was associated with apparent resistance to HCV. The genotype distribution of this polymorphism differs by race. This study is sought to identify the genotype distribution of the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism in Egyptians and to assess its role in susceptibility to chronic HCV infection alone or in a sex-dependent way. The study included 238 subjects: 100 healthy controls and 138 patients with HCV infection. The IL-12 SNP rs3212227 was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Results showed a genotype frequency of 46%, 39%, and 15% for AA, AC, and CC IL-12 genotypes, respectively. No significant result (P=0.5) was shown in the differential distribution of the IL-12 SNP genotypes between controls and patients with HCV infection. Nonetheless, this difference in the IL-12 genotype distribution was significant (0.005) when it was stratified according to sex; moreover, the C allele distribution in men and women differed with a statistically high significance (P=0.0001) in controls versus HCV patients. In conclusion, the IL-12 SNP rs3212227 polymorphism confers a susceptibility to HCV infection in a sex-dependent way in Egyptians.

  5. The Impact of the DoD Mobile Code Policy on Advanced Distributed Learning, Web-Based Distance Learning and Other Educational Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-30

    agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were returned, and only one-third of the respondents indicated that they used...Documenting the frequency with which mobile code is used in web- enabled courseware programming Questionnaires were distributed to learning management system courseware...web-enabled courseware was sent to points of contact at 51 DoD Academic agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Austen B.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD. PMID:27164088

  7. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-05-05

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  8. New information on 12C states from the decays of 12N and 12B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, H. O. U.; Bergmann, U. C.; Borge, M. J. G.; Dendooven, P.; Diget, C. Aa.; Huang, W.; Huikari, J.; Jeppesen, H.; Jonson, B.; Jones, P.; Meister, M.; Nyman, G.; Prezado, Y.; Riisager, K.; Storgaard Vogelius, I.; Tengblad, O.; Wang, Y.; Weissman, L.; Wilhelmsen Rolander, K.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    The properties of states in 12C above the 3α-threshold are of high current interest for nuclear astrophysics and for the nuclear many-body problem in general. We have initiated a series of experiments aimed at elucidating this region by using the β-decays of 12N and 12B. By applying the ISOL method for producing these radioactive isotopes, in combination with modern segmented charged particle detectors, our approach has significant advantages over previous studies of this region.

  9. Independent measurement of the Hoyle state β feeding from 12B using Gammasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, M.; Alcorta, M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Albers, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Clark, J. A.; DiGiovine, B.; Greene, J. P.; Harker, J. L.; Hoffman, C. R.; Hubbard, N. J.; Jiang, C. L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Lauritsen, T.; Laursen, K. L.; Marley, S. T.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Sethi, J.; Seweryniak, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.; Zhu, S.

    2016-06-01

    Using an array of high-purity Compton-suppressed germanium detectors, we performed an independent measurement of the β -decay branching ratio from 12B to the second-excited state, also known as the Hoyle state, in 12C. Our result is 0.64 (11 )% , which is a factor ˜2 smaller than the previously established literature value, but is in agreement with another recent measurement. This could indicate that the Hoyle state is more clustered than previously believed. The angular correlation of the Hoyle state γ cascade has also been measured for the first time. It is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  10. Synthesis and fluorosolvatochromism of 3-arylnaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pithan, Phil M; Decker, David; Sardo, Manlio Sutero; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states. PMID:27340476

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy of {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Iodice, M.; Cusanno, F.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Acha, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Coman, L.; Markowitz, P.; Moteabbed, M.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Aniol, K. A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Baturin, P.; Jiang, X.; McCormick, K.; Bertin, P. Y.; Camsonne, A.; Ferdi, C.; Blomqvist, K. I.

    2007-08-03

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in hall A at Jefferson Lab on a {sup 12}C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state s-wave {lambda} peak and the 11 MeV p-wave {lambda} peak.

  12. Brillouin distributed sensor over a 200km fiber-loop using a dual-pump configuration and colour coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, S.; Sauser, F.; Llera, M.; Rochat, E.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) set-up that combines simultaneous Brillouin gain/loss measurements with colour coding. This technique gives the advantage that the pump power can greatly be increased, compared to other coding schemes, thus increasing the sensing range. A measurement over a 200 km fiber-loop is performed, with a 3 meter spatial resolution and an accuracy of +/- 3 MHz (2σ) at the end of the sensing fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best result obtained with a Brillouin sensor without Raman amplification.

  13. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  14. Voltage-dependent gating of NR1/2B NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Richard J; Johnson, Jon W

    2008-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels are activated by agonist binding, but may also be modulated by membrane voltage. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) exhibit especially strong voltage dependence due to channel block by external Mg2+ (Mgo2+). Here we demonstrate that activity of NMDARs composed of NR1 and NR2B subunits (NR1/2B receptors) is enhanced by depolarization even in 0 Mgo2+, causing slow current relaxations in response to rapid voltage changes. We present a kinetic model of receptor activation that incorporates voltage-dependent gating-associated NR2B subunit conformational changes. The model accurately reproduces current relaxations during depolarizations and subsequent repolarizations in 0 Mgo2+. Model simulations in physiological Mgo2+ concentrations show that voltage-dependent receptor gating also underlies the slow component of Mgo2+ unblock, a phenomenon that previously was shown to influence Mgo2+ unblock kinetics during dendritic spikes. We propose that voltage-dependent gating of NR1/2B receptors confers enhanced voltage and time dependence on NMDAR-mediated signalling. PMID:18936081

  15. Itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition in LaFe12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, S.; Fukamichi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2017-01-01

    LaFe12B6 (SrNi12B6-type) is an antiferromagnet with a low moment of 0.36 μB/Fe-atom in the ground state. The field-induced first-order transition takes place in a wide range of temperature including below and above the Néel temperature of 35 K. This transition results in a high moment of 1.6 μB/Fe-atom, being characteristics of the itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition. The critical magnetic field of the metamagnetic transition BC increases with increasing temperature except for low temperature ranges, in which the kinetic arrest occurs. Above the arrested temperature, the sign of the temperature dependence of dBC/dT is positive. The metamagnetic transition brings about large magnetocaloric effects, that is, a large negative value of the isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, and a large positive value of the adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad.

  16. DAY-SIDE z'-BAND EMISSION AND ECCENTRICITY OF WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rogers, Justin C.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam; Spiegel, David S.; Apai, Daniel; Adams, Elisabeth R.

    2010-06-10

    We report the detection of the eclipse of the very hot Jupiter WASP-12b via z'-band time-series photometry obtained with the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium telescope at Apache Point Observatory. We measure a decrease in flux of 0.082% {+-} 0.015% during the passage of the planet behind the star. That planetary flux is equally well reproduced by atmospheric models with and without extra absorbers, and blackbody models with f {>=} 0.585 {+-} 0.080. It is therefore necessary to measure the planet at other wavelengths to further constrain its atmospheric properties. The eclipse appears centered at phase {phi} = 0.5100{sup +0.0072}{sub -0.0061}, consistent with an orbital eccentricity of |ecos {omega}| = 0.016{sup +0.011}{sub -0.009} (see note at the end of Section 4). If the orbit of the planet is indeed eccentric, the large radius of WASP-12b can be explained by tidal heating.

  17. EARLY UV INGRESS IN WASP-12b: MEASURING PLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Helling, Ch.

    2010-10-20

    Recently, Fossati et al. observed that the UV transit of WASP-12b showed an early ingress compared with the optical transit. We suggest that the resulting early ingress is caused by a bow shock ahead of the planetary orbital motion. In this Letter, we investigate the conditions that might lead to the formation of such a bow shock. We consider two scenarios: (1) the stellar magnetic field is strong enough to confine the hot coronal plasma out to the planetary orbit and (2) the stellar magnetic field is unable to confine the plasma, which escapes in a wind. In both cases, a shock capable of compressing plasma to the observed densities will form around the planet for plasma temperatures T {approx_lt} (4-5) x 10{sup 6} K. In the confined case, the shock always forms directly ahead of the planet, but in the wind case the shock orientation depends on the wind speed and hence on the plasma temperature. For higher wind temperatures, the shock forms closer to the line of centers between the planet and the star. We conclude that shock formation leading to an observable early UV ingress is likely to be a common feature of transiting systems and may prove to be a useful tool in setting limits on planetary magnetic field strengths B{sub p} . In the case of WASP-12b, we derive an upper limit of about B{sub p} = 24 G.

  18. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  19. The 12B counter: an active dosemeter for high-energy neutrons.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, A

    2005-01-01

    High-energy accelerators can produce strong time-structured radiation fields. Such dose shots are generated at linear machines with low duty cycles as well as at circular machines when complete fills are instantaneously lost. The main dose component behind thick shielding is due to high-energy neutrons occurring at that time structure. Dosemeters based on Geiger-Mueller tubes or proportional counters fail here completely. The 12B counter, a novel dosemeter made of a plastic scintillator using carbon activation for event-like exposure, has been introduced. High-energy neutrons activate the carbon nuclei by three inelastic reactions. The decay patterns with half-lives between 20 ms and 20 min can be exploited depending on the time structure of the radiation field. The response of the 12B counter was measured along with some other dosemeters, both active and passive, in the radiation field behind the lateral concrete shielding of a 7.5 GeV proton transfer line.

  20. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Reeme, Allison E; Miller, Halli E; Robinson, Richard T

    2013-05-01

    IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CD11c(hi) cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11c(hi) lineages are absent.

  1. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  2. A PHOTOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR THE CARBON-RICH PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparapu, Ravi kumar; Kasting, James F.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2012-01-20

    The hot-Jupiter WASP-12b is a heavily irradiated exoplanet in a short-period orbit around a G0-star with twice the metallicity of the Sun. A recent thermochemical equilibrium analysis based on Spitzer and ground-based infrared observations suggests that the presence of CH{sub 4} in its atmosphere and the lack of H{sub 2}O features can only be explained if the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the planet's atmosphere is much greater than the solar ratio ([C]/[O] = 0.54). Here, we use a one-dimensional photochemical model to study the effect of disequilibrium chemistry on the observed abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the WASP-12b atmosphere. We consider two cases: one with solar [C]/[O] and another with [C]/[O] = 1.08. The solar case predicts that H{sub 2}O and CO are more abundant than CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as expected, whereas the high [C]/[O] model shows that CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and HCN are more abundant. This indicates that the extra carbon from the high [C]/[O] model is in hydrocarbon species. H{sub 2}O photolysis is the dominant disequilibrium mechanism that alters the chemistry at higher altitudes in the solar [C]/[O] case, whereas photodissociation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN is significant in the super-solar case. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that C{sub 2}H{sub 2} is the major absorber in the atmosphere of WASP-12b and the absorption features detected near 1.6 and 8 {mu}m may be arising from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} rather than CH{sub 4}. The Hubble Space Telescope's WFC3 can resolve this discrepancy, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} has absorption between 1.51 and 1.54 {mu}m, while CH{sub 4} does not.

  3. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  4. Ground-based Infrared Spectroscopy of the Extremely Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Hansen, B.; Barman, T.

    2012-01-01

    Photometric characterization of transiting extrasolar planets leaves substantial degeneracies in atmospheric composition and structure, but properly calibrated spectroscopy can resolve these uncertainties and provide tighter constraints on atmospheric structure and abundances. Our team is observing transits and eclipses in the near-infrared to obtain spectra of a subset of transiting planets. I will present our tentative detection of the thermal emission spectrum of Hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We seem to confirm the 3,000 K near-infrared brightness temperature but our results are not precise enough to constrain individual molecular features. I will also present results from four transits of the low-mass planet GJ 1214b, which has been claimed to host a cloud-covered or non-H-dominated atmosphere.

  5. A near-infrared transmission spectrum for the warm Saturn HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Line, Michael R.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee

    2013-12-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera-3 (WFC3) transmission spectrum for the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-12b. This warm (1000 K) sub-Saturn-mass planet has a smaller mass and a lower temperature than the hot Jupiters that have been studied so far. We find that the planet's measured transmission spectrum lacks the expected water absorption feature for a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere and is instead best described by a model with high-altitude clouds. Using a frequentist hypothesis testing procedure, we can rule out a hydrogen-dominated cloud-free atmosphere to 4.9σ. When combined with other recent WFC3 studies, our observations suggest that clouds may be common in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  6. Alginate lyases from alginate-degrading Vibrio splendidus 12B01 are endolytic.

    PubMed

    Badur, Ahmet H; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin; Rao, Christopher V

    2015-03-01

    Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade alginate through β-elimination of the glycosidic bond into smaller oligomers. We investigated the alginate lyases from Vibrio splendidus 12B01, a marine bacterioplankton species that can grow on alginate as its sole carbon source. We identified, purified, and characterized four polysaccharide lyase family 7 alginates lyases, AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE, from V. splendidus 12B01. The four lyases were found to have optimal activity between pH 7.5 and 8.5 and at 20 to 25°C, consistent with their use in a marine environment. AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE were found to exhibit a turnover number (kcat) for alginate of 0.60 ± 0.02 s(-1), 3.7 ± 0.3 s(-1), 4.5 ± 0.5 s(-1), and 7.1 ± 0.2 s(-1), respectively. The Km values of AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE toward alginate were 36 ± 7 μM, 22 ± 5 μM, 60 ± 2 μM, and 123 ± 6 μM, respectively. AlyA and AlyB were found principally to cleave the β-1,4 bonds between β-d-mannuronate and α-l-guluronate and subunits; AlyD and AlyE were found to principally cleave the α-1,4 bonds involving α-l-guluronate subunits. The four alginate lyases degrade alginate into longer chains of oligomers.

  7. METALS IN THE EXOSPHERE OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Carter, A. E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.u E-mail: U.C.Kolb@open.ac.u

    2010-05-10

    We present near-UV transmission spectroscopy of the highly irradiated transiting exoplanet WASP-12b, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra cover three distinct wavelength ranges: NUVA (2539-2580 A), NUVB (2655-2696 A), and NUVC (2770-2811 A). Three independent methods all reveal enhanced transit depths attributable to absorption by resonance lines of metals in the exosphere of WASP-12b. Light curves of total counts in the NUVA and NUVC wavelength ranges show a detection at a 2.5{sigma} level. We detect extra absorption in the Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2800 resonance line cores at the 2.8{sigma} level. The NUVA, NUVB, and NUVC light curves imply effective radii of 2.69 {+-} 0.24 R {sub J}, 2.18 {+-} 0.18 R {sub J}, and 2.66 {+-} 0.22 R {sub J} respectively, suggesting the planet is surrounded by an absorbing cloud which overfills the Roche lobe. We detect enhanced transit depths at the wavelengths of resonance lines of neutral sodium, tin, and manganese, and at singly ionized ytterbium, scandium, manganese, aluminum, vanadium, and magnesium. We also find the statistically expected number of anomalous transit depths at wavelengths not associated with any known resonance line. Our data are limited by photon noise, but taken as a whole the results are strong evidence for an extended absorbing exosphere surrounding the planet. The NUVA data exhibit an early ingress, contrary to model expectations; we speculate this could be due to the presence of a disk of previously stripped material.

  8. Alginate Lyases from Alginate-Degrading Vibrio splendidus 12B01 Are Endolytic

    PubMed Central

    Badur, Ahmet H.; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade alginate through β-elimination of the glycosidic bond into smaller oligomers. We investigated the alginate lyases from Vibrio splendidus 12B01, a marine bacterioplankton species that can grow on alginate as its sole carbon source. We identified, purified, and characterized four polysaccharide lyase family 7 alginates lyases, AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE, from V. splendidus 12B01. The four lyases were found to have optimal activity between pH 7.5 and 8.5 and at 20 to 25°C, consistent with their use in a marine environment. AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE were found to exhibit a turnover number (kcat) for alginate of 0.60 ± 0.02 s−1, 3.7 ± 0.3 s−1, 4.5 ± 0.5 s−1, and 7.1 ± 0.2 s−1, respectively. The Km values of AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE toward alginate were 36 ± 7 μM, 22 ± 5 μM, 60 ± 2 μM, and 123 ± 6 μM, respectively. AlyA and AlyB were found principally to cleave the β-1,4 bonds between β-d-mannuronate and α-l-guluronate and subunits; AlyD and AlyE were found to principally cleave the α-1,4 bonds involving α-l-guluronate subunits. The four alginate lyases degrade alginate into longer chains of oligomers. PMID:25556193

  9. Deciphering the atmospheric composition of WASP-12b: A comprehensive analysis of its dayside emission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-08-10

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 μm. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent retrieval approaches. We find that when we exclude absorption due to C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN, which are not universally considered in the literature, our models require implausibly large atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances, regardless of the C/O. By including C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN in our models, we find that a physically plausible carbon-rich solution achieves the best fit to the available photometric and spectroscopic data. In comparison, the best-fit oxygen-rich models have abundances that are inconsistent with the chemical equilibrium expectations for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and are 670 times less probable. Our best-fit solution is also 7.3 × 10{sup 6} times more probable than an isothermal blackbody model.

  10. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Optical Transmission Spectroscopy of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Cauley, Paul W.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is an extremely useful tool that can be used for understanding exoplanetary composition as well as potentially revealing star-planet interactions from radiation, magnetic fields, and more. The hot Jupiter planet WASP-12b is interesting in that it is very close to its star (0.02 AU), has a large calculated scale height, has had water and metals detected in its atmosphere, and has had varying observational and theoretical constraints placed on its C/O ratio. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical transmission spectrum of WASP-12b taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Our data covers the optical wavelength range from approximately 4800 to 6850 Angstroms. Most notably this includes two Balmer lines of hydrogen (H-alpha at 6563 Angstroms and H-beta at 4861 Angstroms) and the sodium D doublet (at 5890 and 5896 Angstroms). Due to the relative faintness of the system's central star and different instrumental settings, the analysis involves several challenges that are not present in previous transmission spectroscopy observations with the HET.This work is supported by NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant 14-XRP14_2-0090 to the University of Nebraska-Kearney. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen and is named in honor of its principal benefactors, William P. Hobby and Robert E. Eberly.

  11. Modeling of Dose Distribution for a Proton Beam Delivering System with the use of the Multi-Particle Transport Code 'Fluka'

    SciTech Connect

    Mumot, Marta; Agapov, Alexey

    2007-11-26

    We have developed a new delivering system for hadron therapy which uses a multileaf collimator and a range shifter. We simulate our delivering beam system with the multi-particle transport code 'Fluka'. From these simulations we obtained information about the dose distributions, about stars generated in the delivering system elements and also information about the neutron flux. All the informations obtained were analyzed from the point of view of radiation protection, homogeneity of beam delivery to patient body, and also in order to improve some modifiers used.

  12. Pacific Missile Test Center Information Resources Management Organization (code 0300): The ORACLE client-server and distributed processing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, A. L.; Phillips, J. T.

    1990-06-10

    Computing architectures using distributed processing and distributed databases are increasingly becoming considered acceptable solutions for advanced data processing systems. This is occurring even though there is still considerable professional debate as to what truly'' distributed computing actually is and despite the relative lack of advanced relational database management software (RDBMS) capable of meeting database and system integrity requirements for developing reliable integrated systems. This study investigates the functionally of ORACLE data base management software that is performing distributed processing between a MicroVAX/VMS minicomputer and three MS-DOS-based microcomputers. The ORACLE database resides on the MicroVAX and is accessed from the microcomputers with ORACLE SQL*NET, DECnet, and ORACLE PC TOOL PACKS. Data gathered during the study reveals that there is a demonstrable decrease in CPU demand on the MicroVAX, due to distributed processing'', when the ORACLE PC Tools are used to access the database as opposed to database access from dumb'' terminals. Also discovered were several hardware/software constraints that must be considered in implementing various software modules. The results of the study indicate that this distributed data processing architecture is becoming sufficiently mature, reliable, and should be considered for developing applications that reduce processing on central hosts. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  14. [The construction of Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase Cel12B fused with CBD and the characterization of chimeric enzyme].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Qian; Shao, Wei-Lan

    2006-10-01

    Thermotoga maritima is strictly anaerobic and extremely thermophilic bacteria. The endoglucanase found in T. maritima showed extremely high thermostability and considerable potential in industrial application. Endoglucanase (Tm) Cel12B is extracellular enzyme. Tm Cel12B did not contain a cellulose-binding domain (CBD)and lacked activity on crystalline cellulose. Tm XynA is composed of catalytic domain (CD) and cellulose-binding domain (CBD). As such, the gene of CBD from Tm XynA was fused at the carboxyl-terminus of Tm Cel12B and recombinant plasmid pET-20b- Cel 12B- CBD was obtained. The recombinant plasmid pET-20b- Cel 12 B- CBD was transformed to E. coli JM109 (DE3), induced by IPTG. The properties of chimeric enzyme were determined. The chimeric enzyme displayed pH activity and stability profiles similar to those of parental enzyme with optimal pH 5.8. The optimal activity of the chimera was observed at 100 degrees C and the enzyme kept 87% of original enzyme activity after incubated at 90 degrees C for 2h. A notable feature on substrate specificity is that the chimeric enzyme has the capacity to hydrolases crystalline cellulose.

  15. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  16. ULTRACAM z'-band detection of the secondary eclipse of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhring, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Marsh, T. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wilson, Richard W.

    2013-11-01

    We present z'-band secondary eclipse photometry of the highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-12b using ULTRACAM on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. We measure a decrease in flux of δ = 0.130 ± 0.013 per cent during the passage of the planet behind the star, which is significantly deeper than the previous measurement at this wavelength (0.082 ± 0.015 per cent). Our secondary eclipse is best fitted with a mid-eclipse phase, φ, that is compatible with a circular orbit φ = 0.501 ± 0.002, in agreement with previous results. In combination with existing data, our eclipse depth measurement allows us to constrain the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere, which is consistent with a carbon-rich model, with no evidence for a strong thermal inversion. If the difference in eclipse depth reported here compared to that of López-Morales et al. is of physical origin, as opposed to due to systematics, it may be caused by temporal variability in the flux, due to atmospheric dynamics.

  17. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  18. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  19. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Induces HDAC1-Mediated Suppression of IL-12B Gene Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Aneesh; Antony, Cecil; Jose, Leny; Mundayoor, Sathish; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy; Kumar, R Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of host gene expression is one of the many strategies employed by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to survive inside the macrophages and cause disease. The underlying molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of host defense gene expression is largely unknown. In this study we explored the role of histone deacetylation in macrophages in response to infection by virulent MTB H37Rv in manipulating host gene expression. We show a significant increase in the levels of HDAC1 with a concomitant and marked reduction in the levels of histone H3-acetylation in macrophages containing live, but not killed, virulent MTB. Additionally, we show that HDAC1 is recruited to the promoter of IL-12B in macrophages infected with live, virulent MTB, and the subsequent hypoacetylation of histone H3 suppresses the expression of this gene which plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses. By inhibiting immunologically relevant kinases, and by knockdown of crucial transcriptional regulators, we demonstrate that protein kinase-A (PKA), CREB, and c-Jun play an important role in regulating HDAC1 level in live MTB-infected macrophages. By chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, we prove that HDAC1 expression is positively regulated by the recruitment of c-Jun to its promoter. Knockdown of HDAC1 in macrophages significantly reduced the survival of intracellular MTB. These observations indicate a novel HDAC1-mediated epigenetic modification induced by live, virulent MTB to subvert the immune system to survive and replicate in the host.

  1. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  2. Implementation of a double Gaussian source model for the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and its influence on small fields dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Edgardo; Caprile, Paola

    2016-09-01

    The shape of the radiation source of a linac has a direct impact on the delivered dose distributions, especially in the case of small radiation fields. Traditionally, a single Gaussian source model is used to describe the electron beam hitting the target, although different studies have shown that the shape of the electron source can be better described by a mixed distribution consisting of two Gaussian components. Therefore, this study presents the implementation of a double Gaussian source model into the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The impact of the double Gaussian source model for a 6 MV beam is assessed through the comparison of different dosimetric parameters calculated using a single Gaussian source, previously commissioned, the new double Gaussian source model and measurements, performed with a diode detector in a water phantom. It was found that the new source can be easily implemented into the BEAMnrc code and that it improves the agreement between measurements and simulations for small radiation fields. The impact of the change in source shape becomes less important as the field size increases and for increasing distance of the collimators to the source, as expected. In particular, for radiation fields delivered using stereotactic collimators located at a distance of 59 cm from the source, it was found that the effect of the double Gaussian source on the calculated dose distributions is negligible, even for radiation fields smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Accurate determination of the shape of the radiation source allows us to improve the Monte Carlo modeling of the linac, especially for treatment modalities such as IMRT, were the radiation beams used could be very narrow, becoming more sensitive to the shape of the source. PACS number(s): 87.53.Bn, 87.55.K, 87.56.B-, 87.56.jf.

  3. The binary weight distribution of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m-4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomial (x-alpha sup 2) (x-alpha sup 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup m). If each code symbol is represented by a binary m-tuple using a certain basis for GF(2 sup m), a binary (nm,km) linear code called a binary image of the original code is obtained. A lower bound is presented on the minimum weight enumerator for a binary image of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m -4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomical (x - alpha)(x- alpha squared)(x - alpha cubed) and its dual code, where alpha is a primitive element in GF(2 sup m).

  4. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  5. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  6. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target.

  7. 17 CFR 270.12b-1 - Distribution of shares by registered open-end management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the printing and mailing of sales literature; (b) A registered, open-end management investment company... company's board of directors, and the directors shall review, at least quarterly, a written report of...

  8. Distributions of secondary particles in proton and carbon-ion therapy: a comparison between GATE/Geant4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes.

    PubMed

    Robert, C; Dedes, G; Battistoni, G; Böhlen, T T; Buvat, I; Cerutti, F; Chin, M P W; Ferrari, A; Gueth, P; Kurz, C; Lestand, L; Mairani, A; Montarou, G; Nicolini, R; Ortega, P G; Parodi, K; Prezado, Y; Sala, P R; Sarrut, D; Testa, E

    2013-05-07

    Monte Carlo simulations play a crucial role for in-vivo treatment monitoring based on PET and prompt gamma imaging in proton and carbon-ion therapies. The accuracy of the nuclear fragmentation models implemented in these codes might affect the quality of the treatment verification. In this paper, we investigate the nuclear models implemented in GATE/Geant4 and FLUKA by comparing the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles exiting a homogeneous target of PMMA. Comparison results were restricted to fragmentation of (16)O and (12)C. Despite the very simple target and set-up, substantial discrepancies were observed between the two codes. For instance, the number of high energy (>1 MeV) prompt gammas exiting the target was about twice as large with GATE/Geant4 than with FLUKA both for proton and carbon ion beams. Such differences were not observed for the predicted annihilation photon production yields, for which ratios of 1.09 and 1.20 were obtained between GATE and FLUKA for the proton beam and the carbon ion beam, respectively. For neutrons and protons, discrepancies from 14% (exiting protons-carbon ion beam) to 57% (exiting neutrons-proton beam) have been identified in production yields as well as in the energy spectra for neutrons.

  9. Comparison of depth-dose distributions of proton therapeutic beams calculated by means of logical detectors and ionization chamber modeled in Monte Carlo codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Robert; Konefał, Adam; Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method.

  10. Ultrasharp magnetization steps in the antiferromagnetic itinerant-electron system LaF e12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable intrinsic magnetic properties of the LaF e12B6 compound have been studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The NPD measurement reveals that LaF e12B6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure that can be described with a magnetic propagation vector of (¼, ¼, ¼) below TN. In the amplitude-modulated model used for the refinement, the Fe magnetic moments are confined to the a b plane with a maximum value of 0.43 μB at 1.5 K. It is shown that the AFM state can be transformed to a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced first-order transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. The LaF e12B6 compound is not only the unique stable R F e12B6 phase, along the rare-earth R series but also presents unique magnetic behavior for a purely 3 d itinerant electron system, including particularly low ordering temperature TN=36 K , remarkably small Fe moment, unusual amplitude-modulated magnetic arrangement, and a multicritical point in the magnetic phase diagram. In addition, we reveal that at 2 K, the AFM-FM transition is abrupt, leading to a large increase of the Fe magnetic moment up to 1.55 μB ; the magnetization curve presents ultrasharp steps, giving rise to an unusual staircaselike behavior.

  11. Integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction up to 10 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Colonna, N.; Bosnar, D.; Ventura, A.; Mengoni, A.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Musumarra, A.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2016-04-01

    The integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The total number of 12B nuclei produced per neutron pulse of the n_TOF beam was determined using the activation technique in combination with a time-of-flight technique. The cross section is integrated over the n_TOF neutron energy spectrum from reaction threshold at 13.6MeV to 10GeV. Having been measured up to 1GeV on basis of the 235U(n, f ) reaction, the neutron energy spectrum above 200MeV has been re-evaluated due to the recent extension of the cross section reference for this particular reaction, which is otherwise considered a standard up to 200MeV. The results from the dedicated GEANT4 simulations have been used to evaluate the neutron flux from 1GeV up to 10GeV. The experimental results related to the 12C(n, p)12B reaction are compared with the evaluated cross sections from major libraries and with the predictions of different GEANT4 models, which mostly underestimate the 12B production. On the contrary, a good reproduction of the integral cross section derived from measurements is obtained with TALYS-1.6 calculations, with optimized parameters.

  12. Statistical Electronic Structure Calibration Study of the CCSD(T*)-F12b Method for Atomization Energies.

    PubMed

    Feller, David

    2015-07-16

    In the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b coupled cluster method only the singles and doubles component of the energy benefits from inclusion of terms involving the interelectronic distance. Consequently, only that component exhibits accelerated convergence with respect to the 1-particle basis set. The smaller perturbative triples component converges at the same rate as the corresponding piece in standard CCSD(T). With the alternative CCSD(T*)-F12b method the triples correlation energy is scaled up by the ratio of explicitly correlated to standard second-order perturbation theory correlation energies in an attempt to better approximate the basis set limit. An extensive and diverse 212 molecule collection of reference total atomization energies, developed with large basis sets (up to aug-cc-pV9Z in some cases) and standard CCSD(T), was used to calibrate the performance of CCSD(T*). Scaling of the (T) energy led to improved results relative to raw F12b values but only provided a statistical advantage over previously proposed complete basis set extrapolation techniques for the smallest basis sets. With larger sets, scaling (T) produced noticeably poorer results, sometimes by a factor of 2. In agreement with earlier studies, basis set extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b was found to exhibit a systematic bias toward overestimating reference atomization energies with an error that increases with the magnitude of the valence correlation energy.

  13. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  14. Final Technical Report for SBIR entitled Four-Dimensional Finite-Orbit-Width Fokker-Planck Code with Sources, for Neoclassical/Anomalous Transport Simulation of Ion and Electron Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.

    2013-12-03

    Within the US Department of Energy/Office of Fusion Energy magnetic fusion research program, there is an important whole-plasma-modeling need for a radio-frequency/neutral-beam-injection (RF/NBI) transport-oriented finite-difference Fokker-Planck (FP) code with combined capabilities for 4D (2R2V) geometry near the fusion plasma periphery, and computationally less demanding 3D (1R2V) bounce-averaged capabilities for plasma in the core of fusion devices. Demonstration of proof-of-principle achievement of this goal has been carried out in research carried out under Phase I of the SBIR award. Two DOE-sponsored codes, the CQL3D bounce-average Fokker-Planck code in which CompX has specialized, and the COGENT 4D, plasma edge-oriented Fokker-Planck code which has been constructed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory scientists, where coupled. Coupling was achieved by using CQL3D calculated velocity distributions including an energetic tail resulting from NBI, as boundary conditions for the COGENT code over the two-dimensional velocity space on a spatial interface (flux) surface at a given radius near the plasma periphery. The finite-orbit-width fast ions from the CQL3D distributions penetrated into the peripheral plasma modeled by the COGENT code. This combined code demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed 3D/4D code. By combining these codes, the greatest computational efficiency is achieved subject to present modeling needs in toroidally symmetric magnetic fusion devices. The more efficient 3D code can be used in its regions of applicability, coupled to the more computationally demanding 4D code in higher collisionality edge plasma regions where that extended capability is necessary for accurate representation of the plasma. More efficient code leads to greater use and utility of the model. An ancillary aim of the project is to make the combined 3D/4D code user friendly. Achievement of full-coupling of these two Fokker

  15. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bergmann, Marcel; Homeier, Derek

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  16. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Shi, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiangqian

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes. PMID:26218520

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  18. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  19. Regulation of A-Kinase-Anchoring Protein 12 by Heat Shock Protein A12B to Prevent Ventricular Dysfunction Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Vaithinathan; Suresh, Sumanth C; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Mannu, Jayakanthan; Foye, Jocelyn L C; Mathur, Premendu P; Palesty, J Alexander; Sanchez, Juan A; McFadden, David W; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2017-03-09

    We examined the effects of overexpressing HSPA12B on angiogenesis and myocardial function by intramyocardial administration of adenovirus encoding HSPA12B (Ad. HSPA12B) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat subjected to myocardial infarction. Rats were divided randomly into six groups: control sham (CS) + Ad.LacZ, control myocardial infarction (CMI) + Ad.LacZ, control MI + Ad.HSPA12B, diabetic sham (DS) + Ad.LacZ, diabetic MI + Ad.LacZ and diabetic MI + Ad.HSPA12B. Following MI or sham surgery, the respective groups received either Ad.LacZ or Ad.HSPA12B via intramyocardial injections. We observed increased capillary and arteriolar density along with reduced fibrosis and preserved heart functions in DMI-AdHSPA12B compared to DMI-AdLacZ group. Western blot analysis demonstrated enhanced HSPA12B, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) expression along with decreased expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and A kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the DMI-AdHSPA12B compared to DMI-AdLacZ group. Our findings reveal that HSPA12B overexpression interacts with AKAP12 and downregulate TXNIP in diabetic rats following acute MI.

  20. The distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons supplying the porcine stomach - the study on normal pigs and on animals suffering from swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Kaleczyc, J; Klimczuk, M; Franke-Radowiecka, A; Sienkiewicz, W; Majewski, M; Łakomy, M

    2007-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the expression of biologically active substances by intramural neurons supplying the stomach in normal (control) pigs and in pigs suffering from dysentery. Eight juvenile female pigs were used. Both dysenteric (n = 4; inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae) and control (n = 4) animals were deeply anaesthetized, transcardially perfused with buffered paraformalehyde, and tissue samples comprising all layers of the wall of the ventricular fundus were collected. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5) and their chemical coding using antibodies against vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), Leu(5)-enkephalin (LENK), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In both inner and outer submucosal plexuses of the control pigs, the majority of neurons were SP (55% and 58%, respectively)- or VAChT (54%)-positive. Many neurons stained also for CGRP (43 and 45%) or GAL (20% and 18%) and solitary perikarya were NOS-, SOM- or VIP-positive. The myenteric plexus neurons stained for NOS (20%), VAChT (15%), GAL (10%), VIP (7%), SP (6%) or CGRP (solitary neurons), but they were SOM-negative. No intramural neurons immunoreactive to LENK were found. The most remarkable difference in the chemical coding of enteric neurons between the control and dysenteric pigs was a very increased number of GAL- and VAChT-positive nerve cells (up to 61% and 85%, respectively) in submucosal plexuses of the infected animals. The present results suggest that GAL and ACh have a specific role in local neural circuits of the inflamed porcine stomach in the course of swine dysentery.

  1. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  2. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  3. Precise branching ratios to unbound 12C states from 12N and 12B β-decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldegaard, S.; Forssén, C.; Diget, C. Aa.; Alcorta, M.; Barker, F. C.; Bastin, B.; Borge, M. J. G.; Boutami, R.; Brandenburg, S.; Büscher, J.; Dendooven, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Eronen, T.; Fox, S.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Huikari, J.; Huyse, M.; Jeppesen, H. B.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Jungmann, K.; Kankainen, A.; Kirsebom, O.; Madurga, M.; Moore, I.; Navrátil, P.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Onderwater, G. J. G.; Penttilä, H.; Peräjärvi, K.; Raabe, R.; Riisager, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sohani, M.; Tengblad, O.; Traykov, E.; Vary, J. P.; Wang, Y.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Wilschut, H. W.; Äystö, J.

    2009-08-01

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in 12C from 12N and 12B β-decays. In the first the three α-particles emitted after β-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method 12N and 12B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three α-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0+) and 12.71 MeV (1+) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of ≃2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  4. Degradation mechanism of Direct Pink 12B treated by iron-carbon micro-electrolysis and Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiquan; Gong, Xiaokang; Zhang, Qiuxia; Du, Haijuan

    2013-12-01

    The Direct Pink 12B dye was treated by iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and Fenton oxidation. The degradation pathway of Direct Pink 12B dye was inferred by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis), infrared absorption spectrum (IR) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The major reason of decolorization was that the conjugate structure was disrupted in the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) process. However, the dye was not degraded completely because benzene rings and naphthalene rings were not broken. In the Fenton oxidation process, the azo bond groups surrounded by higher electron cloud density were first attacked by hydroxyl radicals to decolorize the dye molecule. Finally benzene rings and naphthalene rings were mineralized to H2O and CO2 under the oxidation of hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J

    2008-08-20

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  6. Assessment of Use of the COBAS AMPLICOR System with BACTEC 12B Cultures for Rapid Detection of Frequently Identified Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ninet, B.; Rohner, P.; Metral, C.; Auckenthaler, R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of the COBAS AMPLICOR System (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), the only automated system for PCR testing, was evaluated for a rapid identification of mycobacteria with positive BACTEC 12B cultures. Two hundred ninety-six specimens with a growth index of ≥30 were analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compared to traditional methods and provided that samples with PCR inhibition are retested at a 1:10 dilution, the sensitivity and specificity of the COBAS AMPLICOR System with BACTEC 12B cultures were 100 and 98%, respectively. The COBAS AMPLICOR method is rapid and reliable for identifying the most common mycobacteria in cultures. PMID:9986853

  7. [Decoloration and degradation of direct pink 12B by microwave-promoted heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xie, Li-Guo; Hu, Peng; Jiao, Shi-Jun; Hu, Xue-Bin; Liu, Lan; Wu, You-Quan

    2010-06-01

    Microwave-promoted heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, the combination of Fenton-like reagent with microwave, is an efficient method for waste water treatment. In the present paper, the degradation of direct pink 12B (a kind of organic dye) was studied using this method was studied. Through numerous experiments, the influences of various parameters including the initial pH value, dosage of Fe-Ni-Mn/AlO3, dosage of H2O2 and microwave were investigated intensively. The characteristic curve of direct pink12B, the concentration-absorbency curve of direct pink12B, the orthogonal optimization tests and comparative tests were given. In this paper, the mechanisms of this reaction were also been probed. It is concluded from the experiments that the microwave can accelerate the process of degradation effectively. Under optimal conditions, the overall color removal was more than 99.0% within 10 min. In the study, all the characterization was carried out using UV-Vis spectral-analysis.

  8. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM CoRoT-1b AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ming; Swain, Mark R.; Monnier, John D.; Barman, Travis; Hinkley, Sasha

    2012-01-10

    We report a new detection of the H-band thermal emission of CoRoT-1b and two confirmation detections of the Ks-band thermal emission of WASP-12b at secondary eclipses. The H-band measurement of CoRoT-1b shows an eclipse depth of 0.145% {+-} 0.049% with a 3{sigma} percentile between 0.033% and 0.235%. This depth is consistent with the previous conclusions that the planet has an isothermal region with inefficient heat transport from day side to night side, and has a dayside thermal inversion layer at high altitude. The two Ks-band detections of WASP-12b show a joint eclipse depth of 0.299% {+-} 0.065%. This result agrees with the measurement of Croll and collaborators, providing independent confirmation of their measurement. The repeatability of the WASP-12b measurements also validates our data analysis method. Our measurements, in addition to a number of previous results made with other telescopes, demonstrate that ground-based observations are becoming widely available for characterization of atmospheres of hot Jupiters.

  9. High magnetic field study of the Gd-Co exchange interactions in GdCo12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnard, O.; Skourski, Y.; Diop, L. V. B.; Arnold, Z.; Andreev, A. V.; Wosnitza, J.; Iwasa, A.; Kondo, A.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.

    2012-05-01

    Pulsed magnetic fields up to 68 Tesla have been used to determine the intersublattice coupling strength and its temperature dependence of GdCo12B6 compound. This compound exhibits ferrimagnetic behaviour below 163 ± 2 K. Two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices cancel out at compensation temperature at about 48 K. They are carrying magnetization of typically 0.42 μB/Co atom and 7 μB/Gd. The intrinsic magnetic properties of the GdCo12B6 compound have been determined by combining low temperature magnetic measurements in both steady and pulsed magnetic field, as well as isofield studies in steady field. At 4.2 K, the magnetization curve of GdCo12B6 is found to reach the full saturation with sum of both sublattice magnetizations for an applied magnetic field of about 68 T. In addition a detailed study is presented in the whole ordered temperature range on the basis of magnetization curves recorded using pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T. This has enabled to investigate the intersublattice coupling strength and its temperature dependence, a value JCo-Gd/kB = -5.3 ± 0.3 K is derived from the magnetization curves whereas one gets much larger value for JCo-Co/kB = 108 K.

  10. SPECT Imaging of 2-D and 3-D Distributed Sources with Near-Field Coded Aperture Collimation: Computer Simulation and Real Data Validation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhiping; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    The imaging of distributed sources with near-field coded aperture (CA) remains extremely challenging and is broadly considered unsuitable for single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This study proposes a novel CA SPECT reconstruction approach and evaluates the feasibilities of imaging and reconstructing distributed hot sources and cold lesions using near-field CA collimation and iterative image reconstruction. Computer simulations were designed to compare CA and pinhole collimations in two-dimensional radionuclide imaging. Digital phantoms were created and CA images of the phantoms were reconstructed using maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). Errors and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated and image resolution was evaluated. An ex vivo rat heart with myocardial infarction was imaged using a micro-SPECT system equipped with a custom-made CA module and a commercial 5-pinhole collimator. Rat CA images were reconstructed via the three-dimensional (3-D) MLEM algorithm developed for CA SPECT with and without correction for a large projection angle, and 5-pinhole images were reconstructed using the commercial software provided by the SPECT system. Phantom images of CA were markedly improved in terms of image quality, quantitative root-mean-squared error, and CNR, as compared to pinhole images. CA and pinhole images yielded similar image resolution, while CA collimation resulted in fewer noise artifacts. CA and pinhole images of the rat heart were well reconstructed and the myocardial perfusion defects could be clearly discerned from 3-D CA and 5-pinhole SPECT images, whereas 5-pinhole SPECT images suffered from severe noise artifacts. Image contrast of CA SPECT was further improved after correction for the large projection angle used in the rat heart imaging. The computer simulations and small-animal imaging study presented herein indicate that the proposed 3-D CA SPECT imaging and reconstruction approaches worked reasonably

  11. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021

  13. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  14. Interferon-stimulated gene ISG12b1 inhibits adipogenic differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Shin, Jonghyun; Lee, Kichoon

    2009-03-01

    Microarray analysis was performed to find a new group of genes or pathways that might be important in adipocyte development and metabolism. Among them, a mouse interferon-stimulated gene 12b1 (ISG12b1) is expressed at a 400-fold higher level in adipocytes compared with stromal-vascular cells. It is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue among other tissues we tested. Developmentally, ISG12b1 mRNA expression was initially inhibited followed by a dramatic induction during both in vivo and in vitro adipogenic differentiation. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ISG12b1 inhibited adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells as shown by decreased lipid staining with Oil-Red-O and reduction in adipogenic marker proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha). Our bioinformatics analysis for the predicted localization of ISG12b1 protein suggested the mitochondrial localization, which was confirmed by the colocalization of hemagglutinin-tagged ISG12b1 protein with mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. In addition, ISG12b1 protein was exclusively detected in protein extract from the fractionated mitochondria by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG12b1 in adipocytes reduced mitochondrial DNA content and gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), and cytochrome oxidase II, suggesting an inhibitory role of ISG12b1 in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function by treatment with PPARgamma and PPARalpha agonists in 3T3-L1 cells and cold exposure in mice induced mitochondrial transcription factors and reduced ISG12 expression. These data demonstrated that mitochondrial-localized ISG12b1 protein inhibits adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis and function, implying the important role of mitochondrial function in adipocyte development and associated

  15. GROUND-BASED, NEAR-INFRARED EXOSPECTROSCOPY. II. TENTATIVE DETECTION OF EMISSION FROM THE EXTREMELY HOT JUPITER WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Barman, Travis

    2012-02-10

    We report the tentative detection of the near-infrared emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b with the low-resolution prism on Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We find a K - H contrast color of 0.137% {+-} 0.054%, corresponding to a blackbody of temperature 2400{sup +1500}{sub -500} K and consistent with previous, photometric observations. We also revisit WASP-12b's energy budget on the basis of secondary eclipse observations: the dayside luminosity is a relatively poorly constrained (2.0-4.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}, but this still allows us to predict a day/night effective temperature contrast of 200-1000 K (assuming A{sub B} = 0). Thus, we conclude that WASP-12b probably does not have both a low albedo and low recirculation efficiency. Our results show the promise and pitfalls of using single-slit spectrographs for characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres, and we suggest future observing techniques and instruments which could lead to further progress. Limiting systematic effects include the use of too narrow a slit on one night-which observers could avoid in the future-and chromatic slit losses (resulting from the variable size of the seeing disk) and variations in telluric transparency-which observers cannot control. Single-slit observations of the type we present remain the best option for obtaining {lambda} > 1.7 {mu}m spectra of transiting exoplanets in the brightest systems. Further and more precise spectroscopy is needed to better understand the atmospheric chemistry, structure, and energetics of this, and other, intensely irradiated planet.

  16. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION FROM WASP-12b: DETECTIONS OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE IN Ks, H, AND J

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafreniere, David; Albert, Loic; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Murray, Norman

    2011-02-15

    We present Ks, H, and J-band photometry of the very highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-12b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Our photometry brackets the secondary eclipse of WASP-12b in the Ks and H bands, and in J band starts in mid-eclipse and continues until well after the end of the eclipse. We detect its thermal emission in all three near-infrared bands. Our secondary eclipse depths are 0.309{sup +0.013}{sub -0.012}% in Ks band (24{sigma}), 0.176{sup +0.016}{sub -0.021}% in H band (9{sigma}), and 0.131{sup +0.027}{sub -0.029}% in J band (4{sigma}). All three secondary eclipses are best fit with a consistent phase, {phi}, that is compatible with a circular orbit: {phi} = 0.4998{sup +0.0008}{sub -0.0007}. The limits on the eccentricity, e, and argument of periastron, {omega}, of this planet from our photometry alone are thus |ecos {omega}| < 0.0040. By combining our secondary eclipse times with others published in the literature, as well as the radial-velocity and transit-timing data for this system, we show that there is no evidence that WASP-12b is precessing at a detectable rate and that its orbital eccentricity is likely zero. Our thermal-emission measurements also allow us to constrain the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere; our Ks-band eclipse depth argues strongly in favor of inefficient day to nightside redistribution of heat and a low Bond albedo for this very highly irradiated hot Jupiter. The J- and H-band brightness temperatures are slightly cooler than the Ks-band brightness temperature, and thus hint at the possibility of a modest temperature inversion deep in the atmosphere of WASP-12b; the high-pressure, deep atmospheric layers probed by our J- and H-band observations are likely more homogenized than the higher altitude layer probed by our Ks-band observations. Lastly, our best-fit Ks-band eclipse has a marginally longer duration than would otherwise be expected; this may be tentative evidence for

  17. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  18. Pure And Modified Co-poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide) Membranes For Gas Separation Studied By Molecular Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Elena; De Lorenzo, Luana; Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Macchione, Marialuigia; Drioli, Enrico

    2010-10-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate transport properties in a pure and modified poly(amide-12-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBAX®2533) block copolymer membrane with N-ethylo,p-toluenesulphonamide (KET) as additive molecules. MD simulations using COMPASS force field, Gusev-Suter Transition State Theory (TST) and Monte Carlo methods have been used. Bulk models of PEBAX®2533 and PEBAX/KET in different copolymer/additive compositions have been assembled and analysed to evaluate gas permeability and the morphology to characterize structure-performance relationships.

  19. Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wayne A.

    This monograph was written for the Conference of the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for students who have had an introductory college physics course. It seeks to provide an introduction to the idea of distributions in general, and to some aspects of the subject in…

  20. Overexpression of soybean R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, and tolerance to UV radiation and salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, X W; Wang, Y; Yan, F; Li, J W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Zhai, Y; Wang, Q Y

    2016-05-25

    MYB, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog, proteins play central roles in plant stress response. Previously, we identified a novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, which affected the expression levels of some key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of GmMYB12B2 under salt, low temperature, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation treatments in soybean using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of GmMYB12B2 was drastically induced by UV irradiation and salt treatment, but no response was detected under low temperature, drought, and ABA stresses. A detailed characterization of the GmMYB12B2 overexpression lines revealed that GmMYB12B2 might be involved in response of plants to UV radiation and salt stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing GmMYB12B2 showed an increased tolerance to salt and UV radiation treatment compared with wild-type plants. The expression levels of certain salt stress-responsive genes, such as DREB2A and RD17, were found to be elevated in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that GmMYB12B2 acts as a regulator in the plant stress response.

  1. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  2. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Maharaj, Payal D.; Delorey, Mark J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Kinney, Richard M.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. WNV strains isolated in North America, such as the prototype strain NY99, elicit a highly pathogenic response in certain avian species, notably American crows (AMCRs; Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a closely related strain, KN3829, isolated in Kenya, exhibits a low viremic response with limited mortality in AMCRs. Previous work has associated the difference in pathogenicity primarily with a single amino acid mutation at position 249 in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein. The NY99 strain encodes a proline residue at this position, while KN3829 encodes a threonine. Introduction of an NS3-T249P mutation in the KN3829 genetic background significantly increased virulence and mortality; however, peak viremia and mortality were lower than those of NY99. In order to elucidate the viral genetic basis for phenotype variations exclusive of the NS3-249 polymorphism, chimeric NY99/KN3829 viruses were created. We show herein that differences in the NS1-2B region contribute to avian pathogenicity in a manner that is independent of and additive with the NS3-249 mutation. Additionally, NS1-2B residues were found to alter temperature sensitivity when grown in avian cells. PMID:27548738

  3. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-06

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  4. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  5. Molecular analysis of hyperthermophilic endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima and the properties of its functional residues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although many hyperthermophilic endoglucanases have been reported from archaea and bacteria, a complete survey and classification of all sequences in these species from disparate evolutionary groups, and the relationship between their molecular structures and functions are lacking. The completion of several high-quality gene or genome sequencing projects provided us with the unique opportunity to make a complete assessment and thorough comparative analysis of the hyperthermophilic endoglucanases encoded in archaea and bacteria. Results Structure alignment of the 19 hyperthermophilic endoglucanases from archaea and bacteria which grow above 80°C revealed that Gly30, Pro63, Pro83, Trp115, Glu131, Met133, Trp135, Trp175, Gly227 and Glu229 are conserved amino acid residues. In addition, the average percentage composition of residues cysteine and histidine of 19 endoglucanases is only 0.28 and 0.74 while it is high in thermophilic or mesophilic one. It can be inferred from the nodes that there is a close relationship among the 19 protein from hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea based on phylogenetic analysis. Among these conserved amino acid residues, as far as Cel12B concerned, two Glu residues might be the catalytic nucleophile and proton donor, Gly30, Pro63, Pro83 and Gly227 residues might be necessary to the thermostability of protein, and Trp115, Met133, Trp135, Trp175 residues is related to the binding of substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis results reveal that Pro63 and Pro83 contribute to the thermostability of Cel12B and Met133 is confirmed to have role in enhancing the binding of substrate. Conclusions The conserved acids have been shown great importance to maintain the structure, thermostability, as well as the similarity of the enzymatic properties of those proteins. We have made clear the function of these conserved amino acid residues in Cel12B protein, which is helpful in analyzing other undetailed molecular structure and transforming them

  6. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  7. Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines with potent photo-antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Virginia; Giallombardo, Daniele; Cilibrasi, Vincenzo; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Frasson, Ilaria; Salvador, Alessia; Richter, Sara N; Doria, Filippo; Freccero, Mauro; Cascioferro, Stella; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2017-03-10

    Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines were synthesized as a new class of tricyclic system in which the pyridine ring is annelated to a cycloheptapyrrole scaffold, with the aim of obtaining new photosensitizing agents with improved antiproliferative activity and lower undesired toxic effects. A versatile synthetic pathway was approached, which allowed the isolation of derivatives of the title ring system with a good substitution pattern on the pyrrole moiety. Photobiological studies revealed that the majority of the new compounds showed a potent cytotoxic effect upon photoactivation with light of the proper wavelength, especially when decorated with a 2-ethoxycabonyl group and a N-benzyl substituted moiety, with EC50 values reaching the submicromolar level. The mechanism of action was evaluated.

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GAS DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE EXOPLANET WASP-12b AND ITS HOST STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bisikalo, D.; Kaygorodov, P.; Ionov, D.; Shematovich, V.; Lammer, H.; Fossati, L.

    2013-02-10

    Hubble Space Telescope transit observations in the near-UV performed in 2009 made WASP-12b one of the most 'mysterious' exoplanets; the system presents an early ingress, which can be explained by the presence of optically thick matter located ahead of the planet at a distance of {approx}4-5 planet radii. This work follows previous attempts to explain this asymmetry with an exospheric outflow or a bow shock, induced by a planetary magnetic field, and provides a numerical solution of the early ingress, though we did not perform any radiative transfer calculation. We performed pure 3D gas dynamic simulations of the plasma interaction between WASP-12b and its host star and describe the flow pattern in the system. In particular, we show that the overfilling of the planet's Roche lobe leads to a noticeable outflow from the upper atmosphere in the direction of the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points. Due to the conservation of the angular momentum, the flow to the L{sub 1} point is deflected in the direction of the planet's orbital motion, while the flow toward L{sub 2} is deflected in the opposite direction, resulting in a non-axisymmetric envelope, surrounding the planet. The supersonic motion of the planet inside the stellar wind leads to the formation of a bow shock with a complex shape. The existence of the bow shock slows down the outflow through the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points, allowing us to consider a long-living flow structure that is in the steady state.

  9. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  10. Polar Code Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Unclassified 2a SECURITY CLASSiF-ICATiON AUTHORIT’Y 3 DIStRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REPORT N,A Approved for public release; 2o DECLASSIFICAIiON DOWNGRADING SCH DI...SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3 . POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL-ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...11 Structure of the Bipolar Plasma Sheath Generated by SPEAR I ... ...... 1 3 The POLAR Code Wake Model: Comparison with in Situ Observations . . 23

  11. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  12. Letting the Data Lead the Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Page 1 of 4 UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. Letting the Data Lead the Code Darryl Bryk...used can radically simplify the code . A simple change to the way data is stored in a file can make a big difference in the code required to read it...This was made apparent recently with some Visual Basic code which would locate a list of numbers based on certain search criteria. The code was about

  13. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  14. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  15. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  16. KELT-12b: A P ∼ 5 day, Highly Inflated Hot Jupiter Transiting a Mildly Evolved Hot Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Daniel J.; Collins, Karen A.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Bieryla, Allyson; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Crepp, Justin R.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Coker, Carl T.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Latham, David W.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zambelli, Roberto; Bozza, Valerio; Reed, Phillip A.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Penny, Matthew T.; Pepper, Joshua; Berlind, Perry; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Calkins, Michael L.; D’Ago, Giuseppe; Eastman, Jason D.; Bayliss, D.; Colón, Knicole D.; Curtis, Ivan A.; DePoy, D. L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D.; Kielkopf, John F.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Manner, Mark; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McLeod, Kim K.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Pogge, Richard W.; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denise C.; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T. G.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    We announce the discovery of KELT-12b, a highly inflated Jupiter-mass planet transiting the mildly evolved, V = 10.64 host star TYC 2619-1057-1. We followed up the initial transit signal in the KELT-North survey data with precise ground-based photometry, high-resolution spectroscopy, precise radial velocity measurements, and high-resolution adaptive optics imaging. Our preferred best-fit model indicates that the host star has {T}{eff} = 6279 ± 51 K, {log}{g}\\star = 3.89 ± 0.05, [Fe/H] = {0.19}-0.09+0.08, {M}* = {1.59}-0.09+0.07 {M}ȯ , and {R}* = 2.37 ± 0.17 {R}ȯ . The planetary companion has {M}{{P}} = 0.95 ± 0.14 {M}{{J}}, {R}{{P}} = {1.78}-0.16+0.17 {R}{{J}}, {log}{g}{{P}} = {2.87}-0.10+0.09, and density {ρ }{{P}} = {0.21}-0.05+0.07 g cm‑3, making it one of the most inflated giant planets known. Furthermore, for future follow-up, we report a high-precision time of inferior conjunction in {{BJD}}{TDB} of 2,457,083.660459 ± 0.000894 and period of P=5.0316216+/- 0.000032 days. Despite the relatively large separation of ∼0.07 au implied by its ∼5.03-day orbital period, KELT-12b receives significant flux of {2.38}-0.29+0.32× {10}9 erg s‑1 cm‑2 from its host. We compare the radii and insolations of transiting gas giant planets around hot ({T}{eff}≥slant 6250 K) and cool stars, noting that the observed paucity of known transiting giants around hot stars with low insolation is likely due to selection effects. We underscore the significance of long-term ground-based monitoring of hot stars and space-based targeting of hot stars with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite to search for inflated gas giants in longer-period orbits.

  17. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  18. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  19. Synthesis of Tetrahydro-1H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine via Cascade Cyclization and Friedel-Crafts Reaction.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Upasana; Borah, Madhurjya; Deka, Manash J; Saikia, Anil K

    2016-10-07

    A convenient protocol has been established for the synthesis of 1-tosyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine via cascade cyclization and Friedel-Crafts reaction of 4-methyl-N-(pent-4-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamides and aldehydes in good yields. The methodology has been used for the total synthesis of the antidepressant agent (±)-5-phenyl-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine.

  20. Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-23

    for distribution to a specific delivery post office, identified by the fourth and fifth digits. For example, the ZIP Code for Alturas , the county seat...distribution point for some California post offices such as Alturas , Cedarville (96104), Fort Bidwell (96112), and Likely (96116), distinguished by the

  1. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  2. Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outb...

  3. RE-EVALUATING WASP-12b: STRONG EMISSION AT 2.315 {mu}m, DEEPER OCCULTATIONS, AND AN ISOTHERMAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Tanaka, Ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2012-12-01

    We revisit the atmospheric properties of the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b in light of several new developments. First, we present new narrowband (2.315 {mu}m) secondary eclipse photometry, which exhibits a planet/star flux ratio of 0.45% {+-} 0.06%, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 3640 {+-} 230 K; second, recent Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations; and third, a recently observed star only 1'' from WASP-12, which has diluted previous observations and which we further characterize here. We correct past WASP-12b eclipse measurements for the presence of this object, and we revisit the interpretation of WASP-12b's dilution-corrected emission spectrum. The resulting planetary emission spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody, and consequently our primary conclusion is that the planet's infrared photosphere is nearly isothermal. Thus, secondary eclipse spectroscopy is relatively ill suited to constrain WASP-12b's atmospheric abundances, and transmission spectroscopy may be necessary to achieve this goal.

  4. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Securities on National Securities Exchanges and Similar Matters § 249.210 Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities...

  5. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Securities on National Securities Exchanges and Similar Matters § 249.210 Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities...

  6. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Securities on National Securities Exchanges and Similar Matters § 249.210 Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities...

  7. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities on National Securities Exchanges and Similar Matters § 249.210 Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities...

  8. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Securities on National Securities Exchanges and Similar Matters § 249.210 Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities...

  9. Definition of polymorphisms and haplotypes in the interleukin-12B gene: association with IL-12 production but not with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zwiers, A; Seegers, D; Heijmans, R; Koch, A; Hampe, J; Nikolaus, S; Peña, A S; Schreiber, S; Bouma, G

    2004-12-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key cytokine for the induction of Th1 immune responses. Recently, functional polymorphisms in IL-12p40 (IL12B) were found to be associated with susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases. Similarly, variation in IL12B might be involved in susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder associated with high IL-12 expression. We searched for additional polymorphism in IL12B and genotyped a large cohort of CD patients. Differential in vitro secretors of IL-12 were tested for polymorphism. Polymorphisms were analyzed using the intrafamilial transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and by case-control analysis. A novel polymorphism was strongly associated with differential expression of IL-12. However, no association with susceptibility to CD was seen for this and other polymorphisms. The high level of conservation is consistent with the key regulatory role of IL-12. The lack of association with IL12B makes it unlikely that this gene is directly involved in the susceptibility to CD.

  10. Efficient traceless solid-phase synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrazino[1,2-b]indazoles and their 6-oxides.

    PubMed

    Pudelová, Nadezda; Krchnák, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient novel traceless solid-phase synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrazino[1,2-b]indazoles and their 6-oxides was developed by using commercially available building blocks, diamines, 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chlorides, and bromoketones/bromoacetates. Mild reaction conditions, diversely substituted building blocks, and high purity of crude products enabled effective combinatorial syntheses of libraries.

  11. Results of Bioventing System Monitoring at Sites ST12-A and ST12-B, Waikakalaua Fuel Storage Annex (FSA), Hickam Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) System, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This letter presents the results of the bioventing system monitoring performed by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES) in December 1996 at...completed during approximately 3.5 years of air injection bioventing at Site ST 12-A and 1 year of air injection bioventing at Site ST 12- B. The purpose of

  12. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined.

  13. Applications of Coding in Network Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Christopher SungWook

    2012-01-01

    This thesis uses the tool of network coding to investigate fast peer-to-peer file distribution, anonymous communication, robust network construction under uncertainty, and prioritized transmission. In a peer-to-peer file distribution system, we use a linear optimization approach to show that the network coding framework significantly simplifies…

  14. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semianalytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection, designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) delineation. A complete news item appeared in Eos, May 1, 1990, p. 690.The model consists of four independent, semianalytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  15. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semi-analytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection. It is designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of WHPA delineation.The model consists of four independent, semi-analytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  16. SU-E-T-753: Three-Dimensional Dose Distributions of Incident Proton Particle in the Polymer Gel Dosimeter and the Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter: A Simulation Study with MCNP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Kim, G; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Park, S; Jung, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the three-dimensional dose distributions in the polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter, and to identify the detectability of both gel dosimeters by comparing with the water phantom in case of irradiating the proton particles. Methods: The normoxic polymer gel and the LCV micelle radiochromic gel were used in this study. The densities of polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX, Los Alamos National Laboratory). The shape of phantom irradiated by proton particles was a hexahedron with the dimension of 12.4 × 12.4 × 15.0 cm{sup 3}. The energies of proton beam were 50, 80, and 140 MeV energies were directed to top of the surface of phantom. The cross-sectional view of proton dose distribution in both gel dosimeters was estimated with the water phantom and evaluated by the gamma evaluation method. In addition, the absorbed dose(Gy) was also calculated for evaluating the proton detectability. Results: The evaluation results show that dose distributions in both gel dosimeters at intermediated section and Bragg-peak region are similar with that of the water phantom. At entrance section, however, inconsistencies of dose distribution are represented, compared with water. The relative absorbed doses in radiochromic and polymer gel dosimeter were represented to be 0.47 % and 2.26 % difference, respectively. These results show that the radiochromic gel dosimeter was better matched than the water phantom in the absorbed dose evaluation. Conclusion: The polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar characteristics in dose distributions for the proton beams at intermediate section and Bragg-peak region. Moreover the calculated absorbed dose in both gel dosimeters represents similar tendency by comparing with that in water phantom.

  17. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  18. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland.

  19. Bandwidth efficient block codes for M-ary PSK modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    A class of bandwidth efficient block codes for M-ary PSK modulation is presented. A soft-decision decoding for this class of codes is devised. Some specific short codes for Quad Phase Shift Key (QPSK), 8-PSK and 16-PSK modulations are constructed. These codes have good minimum squared Euclidean distances and provide 2 to 5.8 dB coding gains over uncoded QPSK modulation without (or with little) bandwidth expansion. The complete weight distributions of these specific codes are determined. Based on these weight distributions, their error probabilities are evaluated. Some of these codes have simple trellis structures and hence can be decoded by Viterbi decoding algorithm with relatively simple implementation. Moreover, the codes are very suitable for use as inner codes for various cascaded coding schemes with Reed-Solomon codes as outer codes.

  20. Implementation of a Two-Phase Boiling Model into the RELAP5/MOD2 Computer Code to Predict Void Distribution in Low-Pressure Subcooled Boiling Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, G.H.; Tu, J.Y.

    2002-02-15

    This paper demonstrates that the empirical models developed for subcooled flow boiling in RELAP5/MOD2 at high pressures are not valid for applications at low pressures. Modifications carried out in RELAP5/MOD2 to include better correlations of the interphase heat transfer and mean bubble diameter, and the wall heat flux partition model are shown to yield substantial improvements in the predictions of the axial void fraction distribution. When compared against experimental data covering a wide range of heat fluxes and flow rates, predicted axial void fraction profiles follow closely the measured data. Predictions made by the default subcooled boiling model show, however, an unacceptable margin of error with the experimental data.

  1. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  2. Efficient pallado-catalyzed C6-(het)arylation of Imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Pellegatti, Laurent; Vedrenne, Emeline; Leger, Jean-Michel; Jarry, Christian; Routier, Sylvain

    2010-07-12

    A versatile protocol for the preparation of a library of 5,6-(het)bisarylated imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines is described. Target compounds were obtained in fairly good yields, starting from ethoxy-7-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine and a large panel of bromoaryl derivatives, using palladium catalysis under microwave irradiation. Compatibility with various chemical groups and heterocycles was proven. Steric and electronic effects do not have any effect on the efficiency of the reaction. Purifications were performed without any difficulties, and the structure of a final compound was proven by crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  3. THE TRANSIT LIGHT-CURVE PROJECT. XIV. CONFIRMATION OF ANOMALOUS RADII FOR THE EXOPLANETS TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tucker; Ingemyr, Mikael; Winn, Joshua N.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Holman, Matthew J.; Esquerdo, Gil; Everett, Mark

    2011-06-15

    We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems' parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be 'bloated' planets, with radii of 1.706 {+-} 0.056R{sub Jup} and 1.736 {+-} 0.092R{sub Jup}, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 {+-} 0.055R{sub Jup}, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

  4. Downregulation of miRNA-134 protects neural cells against ischemic injury in N2A cells and mouse brain with ischemic stroke by targeting HSPA12B.

    PubMed

    Chi, W; Meng, F; Li, Y; Wang, Q; Wang, G; Han, S; Wang, P; Li, J

    2014-09-26

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a major regulator in neurological diseases, and understanding their molecular mechanism in modulating cerebral ischemic injury may provide potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. However, as one of 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in mouse brain with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), the role of miR-134 in ischemic injury is not well understood. In this study, the miR-134 expression level was manipulated both in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated N2A neuroblastoma cells in vitro and mouse brain with MCAO-induced ischemic stroke in vivo, and its possible targets of heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5) and HSPA12B were determined by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase assay. The results showed that overexpression of miR-134 exacerbated cell death and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, downregulating miR-134 levels reduced cell death and apoptosis. Furthermore, non-expression of miR-134 enhanced HSPA12B protein levels in OGD-treated N2A cells as well as in the ischemic region. It could attenuate brain infarction size and neural cell damage, and improve neurological outcomes in mice with ischemic stroke, whereas upregulation of miR-134 had the opposite effect. In addition, HSPA12B was validated to be a target of miR-134 and its short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) could block miR-134 inhibitor-induced neuroprotection in OGD-treated N2A cells. In conclusion, downregulation of miR-134 could induce neuroprotection against ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo by negatively upregulating HSPA12B protein expression.

  5. Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) water extract on inhibition of adipocyte conversion of C3H10T1/2B2C1 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakai, R; Masui, H; Horio, H; Ohtsuru, M

    1999-06-01

    We investigated the effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) water extract on inhibiting the conversion of C3H10T1/2B2C1 cells into adipocytes. Maitake water extract was fractionated by molecular sieve. Heat-labile compounds strongly inhibiting adipocyte conversion proved to occur in fractions of molecular weight of more than 10,000 on the basis of activity measurement of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  6. OPTICAL AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF M31N 2007-12b: AN EXTRAGALACTIC RECURRENT NOVA WITH A DETECTED PROGENITOR?

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Hilton, T.; Shafter, A. W.; Page, K. L.; Smirnova, O.; Anupama, G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report combined optical and X-ray observations of nova M31N 2007-12b. Optical spectroscopy obtained 5 days after the 2007 December outburst shows evidence of very high ejection velocities (FWHM Halpha approx = 4500 km s{sup -1}). In addition, Swift X-ray data show that M31N 2007-12b is associated with a Super-Soft Source (SSS) which appeared between 21 and 35 days post-outburst and turned off between then and day 169. Our analysis implies that M {sub WD} approx> 1.3 M {sub sun} in this system. The optical light curve, spectrum, and X-ray behavior are consistent with those of a recurrent nova. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the pre-outburst location of M31N 2007-12b reveal the presence of a coincident stellar source with magnitude and color very similar to the Galactic recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi at quiescence, where the red giant secondary dominates the emission. We believe that this is the first occasion on which a nova progenitor system has been identified in M31. However, the greatest similarities of outburst optical spectrum and SSS behavior are with the supposed Galactic recurrent nova V2491 Cygni. A previously implied association of M31N 2007-12b with nova M31N 1969-08a is shown to be erroneous, and this has important lessons for future searches for recurrent novae in extragalactic systems. Overall, we show that suitable complementary X-ray and optical observations can be used not only to identify recurrent nova candidates in M31, but also to determine subtypes and important physical parameters of these systems. Prospects are therefore good for extending studies of recurrent novae into the Local Group with the potential to explore in more detail such important topics as their proposed link to Type Ia Supernovae.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 9-oxo-9H-indeno[1,2-b]pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile analogues as potential inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Matteo; Vallese, Stefania; Peretto, Ilaria; Jacq, Xavier; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Colland, Frédéric; Guedat, Philippe

    2010-04-06

    High-throughput screening highlighted 9-oxo-9H-indeno[1,2-b]pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile (1) as an active inhibitor of ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs), a family of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the removal of ubiquitin from protein substrates. The chemical behavior of compound 1 was examined. Moreover, the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of new compounds, analogues of 1, led to the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8.

  8. QSAR of anticancer compounds. Bis(11-oxo-11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoline-6-carboxamides), bis(phenazine-1-carboxamides), and bis(naphthalimides).

    PubMed

    Mekapati, S B; Denny, W A; Kurup, A; Hansch, C

    2001-11-01

    QSAR have been developed for the anticancer activity (growth inhibition) of various tumor cells by bis(11-oxo-11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoline-6-carboxamides), bis(phenazine-1-carboxamides), and bis(naphthalimides). Of the seven QSAR, positive hydrophobic interactions are found in only two examples: bis(naphthalimides) versus human colon cancer cells. This is consistent with other QSAR of anticancer compounds where hydrophobic interactions are found to be unimportant.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Nabid, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Seyed Jamal Tabatabaei; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin; Bazgir, Ayoob

    2010-01-01

    Triethylamine was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones by one-pot reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes, and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of this method are the use of an inexpensive and readily available catalyst, easy workup, improved yields, and the use of ethanol as a solvent that is considered to be relatively environmentally benign.

  10. Ultrasound-promoted one-pot, three-component synthesis of spiro[indoline-3,1'-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine] derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juxian; Bai, Xiaoguang; Xu, Changliang; Wang, Yucheng; Lin, Wei; Zou, Yi; Shi, Daqing

    2012-07-23

    A series of 3'-aminospiro[indoline-3,1'-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine]-2,5',10'-trione derivatives have been synthesized by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin, malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate and phthalhydrazide catalyzed by piperidine under ultrasound irradiation. For comparison the reactions were carried out under both conventional and ultrasonic conditions. In general, improvement in rates and yields were observed when the reactions were carried out under sonication compared with classical conditions.

  11. MCP1 SNPs and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cohorts from West Africa, the USA and Argentina: Lack of Association or Epistasis with IL12B Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Wejse, Christian; Hill, Philip C.; Morris, Gerard A. J.; Edwards, Todd L.; Gilbert, John R.; Myers, Jamie L.; Park, Yo Son; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Abbate, Eduardo; Estevan, Rosa; Rabna, Paulo; Novelli, Giuseppe; Hamilton, Carol D.; Adegbola, Richard; Østergaard, Lars; Williams, Scott M.; Scott, William K.; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes to M. tuberculosis infection sites, and previous studies have reported that genetic variants in MCP1 are associated with differential susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We examined eight MCP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic, case-control design that included: 321 cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau, 258 cases and 271 controls from The Gambia, 295 cases and 179 controls from the U.S. (African-Americans), and an additional set of 237 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the U.S. and Argentina. Two locus interactions were also examined for polymorphisms in MCP1 and interleukin 12B (IL12B), another gene implicated in PTB risk. Examination of previously associated MCP1 SNPs rs1024611 (−2581A/G), rs2857656 (−362G/C) and rs4586 (+900C/T) did not show evidence for association. One interaction between rs2857656 and IL12B SNP rs2288831 was observed among Africans but the effect was in the opposite direction in Guineans (OR = 1.90, p = 0.001) and Gambians (OR = 0.64, p = 0.024). Our data indicate that the effect of genetic variation within MCP1 is not clear cut and additional studies will be needed to elucidate its role in TB susceptibility. PMID:22384203

  12. Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical materials: Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwei; Liu, Lijuan; Jin, Shifeng; Yao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yihe; Chen, Chuangtian

    2013-12-11

    Deep-UV coherent light generated by nonlinear optical (NLO) materials possesses highly important applications in photonic technologies. Beryllium borates comprising anionic planar layers have been shown to be the most promising deep UV NLO materials. Here, two novel NLO beryllium borates Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 have been developed through cationic structural engineering. The most closely arranged [Be2BO5]∞ planar layers, connected by the flexible [B2O5] groups, have been found in their structures. This structural regulation strategy successfully resulted in the largest second harmonic generation (SHG) effects in the layered beryllium borates, which is ~1.3 and 1.4 times that of KDP for Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33, respectively. The deep-UV optical transmittance spectra based on single crystals indicated their short-wavelength cut-offs are down to ~170 nm. These results demonstrated that Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 possess very promising application as deep-UV NLO crystals.

  13. Effect of IL12A and IL12B polymorphisms on the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced tubal factor infertility and disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Öhman, H.; Bailey, R.; Natividad, A.; Ragoussis, J.; Johnson, L.-L.; Tiitinen, A.; Halttunen, M.; Paavonen, J.; Surcel, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and related cytokines induce activation and differentiation of T cells. Our aim was to investigate the associations between genetic differences in IL-12-family cytokines and the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. METHODS The final study population consisted of 100 women with Chlamydia trachomatis-induced tubal factor infertility (TFI) and 125 pregnant women as controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL12A and seven SNPs of IL12B genes were determined from isolated DNA using the Sequenom system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. RESULTS We found that the IL12B SNP rs3212227 was associated with both susceptibility and severity of TFI. The minor allele C was rare and only one CC homozygote was found among the controls. AC heterozygotes were more common among TFI cases than among controls (P = 0.009) and were associated with increased risk of TFI [odds ratios (OR) = 2.44, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.23–4.87]. Carrying the minor allele C was also associated with disease severity (P for trend = 0.008) and moderate (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.06–5.95) and severe tubal damage (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.15–6.52). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that variation in the IL12B gene partly explains inter-individual differences in disease susceptibility and severity. PMID:22581790

  14. New efficient organic dyes employing indeno[1,2-b]indole as the donor moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xing; Yan, Rucai; Xu, Chong; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Hou, Linxi

    2016-11-01

    A new series of organic dyes based on indeno[1,2-b]indole have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the first time. These four dyes QX11-14 are constructed to a D-π-A type structure consisting of an indeno[1,2-b]indole donor and a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group. Different π-bridges (thiophene and furan) and different alkyl groups (ethyl and hexyl) are involved to tune the photoelectric properties. Their optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as the density functional theory calculations have been systematically investigated, indicating these four dyes are all capable as photosensitizers. The four dyes all show good DSSC performances and a highest power conversion efficiency up to 7.64% with a Jsc of 15.8 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 763 mV has been achieved by the dye QX12 with a furan π-bridge and a pair of ethyl groups, which reaches 95% of the commercial N719 dye (8.07%) under AM 1.5G illumination. This result reveals indeno[1,2-b]indole is a promising electron donor to construct efficient organic dyes for DSSCs.

  15. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  16. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  17. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  18. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements. PMID:17288582

  19. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  20. [Pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,3,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo(1,2-b)phthalazine-1,3-dione, a new compound with anti-inflammatory activity].

    PubMed

    Dalla Vedova, R; Cadel, S; D'Alò, G

    1980-06-01

    As part of research on 1H-pyrazole[1,2-b]phthalazine compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, the results of preliminary pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,2,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,3-dione are reported.

  1. Fallout Computer Codes. A Bibliographic Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    of time. The model calculates g(t) by assuming that fallout descends from a nuclear cloud that is characterized initially by a Gaussian distribution in...features and differences among the major radioactive fallout models and computer codes that are either in current use or that form the basis for more...contemporary codes and other computational tools. The DELFIC, WSEG-10, KDFOC2, SEER3, and DNAF-1 codes and the EM-I model are addressed. The review is

  2. Turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    Turbo codes were recently proposed by Berrou, Glavieux, and Thitimajshima, and it has been claimed these codes achieve near-Shannon-limit error correction performance with relatively simple component codes and large interleavers. A required E(b)/N(o) of 0.7 dB was reported for a bit error rate of 10(exp -5), using a rate 1/2 turbo code. However, some important details that are necessary to reproduce these results were omitted. This article confirms the accuracy of these claims, and presents a complete description of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for deep-space applications, where lower rate codes can be used. We describe a new simple method for trellis termination, analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and introduce the use of unequal rate component codes, which yield better performance.

  3. Genetic code, hamming distance and stochastic matrices.

    PubMed

    He, Matthew X; Petoukhov, Sergei V; Ricci, Paolo E

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we use the Gray code representation of the genetic code C=00, U=10, G=11 and A=01 (C pairs with G, A pairs with U) to generate a sequence of genetic code-based matrices. In connection with these code-based matrices, we use the Hamming distance to generate a sequence of numerical matrices. We then further investigate the properties of the numerical matrices and show that they are doubly stochastic and symmetric. We determine the frequency distributions of the Hamming distances, building blocks of the matrices, decomposition and iterations of matrices. We present an explicit decomposition formula for the genetic code-based matrix in terms of permutation matrices, which provides a hypercube representation of the genetic code. It is also observed that there is a Hamiltonian cycle in a genetic code-based hypercube.

  4. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  5. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  6. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  7. Development of probabilistic multimedia multipathway computer codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Biwer, B. M.; Cheng, J.-J.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Mo, T.; Abu-Eid, R.; Thaggard, M.; Sallo, A., III.; Peterson, H., Jr.; Williams, W. A.; Environmental Assessment; NRC; EM

    2002-01-01

    The deterministic multimedia dose/risk assessment codes RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD have been widely used for many years for evaluation of sites contaminated with residual radioactive materials. The RESRAD code applies to the cleanup of sites (soils) and the RESRAD-BUILD code applies to the cleanup of buildings and structures. This work describes the procedure used to enhance the deterministic RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes for probabilistic dose analysis. A six-step procedure was used in developing default parameter distributions and the probabilistic analysis modules. These six steps include (1) listing and categorizing parameters; (2) ranking parameters; (3) developing parameter distributions; (4) testing parameter distributions for probabilistic analysis; (5) developing probabilistic software modules; and (6) testing probabilistic modules and integrated codes. The procedures used can be applied to the development of other multimedia probabilistic codes. The probabilistic versions of RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes provide tools for studying the uncertainty in dose assessment caused by uncertain input parameters. The parameter distribution data collected in this work can also be applied to other multimedia assessment tasks and multimedia computer codes.

  8. HAT-P-12b: A LOW-DENSITY SUB-SATURN MASS PLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR K DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Pal, A.; Latham, D. W.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Kovacs, Gabor; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.

    2009-11-20

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-12b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V approx 12.8 K4 dwarf GSC 03033 - 00706, with a period P = 3.2130598 +- 0.0000021 d, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454419.19556 +- 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.0974 +- 0.0006 d. The host star has a mass of 0.73 +- 0.02 M{sub sun}, radius of 0.70{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01} R{sub sun}, effective temperature 4650 +- 60 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.29 +- 0.05. We find a slight correlation between the observed spectral line bisector spans and the radial velocity, so we consider, and rule out, various blend configurations including a blend with a background eclipsing binary, and hierarchical triple systems where the eclipsing body is a star or a planet. We conclude that a model consisting of a single star with a transiting planet best fits the observations, and show that a likely explanation for the apparent correlation is contamination from scattered moonlight. Based on this model, the planetary companion has a mass of 0.211 +- 0.012 M{sub J} and radius of 0.959{sup +0.029}{sub -0.021} R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.295 +- 0.025 g cm{sup -3}. Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-12b is consistent with a approx1-4.5 Gyr, mildly irradiated, H/He-dominated planet with a core mass M{sub C} approx< 10 M {sub +}. HAT-P-12b is thus the least massive H/He-dominated gas giant planet found to date. This record was previously held by Saturn.

  9. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.

  10. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  11. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald P.; Franke, Brian C.; Laub, Thomas W.

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  12. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  13. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  14. FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

  15. Software infrastructure progress in the RAVEN code

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Rabiti, Cristian; Permann, Cody J.

    2015-03-01

    The milestones have been achieved. RAVEN has been migrated to Gitlab which adds new abilities for code review and management. Standalone RAVEN framework packages have been created for OSX and two Linux distributions.

  16. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  17. Haplotypes of IL12B promoter polymorphisms condition susceptibility to severe malaria and functional changes in cytokine levels in Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Phawong, Chintana; Ouma, Collins; Tangteerawatana, Piyatida; Thongshoob, Jarinee; Were, Tom; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Perkins, Douglas Jay; Khusmith, Srisin

    2010-06-01

    Polymorphic variability in immune response genes, such as IL12B, encoding the IL-12p40 subunit is associated with susceptibility to severe malaria in African populations. Since the role of genetic variation in conditioning severe malaria in Thai adults is largely unexplored, the functional association between IL12B polymorphisms [i.e. IL12Bpro (rs17860508) and IL12B 3' UTR T/G (rs3212227)], severe malaria and cytokine production was examined in patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections (n = 355) recruited from malaria endemic areas along the Thai-Myanmar border in northwest Thailand. Circulating IL-12p40 (p = 0.049) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.051) were elevated in patients with severe malaria, while only IL-12p40 was significantly higher in severe malaria patients with hyperparasitaemia (p = 0.046). Carriage of the IL12Bpro1.1 genotype was associated with enhanced severity of malaria (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 0.94-5.81; p = 0.066) and hyperparasitaemia (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.17-9.87; p = 0.025) relative to the IL12Bpro2.2 genotype (wild type). Individuals with the IL12Bpro1.1 genotype also had the lowest IL-12p40 (p = 0.002) and the highest IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) levels. Construction of haplotypes revealed that carriage of the IL12Bpro-2/3' UTR-T haplotype was associated with protection against severe malaria (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; p = 0.020) and reduced circulating IFN-gamma (p = 0.06). Thus, genotypic and haplotypic variation at IL12Bpro and IL12B 3' UTR in this population influences susceptibility to severe malaria and functional changes in circulating IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma levels. Results presented here suggest that protection against severe malaria in Thai adults is associated with genotypic variants that condition enhanced IL-12p40 and reduced IFN-gamma levels.

  18. 17 CFR 240.12b-25 - Notification of inability to timely file all or any required portion of a Form 10-K, 20-F, 11-K...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... timely file all or any required portion of a Form 10-K, 20-F, 11-K, N-SAR, N-CSR, 10-Q, or 10-D. 240.12b... timely file all or any required portion of a Form 10-K, 20-F, 11-K, N-SAR, N-CSR, 10-Q, or 10-D. (a) If..., annual or transition report on Form N-CSR (17 CFR 249.331; 17 CFR 274.128) or Form N-SAR (17 CFR...

  19. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  20. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  1. Gold-Catalyzed β-Regioselective Formal [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Ynamides with Pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yinghua; Chen, Gui; Zhu, Lei; Liao, Yun; Wu, Yufeng; Huang, Xueliang

    2016-09-16

    Here, we report an unprecedented gold(I)-induced β-site regioselective formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of ynamides with pyrido[1,2-b]indazoles, giving 3-amido-7-(pyrid-2'-yl)indoles in good to excellent yields. A complex of gold(I) catalyst with ynamide was isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis for the first time. Mechanistic investigations suggest the reaction pathway involves a gold-stabilized carbocation intermediate, which in turn participated in sequential C-H bond functionalization of the ortho-position of the phenyl ring.

  2. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  3. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  4. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  5. Development of Pharmacophore Model for Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Human Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors and Database Mining

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Samer; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Marminon, Christelle; Laitinen, Tuomo; Poso, Antti; Le Borgne, Marc; Jose, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2, initially designated as casein kinase 2, is an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase. This enzyme, implicated in many cellular processes, is highly expressed and active in many tumor cells. A large number of compounds has been developed as inhibitors comprising different backbones. Beside others, structures with an indeno[1,2-b]indole scaffold turned out to be potent new leads. With the aim of developing new inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2, we report here on the generation of common feature pharmacophore model to further explain the binding requirements for human CK2 inhibitors. Nine common chemical features of indeno[1,2-b]indole-type CK2 inhibitors were determined using MOE software (Chemical Computing Group, Montreal, Canada). This pharmacophore model was used for database mining with the aim to identify novel scaffolds for developing new potent and selective CK2 inhibitors. Using this strategy several structures were selected by searching inside the ZINC compound database. One of the selected compounds was bikaverin (6,11-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-1-methylbenzo[b]xanthene-7,10,12-trione), a natural compound which is produced by several kinds of fungi. This compound was tested on human recombinant CK2 and turned out to be an active inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.24 µM. PMID:28075359

  6. Interactions between photoacidic 3-hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium and cucurbit[7]uril: Influence on acidity in the ground and excited state

    PubMed Central

    Becher, Jonas; Berdnikova, Daria V; Dzubiel, Darinka; Pithan, Phil M

    2017-01-01

    3-Hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium was synthesized by cyclodehydration route and its optical properties in different media were investigated. The absorption and emission spectra of this compound depend on the pH of the solution. Thus, at higher pH values the deprotonation yields a merocyanine-type dye that exhibits significantly red-shifted absorption bands and causes a dual emisson, i.e., a combination of emission bands of the hydroxyquinolizinium and its deprotonated form. Whereas this compound is a weak acid in the ground state (pK a = 7.9), it has a strongly increased acidity in the excited state (pK a * = 0.4). As a result, the blue-shifted fluorescence of the hydroxyquinolizinium becomes dominant only under strongly acidic conditions. In addition, it is shown that 3-hydroxynaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium binds to cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) with moderate affinity (K b = 1.8 × 104 M−1, pH 5) and that the pK a and pK a * values of this ligand increase by about two to three orders of magnitude, respectively, when bound to CB[7]. PMID:28228861

  7. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  8. A Construction of Lossy Source Code Using LDPC Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Shigeki; Muramatsu, Jun

    Research into applying LDPC code theory, which is used for channel coding, to source coding has received a lot of attention in several research fields such as distributed source coding. In this paper, a source coding problem with a fidelity criterion is considered. Matsunaga et al. and Martinian et al. constructed a lossy code under the conditions of a binary alphabet, a uniform distribution, and a Hamming measure of fidelity criterion. We extend their results and construct a lossy code under the extended conditions of a binary alphabet, a distribution that is not necessarily uniform, and a fidelity measure that is bounded and additive and show that the code can achieve the optimal rate, rate-distortion function. By applying a formula for the random walk on lattice to the analysis of LDPC matrices on Zq, where q is a prime number, we show that results similar to those for the binary alphabet condition hold for Zq, the multiple alphabet condition.

  9. AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2002-11-01

    An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The δ W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ω problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

  10. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  11. Exploring atmospheres of hot mini-Neptune and extrasolar giant planets orbiting different stars with application to HD 97658b, WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, and HD 189733b

    SciTech Connect

    Miguel, Y.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2014-01-10

    We calculated an atmospheric grid for hot mini-Neptune and giant exoplanets that links astrophysical observable parameters—orbital distance and stellar type—with the chemical atmospheric species expected. The grid can be applied to current and future observations to characterize exoplanet atmospheres and serves as a reference to interpret atmospheric retrieval analysis results. To build the grid, we developed a one-dimensional code for calculating the atmospheric thermal structure and linked it to a photochemical model that includes disequilibrium chemistry (molecular diffusion, vertical mixing, and photochemistry). We compare the thermal profiles and atmospheric composition of planets at different semimajor axes (0.01 AU ≤ a ≤ 0.1 AU) orbiting F, G, K, and M stars. Temperature and UV flux affect chemical species in the atmosphere. We explore which effects are due to temperature and which are due to stellar characteristics, showing the species most affected in each case. CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O are the most sensitive to UV flux, H displaces H{sub 2} as the most abundant gas in the upper atmosphere for planets receiving a high UV flux. CH{sub 4} is more abundant for cooler planets. We explore vertical mixing, to inform degeneracies on our models and in the resulting spectral observables. For lower pressures, observable species like H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2} can indicate the efficiency of vertical mixing, with larger mixing ratios for a stronger mixing. By establishing the grid, testing the sensitivity of the results, and comparing our model to published results, our paper provides a tool to estimate what observations could yield. We apply our model to WASP-12b, CoRoT-2b, XO-1b, HD189733b, and HD97658b.

  12. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  13. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  14. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  15. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  16. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  17. Two Susceptibility Loci to Takayasu Arteritis Reveal a Synergistic Role of the IL12B and HLA-B Regions in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Chikashi; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Kimura, Akinori; Matsumura, Takayoshi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Takahashi, Meiko; Shimizu, Masakazu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Chen, Zhiyong; Naruse, Taeko K.; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ebana, Yusuke; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Murakami, Kosaku; Kawabata, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Narita, Ichiei; Tazaki, Junichi; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Yurugi, Kimiko; Miura, Yasuo; Maekawa, Taira; Ogawa, Seishi; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Yamada, Ryo; Tabara, Yasuharu; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although previous studies have revealed that HLA-B∗52:01 has an effect on TAK susceptibility, no other genetic determinants have been established so far. Here, we performed genome scanning of 167 TAK cases and 663 healthy controls via Illumina Infinium Human Exome BeadChip arrays, followed by a replication study consisting of 212 TAK cases and 1,322 controls. As a result, we found that the IL12B region on chromosome 5 (rs6871626, overall p = 1.7 × 10−13, OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.42–2.16) and the MLX region on chromosome 17 (rs665268, overall p = 5.2 × 10−7, OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.28–1.76) as well as the HLA-B region (rs9263739, a proxy of HLA-B∗52:01, overall p = 2.8 × 10−21, OR = 2.44, 95% CI 2.03–2.93) exhibited significant associations. A significant synergistic effect of rs6871626 and rs9263739 was found with a relative excess risk of 3.45, attributable proportion of 0.58, and synergy index of 3.24 (p ≤ 0.00028) in addition to a suggestive synergistic effect between rs665268 and rs926379 (p ≤ 0.027). We also found that rs6871626 showed a significant association with clinical manifestations of TAK, including increased risk and severity of aortic regurgitation, a representative severe complication of TAK. Detection of these susceptibility loci will provide new insights to the basic mechanisms of TAK pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that IL12B plays a fundamental role on the pathophysiology of TAK in combination with HLA-B∗52:01 and that common autoimmune mechanisms underlie the pathology of TAK and other autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases in which IL12B is involved as a genetic predisposing factor. PMID:23830516

  18. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  19. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  20. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  1. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Unsymmetrical Indenofluorene Analogues: Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[1,2-b]thiophene and Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[2,1-b]thiophene.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jonathan L; O'Neal, Nathaniel J; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M

    2016-05-06

    The synthesis and characterization of two benzo-indaceno-thiophene compounds (anti-BIT and syn-BIT) are described. Two sequential Suzuki cross-couplings utilizing the halogen selectivity of this reaction permit modular assembly of unsymmetrical indeno[1,2-b]fluorene analogues. Analysis of their cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectra reveal that the optical and electrochemical properties of the BITs lie between those of indeno[1,2-b]fluorenes and indacenodithiophene.

  3. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing. PMID:27140224

  4. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-03

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and effect of indeno[1,2-b]indole derivatives on prostate cancer in vitro. Potential effect against MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Gricela; Monasterios, Melina; Rodrigues, Juan; Gamboa, Neira; Capparelli, Mario V; Martínez-Cuevas, Javier; Lein, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Abramjuk, Claudia; Charris, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    A highly regiospecific synthesis of a series of indenoindoles is reported, together with X-ray studies and their activity against human prostate cancer cells PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro. The most effective compound 7,7-dimethyl-5-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)]-(4bRS,9bRS)-dihydroxy-4b,5,6,7,8,9bhexahydro-indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione 7q reduced the viability in both cell lines in a time and dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory effects were also observed on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of the prostate cancer cells as well as on clonogenic possibly by inhibition of MMP-9 activity. Molecular docking of 7q and 6k into MMP-9 human active site was also performed to determine the probable binding mode.

  6. Effect of chlorine substituent on cytotoxic activities: Design and synthesis of systematically modified 2,4-diphenyl-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Kadayat, Tara Man; Park, Seojeong; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Magar, Til Bahadur Thapa; Bist, Ganesh; Shrestha, Aarajana; Na, Younghwa; Kwon, Youngjoo; Lee, Eung-Seok

    2016-04-01

    In continuation of our previous work, six hydroxylated 2,4-diphenyl-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine analogs were modified by introducing one chlorine functionality at ortho, meta or para position of the 2- or 4-phenyl ring. Eighteen new chlorinated compounds were thus prepared and assessed for topoisomerase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against HCT15, T47D, and HeLa cancer cell lines. All of the chlorinated compounds displayed significant cytotoxic effect, revealing potent anticancer activity against T47D breast cancer cells. This functional group modification allowed us to explore the importance of chlorine group substitution for the cytotoxic properties. The information reported here provides valuable insight for further study to develop new anticancer agents using related scaffolds.

  7. Development of new highly potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines targeting Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Moine, Espérance; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Logé, Cédric; Pénichon, Mélanie; Moiré, Nathalie; Delehouzé, Claire; Foll-Josselin, Béatrice; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Gueiffier, Alain; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Denevault-Sabourin, Caroline

    2015-11-13

    Using a structure-based design approach, we have developed a new series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines, targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase-1 (CDPK1) from Toxoplasma gondii. Twenty derivatives were thus synthesized. Structure-activity relationships and docking studies confirmed the binding mode of these inhibitors within the ATP binding pocket of TgCDPK1. Two lead compounds (16a and 16f) were then identified, which were able to block TgCDPK1 enzymatic activity at low nanomolar concentrations, with a good selectivity profile against a panel of mammalian kinases. The potential of these inhibitors was confirmed in vitro on T. gondii growth, with EC50 values of 100 nM and 70 nM, respectively. These best candidates also displayed low toxicity to mammalian cells and were selected for further in vivo investigations on murine model of acute toxoplasmosis.

  8. Direct determination of nuclear polarization produced by beam-foil interaction for the short-lived. beta. emitter /sup 12/B

    SciTech Connect

    Nojiri, Y.; Deutch, B.I.

    1983-07-18

    Nuclear polarization P of the short-lived ..beta.. emitter /sup 12/B was produced by the beam-foil interaction and directly determined via asymmetric ..beta.. decay. For a single tilted foil, at boron energy E/sub B/ = 1.0 MeV, Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 1.82(14)%. This was enhanced to Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 4.69(46)% by stacking four tilted foils. The dependence of P vs E/sub B/ was observed for a single tilted foil in the range of E/sub B/ = 0.6 to 1.3 MeV. The sign of P followed that of the tilt angle and was consistent with predictions from electron-density-gradient models.

  9. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  10. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Serotype 1/2b Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Analogous Environmental Niches Demonstrates the Influence of Hypervariable Hotspots in Defining Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Aidan; Jordan, Kieran; Coffey, Aidan; Fox, Edward M.; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of clinical human listeriosis cases are caused by serotype 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The ability of L. monocytogenes to establish a systemic listeriosis infection within a host organism relies on a combination of genes that are involved in cell recognition, internalization, evasion of host defenses, and in vitro survival and growth. Recently, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis have proven to be powerful tools for the identification of these virulence-associated genes in L. monocytogenes. In this study, two serotype 1/2b strains of L. monocytogenes with analogous isolation sources, but differing infection abilities, were subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The results from this comparison highlight the importance of accessory genes (genes that are not part of the conserved core genome) in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis. In addition, a number of factors, which may account for the perceived inability of one of the strains to establish a systemic infection within its host, have been identified. These factors include the notable absence of the Listeria pathogenicity island 3 and the stress survival islet, of which the latter has been demonstrated to enhance the survival ability of L. monocytogenes during its passage through the host intestinal tract, leading to a higher infection rate. The findings from this research demonstrate the influence of hypervariable hotspots in defining the physiological characteristics of a L. monocytogenes strain and indicate that the emergence of a non-pathogenic isolate of L. monocytogenes may result from a cumulative loss of functionality rather than by a single isolated genetic event. PMID:28066772

  12. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallonn, M.; Nascimbeni, V.; Weingrill, J.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Herrero, E.; Sada, P. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Künstler, A.; Bernt, I.; Granzer, T.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. Aims: We want to investigate the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b for an increased absorption at the very blue wavelength regions caused by scattering. Furthermore, we aim for a refinement of the transit parameters and the orbital ephemeris. Methods: We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. Results: We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit parameters, the ephemeris and perform a TTV analysis in which we found no indication for an unseen companion. The host star showed a mild non-periodic variability of up to 1%. However, no stellar rotation period could be detected to high confidence.

  13. Roanoke College Student Conduct Code 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanoke Coll., VA.

    This Roanoke College (Virginia) 1990-91 conduct code manual is intended for distribution to students. A reproduction of the Academic Integrity and Student Conduct Code Form which all students must sign leads off the document. A section detailing the student conduct code explains the delegation of authority within the institution and describes the…

  14. 1 CFR 12.2 - Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Code of Federal Regulations. 12.2 Section 12.2... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.2 Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Copies of the Code of Federal Regulations in paper or microfiche form shall be made available...

  15. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, affects the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes encoding key enzymes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Su, Lian-Tai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2013-12-10

    Isoflavones play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are potentially important for human nutrition and health. To study the regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis in soybean, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor GmMYB12B2 was isolated and characterized. Yeast expression experiments demonstrated that GmMYB12B2 showed transcriptional activity. GmMYB12B2 was localized in the nucleus when it was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GmMYB12B2 transcription was increased in roots and mature seeds compared with other organs. The gene expression level in immature embryos was consistent with the accumulation of isoflavones. CHS8 is a key enzyme in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Transient expression experiments in soybean calli demonstrated that CHS8 was regulated by GmMYB12B2 and produced more fluorescence. The expression levels of some key enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The results showed that the expression levels of PAL1, CHS and FLS in transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild type plants. However, the expression level of DFR was lower, and the expression levels of CHI, F3H and F3'H were the same in all lines. GmMYB12B2 expression caused a constitutive increase in the accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared with wild type plants.

  16. Multispectral code excited linear prediction coding and its application in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Hu, J H; Wang, Y; Cahill, P T

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports a multispectral code excited linear prediction (MCELP) method for the compression of multispectral images. Different linear prediction models and adaptation schemes have been compared. The method that uses a forward adaptive autoregressive (AR) model has been proven to achieve a good compromise between performance, complexity, and robustness. This approach is referred to as the MFCELP method. Given a set of multispectral images, the linear predictive coefficients are updated over nonoverlapping three-dimensional (3-D) macroblocks. Each macroblock is further divided into several 3-D micro-blocks, and the best excitation signal for each microblock is determined through an analysis-by-synthesis procedure. The MFCELP method has been applied to multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images. To satisfy the high quality requirement for medical images, the error between the original image set and the synthesized one is further specified using a vector quantizer. This method has been applied to images from 26 clinical MR neuro studies (20 slices/study, three spectral bands/slice, 256x256 pixels/band, 12 b/pixel). The MFCELP method provides a significant visual improvement over the discrete cosine transform (DCT) based Joint Photographers Expert Group (JPEG) method, the wavelet transform based embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) coding method, and the vector tree (VT) coding method, as well as the multispectral segmented autoregressive moving average (MSARMA) method we developed previously.

  17. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  18. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  19. Multiple turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we introduce multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders. We analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and we describe simulation results on the improved performance of these new codes.

  20. On the parallelization of molecular dynamics codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabado, G. P.; Plata, O.; Zapata, E. L.

    2002-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) codes present a high degree of spatial data locality and a significant amount of independent computations. However, most of the parallelization strategies are usually based on the manual transformation of sequential programs either by completely rewriting the code with message passing routines or using specific libraries intended for writing new MD programs. In this paper we propose a new library-based approach (DDLY) which supports parallelization of existing short-range MD sequential codes. The novelty of this approach is that it can directly handle the distribution of common data structures used in MD codes to represent data (arrays, Verlet lists, link cells), using domain decomposition. Thus, the insertion of run-time support for distribution and communication in a MD program does not imply significant changes to its structure. The method is simple, efficient and portable. It may be also used to extend existing parallel programming languages, such as HPF.

  1. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  2. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  3. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  4. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  5. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2010-04-15

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  6. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.

  7. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  8. HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: evidence for aerosols and lack of TiO in the atmosphere of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, D. K.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Fortney, J. J.; Burrows, A. S.; Pont, F.; Wakeford, H. R.; Ballester, G. E.; Nikolov, N.; Henry, G. W.; Aigrain, S.; Deming, D.; Evans, T. M.; Gibson, N. P.; Huitson, C. M.; Knutson, H.; Showman, A. P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Wilson, P. A.; Williamson, M. H.; Zahnle, K.

    2013-12-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical transmission spectra of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b, taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument. The resulting spectra cover the range 2900-10 300 Å which we combined with archival Wide Field Camera 3 spectra and Spitzer photometry to cover the full optical to infrared wavelength regions. With high spatial resolution, we are able to resolve WASP-12A's stellar companion in both our images and spectra, revealing that the companion is in fact a close binary M0V pair, with the three stars forming a triple-star configuration. We derive refined physical parameters of the WASP-12 system, including the orbital ephemeris, finding the exoplanet's density is ˜20 per cent lower than previously estimated. From the transmission spectra, we are able to decisively rule out prominent absorption by TiO in the exoplanet's atmosphere, as there are no signs of the molecule's characteristic broad features nor individual bandheads. Strong pressure-broadened Na and K absorption signatures are also excluded, as are significant metal-hydride features. We compare our combined broad-band spectrum to a wide variety of existing aerosol-free atmospheric models, though none are satisfactory fits. However, we do find that the full transmission spectrum can be described by models which include significant opacity from aerosols: including Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, tholin haze and settling dust profiles. The transmission spectrum follows an effective extinction cross-section with a power law of index α, with the slope of the transmission spectrum constraining the quantity αT = -3528 ± 660 K, where T is the atmospheric temperature. Rayleigh scattering (α = -4) is among the best-fitting models, though requires low terminator temperatures near 900 K. Sub-micron size aerosol particles can provide equally good fits to the entire transmission spectrum for a wide range of temperatures, and we explore corundum as a

  9. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  10. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  11. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  12. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  13. Multi-level bandwidth efficient block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The multilevel technique is investigated for combining block coding and modulation. There are four parts. In the first part, a formulation is presented for signal sets on which modulation codes are to be constructed. Distance measures on a signal set are defined and their properties are developed. In the second part, a general formulation is presented for multilevel modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate Euclidean distances. The distance properties, Euclidean weight distribution and linear structure of multilevel modulation codes are investigated. In the third part, several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are proposed. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of code C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C. In the last part, error performance of block modulation codes is analyzed for an AWGN channel based on soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding. Error probabilities of some specific codes are evaluated based on their Euclidean weight distributions and simulation results.

  14. Stability of AB{prime}{sub 1/2}B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} mixed perovskite proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhide, S.V.; Virkar, A.V.

    1999-12-01

    Several mixed perovskites of the type A{sub 2}B{prime}B{double{underscore}prime}O{sub 6} (AB{prime}{sub 1/2}B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}), where A is Ba{sup +2} and B{prime} and B{double{underscore}prime} are trivalent and pentavalent ions, respectively, were synthesized by calcining requisite mixtures of BaCO{sub 3}, B{prime}{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 2}O{sub 5} in air. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of the perovskite phase in each of the samples synthesized. The as-calcined powders were boiled in water to examine their stabilities in water. All mixed perovskites were found to be stable. By contrast, BaCeO{sub 3} and BaPrO{sub 3} decomposed when boiled in water while BaZrO{sub 3} was found to be stable. Madelung energies of simple and mixed perovskites were computed. The higher stability of mixed perovskites compared to simple perovskites of the type ABO{sub 3}, such as BaCeO{sub 3} and BaPrO{sub 3}, where B is a tetravalent ion, was rationalized on the basis of lower Madelung energies of mixed perovskites.

  15. Phenolic indeno[1,2-b]indoles as ABCG2-selective potent and non-toxic inhibitors stimulating basal ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Honorat, Mylène; Guragossian, Nathalie; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    Ketonic indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives, initially designed as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors, were recently shown to be converted into efficient inhibitors of drug efflux by the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 upon suited substitutions including a N5-phenethyl on C-ring and hydrophobic groups on D-ring. A series of ten phenolic and seven p-quinonic derivatives were synthesized and screened for inhibition of both CK2 and ABCG2 activities. The best phenolic inhibitors were about threefold more potent against ABCG2 than the corresponding ketonic derivatives, and showed low cytotoxicity. They were selective for ABCG2 over both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), whereas the ketonic derivatives also interacted with MRP1, and they additionally displayed a lower interaction with CK2. Quite interestingly, they strongly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity, in contrast to ketonic derivatives, suggesting distinct binding sites. In contrast, the p-quinonic indenoindoles were cytotoxic and poor ABCG2 inhibitors, whereas a partial inhibition recovery could be reached upon hydrophobic substitutions on D-ring, similarly to the ketonic derivatives. PMID:26170632

  16. Effect of Fluorine Substitution on Photovoltaic Properties of Alkoxyphenyl Substituted Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-Based Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Beibei; Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Xuxian; He, Dingjun; Qiu, Lixia; Zou, Yingping; Zhang, Zhi-guo; Li, Yongfang

    2015-11-18

    Two new small molecules, C3T-BDTP and C3T-BDTP-F with alkoxyphenyl-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and meta-fluorinated-alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT as the central donor blocks, respectively, have been synthesized and used as donor materials in organic solar cells (OSCs). With the addition of 0.4% v/v 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), the blend of C3T-BDTP-F/PC71BM showed a higher hole mobility of 8.67 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) compared to that of the blend of C3T-BDTP/PC71BM. Two types of interlayers, zirconium acetylacetonate (ZrAcac) and perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives (PDINO and PDIN), were used to further optimize the performance of OSCs. With a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/donor:PC71BM/PDIN/Al, the OSCs based on C3T-BDTP delivered a satisfying power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.27% with an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.91 V, whereas the devices based on C3T-BDTP-F showed an enhanced PCE of 5.42% with a higher V(oc) of 0.97 V.

  17. New benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based small molecules containing alkoxyphenyl side chains for high efficiency solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Wen, Shuguang; Qiao, Shanlin; Liu, Qian; Ouyang, Dan; Wang, Ning; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-12-01

    A new acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecule, namely, BDT-PO-DPP, based on the alkoxyphenyl (PO)-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) derivative and the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit was synthesized as an electron donor for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs). BDT-PO-DPP exhibited good thermal stability, with a 5 % weight-lost temperature at 401 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. BDT-PO-DPP exhibited a lower HOMO energy level of -5.25 eV and a weaker aggregation ability than alkoxy-substituted BDT-O-DPP. A bulk heterojunction SMOSC device based on BDT-PO-DPP and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester was prepared, and it showed a power conversion efficiency up to 5.63% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, a short circuit current density of 11.23 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 60.37% by using 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the co-solvent after thermal annealing at 110 °C. The results indicate that the alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT derivative is a promising electron-donor building block for constructing highly efficient solution-processed SMOSCs.

  18. Synthesis of Some Spiro Indeno[1,2-b]pyrido[2,3-d]Pyrimidine-5,3′-Indolines as New Urease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Badiei, Alireza; Sharifi, Amirhossein; Amanlou, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    New series of spiro indeno[1,2-b]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5,3′-indolines as new urease inhibitors were synthesized by the catalytic procedure in high yield and short reaction time. In this method, biacidic carbon was prepared as a novel heterogeneous acid and was subsequently used as an efficient catalyst. The inhibitory activities of synthesized compounds were tested against Jack bean urease using Berthelot colorimetric assay and docking simulation using AutoDock 4.2. The compound 4a with IC50 =1.94 µM has the most inhibitor activity in this study. Other derivatives such as 4b, 4d, 4e and 7a were found to be more potent urease inhibitors than the standard inhibitor hydroxyurea, yielding IC50 values of 4.35, 5.557, 7.44, 2.81 and 14.46 μM, respectively (IC50 of hydroxyurea = 100 μM). PMID:28228804

  19. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  20. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  1. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  2. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  3. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  4. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  5. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  6. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  7. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  8. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  9. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  10. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  11. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  12. Embedded foveation image coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  13. The optimation of random network coding in wireless MESH networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chunjiang; Pan, Xikun

    2013-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of wireless mesh network transmission, this paper focused on the network coding technology. Using network coding can significantly increase the wireless mesh network's throughput, but it will inevitably increase the computational complexity to the network, and the traditional linear network coding algorithm requires the aware of the whole network topology, which is impossible in the ever-changing topology of wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we use a distributed network coding strategy: random network coding, which don't need to know the whole topology of the network. In order to decrease the computation complexity, this paper suggests an improved strategy for random network coding: Do not code the packets which bring no good to the whole transmission. In this paper, we list several situations which coding is not necessary. Simulation results show that applying these strategies can improve the efficiency of wireless mesh network transmission.

  14. Nonextensive statistical approach to non-coding human DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.; Tirnakli, U.

    2008-04-01

    We use q-exponential distributions, which maximize the nonextensive entropy Sq (defined as Sq≡(1-∑ipiq)/(q-1)), to study the size distributions of non-coding DNA (including introns and intergenic regions) in all human chromosomes. We show that the value of the exponent q describing the non-coding size distributions is similar for all chromosomes and varies between 2≤q≤2.3 with the exception of chromosomes X and Y.

  15. 4-Hydroxy-1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)ethyl]-4-(4-methylbenzyl)piperidine: a novel, potent, and selective NR1/2B NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z L; Cai, S X; Whittemore, E R; Konkoy, C S; Espitia, S A; Tran, M; Rock, D M; Coughenour, L L; Hawkinson, J E; Boxer, P A; Bigge, C F; Wise, L D; Weber, E; Woodward, R M; Keana, J F

    1999-07-29

    A structure-based search and screen of our compound library identified N-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-benzylpiperidine (8) as a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has high selectivity for the NR1/2B subunit combination (IC(50) = 0.63 microM). We report on the optimization of this lead compound in terms of potency, side effect liability, and in vivo activity. Potency was assayed by electrical recordings in Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned rat NMDA receptors. Side effect liability was assessed by measuring affinity for alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and inhibition of neuronal K(+) channels. Central bioavailability was gauged indirectly by determining anticonvulsant activity in a mouse maximal electroshock (MES) assay. Making progressive modifications to 8, a hydroxyl substituent on the phenyl ring para to the oxyethyl tether (10a) resulted in a approximately 25-fold increase in NR1A/2B potency (IC(50) = 0.025 microM). p-Methyl substitution on the benzyl ring (10b) produced a approximately 3-fold increase in MES activity (ED(50) = 0.7 mg/kg iv). Introduction of a second hydroxyl group into the C-4 position on the piperidine ring (10e) resulted in a substantial decrease in affinity for alpha(1) receptors and reduction in inhibition of K(+) channels with only a modest decrease in NR1A/2B and MES potencies. Among the compounds described, 10e (4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)ethyl]-4-(4-methylbenzyl)piperid ine, Co 101244/PD 174494) had the optimum pharmacological profile and was selected for further biological evaluation.

  16. Coding capacity of complementary DNA strands.

    PubMed Central

    Casino, A; Cipollaro, M; Guerrini, A M; Mastrocinque, G; Spena, A; Scarlato, V

    1981-01-01

    A Fortran computer algorithm has been used to analyze the nucleotide sequence of several structural genes. The analysis performed on both coding and complementary DNA strands shows that whereas open reading frames shorter than 100 codons are randomly distributed on both DNA strands, open reading frames longer than 100 codons ("virtual genes") are significantly more frequent on the complementary DNA strand than on the coding one. These "virtual genes" were further investigated by looking at intron sequences, splicing points, signal sequences and by analyzing gene mutations. On the basis of this analysis coding and complementary DNA strands of several eukaryotic structural genes cannot be distinguished. In particular we suggest that the complementary DNA strand of the human epsilon-globin gene might indeed code for a protein. PMID:7015290

  17. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, fault rupture and earthquake nucleation, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physcial behaviors both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems; ploblems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; fault rupture modeling and seismic risk assessment; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for , e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release. CPAC's secondary applications include modeling fault evolution for predicting the statistical distribution of earthquake events and to capture granular materials behavior under different load paths.

  18. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbier, John Greaton; Kelley, Timothy M.; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Calef, Matthew Thomas

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  19. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  20. Code of accounts, management overview volume: Richland environmental restoration. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hajner, R.S.

    2000-01-19

    This document contains the code of accounts volume for the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. Contents include: Total ERC work category, Work location listing, Standard work activity, Work activity definitions, Code of Account trees, the Code of Accounts, Netscape instructions, Setup of charge codes, and Distribution.

  1. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  2. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  3. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  4. Facile construction of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones via a redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade reaction and discovery of novel topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanchao; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shengzheng; Shi, Wencai; Fang, Kun; Chen, Shuqiang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-21

    An efficient redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade process from trans-4-hydroxyproline and 2-formylbenzoic acids has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones. Compound 3h was identified as a new potent dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor.

  5. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  6. HATS-11b AND HATS-12b: Two Transiting Hot Jupiters Orbiting Subsolar Metallicity Stars Selected for the K2 Campaign 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, M.; Jordán, A.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Brahm, R.; Penev, K.; Ciceri, S.; Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Mancini, L.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Csbury, Z.; Sato, B.; Tan, T.-G.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Bento, J.; Suc, V.; Noyes, R.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets from the HATSouth survey. HATS-11, a V = 14.1 G0-star shows a periodic 12.9 mmag dip in its light curve every 3.6192 days and a radial velocity variation consistent with a Keplerian orbit. HATS-11 has a mass of 1.000+/- 0.060 {M}⊙ , a radius of 1.444+/- 0.057 {R}⊙ and an effective temperature of 6060+/- 150 K, while its companion is a 0.85+/- 0.12 {M}{{J}}, 1.510+/- 0.078 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. HATS-12 shows a periodic 5.1 mmag flux decrease every 3.1428 days and Keplerian RV variations around a V = 12.8 F-star. HATS-12 has a mass of 1.489+/- 0.071 {M}⊙ , a radius of 2.21+/- 0.21 {R}⊙ , and an effective temperature of 6408+/- 75 K. For HATS-12b, our measurements indicate that this is a 2.38+/- 0.11 {M}{{J}}, 1.35+/- 0.17 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. Both host stars show subsolar metallicities of -0.390+/- 0.060 dex and -0.100+/- 0.040 dex, respectively, and are (slightly) evolved stars. In fact, HATS-11 is among the most metal-poor and, HATS-12, with a {log}{g}\\star of 3.923+/- 0.065, is among the most evolved stars hosting a hot-Jupiter planet. Importantly, HATS-11 and HATS-12 have been observed in long cadence by Kepler as part of K2 campaign 7 (EPIC216414930 and EPIC218131080 respectively). The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based in part on

  7. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  8. LincRNA-Cox2 modulates TNF-α-induced transcription of Il12b gene in intestinal epithelial cells through regulation of Mi-2/NuRD-mediated epigenetic histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang; Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Lin, Chengchi; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Jing; Hu, Guoku; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) can regulate the transcription of inflammatory genes and thus may represent a new group of inflammatory mediators with a potential pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. Here, our genome-wide transcriptomic data show that TNF-α stimulation caused up-regulation of 171 lincRNAs and down-regulation of 196 lincRNAs in murine intestinal epithelial cells in culture. One of the up-regulated lincRNAs, lincRNA-Cox2, is an early-responsive lincRNA induced by TNF-α through activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Knockdown of lincRNA-Cox2 resulted in reprogramming of the gene expression profile in intestinal epithelial cells in response to TNF-α stimulation. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 silencing significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of Il12b, a secondary late-responsive gene induced by TNF-α. Mechanistically, lincRNA-Cox2 promoted the recruitment of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (Mi-2/NuRD) repressor complex to the Il12b promoter region. Recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD complex was associated with decreased H3K27 acetylation and increased H3K27 dimethylation at the Il12b promoter region, which might contribute to Il12b trans-suppression by lincRNA-Cox2. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic modulation by lincRNA-Cox2 on Il12b transcription, supporting an important role for lincRNAs in the regulation of intestinal epithelial inflammatory responses.

  9. HELIOS: An Open-source, GPU-accelerated Radiative Transfer Code for Self-consistent Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Mendonça, João M.; Grimm, Simon L.; Lavie, Baptiste; Kitzmann, Daniel; Tsai, Shang-Min; Burrows, Adam; Kreidberg, Laura; Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Heng, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We present the open-source radiative transfer code named HELIOS, which is constructed for studying exoplanetary atmospheres. In its initial version, the model atmospheres of HELIOS are one-dimensional and plane-parallel, and the equation of radiative transfer is solved in the two-stream approximation with nonisotropic scattering. A small set of the main infrared absorbers is employed, computed with the opacity calculator HELIOS-K and combined using a correlated-k approximation. The molecular abundances originate from validated analytical formulae for equilibrium chemistry. We compare HELIOS with the work of Miller-Ricci & Fortney using a model of GJ 1214b, and perform several tests, where we find: model atmospheres with single-temperature layers struggle to converge to radiative equilibrium; k-distribution tables constructed with ≳ 0.01 cm‑1 resolution in the opacity function (≲ {10}3 points per wavenumber bin) may result in errors ≳ 1%–10% in the synthetic spectra; and a diffusivity factor of 2 approximates well the exact radiative transfer solution in the limit of pure absorption. We construct “null-hypothesis” models (chemical equilibrium, radiative equilibrium, and solar elemental abundances) for six hot Jupiters. We find that the dayside emission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-43b are consistent with the null hypothesis, while the latter consistently underpredicts the observed fluxes of WASP-8b, WASP-12b, WASP-14b, and WASP-33b. We demonstrate that our results are somewhat insensitive to the choice of stellar models (blackbody, Kurucz, or PHOENIX) and metallicity, but are strongly affected by higher carbon-to-oxygen ratios. The code is publicly available as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (exoclime.net).

  10. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  11. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  12. Coded source neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  13. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  14. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  15. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  16. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    PubMed

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  17. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  18. Optimal patch code design via device characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.

    2012-01-01

    In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.

  19. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  20. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Washington, DC 20555-0001; or by fax to (301) 415-2289; or by email to DISTRIBUTION.RESOURCE@nrc.gov. Copies... be applied to OM Code activities. (ii) Motor-Operated Valve testing. Licensees shall comply with the provisions for testing motor-operated valves in OM Code ISTC 4.2, 1995 Edition with the 1996 and 1997...

  1. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  2. Estimating statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo efficiency-gain in the context of a correlated sampling Monte Carlo code for brachytherapy treatment planning with non-normal dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Sampson, Andrew J; Deniz, Daniel; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Williamson, Jeffrey; Malusek, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    Correlated sampling Monte Carlo methods can shorten computing times in brachytherapy treatment planning. Monte Carlo efficiency is typically estimated via efficiency gain, defined as the reduction in computing time by correlated sampling relative to conventional Monte Carlo methods when equal statistical uncertainties have been achieved. The determination of the efficiency gain uncertainty arising from random effects, however, is not a straightforward task specially when the error distribution is non-normal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the F distribution and standardized uncertainty propagation methods (widely used in metrology to estimate uncertainty of physical measurements) for predicting confidence intervals about efficiency gain estimates derived from single Monte Carlo runs using fixed-collision correlated sampling in a simplified brachytherapy geometry. A bootstrap based algorithm was used to simulate the probability distribution of the efficiency gain estimates and the shortest 95% confidence interval was estimated from this distribution. It was found that the corresponding relative uncertainty was as large as 37% for this particular problem. The uncertainty propagation framework predicted confidence intervals reasonably well; however its main disadvantage was that uncertainties of input quantities had to be calculated in a separate run via a Monte Carlo method. The F distribution noticeably underestimated the confidence interval. These discrepancies were influenced by several photons with large statistical weights which made extremely large contributions to the scored absorbed dose difference. The mechanism of acquiring high statistical weights in the fixed-collision correlated sampling method was explained and a mitigation strategy was proposed.

  3. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  4. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  5. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  6. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  7. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  8. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  9. Video Coding for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  10. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  11. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  12. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  13. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  14. National Combustion Code: Parallel Implementation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, A.; Ryder, R.; Norris, A.; Liu, N.-S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. CORSAIR-CCD is the current baseline reacting flow solver for NCC. This is a parallel, unstructured grid code which uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC flow solver to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This paper describes the parallel implementation of the NCC flow solver and summarizes its current parallel performance on an SGI Origin 2000. Earlier parallel performance results on an IBM SP-2 are also included. The performance improvements which have enabled a turnaround of less than 15 hours for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation are described.

  15. Effect of annealing on the structure and mechanical properties of the maraging steel N9K17M14-nanoamorphous alloy Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. G.; Sevost'yanov, M. A.; Molokanov, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Umnov, P. P.; Umnova, N. V.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of annealing on the structure, mechanical properties, and fracture of a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a microwire made of maraging N9K17M14 steel with a surface layer of a eutectic soft magnetic Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy is studied. The optimum temperature of annealing of the composite material is found; as a result, high strength characteristics are achieved at good plasticity. The composite material with a nanoamorphous layer is shown to have the high strength characteristics of the matrix maraging steel at significantly higher plasticity. When the Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy is deformed in the composition of the composite material, it exhibits a plasticity effect, and this alloy fails in a brittle manner when deformed in the form of a wire or a ribbon. This effect becomes more pronounced upon annealing.

  16. Deformation and fracture of a composite material based on a high-strength maraging steel covered with a melt-quenched Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 alloy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevost'yanov, M. A.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Molokanov, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Umnov, P. P.; Umnova, N. V.

    2011-04-01

    Multifractal analysis is used to study the deformation and fracture of a promising composite material consisting of a wire base made of K17N9M14 maraging steel covered with a surface layer made from a Co69Fe4Cr4Si12B11 amorphous alloy. As compared to its components, this material has a substantially better set of the mechanical properties.

  17. Metal Free Formation of Various 3-Iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]Pyridazines and Their Further Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Tber, Z; Hiebel, M-A; El Hakmaoui, A; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Berteina-Raboin, S

    2015-07-02

    3-iodo-1H-pyrrolo[3',2':4,5]imidazo-[1,2-a]pyridines and [1,2-b]pyridazines were prepared following Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé MCR combined with I2-promoted electrophilic cyclization. The flexibility of the method enables the introduction of diversity in the 2, 5, 6, and 7 positions on the resulting scaffold using commercially available starting materials. Furthermore, subsequent palladium-catalyzed reactions were successfully achieved using our iodinated derivatives.

  18. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  19. Thickness dependence of magnetic properties and giant magneto-impedance effect in amorphous Co73Si12B15 thin films prepared by Dual-Ion beam assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, San-sheng; Hu, Teng; He, Tong-fu; Chen, Zi-yu; Yi, Zhong; Meng, Li-Fei

    2017-03-01

    Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is a suitable method for the preparation of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) materials. In this paper, Co73Si12B15 thin films with different thicknesses were prepared by Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, and the influences of film thickness on magnetic properties and GMI effect were investigated. It was found that the asymmetric magnetic hysteresis loop in the prepared Co73Si12B15 thin films occurs at ambient temperature, and the shift behavior of hysteresis loop associated with film thickness. With the film thickness increasing, the values of shift field and coercive field and other parameters such as remanence and shift ratio appeared complex variation. At a certain frequency, the large GMI effect is only observed in some films, which have good magnetic properties including low coercivity, low remanence ratio and high shift ratio. The results indicated that the thickness dependence of magnetic properties nonlinearly determined the GMI effect in Co73Si12B15 thin films.

  20. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  1. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  2. HYCOM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-10

    HYCOM code development Alan J. Wallcraft Naval Research Laboratory 2003 Layered Ocean Model Users’ Workshop February 10, 2003 Report Documentation...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Layered Ocean Modeling Workshop (LOM 2003), Miami, FL, Feb 2003 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Kraus-Turner mixed-layer Æ Energy-Loan (passive) ice model Æ High frequency atmospheric forcing Æ New I/O scheme (.a and .b files) Æ Scalability via

  3. Trajectory Code Studies, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The trajectory code TRAJ has been used extensively to study nonimmersed foilless electron diodes. The basic goal of the research is to design low-emittance injectors for electron linacs and propagation experiments. Systems studied during 1987 include Delphi, Recirc, and Troll. We also discuss a partly successful attempt to extend the same techniques to high currents (tens of kA). 7 refs., 30 figs.

  4. The PHARO Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    n.cet..ary ad Identfy by block nutrb.) Visible radiation Sensors Infrared radiation Line and band transitions Isophots High altitude nuclear data...radiation (watts sr) in arbitrary wavelength intervals is determined. The results are a series of " isophot " plots for rbitrariiy placed cameras or sensors...Section II. The output of the PHARO code consists of contour plots of radiative intensity (watts/cm ster) or " isophot " plots for arbitrarily placed sensors

  5. The Phantom SPH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  6. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  7. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic.

  8. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  9. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  10. The best bits in an iris code.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions.

  11. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  13. Efficient image compression scheme based on differential coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Ying

    2007-11-01

    Embedded zerotree (EZW) and Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) coding, introduced by J.M. Shapiro and Amir Said, are very effective and being used in many fields widely. In this study, brief explanation of the principles of SPIHT was first provided, and then, some improvement of SPIHT algorithm according to experiments was introduced. 1) For redundancy among the coefficients in the wavelet region, we propose differential method to reduce it during coding. 2) Meanwhile, based on characteristic of the coefficients' distribution in subband, we adjust sorting pass and optimize differential coding, in order to reduce the redundancy coding in each subband. 3) The image coding result, calculated by certain threshold, shows that through differential coding, the rate of compression get higher, and the quality of reconstructed image have been get raised greatly, when bpp (bit per pixel)=0.5, PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) of reconstructed image exceeds that of standard SPIHT by 0.2~0.4db.

  14. The Fireball integrated code package

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  15. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  16. Achieving unequal error protection with convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, D. G.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Palazzo, R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the unequal error protection capabilities of convolutional codes. Both time-invariant and periodically time-varying convolutional encoders are examined. The effective free distance vector is defined and is shown to be useful in determining the unequal error protection (UEP) capabilities of convolutional codes. A modified transfer function is used to determine an upper bound on the bit error probabilities for individual input bit positions in a convolutional encoder. The bound is heavily dependent on the individual effective free distance of the input bit position. A bound relating two individual effective free distances is presented. The bound is a useful tool in determining the maximum possible disparity in individual effective free distances of encoders of specified rate and memory distribution. The unequal error protection capabilities of convolutional encoders of several rates and memory distributions are determined and discussed.

  17. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  18. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  19. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  20. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2<δ ≤ δ _{max}. Consequently, new quantum codes with distance d > 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  1. Summary of 1990 Code Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

    1990-01-01

    The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Optimising code generation with haggies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, T.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes haggies, a program for the generation of optimised programs for the efficient numerical evaluation of mathematical expressions. It uses a multivariate Horner-scheme and Common Subexpression Elimination to reduce the overall number of operations. The package can serve as a back-end for virtually any general purpose computer algebra program. Built-in type inference that allows to deal with non-standard data types in strongly typed languages and a very flexible, pattern-based output specification ensure that haggies can produce code for a large variety of programming languages. We currently use haggies as part of an automated package for the calculation of one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theories. The examples in this articles, however, demonstrate that its use is not restricted to the field of high energy physics. Program summaryProgram title: haggies Catalogue identifier: AEGF_v1_0 Program summary: URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 56 220 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 579 010 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java, JavaCC Computer: Any system that runs the Java Virtual Machine Operating system: Any system that runs the Java Virtual Machine RAM: Determined by the size of the problem Classification: 4.14, 5, 6.2, 6.5, 11.1 Nature of problem: Generation of optimised programs for the evaluation of possibly large algebraic expressions Solution method: Java implementation Running time: Determined by the size of the problem

  3. Chemical Laser Computer Code Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    DOCUMENTATION: Resonator Geometry Synthesis Code Requi rement NV. L. Gamiz); Incorporate General Resonator into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwell... Synthesis Code Development (L. R. Stidhm) CATEGRY ATIUEOPTICS KINETICS GASOYNAM41CS None * None *iNone J.LEVEL Simrple Fabry Perot Simple SaturatedGt... Synthesis Co2de Require- ment (V L. ami l ncor~orate General Resonatorn into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwel) Srace Optimization Algorithms and Equations (W

  4. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  5. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  6. Coding Major Fields of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, L. G.; Carroll, C. D.

    The National Center for Education Statistics conducts surveys which require the coding of the respondent's major field of study. This paper presents a new system for the coding of major field of study. It operates on-line i a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) environment and allows conversational checks to verify coding directly from…

  7. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  8. Validation of the BEPLATE code

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.; Bullock, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validation experience of the BEPLATE code on two types of electroforms and describes some recent applications of the code.

  9. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  10. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ptolemy Coding Style 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...Unix. It is much more liberal that the commonly used “GPL” or “ GNU Public License,” which encumbers the software and derivative works with the

  11. Experience with advanced nodal codes at YAEC

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has been performing reload licensing analysis since 1969. The basic pressurized water reactor (PWR) methodology involves the use of LEOPARD for cross-section generation, PDQ for radial power distributions and integral control rod worth, and SIMULATE for axial power distributions and differential control rod worth. In 1980, YAEC began performing reload licensing analysis for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). The basic BWR methodology involves the use of CASMO for cross-section generation and SIMULATE for three-dimensional power distributions. In 1986, YAEC began investigating the use of CASMO-3 for cross-section generation and the advanced nodal code SIMULATE-3 for power distribution analysis. Based on the evaluation, the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methodology satisfied all requirements. After careful consideration, the cost of implementing the new methodology is expected to be offset by reduced computing costs, improved engineering productivity, and fuel-cycle performance gains.

  12. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  13. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  14. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  15. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  16. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  17. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) - A Brief History

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G J; Miller, E K; Poggio, A J

    2004-01-20

    The Numerical Electromagnetics Code, NEC as it is commonly known, continues to be one of the more widely used antenna modeling codes in existence. With several versions in use that reflect different levels of capability and availability, there are now 450 copies of NEC4 and 250 copies of NEC3 that have been distributed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to a limited class of qualified recipients, and several hundred copies of NEC2 that had a recorded distribution by LLNL. These numbers do not account for numerous copies (perhaps 1000s) that were acquired through other means capitalizing on the open source code, the absence of distribution controls prior to NEC3 and the availability of versions on the Internet. In this paper we briefly review the history of the code that is concisely displayed in Figure 1. We will show how it capitalized on the research of prominent contributors in the early days of computational electromagnetics, how a combination of events led to the tri-service-supported code development program that ultimately led to NEC and how it evolved to the present day product. The authors apologize that space limitations do not allow us to provide a list of references or to acknowledge the numerous contributors to the code both of which can be found in the code documents.

  18. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  19. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  20. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  1. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  2. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  3. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  4. EMdeCODE: a novel algorithm capable of reading words of epigenetic code to predict enhancers and retroviral integration sites and to identify H3R2me1 as a distinctive mark of coding versus non-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Federico Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Existence of some extra-genetic (epigenetic) codes has been postulated since the discovery of the primary genetic code. Evident effects of histone post-translational modifications or DNA methylation over the efficiency and the regulation of DNA processes are supporting this postulation. EMdeCODE is an original algorithm that approximate the genomic distribution of given DNA features (e.g. promoter, enhancer, viral integration) by identifying relevant ChIPSeq profiles of post-translational histone marks or DNA binding proteins and combining them in a supermark. EMdeCODE kernel is essentially a two-step procedure: (i) an expectation-maximization process calculates the mixture of epigenetic factors that maximize the Sensitivity (recall) of the association with the feature under study; (ii) the approximated density is then recursively trimmed with respect to a control dataset to increase the precision by reducing the number of false positives. EMdeCODE densities improve significantly the prediction of enhancer loci and retroviral integration sites with respect to previous methods. Importantly, it can also be used to extract distinctive factors between two arbitrary conditions. Indeed EMdeCODE identifies unexpected epigenetic profiles specific for coding versus non-coding RNA, pointing towards a new role for H3R2me1 in coding regions. PMID:23234700

  5. Environmentally-Safe Conditions for a Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C3-Arylation with High Turn Over Frequency of Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines Using Aryl Bromides and Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, Sabah; Djebbar, Safia; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri

    2016-09-06

    Pd(OAc)2 was found to catalyze very efficiently the direct arylation of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine at C3-position under a very low catalyst loading and phosphine-free conditions. The reaction can be performed in very high TOFs and TONs employing as little as 0.1-0.05 mol % catalyst using a wide range of aryl bromides. In addition, some electron-deficient aryl chlorides were also found to be suitable substrates. Moreover, 31 examples of the cross couplings were reported using green, safe, and renewable solvents, such as pentan-1-ol, diethylcarbonate or cyclopentyl methyl ether, without loss of efficiency.

  6. Discovery of a novel 2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4(6H)-dione series promoting neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Fang, Haiyan; Wang, Jamie; Meng, Qinghua; Dai, Xuedong; Wu, Sharon; Luo, Jie; Pu, Dan; Chen, Libo; Minick, Douglas; Arai, Ken; Mandeville, Emiri T; Lo, Eng; Holder, Julie C; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    A novel neurogenic compound (1), discovered from a mouse neural progenitor cell (NPC) screen, showed profound neurogenic effect on human NPCs. Synthesis and SAR of this novel 2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4(6H)-dione series are described. Compound 20 is brain penetrable in rodents, and promotes neurogenesis in wild type mice, therefore it is a good tool molecule to study neurogenesis induction as a potential treatment for conditions associated with neurogenesis impairment diseases.

  7. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  8. Code lock with microcircuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobka, A.; May, I.

    1985-01-01

    A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

  9. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  10. Transferring ecosystem simulation codes to supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, J. W.; Schulbach, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Many ecosystem simulation computer codes have been developed in the last twenty-five years. This development took place initially on main-frame computers, then mini-computers, and more recently, on micro-computers and workstations. Supercomputing platforms (both parallel and distributed systems) have been largely unused, however, because of the perceived difficulty in accessing and using the machines. Also, significant differences in the system architectures of sequential, scalar computers and parallel and/or vector supercomputers must be considered. We have transferred a grassland simulation model (developed on a VAX) to a Cray Y-MP/C90. We describe porting the model to the Cray and the changes we made to exploit the parallelism in the application and improve code execution. The Cray executed the model 30 times faster than the VAX and 10 times faster than a Unix workstation. We achieved an additional speedup of 30 percent by using the compiler's vectoring and 'in-line' capabilities. The code runs at only about 5 percent of the Cray's peak speed because it ineffectively uses the vector and parallel processing capabilities of the Cray. We expect that by restructuring the code, it could execute an additional six to ten times faster.

  11. Adaptive discrete cosine transform based image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Neng-Chung; Luoh, Shyan-Wen

    1996-04-01

    In this discrete cosine transform (DCT) based image coding, the DCT kernel matrix is decomposed into a product of two matrices. The first matrix is called the discrete cosine preprocessing transform (DCPT), whose kernels are plus or minus 1 or plus or minus one- half. The second matrix is the postprocessing stage treated as a correction stage that converts the DCPT to the DCT. On applying the DCPT to image coding, image blocks are processed by the DCPT, then a decision is made to determine whether the processed image blocks are inactive or active in the DCPT domain. If the processed image blocks are inactive, then the compactness of the processed image blocks is the same as that of the image blocks processed by the DCT. However, if the processed image blocks are active, a correction process is required; this is achieved by multiplying the processed image block by the postprocessing stage. As a result, this adaptive image coding achieves the same performance as the DCT image coding, and both the overall computation and the round-off error are reduced, because both the DCPT and the postprocessing stage can be implemented by distributed arithmetic or fast computation algorithms.

  12. Learning deep hierarchical visual feature coding.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hanlin; Thome, Nicolas; Cord, Matthieu; Lim, Joo-Hwee

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid architecture that combines the image modeling strengths of the bag of words framework with the representational power and adaptability of learning deep architectures. Local gradient-based descriptors, such as SIFT, are encoded via a hierarchical coding scheme composed of spatial aggregating restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM). For each coding layer, we regularize the RBM by encouraging representations to fit both sparse and selective distributions. Supervised fine-tuning is used to enhance the quality of the visual representation for the categorization task. We performed a thorough experimental evaluation using three image categorization data sets. The hierarchical coding scheme achieved competitive categorization accuracies of 79.7% and 86.4% on the Caltech-101 and 15-Scenes data sets, respectively. The visual representations learned are compact and the model's inference is fast, as compared with sparse coding methods. The low-level representations of descriptors that were learned using this method result in generic features that we empirically found to be transferrable between different image data sets. Further analysis reveal the significance of supervised fine-tuning when the architecture has two layers of representations as opposed to a single layer.

  13. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  14. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  15. Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of

  16. Two-dimensional MHD generator model. [GEN code

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H. K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Doss, E. D.

    1980-09-01

    A steady state, two-dimensional MHD generator code, GEN, is presented. The code solves the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, using a Von Mises transformation and a local linearization of the equations. By splitting the source terms into a part proportional to the axial pressure gradient and a part independent of the gradient, the pressure distribution along the channel is easily obtained to satisfy various criteria. Thus, the code can run effectively in both design modes, where the channel geometry is determined, and analysis modes, where the geometry is previously known. The code also employs a mixing length concept for turbulent flows, Cebeci and Chang's wall roughness model, and an extension of that model to the effective thermal diffusities. Results on code validation, as well as comparisons of skin friction and Stanton number calculations with experimental results, are presented.

  17. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  19. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  20. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch