Science.gov

Sample records for 12b ln metastases

  1. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  2. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  3. [A case of hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases detected by FDG-PET].

    PubMed

    Ito, Tadao; Noguchi, Akinori; Shimizu, Takeshi; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Okano, Shinji; Yamane, Tetsuro; Kawabata, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple lymph node (LN) metastases. A 68-year-old man underwent hepatectomy at our hospital. Intrahepatic recurrence and swelling of multiple LNs were detected by enhanced CT 21 months later. FDG-PET was positive for multiple swollen LNs, but all were negative for the intrahepatic recurrences. Biopsy of para-aortic LNs was revealed LN metastases from HCC. Immunohistochemically, the LN metastases were composed of poorly differentiated HCC. The sensitivity of FDG-PET in patients with HCC varies in relation to degree of differentiation and decreased FDG uptake must be noted. PMID:23132040

  4. Cardiac metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bussani, R; De‐Giorgio, F; Abbate, A; Silvestri, F

    2007-01-01

    Tumours metastatic to the heart (cardiac metastases) are among the least known and highly debated issues in oncology, and few systematic studies are devoted to this topic. Although primary cardiac tumours are extremely uncommon (various postmortem studies report rates between 0.001% and 0.28%), secondary tumours are not, and at least in theory, the heart can be metastasised by any malignant neoplasm able to spread to distant sites. In general, cardiac metastases are considered to be rare; however, when sought for, the incidence seems to be not as low as expected, ranging from 2.3% and 18.3%. Although no malignant tumours are known that diffuse preferentially to the heart, some do involve the heart more often than others—for example, melanoma and mediastinal primary tumours. This paper attempts to review the pathophysiology of cardiac metastatic disease, epidemiology and clinical presentation of cardiac metastases, and pathological characterisation of the lesions. PMID:17098886

  5. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, P.; Croll, B.; Deming, D.; Burrows, A.; Hora, J.; Greene, T.

    2011-09-01

    The short-period planet WASP-12b is among the hottest known transiting planets. Space- and ground-based secondary eclipse depths imply that this planet has a C/O ratio greater than 1 (Madhusudhan et al. 2011), in stark contrast to the chemistry in the Solar System and the assumed chemistry of other planets. These same eclipse data put the planet's day-side effective temperature at 3000 K. This indicates a low albedo and poor recirculation of heat to the night-side, as has been found for all of the hottest transiting giant planets (Cowan & Agol 2011b). But these trends were based solely on day-side observations (eclipse depths) rather than full phase variations, which directly probe night-side temperature. The short period (1.1 day) and inflated radius (1.8 RJ) of WASP-12b has led to speculation that it may be undergoing Roche-lobe overflow (Li et al. 2010, Lai et al. 2010), and UV observations by Fossati et al. (2010) seem to support this idea. We have recently obtained thermal phase curves of this planet with Warm Spitzer (PI:Machalek; PID 70060). Our data include two eclipses, a transit, and full phase coverage at each of 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of the planet's high temperature and large size, this is one of the highest S/N phase curves yet obtained with Spitzer. These data (currently being analyzed) will allow us to directly measure the planet's night-side temperature and the longitudinal offset of its day-side hot-spot. Since the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands probe different depths in the atmosphere, we will strongly constrain climate models for the hottest gas giants. The high precision transit and eclipse photometry offered by Spitzer will also allow us to search for signs of accretion in this system.

  6. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, N. B.; Machalek, P.; Croll, B.; Deming, D.; Burrows, A.; Hora, J.; Greene, T.

    2011-10-01

    The short-period planet WASP-12b is among the hottest known transiting planets. Space- and groundbased secondary eclipse depths imply that this planet has a C/O ratio greater than 1 (Madhusudhan et al. 2011), in stark contrast to the chemistry in the Solar System and the assumed chemistry of other planets. These same eclipse data put the planet's day-side effective temperature at ˜3000 K. This indicates a low albedo and poor recirculation of heat to the night-side, as has been found for all of the hottest transiting giant planets (Cowan & Agol 2011b). But these trends were based solely on day-side observations (eclipse depths) rather than full phase variations, which directly probe night-side temperature. The short period (1.1 day) and inflated radius (1.8 RJ ) ofWASP-12b has led to speculation that it may be undergoing Roche-lobe overflow (Li et al. 2010, Lai et al. 2010), and UV observations by Fossati et al. (2010) seem to support this idea. We have recently obtained thermal phase curves of this planet with Warm Spitzer (PI: Machalek; PID 70060). Our data include two eclipses, a transit, and full phase coverage at each of 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of the planet's high temperature and large size, this is one of the highest S/N phase curves yet obtained with Spitzer. These data (currently being analyzed) will allow us to directly measure the planet's night-side temperature and the longitudinal offset of its day-side hotspot. Since the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands probe different depths in the atmosphere, we will strongly constrain climate models for the hottest gas giants. The high precision transit and eclipse photometry offered by Spitzer will also allow us to search for signs of accretion in this system.

  7. 33 CFR 157.12b - Implementation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation requirements. 157.12b Section 157.12b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12b Implementation requirements. Oil...

  8. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11.12b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the...

  9. A magnetization study of RCo 12B 6 intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Rosenberg, M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1989-11-01

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline intermetallics RCo 12B 6 with R = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm have been studied in the temperature range 3-300 K and in fields up to 2 T. All compounds order magnetically between Tc=134.3 K for CeCo 12B 6 and Tc=162 K for GdCo 12B 6. YCo 12B 6 has an average Co moment of 0.42μ B. Since the Co moment is constant for all samples the R moments can be easily obtained and they are in good agreement with free R 3+ ion values. Ce is quadripositive in CeCo 12B 6 and therefore nonmagnetic. All light rare-earth compounds are ferromagnetic, while all heavy rare-earth compounds are ferrimagnetic with compensation points between Tcomp=11.6 K ( TmCo12B6) and Tcomp=82.8 K ( TbCo12B6). In the paramagnetic state an effective magnetic moment of 1.94μ B per Co atom has been found. The mean-field approximation yields a 3d-3d exchange integral of {J CoCo}/{k B}=110 K . The 3d-4f exchange integral is much smaller and equal to about {J RCo}/{k B}=6 K .

  10. Longitudinal Polarization of 12B in Muon Capture Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohtsubo, H.; Morita, M.

    1981-02-01

    A general formula is given for the longitudinal polarization of the recoil nucleus in polarized muon capture in a spin zero nucleus. The longitudinal polarization of the recoil 12B is studied numerically in the reaction 12C+μ^-to12B+ν_μ. Contributions from excited states play an important role in determining the induced pseudoscalar and induced tensor form factors. Existing experimental data on the longitudinal polarization and average polarization are consistent with the assumption of time reversal invariance.

  11. Ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging for the selective detection of EGFR-expressing breast cancer and lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Hoe Suk; Jin, Tiefeng; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the use of ultrasound (US)-guided photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (anti-EGFR-GNs) to non-invasively detect EGFR-expressing primary tumor masses and regional lymph node (LN) metastases in breast tumor mice generated by injecting MCF-7 (EGFR-negative) or MDA-MB-231 (EGFR-positive) human breast cells using a preclinical Vevo 2100 LAZR Imaging system. Anti-EGFR-GNs provided a significant enhancement in the PA signal in MDA-MB-231 tumor and the axillary LN metastases relative to MCF-7 tumor and non-LN metastases. We demonstrated that US-guided PAI using anti-EGFR-GNs is highly sensitive for the selective visualization of EGFR-expressing breast primary tumors as well as LN micrometastases. PMID:27231631

  12. Ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging for the selective detection of EGFR-expressing breast cancer and lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Hoe Suk; Jin, Tiefeng; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the use of ultrasound (US)-guided photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (anti-EGFR-GNs) to non-invasively detect EGFR-expressing primary tumor masses and regional lymph node (LN) metastases in breast tumor mice generated by injecting MCF-7 (EGFR-negative) or MDA-MB-231 (EGFR-positive) human breast cells using a preclinical Vevo 2100 LAZR Imaging system. Anti-EGFR-GNs provided a significant enhancement in the PA signal in MDA-MB-231 tumor and the axillary LN metastases relative to MCF-7 tumor and non-LN metastases. We demonstrated that US-guided PAI using anti-EGFR-GNs is highly sensitive for the selective visualization of EGFR-expressing breast primary tumors as well as LN micrometastases. PMID:27231631

  13. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or... subsidiaries. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 240.12b-1, see the List of CFR... is a substantial likelihood that a reasonable investor would attach importance in determining...

  14. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  15. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  16. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subsidiaries. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 240.12b-1, see the List of CFR... contract with the issuer of the securities as to which he is underwriter. Promoter. (1) The term “promoter... solely as underwriting commissions or solely in consideration of property shall not be deemed a...

  17. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subsidiaries. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 240.12b-1, see the List of CFR... contract with the issuer of the securities as to which he is underwriter. Promoter. (1) The term “promoter... solely as underwriting commissions or solely in consideration of property shall not be deemed a...

  18. 17 CFR 240.12b-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsidiaries. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 240.12b-1, see the List of CFR... contract with the issuer of the securities as to which he is underwriter. Promoter. (1) The term “promoter... solely as underwriting commissions or solely in consideration of property shall not be deemed a...

  19. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products....

  20. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  1. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  2. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 12B_Lambda by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Iodice; F. Cusanno; A. Acha; P. Ambrozewicz; K.A. Aniol; P. Baturin; P.Y. Bertin; H. Benaoum; K.I. Blomqvist; W.U. Boeglin; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Bydˇzovsk´y; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E.A. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; L. Coman; B.J. Craver; G. De Cataldo; C.W. de Jager; R. De Leo; A.P. Deur; C. Ferdi; R.J. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; F. Giulani; J. Gomez; M. Gricia; J.O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; T.K. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H.F. Ibrahim; X. Jiang; L.J. Kaufman; K. Kino; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J.J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; M. Lucentini; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; Z.E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R.W. Michaels; D.J. Millener; T. Miyoshi; B. Moffit; P.A. Monaghan; M. Moteabbed; C. Munoz Camacho; S. Nanda; E. Nappi; V.V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; Y. Okasyasu; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; V.A. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; B. Raue; P.E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; B. Reitz; R.E. Roche; V.M. Rodriguez; A. Saha; F. Santavenere; A.J. Sarty; J. Segal; A. Shahinyan; J. Singh; S. ˇ Sirca; R. Snyder; P.H. Solvignon; M. Sotona; R. Subedi; V.A. Sulkosky; T. Suzuki; H. Ueno; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; E. Voutier; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; and C. Zorn

    2007-07-01

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a $^{12}$C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed \\lam{12}{B} spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state {\\it s}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak and the 11 MeV {\\it p}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak.

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of (lambda)(12)B by electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Iodice, M; Cusanno, F; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovský, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giulani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Ye, Y; Zheng, X; Zhou, S; Zorn, C

    2007-08-01

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in hall A at Jefferson Lab on a 12C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed (Lambda)(12)B spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state s-wave Lambda peak and the 11 MeV p-wave Lambda peak. PMID:17930747

  4. [Radiotherapy for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Latorzeff, I; Antoni, D; Gaudaire-Josset, S; Feuvret, L; Tallet-Richard, A; Truc, G; Noël, G

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy for brain metastases has become more multifaceted. Indeed, with the improvement of the patient's life expectancy, side effects must be undeniably avoided and the retreatments or multiple treatments are common. The cognitive side effects should be warned and the most modern techniques of radiation therapy are used regularly to reach this goal. The new classifications of patients with brain metastases help guiding treatment more appropriately. Stereotactic radiotherapy has supplanted whole brain radiation therapy both for patients with metastases in place and for those who underwent surgery. Hippocampus protection is possible with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Its relevance in terms of cognitive functioning should be more clearly demonstrated but the requirement, for using it, is increasingly strong. While addressing patients in palliative phase, the treatment of brain metastases is one of the localisations where technical thinking is the most challenging. PMID:27523410

  5. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  6. [Surgery of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Métellus, P; Reyns, N; Voirin, J; Menei, P; Bauchet, L; Faillot, T; Loiseau, H; Pallud, J; Guyotat, J; Mandonnet, E

    2015-02-01

    Surgical excision of brain metastases has been well evaluated in unique metastases. Two randomized phase III trial have shown that combined with adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, it significantly improves overall survival. However, even in the presence of multiple brain metastases, surgery may be useful. Also, even in lesions amenable to radiosurgery, surgical resection is preferred when tumors displayed cystic or necrotic aspect with important edema or when located in highly eloquent areas or cortico-subcortically. Furthermore, surgery may have a diagnostic role, in the absence of histological documentation of the primary disease, to rule out a differential diagnosis (brain abscess, lymphoma, primary tumor of the central nervous system or radionecrosis). Finally, the biological documentation of brain metastatic disease might be useful in situations where a specific targeted therapy can be proposed. Selection of patients who will really benefit from surgery should take into account three factors, clinical and functional status of the patient, systemic disease status and characteristics of intracranial metastases. Given the improved overall survival of cancer patients partially due to the advent of effective targeted therapies on systemic disease, a renewed interest has been given to the local treatment of brain metastases. Surgical resection currently represents a valuable tool in the armamentarium of brain metastases but has also become a diagnostic and decision tool that can affect therapeutic strategies in these patients. PMID:25640217

  7. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-02-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-} 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5{sigma} level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 {+-} 0.015, a 3{sigma} result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 {+-} 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 {+-} 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m) and 0.5006 {+-} 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 {mu}m). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-}{sup +0.007}{sub -0.006}) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2{sigma}. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1{sigma}; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  8. High-precision photometry of WASP-12 b transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Errmann, R.; Raetz, St.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The transiting extrasolar planet WASP-12 b was found to be one of the most intensely irradiated exoplanets. It is unexpectedly bloated and is losing mass that may accrete into the host star. Our aim was to refine the parameters of this intriguing system and search for signs of transit timing variations. Methods: We gathered high-precision light curves for two transits of WASP-12 b. Assuming various limb-darkening laws, we generated best-fitting models and redetermined the parameters of the system. Error estimates were derived by the prayer-bead method and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: System parameters obtained by us are found to agree with previous studies within one sigma. Use of the non-linear limb-darkening laws results in the best-fitting models. With two new mid-transit times, the ephemeris was refined to BJDTDB = (2 454 508.97682 ± 0.00020) + (1.09142245 ± 0.00000033)E. Interestingly, indications of transit timing variation are detected at the level of 3.4 sigma. This signal can be induced by an additional planet in the system. Simplified numerical simulations show that a perturber could be a terrestrial-type planet if both planets are in a low-order orbital resonance. However, we emphasise that further observations are needed to confirm variation and to constrain properties of the perturber. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A65

  9. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b with Warm Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    The short-period planet WASP-12b is among the hottest known transiting planets. Space- and ground-based secondary eclipse depths imply that this planet has a C/O ratio greater than 1 (Madhusudhan et al. 2011), in stark contrast to the chemistry in the Solar System and the assumed chemistry of other planets. These same eclipse data put the planet's day-side effective temperature at ~3000 K. This indicates a low albedo and poor recirculation of heat to the night-side, as has been found for all of the hottest transiting giant planets (Cowan & Agol 2011). But these trends were based solely on day-side observations (eclipse depths) rather than full phase variations, which directly probe night-side temperature. The short period (1.1 day) and inflated radius (1.8 R_J) of WASP-12b has led to speculation that the planet is severely prolate in shape, and undergoing Roche-lobe overflow (Li et al. 2010, Lai et al. 2010). UV observations by Fossati et al. (2010) seem to support this idea. We have recently obtained thermal phase curves of this planet with Warm Spitzer (PI:Machalek; PID 70060). Our data include two eclipses, a transit, and full phase coverage at each of 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of the planet's high temperature and large size, this is one of the highest S/N phase curves yet obtained with Spitzer. These data allow us to directly measure the planet's night-side temperature and the longitudinal offset of its day-side hot-spot, as well as constrain the planet's shape. Since the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands probe different depths in the atmosphere, we will strongly constrain climate models for the hottest gas giants.

  10. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay for intraoperative prediction of advanced axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    KUBOTA, MICHIYO; KOMOIKE, YOSHIFUMI; HAMADA, MIKA; SHINZAKI, WATARU; AZUMI, TATSUYA; HASHIMOTO, YUKIHIKO; IMOTO, SHIGERU; TAKEYAMA, YOSHIFUMI; OKUNO, KIYOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is used to semiquantitatively measure the cytokeratin (CK)19 mRNA copy numbers of each sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the diagnosis of ≥4 LN metastases is possible using the OSNA assay intraoperatively. Between May, 2010 and December, 2014, a total of 134 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) of positive SLNs were analyzed. The total tumor load (TTL) was defined as the total CK19 mRNA copies of all positive SLNs. The correlation between TTL and ≥4 LN metastases was evaluated. Of the 134 patients, 31 (23.1%) had ≥4 LN metastases. TTL ≥5.4×104 copies/µl evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was examined along with other clinicopathological variables. In the multivariate analysis, only TTL ≥5.4×104 copies/µl was correlated with ≥4 LN metastases (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–7.97, P=0.022). Therefore, TTL assessed by the OSNA assay has the potential to be a predictor of ≥4 LN metastases and it may be useful for the selection of patients with positive SLNs in whom ALND may be safely omitted. PMID:26893855

  11. 17 CFR 240.12b-5 - Determination of affiliates of banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... banks. 240.12b-5 Section 240.12b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-5 Determination of affiliates of banks. In determining whether a person is an “affiliate” or “parent” of a bank or whether a bank is a “subsidiary” or...

  12. 17 CFR 240.12b-5 - Determination of affiliates of banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... banks. 240.12b-5 Section 240.12b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-5 Determination of affiliates of banks. In determining whether a person is an “affiliate” or “parent” of a bank or whether a bank is a “subsidiary” or...

  13. 17 CFR 240.12b-37 - Satisfaction of filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of filing requirements. 240.12b-37 Section 240.12b-37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Special Provisions § 240.12b-37 Satisfaction of...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12b-5 - Determination of affiliates of banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... banks. 240.12b-5 Section 240.12b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General § 240.12b-5 Determination of affiliates of banks. In determining whether a person is an “affiliate” or “parent” of a bank or whether a bank is a “subsidiary” or...

  15. Endobronchial metastases of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosado Dawid, Natalia-Zuberoa; Villegas Fernández, Francisco Ramón; Rodríguez Cruz, María Del Mar; Ramos Meca, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal metastases affecting trachea or bronchi are highly unusual. Up to 26% of endotracheal/endobronchial metastases are due to colorectal cancer. Treatment and palliative management rely on a multidisciplinary team to improve their quality of life. PMID:26856850

  16. Inferior vena cava tumor thrombus that directly infiltrated from paracaval lymph node metastases in a patient with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we present the case of a patient with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had paracaval lymph node (LN) metastases with an inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus after a hepatectomy. A 65-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B virus infection received an extended anterior segmentectomy because of two hepatic tumors, located in segments 7 and 8. Histological examination of both resected specimens showed mostly moderately differentiated HCC with some poorly differentiated areas, and liver cirrhosis (A2/F4). Because the patient had an elevated α-fetoprotein serum level, abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed. Abdominal CT revealed a 9-mm-diameter recurrent tumor in hepatic segment 3 and paracaval LN metastases with an IVC tumor thrombus at 8 months after the first operation. The patient received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization as treatment for the intrahepatic recurrence, following resection of the paracaval LN metastases and removal of the IVC tumor thrombus. In this case, the paracaval LN metastases had directly infiltrated the IVC via the lumbar veins, resulting in an IVC tumor thrombus, which usually develops from an intrahepatic tumor via the hepatic vein. The development of an IVC tumor thrombus with HCC recurrence, as in this case, is very rare, and based on a PubMed search, we believe this report may be the first to describe this condition. PMID:23915104

  17. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  18. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth, consistent with a

  19. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(Rp /R *)2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day/F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  20. HSPA12B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Xuehan; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Surong; Tu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, He; Li, Rongrong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the HSP70 protein family. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanisms involved. A HUVECs inflammatory model was induced by LPS. Overexpression of HSPA12B in HUVECs was achieved by infection with recombinant adenoviruses encoding green fluorescence protein-HSPA12B. Knockdown of HSPA12B was achieved by siRNA technique. Twenty four hours after virus infection or siRNA transfection, HUVECs were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 hrs. Endothelial cell permeability ability was determined by transwell permeability assay. The binding rate of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with HUVECs was examined using myeloperoxidase assay. Cell migrating ability was determined by the wound-healing assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interested genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The release of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α was measured by ELISA. HSPA12B suppressed LPS-induced HUVEC permeability and reduced PMN adhesion to HUVECs. HSPA12B also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, knockdown of HSPA12B enhanced LPS-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, HSPA12B activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by Wortmannin completely abrogated the protection of HSPA12B against inflammatory response in HUVECs. Our results suggest that HSPA12B attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in HUVECs via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. PMID:25545050

  1. Reduction and alkaline hydrolysis of 5-oxoindeno(1,2-b)pyridinium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Mutsenietse, D.Kh.; Zandersons, A.Z.; Lusis, V.K.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1987-07-01

    5,9b-dihydro derivatives of indeno(1,2-b)pyridine were obtained by the reduction of the corresponding 1,2-dimethyl-4-acryl-5-oxoindeno(1,2-b)pyridinium perchlorates. 1,2-dimethyl-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-5-oxoindeno(1,2-b)pyridinium perchlorate forms in alkaline medium with splitting, recyclization and deamination products.

  2. [Melanoma brain metastases : Treatment options].

    PubMed

    Rauschenberg, R; Tabatabai, G; Troost, E G C; Garzarolli, M; Beissert, S; Meier, F

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients with metastatic melanoma will develop brain metastases, which are the most common cause of death. Until recently, local therapies (e. g., neurosurgery, radiotherapy) were the only options for brain metastases; however, effective systemic treatment options are now available. Upon suspicion of brain metastases, diagnostic staging with brain MRI and a neurological investigation are indicated. Prognostic factors such as number of cerebral metastases and symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase and S‑100 levels, extracerebral metastases, and ECOG status are considered during therapeutic planning. Treatment planning and therapeutic interventions should be based on an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Established treatments for singular brain metastases are neurosurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy, which can prolong survival. In patients with asymptomatic BRAF V600E-mutant brain metastases, the BRAF inhibitors dabrafenib, vemurafenib, and immunotherapy with ipilimumab are used. In the case of multiple symptomatic brain metastases, palliative whole-brain radiotherapy is used for treatment, although it has failed to show an overall survival benefit. Increased intracranial pressure and epileptic seizures are addressed with corticosteroids and anticonvulsants. Current clinical studies for melanoma patients with brain metastases are investigating new treatment options such as PD-1 antibodies, combined ipilimumab and nivolumab, combined BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, and stereotactic radiation in combination with immunotherapy or targeted therapy. PMID:27206449

  3. Extraneural metastases in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Muoio, Valéria Marques Figueira; Shinjo, Sueli Oba; Matushita, Hamilton; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood malignant tumor of central nervous system, but it may also occur in adults. It presents high invasive growth with spreading of tumor cells into the leptomeningeal space along the neuroaxis early in the course of the disease. Extraneural metastases are rare but frequently lethal, occurring only in 1 to 5% of patients, and are related, in the most of cases, to the presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Here we characterize the clinical profile of five cases of medulloblastoma with systemic spreading of tumor cells, also comparing them to cases already described in the literature. PMID:21625760

  4. Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ashraf J.; Bani Hani, Murad; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Cunningham, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of CRLM is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal outcomes. Over the past several decades, the 5-year survival following resection of CRLM has increased and the criteria for resection have broadened substantially. Even patients with multiple, bilateral CRLM, previously thought unresectable, may now be candidates for resection. Two-stage hepatectomy, repeat curative-intent hepatectomy, and even selected resection of extrahepatic metastases have further increased the number of patients who may be treated with curative intent. Multiple liver-directed therapies exist to treat unresectable, incurable patients with adequate survival benefit and morbidity rates. PMID:22312501

  5. Painful Boney Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Boney metastasis may lead to terrible suffering from debilitating pain. The most likely malignancies that spread to bone are prostate, breast, and lung. Painful osseous metastases are typically associated with multiple episodes of breakthrough pain which may occur with activities of daily living, weight bearing, lifting, coughing, and sneezing. Almost half of these breakthrough pain episodes are rapid in onset and short in duration and 44% of episodes are unpredictable. Treatment strategies include: analgesic approaches with "triple opioid therapy", bisphosphonates, chemotherapeutic agents, hormonal therapy, interventional and surgical approaches, steroids, radiation (external beam radiation, radiopharmaceuticals), ablative techniques (radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation), and intrathecal analgesics. PMID:23861996

  6. Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare and poorly characterized disease affecting primarily premenopausal women. Asymptomatic patients are often diagnosed incidentally by radiographs or other lung-imaging procedures performed for other indications, and the diagnosis is eventually confirmed by biopsy. Patients with BML are usually treated pharmacologically with antiestrogen therapies or surgically with oophorectomy or hysterectomy. Antiestrogen therapy is typically efficacious and, in general, most patients have a favorable prognosis. Asymptomatic patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BML, may be followed conservatively without treatment. PMID:27514603

  7. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., if the filing is an HTML document, as defined in Regulation S-T Rule 11 (17 CFR 232.11). (e) Where a..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed...

  8. 17 CFR 210.12-12B - Open option contracts written.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open option contracts written. 210.12-12B Section 210.12-12B Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...

  9. Biology of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Berman, R S; Portera, C A; Ellis, L M

    2001-01-01

    A primary goal of cancer research is an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating the process of cancer metastasis. Analyses of colon cancer cells (the seeds) and the microenvironment (the soil) have increased our understanding of the biologic mechanisms mediating metastasis formation. Insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating the pathobiology of colon cancer metastasis, as well as a better understanding of the interaction between the metastatic cell and the host environment (including the vasculature), should provide a foundation for new therapeutic approaches. To the clinician, it is readily apparent that by the time metastases form, most steps in the metastatic cascade have completed. Therefore, therapy to down-regulate or interrupt the last stages of metastasis, proliferation and angiogenesis as well as mechanisms to disrupt cell survival signals seems the most promising areas of investigation. PMID:11775436

  10. [Management of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László

    2014-02-01

    The skeleton is the most common site to be affected by advanced breast, prostatic, lung, kidney, thyroid and other solid tumors (in addition to myeloma multiplex). Bone metastases cause significant morbidity with nearly always fatal outcome. Over 600 000 new patients diagnosed in the developed countries yearly. On average every 4-6 months patients suffer from series of severe skeletal complications such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemic events, etc., besides the permanent pain. Local external beam radiotherapy, systemic radioisotope-, endocrine-, and chemotherapy, oral and i.v. bisphosphonates and recently s.c. denosumab are the mainstays of treatment, in addition to pain-killers and other usual "classical" interventions. The modern treatments singificantly reduce the probability of skeletal complications and improve the patients' quality of life and, sometimes, they extend the survival as well. The authors briefly summarize the available treatment options. PMID:24486845

  11. Metastases to the breast

    SciTech Connect

    McCrea, E.S.; Johnston, C.; Haney, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Metastases to the breast are uncommon, wtih about 250 cases reported from clinical and autopsy series. The mammographic findings in 16 new cases revealed a spectrum of changes that included solitary of multiple lesions, well demarcated or poorly marginated masses, and diffuse involvement of skin or parenchyma or both. Diffuse disease was seen more frequently in this series (4/16), at times simulating inflammatory breast cancer. Although diagnosis of a primary malignancy usually preceded detection of the breast lesion, 40% (6/16) had no history of malignancy. Prognosis remains poor; however, it was improved in the lymphoma-leukemia group due to improved immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic regimes. The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features are discussed. Some of the lesions encountered can be confused with a primary breast malignancy or a benign lesion, necessitating prompt and accurate biopsy to preclude unnecessary major surgery and to improve survival in cancers amenable to current therapy.

  12. LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Changyou; Wen, Ziyi; Feng, Linglin; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiangkun; Dong, Qing; Liu, Min; Lu, Weiyue

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.

  13. Incidence of Small Lymph Node Metastases With Evidence of Extracapsular Extension: Clinical Implications in Patients With Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Simcock, Mathew; Schreiber-Facklam, Heide; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Graeter, Ruth; Evers, Christina; Arnold, Andreas; Wilkens, Ludwig; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Small lymph nodes (LN) show evidence of extracapsular extension (ECE) in a significant number of patients. This study was performed to determine the impact of ECE in LN {<=}7 mm as compared with ECE in larger LN. Methods and Materials: All tumor-positive LN of 74 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with at least one ECE positive LN were analyzed retrospectively for the LN diameter and the extent of ECE. Clinical endpoints were regional relapse-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. The median follow-up for the surviving patients was 2.1 years (range, 0.3-9.2 years). Results: Forty-four of 74 patients (60%) had at least one ECE positive LN {<=}10 mm. These small ECE positive LN had a median diameter of 7 mm, which was used as a cutoff. Thirty patients (41%) had at least one ECE positive LN {<=}7 mm. In both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, the incidence of at least one ECE positive LN {<=}7 mm was a statistically significant prognostic factor for decreased regional relapse-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7, p = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-6.4), distant metastasis-free survival (HR: 2.6, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.0-6.6), and overall survival (HR: 2.5, p = 0.03, 95% CI: 1.1-5.8). Conclusions: The incidence of small ECE positive LN metastases is a significant prognostic factor in HNSCC patients. Small ECE positive LN may represent more invasive tumor biology and could be used as prognostic markers.

  14. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. FRONT ELEVATION WITH RANGE POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM LEFT SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B12 & B13. VIEW FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOUBLE MAGAZINE LOCATED BETWEEN MAGAZINES B-12 & B-13. VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING GUARD TOWER S83 ON RIDGE BEHIND MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma. So far, less than 600 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence among ovarian carcinoma patients ranging from 0.29% to 11.6%. The ovarian carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage epithelial serous carcinoma, and the median interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and brain metastases was 2 years. Most often, brain metastases, affected the cerebrum, were multiple and part of a disseminated disease. Treatment of brain metastasis has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) only to multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by WBRT and/or chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases was 6 months; nevertheless, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy compared to WBRT only. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be included in the followup of patients after treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:22191058

  18. Activation of latent metastases in the lung after resection of a metastatic lymph node in a lymph node metastasis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lenan; Ouchi, Tomoki; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Iatrogenic induction of regional and distant cancer metastases is a risk associated with clinical resection of tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes. However, there have been no studies of this risk in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Here, we report that resection of a tumor-bearing subiliac lymph node (SiLN) enhanced lung metastasis in a mouse model of lymph node metastasis. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that metastatic tumor cells in the secondary lymph node continued to grow after resection of the SiLN, and that the probability of metastasis to the lungs was increased when the interval between SiLN inoculation and resection was reduced. Futhermore, histological analysis demonstrated that latents in the lung were stimulated to grow after resection of the SiLN. Fluorescence imaging indicated that the route of tumor cell dissemination from SiLN to the lung was the venous system located over the SiLN. We speculate that our mouse model will be useful for studying the mechanisms of tumor cell latency, with a view to improving the detection and treatment of latent metastases. PMID:25824032

  19. [Brain metastases imaging].

    PubMed

    Delmaire, C; Savatovsky, J; Boulanger, T; Dhermain, F; Le Rhun, E; Météllus, P; Gerber, S; Carsin-Nicole, B; Petyt, G

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic management of brain metastases depends upon their diagnosis and characteristics. It is therefore imperative that imaging provides accurate diagnosis, identification, size and localization information of intracranial lesions in patients with presumed cerebral metastatic disease. MRI exhibits superior sensitivity to CT for small lesions identification and to evaluate their precise anatomical location. The CT-scan will be made only in case of MRI's contraindication or if MRI cannot be obtained in an acceptable delay for the management of the patient. In clinical practice, the radiologic metastasis evaluation is based on visual image analyses. Thus, a particular attention is paid to the imaging protocol with the aim to optimize the diagnosis of small lesions and to evaluate their evolution. The MRI protocol must include: 1) non-contrast T1, 2) diffusion, 3) T2* or susceptibility-weighted imaging, 4) dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion, 5) FLAIR with contrast injection, 6) T1 with contrast injection preferentially using the 3D spin echo images. The role of the nuclear medicine imaging is still limited in the diagnosis of brain metastasis. The Tc-sestamibi brain imaging or PET with amino acid tracers can differentiate local brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis but still to be evaluated. PMID:25649387

  20. Interleukin 12B (IL12B) Genetic Variation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study of Cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Philip C.; Wejse, Christian; Bisseye, Cyrille; Olesen, Rikke; Edwards, Todd L.; Gilbert, John R.; Myers, Jamie L.; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Abbate, Eduardo; Estevan, Rosa; Hamilton, Carol D.; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Novelli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Ercole; Aaby, Peter; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars; Adegbola, Richard; Williams, Scott M.; Scott, William K.; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B) associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau) and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one insertion/deletion, one microsatellite) were analyzed in 321 PTB cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau and 280 PTB cases and 286 controls from The Gambia. For replication we studied 281 case and 179 control African-American samples and 221 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the US and Argentina. First-stage single locus analyses revealed signals of association at IL12B 3′ UTR SNP rs3212227 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.04; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61–0.99]) in Guinea-Bissau and rs11574790 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.05; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58–1.00]) in The Gambia. Association of rs3212227 was then replicated in African-Americans (rs3212227 allelic p = 0.002; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61–1.00]); most importantly, in the African-American cohort, multiple significant signals of association (seven of the nine polymorphisms tested) were detected throughout the gene. These data suggest that genetic variation in IL12B, a highly relevant candidate gene, is a risk factor for PTB in populations of African ancestry, although further studies will be required to confirm this association and identify the precise mechanism underlying it. PMID:21339808

  1. CaNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/: a new boride of the SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/ structure type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshko, L.V.; Kuz'ma, Yu.B.

    1987-11-01

    The structure of CaNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/ has been examined from the diffraction pattern (DRON-3.0, Cu K/sub ..cap alpha../ radiation). When the pattern had been indexed to the hexagonal system, the cell parameters were found as ..cap alpha.. = 9.542 (3); c = 7.420 (3) A. The coordinates of the Ca and Ni atoms were refined via the PMNK program with an SM-4 computer, with the initial coordinates those for the metal atoms in SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/. The coordinates of the boron atoms were not refined, being taken the same as in SrNi/sub 12/B/sub 6/. The final values for the coordinates (space group R3m) are Ca at 3 (..cap alpha..) 000, B = 3.3 (5) A/sup 2/; 18 Nil at 18 (g) (x = 0.369(2)), B = 0.7(1) A/sup 2/; 18Ni2 at 18 (h) (x = 0.426(1), z = 0.031(2)), B = 0.5(1) A/sup 2/; 18B at 18 (h) (x = 0.191, z = 0.042), B = 3.3(5) A/sup 2/. The intensities were calculated for these coordinates, reliability factor R = 0.108

  2. Consideration of the Role of Radiotherapy for Abdominal Lymph Node Metastases in Patients With Recurrent Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Jing; Sun Yihong; Zeng Zhaochong; Qin Xinyu; Zeng Mengsu; Chen Bing; Liu Tianshu; Zhang Jianying

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of external beam radiotherapy for abdominal lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with recurrent gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data of 79 patients with abdominal LN metastases developing after curative resection of gastric tumor were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 79 patients, 37 received radiation (40-60 Gy in fractions of 2.0 Gy daily, five times weekly; termed the radiation group), and 42 received chemotherapy or supportive care (the nonradiation group). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival, and a Cox regression model was used to identify predictors of prognosis. Results: After radiation, complete response and partial response were observed in 29.7% and 54.1% of patients, respectively. Clinical symptoms were relieved in 19 of 21 patients (90.5%) after completing radiation. Median survival time was 11.4 months in the radiation group and 4.8 months in the nonradiation group. Overall survival for patients with and without radiation was 43.2% and 19.0% at 1 year and 27.6% and 4.1% at 2 years, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of death in the radiation group from the time of diagnosis of LN metastases was 0.253 (p < 0.001). The most common adverse effect of radiation was gastrointestinal toxicity, but it was mild in most patients. Conclusions: Abdominal LN metastases from gastric cancer are sensitive to radiation. Delivery of 50 Gy is effective as palliative treatment and may prolong overall survival.

  3. [Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases].

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Hisayasu

    2015-11-01

    Bone metastasis is associated with many symptoms such as bone pain, pathological fracture, and spinal cord compression. Especially, pain secondary to bone metastases is a serious problem in many patients with metastatic cancer. Radiotherapy can provide remarkable pain relief, reduce the requirement for analgesic drugs, and prevent pathological fracture or spinal cord compression with few complications in most patients. Many randomized controlled trials have shown equivalent extent of pain relief between single-fraction and multiple-fraction regimens. Reirradiation of painful bone metastases is effective for palliation of pain in non-responders or patients with recurrent pain after an initial satisfactory response to a previous radiation therapy. Systemic administration of radioisotopes is an important palliative care option for painful multifocal bone metastases detected on nuclear imaging; however, the application of this option depends on the histologic features of the tumor and distribution of the metastases. Metastatic spinal cord compression is the most frequent oncologic emergency and necessitates timely and appropriate treatment. External beam radiotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression. Surgical decompression and stabilization should be considered for metastatic spinal cord compression or pathological fracture in select patients. Postoperative radiotherapy should be administered to patients who have undergone surgical intervention for bone metastases. For patients at a high risk for oncologic emergency, optimal prophylactic management is highly recommended. PMID:26602393

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Specht, Hanno M; Combs, Stephanie E

    2016-09-01

    Brain metastases are a common problem in solid malignancies and still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. With the ongoing improvement in systemic therapies, the expectations on the efficacy of brain metastases directed treatment options are growing. As local therapies against brain metastases continue to evolve, treatment patterns have shifted from a palliative "one-treatment-fits-all" towards an individualized, patient adapted approach. In this article we review the evidence for stereotactic radiation treatment based on the current literature. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a local high precision approach for the primary treatment of asymptomatic brain metastases has gained wide acceptance. It leads to lasting tumor control with only minor side effects compared to whole brain radiotherapy, since there is only little dose delivered to the healthy brain. The same holds true for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for large metastases or for lesions close to organs at risk (e.g. the brainstem). New treatment indications such as neoadjuvant SRS followed by surgical resection or postoperative local therapy to the resection cavity show promising data and are also highlighted in this manuscript. With the evolution of local treatment options, optimal patient selection becomes more and more crucial. This article aims to aid decision making by outlining prognostic factors, treatment techniques and indications and common dose prescriptions. PMID:27071010

  5. [Stereotactic radiotherapy in brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Colin, P; Métellus, P; Mornex, F; Noël, G

    2015-02-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases is increasingly proposed after polydisciplinary debates among experts. Its definition and modalities of prescription, indications and clinical interest regarding the balance between efficacy versus toxicity need to be discussed. Stereotactic radiotherapy is a 'high precision' irradiation technique (within 1mm), using different machines (with invasive contention or frameless, photons X or gamma) delivering high doses (4 to 25Gy) in a limited number of fractions (usually 1 to 5, ten maximum) with a high dose gradient. Dose prescription will depend on materials, dose constraints to organs at risk varying with fractionation. Stereotactic radiotherapy may be proposed: (1) in combination with whole brain radiotherapy with the goal of increasing (modestly) overall survival of patients with a good performance status, 1 to 3 brain metastases and a controlled extracranial disease; (2) for recurrence of 1-3 brain metastases after whole brain radiotherapy; (3) after complete resection of a large and/or symptomatic brain metastases; (4) after diagnosis of 3-5 asymptomatic new or progressing brain metastases during systemic therapy, with the aim of delaying whole brain radiotherapy (avoiding its potential neurotoxicity) and maintaining a high focal control rate. Only a strict follow-up with clinical and MRI every 3 months will permit to deliver iterative stereotactic radiotherapies without jeopardizing survival. Simultaneous delivering of stereotactic radiotherapy with targeted medicines should be carefully discussed. PMID:25640215

  6. {sup 12}B(n,{gamma})--the influence on r-process nucleosynthesis of light elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Jiang, C. L.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Goodman, N. J.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Notani, M.; Patel, N.; Tang, X.

    2009-03-04

    Because of interest in the {sup 11,12}B(n,{gamma}) reaction in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis through light neutron-rich nuclei, we have measured the {sup 12}B(d,p) reaction for the first time using the ATLAS in-flight facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We also measured the {sup 11}B(d,p) reaction in the same way for calibration. The spectroscopic factors of excited states and the branching ratio of the neutron-unbound state in {sup 12}B are obtained from the current experiment and the reaction rate for {sup 11}B(n,{gamma}) is discussed in comparison with the theoretical prediction.

  7. A new natural naphtho[1,2-b]furan from the leaves of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Tang, Zheng-Rong; Mu, Wei-Hua; Kou, Jun-Feng; He, Dong-Yang

    2013-11-01

    A new naphtho[1,2-b]furan, 2,9-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-4-methylnaphtha[1,2-b]furan-3(2H)-one (1), along with 10 known compounds vanillic acid (2), naringenin (3), glyceryl-1-tetracosanoate (4), moracin J (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (6), esculetin (7), mauritianin (8), kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (9), β-sitosterol (10), and β-daucosterol (11), was isolated from the leaves of Cassia fistula. The structure of the new compound was determined by NMR and X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 3, 5-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The naphtha[1,2-b]furan was firstly isolated from the natural resources. PMID:23822190

  8. [Splenic metastases from female genital tract malignancies].

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Splenic metastases are rare. Usually, they are part of a disseminated disease and located on the splenic capsule. Common sources are breast cancer, lung cancer and malignant melanoma. SoLitary splenic metastases are rare, usuaLLy located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasizing via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from ovarian carcinoma are usuaLly part of a disseminated disease, located on the splenic capsule and metastasize via the peritoneum. Splenic metastases from endometriaL carcinoma are usuaLLy solitary, Located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasize via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from cervical carcinoma are divided equally between metastases as part of a disseminated disease and soLitary metastases. Less than 100 cases of solitary splenic metastases have been reported with half of them being metastases from female genital tract malignancies: 30--ovarian carcinoma; 11--endometriaL carcinoma; 8--cervical carcinoma; and 1--tubal carcinoma. Few cases have been reported of splenic rupture because of metastases from choriocarcinoma. Splenic metastases as part of a disseminated disease are associated with poor prognosis, and splenectomy--apart from cases in which it might assist in achieving optimaL debulking--is not effective. Solitary splenic metastases represent a more moderate disease and the treatment of choice is splenectomy. SoLitary splenic metastases may be detected after an interval from the diagnosis of the primary disease. Hence, patients who had been treated for female genital tract malignancy, even if they are asymptomatic, need a long-term follow-up, including serial imaging studies of the spleen. PMID:20929072

  9. Fluoridated HAp:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles for cell-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Shiqi; Tao, Lei; Wei, Yen; Wang, Xun

    2012-10-01

    Water-dispersible hydrophilic fluoridated HAp:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles were prepared via hydrophobic/hydrophilic transformation with surfactants (Pluronic F127). The HAp:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles with unique luminescent properties and excellent biocompatibility are promising for cell imaging applications.Water-dispersible hydrophilic fluoridated HAp:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles were prepared via hydrophobic/hydrophilic transformation with surfactants (Pluronic F127). The HAp:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles with unique luminescent properties and excellent biocompatibility are promising for cell imaging applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the excitation spectrum, luminescent spectra and STEM image are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32404k

  10. Genetic dissimilarity between primary colorectal carcinomas and their lymph node metastases: ploidy, p53, bcl-2, and c-myc expression--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zalata, Khaled Refaat; Elshal, Mohamed Farouk; Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; Shoma, Ashraf

    2015-08-01

    The current paradigm of metastasis proposes that rare cells within primary tumors acquire metastatic capability via sequential mutations, suggesting that metastases are genetically dissimilar from their primary tumors. This study investigated the changes in the level of expression of a well-defined panel of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis markers between the primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and the corresponding synchronous lymph node (LN) metastasis from the same patients. DNA flow cytometry and immunostaining of p53, bcl-2, and c-myc were carried out on 36 cases of CRC radical resection specimens with their corresponding LN metastases. There was very low probability that the histological patterns of primary tumors and LN metastases are independent (p < 0.001). Metastatic tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for p53 than the primary tumors (p < 0.001). Conversely, primary tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for c-myc than metastatic tumors (p = 0.011). No significant difference was found between the LNs and the primary tumors in bcl-2 positivity (p = 0.538) and DNA aneuploidy (p = 0.35), with a tendency towards negative bcl-2 and less aneuploidy in LN metastases than primary tumors. In conclusion, LN metastatic colorectal carcinomas have a tendency of being less differentiated, with a higher incidence of diffuse p53 staining, lower incidence of bcl-2 staining, and less aneuploidy in comparison to their primary counterparts suggesting a more aggressive biological behavior, which could indicate the necessity for more aggressive adjuvant therapy. PMID:25840688

  11. Discovery of novel potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meegalla, Sanath K; Huang, Hui; Illig, Carl R; Parks, Daniel J; Chen, Jinsheng; Lee, Yu-Kai; Wilson, Kenneth J; Patel, Sharmila K; Cheung, Wing S; Lu, Tianbao; Kirchner, Thomas; Askari, Hossein B; Geisler, John; Patch, Raymond J; Gibbs, Alan C; Rady, Brian; Connelly, Margery; Player, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Design and optimization of a novel series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors are described. Compound 31 displays excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was also evaluated as an insulin secretagogue in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27491708

  12. 17 CFR 240.12b-13 - Preparation of statement or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of statement or... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-13 Preparation of statement or report. The statement or report shall contain the numbers and captions of all items of the...

  13. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  15. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  16. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  17. Synthesis, structure, magnetism, and optical properties of theordered mixed-lanthanide sulfides gamma-LnLn'S3 (Ln=La, Ce; Ln'=Er, Tm,Yb)

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, G.B.; Choi, E.S.; Guertin, R.P.; Brooks, J.S.; Bray, T.H.; Booth, C.H.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T.E.

    2006-12-12

    {gamma}-LnLn{prime}S{sub 3} (Ln = La, Ce; Ln{prime} = Er, Tm, Yb) have been prepared as dark red to black single crystals by the reaction of the respective lanthanides with sulfur in a Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} flux at 1000 C. This isotypic series of compounds adopts a layered structure that consists of the smaller lanthanides (Er, Tm, and Yb) bound by sulfide in six- and seven-coordinate environments that are connected together by the larger lanthanides (La and Ce) in eight- and nine-coordinate environments. The layers can be broken down into three distinct one-dimensional substructures containing three crystallographically unique Ln{prime} centers. The first of these is constructed from one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing [Ln{prime}S{sub 7}] monocapped trigonal prisms that are joined to equivalent chains via edge-sharing to yield ribbons. There are parallel chains of [Ln{prime}S{sub 6}] distorted octahedra that are linked to the first ribbons through corner-sharing. These latter units also share corners with a one-dimensional ribbon composed of parallel chains of [Ln{prime}S{sub 6}] polyhedra that edge-share both in the direction of chain propagation and with adjacent identical chains. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show Curie-Weiss behavior from 2 to 300 K with antiferromagnetic coupling, and no evidence for magnetic ordering. The {theta}{sub p} values range from -0.4 to -37.5 K, and spin-frustration may be indicated for the Yb-containing compounds. All compounds show magnetic moments substantially reduced from those calculated for the free ions. The optical band gaps for {gamma}-LaLn{prime}S{sub 3} (Ln{prime} = Er, Tm, Yb) are approximately 1.6 eV, whereas {gamma}-CeLn{prime}S{sub 3} (Ln{prime} = Er, Tm, Yb) are approximately 1.3 eV.

  18. Brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  19. Carbon-rich planet formation in a solar composition disk: The example of WASP 12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Dib, M.; Mousis, O.; Petit, J.-M.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-04-01

    The recent observation of WASP 12b, a giant planet with a C/O value larger than that estimated for its host star, poses a conundrum for understanding the origin of this elemental ratio in any given planetary system. We propose a mechanism for enhancing the value of C/O in the disk through the transport and distribution of volatiles.We construct a model that computes the abundances of major C and O bearing volatiles under the influence of gas drag, sublimation, vapor diffusion, condensation and coagulation in a multi-iceline 1+1D protoplanetary disk. We find a gradual depletion in water and carbon monoxide vapors inside the water's iceline with carbon monoxide depleting slower than water.This effect increases the gaseous C/O and decreases the C/H ratio in this region to values similar to those found in WASP 12b's day side atmosphere.

  20. Volatile enrichments and composition of carbon-rich giant planets: the case of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Madhusudhan, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.

    2011-10-01

    Carbon-rich planets (CRPs) are the exotic new members in the repertoire of extrasolar planets. We define a CRP as a planet with a carbon to oxygen (C/O) ratio ? 1. The first CRP atmosphere was inferred recently for the very hot Jupiter WASP-12b [1]. Here we show that it is not possible to reproduce the C/O ratio ? 1 observed in WASP-12b via the accretion of planetesimals formed in a disk whose gas phase elemental composition is similar to the one of the parent star. In order to reproduce the observed C/O ratio in the planet, one needs to invoke an oxygen abundance which is depleted by a factor of roughly two compared to that of the parent star, with the exact value contingent on the volatile-to-silicate fraction.

  1. DISCOVERY AND ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GIANT PLANET KEPLER-12b: AN INFLATED RADIUS OUTLIER

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Desert, Jean-Michel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark; and others

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of planet Kepler-12b (KOI-20), which at 1.695 {+-} 0.030 R{sub J} is among the handful of planets with super-inflated radii above 1.65 R{sub J}. Orbiting its slightly evolved G0 host with a 4.438 day period, this 0.431 {+-} 0.041 M{sub J} planet is the least irradiated within this largest-planet-radius group, which has important implications for planetary physics. The planet's inflated radius and low mass lead to a very low density of 0.111 {+-} 0.010 g cm{sup -3}. We detect the occultation of the planet at a significance of 3.7{sigma} in the Kepler bandpass. This yields a geometric albedo of 0.14 {+-} 0.04; the planetary flux is due to a combination of scattered light and emitted thermal flux. We use multiple observations with Warm Spitzer to detect the occultation at 7{sigma} and 4{sigma} in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bandpasses, respectively. The occultation photometry timing is consistent with a circular orbit at e < 0.01 (1{sigma}) and e < 0.09 (3{sigma}). The occultation detections across the three bands favor an atmospheric model with no dayside temperature inversion. The Kepler occultation detection provides significant leverage, but conclusions regarding temperature structure are preliminary, given our ignorance of opacity sources at optical wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If Kepler-12b and HD 209458b, which intercept similar incident stellar fluxes, have the same heavy-element masses, the interior energy source needed to explain the large radius of Kepler-12b is three times larger than that of HD 209458b. This may suggest that more than one radius-inflation mechanism is at work for Kepler-12b or that it is less heavy-element rich than other transiting planets.

  2. Emerging Treatments for Choroidal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Connie J.; McCoy, Allison N.; Brahmer, Julie; Handa, James T.

    2015-01-01

    It has been over a century since Perls described the first case of choroidal metastasis. For the next six decades only 230 cases were described in the literature. Today, however, ocular metastasis is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy. Thanks to recent advances in treatment options for metastatic disease, patients are living longer, and choroidal metastases will become an increasingly important issue for oncologists and ophthalmologists alike. We summarize the current knowledge of choroidal metastases and examine their emerging systemic and local therapies. Targeted therapies for metastatic lung, breast, and colon cancer—the most common causes of choroidal metastases—are reviewed in detail with the goal of identifying the most effective treatment strategies. PMID:22117885

  3. Spin reorientation and magnetic structure of HoCo12B6 ferrimagnetic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic phase diagram is determined by combining magnetization measurements, ac susceptibility and neutron diffraction. The crystal and magnetic structures are also investigated. The HoCo12B6 compound exhibits ferrimagnetic behavior below TC = 147 K. Two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices cancel out at the compensation temperature TComp = 46 K. HoCo12B6 undergoes a spin reorientation transition at TSR = 76 K the easy magnetization axis changes from axial to basal plane upon heating. The magnitude of the magnetic moments and their orientation are described and discussed. It is revealed that HoCo12B6 compound exhibits a commensurate magnetic structure below TSR and an incommensurate one slightly above TSR. Significantly different magnetic moments have been observed on the two Co crystal sites, a very low magnetic moment of 0.14 μB being refined on the Co 18 g position. In addition, the second order crystal electric-field parameter A20 at the rare-earth site is determined. This result is discussed and used to explain the observed spin reorientation transition by a competition between the Co and Ho sublattice anisotropy.

  4. Inverse and normal magnetocaloric effects in LaFe12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect were studied for LaFe12B6 itinerant-electron system, which presents an antiferromagnetic ground state below 36 K. For certain magnetic fields values, LaFe12B6 exhibits a sequence of two successive magnetic transitions: an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition at low temperature followed by a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, leading to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects, respectively. At finite temperatures, both antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic states can be transformed into a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced metamagnetic transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. Moreover, we reveal that, at low temperatures, the magnetization displays abrupt jumps across the first-order AFM-FM transition, giving rise to an unusual and unique staircase-like behavior. LaFe12B6 exhibits both normal magnetocaloric effect around the Curie temperature and large inverse magnetocaloric effect around the AFM-FM transition temperature; for μ0ΔH = 7 T, ΔSM is found to be -6.8 and 19 J kg-1 K-1 around 38 and 8 K, respectively.

  5. [Bone metastases in breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Teut, Michael; Warning, Albrecht

    2006-02-01

    The case of a 66-year-old patient with multiple osteolytic bone metastases caused by breast cancer is presented. The patient refused conventional pain therapy although she suffered from severe pain. A complementary therapy with homoeopathic high potencies, devil's-claw extract, enzymes, alendronate and orthomolecular substitution as well as physiotherapy resulted in effective pain relief over a period of 1 year. The case is discussed. PMID:16582551

  6. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  7. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  8. Lattice Location of 12B in Single-Crystal Ni3Al Studied by -Radiation Detected NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, B.; Ittermann, B.; Diehl, E.; Dippel, R.; Ergezinger, K. H.; Frank, H.-P.; Jäger, E.; Seelinger, W.; Sulzer, G.; Ackermann, H.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Bohn, H. G.

    -radiation detected nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to determine the location of 12B probe nuclei in a Ni3Al single crystal. Combining our results with those of channeling experiments it turned out that more than 90% of the 12B ions occupy the octahedral interstitial site with six Ni ions as nearest neighbours.Translated AbstractGitterplatzbestimmung von 12B im Ni3Al-Einkristall mittels -strahlungsdetektierter NMRDer Einbauplatz des Sondenkerns 12B im Ni3Al-Einkristall wurde durch Kernresonanz mit β-Strahlungsnachweis bestimmt. Aus der Kombination mit Ergebnissen von Gitterführungsexperimenten ergab sich, daß über 90% der 12B-Ionen auf oktaedrischen Zwischengitterplätzen mit sechs Ni-Ionen als nächsten Nachbarn eingebaut werden.

  9. Transarterial Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, Neal; Martin, Robert C G

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, hepatic arterial therapies (HAT) had been used for colorectal liver metastases after failure of first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapies. HAT has gained greater acceptance in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases after failure of surgery or systemic chemotherapy. The current data demonstrate that HAT is a safe and effective option for preoperative downsizing, optimizing the time to surgery, limiting non-tumor-bearing liver toxicity, and improving overall survival after surgery in patients with colorectal liver-only metastases. The aim of this review is to present the current data for HAT in liver-only and liver-dominant colorectal liver metastases. PMID:27017870

  10. Association Study of IL-12B Polymorphisms Susceptibility with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mainland Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Ting; Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Cai, Guoqi; Wang, Li; Xin, Lihong; Xia, Qing; Li, Xiaona; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of IL-12B gene is a susceptibility factor to Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in mainland Han Chinese population. Method Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10045431, rs11167764, rs3212227, rs6556412, rs6556416, rs6871626, rs6887695 and rs7709212) in the IL-12B gene were genotyped by iMLDR Assay technology in 400 patients [96% (384/400) HLA-B27(+)] and 395 geographically and ethnically matched healthy controls in mainland Han Chinese population. The correlation between IL-12B genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI) were tested. Results The significant difference was found in genotype distribution between AS and healthy controls (χ2 = 6.942, P-value = 0.031) of the SNP rs6871626. Furthermore, significant evidence was also detected under the recessive model for minor allele A. The AA genotype carrier had 1.830 fold risk compared with C allele carrier (with CC and AC genotypes) [OR (95% CI) = 1.830 (1.131-2.961), P-value = 0.014]. Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. Subset analysis on cases with HLA-B27(+) did find the same results. Three genotypic groups (AA, CC and CA) in rs6871626 site was highly associated with the BASDAI and BASFI (P-value = 0.012 and P-value = 0.023, respectively), after adjustment for effect of age, sex, and disease duration, the P-value was 0.031 and 0.041, respectively. The AA genotype of rs6871626 was also significantly correlated with an increased BASDAI and BASFI compared to the AC and CC genotypes in AS patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that rs6871626 may be associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASDAI, BASFI) in mainland Han Chinese population. PMID:26103568

  11. The formation of choline O-sulphate by Pseudomonas C12B and other Pseudomonas species

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Pseudomonas C12B and other Pseudomonas species released larger amounts of a 35S-labelled metabolite into the medium when cultured on growth-limiting concentrations of Na2SO4 as opposed to growth in SO42−-sufficient media. The metabolite was found at all stages of the culture cycle of Pseudomonas C12B and maximum quantities occurred in stationary-phase culture supernatants. The metabolite was not detected when the bacterium was cultured on growth-limiting concentrations of potassium phosphate. The amount of the metabolite present in the medium greatly exceeded that which could be extracted from intact cells and, except for choline chloride, it was independent of the carbon source used for growth. If choline chloride was present in high concentration, then larger amounts of the metabolite were found in the culture medium. The metabolite was not detected extracellularly or intracellularly when the bacterium was grown in SO42−-deficient media containing 5mm-l-cysteine. The same metabolite was also synthesized in vitro only when Pseudomonas C12B extracts were incubated with choline chloride, ATP, MgCl2 and Na235SO4. The metabolite-forming system was not subject to repression by Na2SO4 and was completely inhibited by 0.5mm-l-cysteine and activated by Na2SO4 (up to 1.0mm). The metabolite was identified as choline O-sulphate by electrophoresis, chromatography and isotope-dilution analysis. Another 35S-labelled metabolite was also detected in culture supernatants, but was not identified. PMID:4590202

  12. High Resolution Spectroscopy of {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Iodice, M.; Cusanno, F.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Acha, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Coman, L.; Markowitz, P.; Moteabbed, M.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Aniol, K. A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Baturin, P.; Jiang, X.; McCormick, K.; Bertin, P. Y.; Camsonne, A.; Ferdi, C.; Blomqvist, K. I.

    2007-08-03

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in hall A at Jefferson Lab on a {sup 12}C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}B spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state s-wave {lambda} peak and the 11 MeV p-wave {lambda} peak.

  13. Independent measurement of the Hoyle state β feeding from 12B using Gammasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, M.; Alcorta, M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Albers, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Clark, J. A.; DiGiovine, B.; Greene, J. P.; Harker, J. L.; Hoffman, C. R.; Hubbard, N. J.; Jiang, C. L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Lauritsen, T.; Laursen, K. L.; Marley, S. T.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Sethi, J.; Seweryniak, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.; Zhu, S.

    2016-06-01

    Using an array of high-purity Compton-suppressed germanium detectors, we performed an independent measurement of the β -decay branching ratio from 12B to the second-excited state, also known as the Hoyle state, in 12C. Our result is 0.64 (11 )% , which is a factor ˜2 smaller than the previously established literature value, but is in agreement with another recent measurement. This could indicate that the Hoyle state is more clustered than previously believed. The angular correlation of the Hoyle state γ cascade has also been measured for the first time. It is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  14. Synthesis and fluorosolvatochromism of 3-arylnaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pithan, Phil M; Decker, David; Sardo, Manlio Sutero; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states. PMID:27340476

  15. Synthesis and fluorosolvatochromism of 3-arylnaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pithan, Phil M; Decker, David; Sardo, Manlio Sutero; Viola, Giampietro; Ihmels, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states. PMID:27340476

  16. Radiosurgery for Large Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery in patients with large brain metastases treated with radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients with large brain metastases (>14 cm{sup 3}) were treated with radiosurgery between 1998 and 2009. The mean age was 59 {+-} 11 years, and 49 (61.3%) were men. Neurologic symptoms were identified in 77 patients (96.3%), and 30 (37.5%) exhibited a dependent functional status. The primary disease was under control in 36 patients (45.0%), and 44 (55.0%) had a single lesion. The mean tumor volume was 22.4 {+-} 8.8 cm{sup 3}, and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 13.8 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Results: The median survival time from radiosurgery was 7.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.343-10.46), and the 1-year survival rate was 39.2%. Functional improvement within 1-4 months or the maintenance of the initial independent status was observed in 48 (60.0%) and 20 (25.0%) patients after radiosurgery, respectively. Control of the primary disease, a marginal dose of {>=}11 Gy, and a tumor volume {>=}26 cm{sup 3} were significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.479; p = .018; 95% CI, 0.261-0.880; hazard ratio, 0.350; p = .004; 95% CI, 0.171-0.718; hazard ratio, 2.307; p = .006; 95% CI, 1.274-4.180, respectively). Unacceptable radiation-related toxicities (Radiation Toxicity Oncology Group central nervous system toxicity Grade 3, 4, and 5 in 7, 6, and 2 patients, respectively) developed in 15 patients (18.8%). Conclusion: Radiosurgery seems to have a comparable efficacy with surgery for large brain metastases. However, the rate of radiation-related toxicities after radiosurgery should be considered when deciding on a treatment modality.

  17. Spilled Gallstones Mimicking Peritoneal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Loan, William; Carey, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Spillage of bile and gallstones due to accidental perforation of the gallbladder wall is often encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although spilled stones were once considered harmless, there is increasing evidence that they can result in septic or other potential complications. Case Report: We report a case of spilled gallstones mimicking peritoneal metastases on radiological investigations; diagnosis was confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy. Conclusion: Every effort should be made to retrieve spilled gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When all the stones cannot be retrieved, it should be documented in the patient's medical records to avoid delay in the diagnosis of late complications. Diagnostic laparoscopy is useful when the radiological investigations are inconclusive. PMID:19366546

  18. Hydride-Based Electride Material, LnH2 (Ln = La, Ce, or Y).

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Okunaka, Masaaki; Kitano, Masaaki; Matsuishi, Satoru; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    In view of the strong electron-donating nature of H(-) and extensive vacancy formation in metals by hydrogen insertion, a series of LnH2+x (Ln = La, Ce, or Y) compounds with fluorite-type structures were verified to be the first hydride-based electride, where itinerant electrons populating the cage are surrounded by H(-) anions. The electron transfer into the cage probably originates from Ln-cage covalent interaction. To the best of our knowledge, anion-rich electrides are extremely rare, and a key requirement for their formation is that the cage site is not occupied by lone pair electrons of the adjacent ions. In the case of LnH2, the cage site is surrounded by eight H(-) anions with isotopic electronic character caused by the lack of mixing of H p-orbital character. Notably, Ru-loaded LnH2+x electride powders synthesized by hydrogen embrittlement (Ln = La or Ce) were found to work as efficient catalysts for ammonia synthesis at ambient pressure, without showing serious signs of hydrogen poisoning. There are several possible origins of the observed high catalytic activity in the hydride promotors: the small work function of LnH2+x derived from the covalent interaction between Ln cation and the H(-) σ donor, and the formation of Ln nitride during catalytic reaction. PMID:27512817

  19. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  20. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  1. MicroRNAs associated with small bowel neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Helen C; Frampton, Adam E; Malczewska, Anna; Ottaviani, Silvia; Stronach, Euan A; Flora, Rashpal; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Schwach, Gert; Pfragner, Roswitha; Faiz, Omar; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Hanna, George B; Stebbing, Justin; Castellano, Leandro; Frilling, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Novel molecular analytes are needed in small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SBNETs) to better determine disease aggressiveness and predict treatment response. In this study, we aimed to profile the global miRNome of SBNETs, and identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in tumour progression for use as potential biomarkers. Two independent miRNA profiling experiments were performed (n=90), including primary SBNETs (n=28), adjacent normal small bowel (NSB; n=14), matched lymph node (LN) metastases (n=24), normal LNs (n=7), normal liver (n=2) and liver metastases (n=15). We then evaluated potentially targeted genes by performing integrated computational analyses. We discovered 39 miRNAs significantly deregulated in SBNETs compared with adjacent NSB. The most upregulated (miR-204-5p, miR-7-5p and miR-375) were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Two miRNAs (miR-1 and miR-143-3p) were significantly downregulated in LN and liver metastases compared with primary tumours. Furthermore, we identified upregulated gene targets for miR-1 and miR-143-3p in an existing SBNET dataset, which could contribute to disease progression, and show that these miRNAs directly regulate FOSB and NUAK2 oncogenes. Our study represents the largest global miRNA profiling of SBNETs using matched primary tumour and metastatic samples. We revealed novel miRNAs deregulated during SBNET disease progression, and important miRNA-mRNA interactions. These miRNAs have the potential to act as biomarkers for patient stratification and may also be able to guide treatment decisions. Further experiments to define molecular mechanisms and validate these miRNAs in larger tissue cohorts and in biofluids are now warranted. PMID:27353039

  2. WASP-12b as a prolate, inflated and disrupting planet from tidal dissipation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Lin; Miller, N; Lin, Douglas N C; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2010-02-25

    The class of exotic Jupiter-mass planets that orbit very close to their parent stars were not explicitly expected before their discovery. The recently discovered transiting planet WASP-12b has a mass M = 1.4 +/- 0.1 Jupiter masses (M(J)), a mean orbital distance of only 3.1 stellar radii (meaning it is subject to intense tidal forces), and a period of 1.1 days. Its radius 1.79 +/- 0.09R(J) is unexpectedly large and its orbital eccentricity 0.049 +/- 0.015 is even more surprising because such close orbits are usually quickly circularized. Here we report an analysis of its properties, which reveals that the planet is losing mass to its host star at a rate of about 10(-7)M(J) per year. The planet's surface is distorted by the star's gravity and the light curve produced by its prolate shape will differ by about ten per cent from that of a spherical planet. We conclude that dissipation of the star's tidal perturbation in the planet's convective envelope provides the energy source for its large volume. We predict up to 10 mJy CO band-head (2.292 mum) emission from a tenuous disk around the host star, made up of tidally stripped planetary gas. It may also contain a detectable resonant super-Earth, as a hypothetical perturber that continually stirs up WASP-12b's eccentricity. PMID:20182506

  3. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  4. Hydrodynamics and Geochemical Modelling of CO2 Injection at the K12B Gas Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, P.; Oldenburg, C.; van der Meer, B.; Geel, K.; Lions, J.; Gaus, I.; Robelin, C.; Durst, P.; Xu, T.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of CO2 injection into the nearly depleted gas reservoir at the K12B field, North Sea, selected as a demonstration site for the Offshore Re-injection of CO2 project. Simulations have been carried out using two different codes: TOUGHREACT for characterizing the geochemical fluid-rock interactions that may occur during the injection period (case A), and TOUGH2EOS7C for simulating the CO2 sequestration coupled with enhanced methane production (case B). The reactive transport modelling predict a rather low geochemical reactivity induced by such injection as the gas reservoir contained initially 13% of CO2 in the gas phase and therefore geochemical equilibrium has been established before injection starts. The simulations of the CH4 recovery estimate due to injection predict a short breakthrough time of 60 days and one year for the two producers, respectively. At the end of the 10 years of injection, CO2 remains at 96% under gas phase and structural trapping remains the main process for geological sequestration at the K12B field.

  5. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  6. Management of resectable colorectal lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Ladas, George; Bowcock, Anne; Chau, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Lung metastases occur in 10-20 % of patients with colorectal cancer. The biology of colorectal lung metastases is poorly understood, however lung metastases are more common in patients with rectal cancer and in patients with RAS mutations. Although the majority of patients have extrapulmonary disease, a small proportion of patients with lung metastases are suitable for lung metastasectomy and surgical resection has become a standard of care, based on data from retrospective series demonstrating a 5-year overall survival of 40-68 %. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the optimal management approach for these patients due to the lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and current practice varies between institutions. For example, the role for neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy is not yet defined and there are no randomized trials comparing surgery with alternative treatment options such as radiofrequency ablation and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. Further research is needed to improve the selection of patients for surgery, but favourable prognostic factors include a normal pre-operative CEA, solitary metastasis, complete resection and a long disease-free interval. There is also evidence that patients with resectable liver and lung metastases may benefit from resection of both sites of disease, and that re-resection may be of benefit in selected patients who relapse with resectable lung metastases. This article summarizes the biology of colorectal lung metastases and discusses the management of patients with lung metastases. PMID:26659389

  7. A PHOTOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR THE CARBON-RICH PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparapu, Ravi kumar; Kasting, James F.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2012-01-20

    The hot-Jupiter WASP-12b is a heavily irradiated exoplanet in a short-period orbit around a G0-star with twice the metallicity of the Sun. A recent thermochemical equilibrium analysis based on Spitzer and ground-based infrared observations suggests that the presence of CH{sub 4} in its atmosphere and the lack of H{sub 2}O features can only be explained if the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the planet's atmosphere is much greater than the solar ratio ([C]/[O] = 0.54). Here, we use a one-dimensional photochemical model to study the effect of disequilibrium chemistry on the observed abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the WASP-12b atmosphere. We consider two cases: one with solar [C]/[O] and another with [C]/[O] = 1.08. The solar case predicts that H{sub 2}O and CO are more abundant than CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, as expected, whereas the high [C]/[O] model shows that CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and HCN are more abundant. This indicates that the extra carbon from the high [C]/[O] model is in hydrocarbon species. H{sub 2}O photolysis is the dominant disequilibrium mechanism that alters the chemistry at higher altitudes in the solar [C]/[O] case, whereas photodissociation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN is significant in the super-solar case. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that C{sub 2}H{sub 2} is the major absorber in the atmosphere of WASP-12b and the absorption features detected near 1.6 and 8 {mu}m may be arising from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} rather than CH{sub 4}. The Hubble Space Telescope's WFC3 can resolve this discrepancy, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} has absorption between 1.51 and 1.54 {mu}m, while CH{sub 4} does not.

  8. Genetic Variants in IL-12B and IL-27 in the Polish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Gorycka, A; Sowinska, A; Stypinska, B; Grobelna, M K; Walczyk, M; Olesinska, M; Piotrowski, P; Jagodzinski, P P

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the potential association between IL-12B and IL-27 gene polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we performed a case-control study based on the Polish population. Patients with SLE and healthy individuals were examined for -6415 CTCTAA/GC (rs17860508) and +1188A/C (rs3212227) in IL-12B and -924A/G (rs153109) and 4730T/C (rs181206) in IL-27 gene polymorphisms using the high-resolution melting method, PCR-RFLP method and TaqMan SNP genotyping assay, respectively. An increased frequency of GC/GC genotype as well as GC allele of the IL-12B rs17860508 was found in patients with SLE, as compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.001). We did not find differences in genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-12B rs3212227 and IL-27 rs153109 and rs181206 variants between patients with SLE and controls. IL-27 haplotype rs181206C/rs153109G indicated higher risk for SLE (P = 0.002), whereas haplotype rs181206T/rs153109G indicated reduced risk for SLE (P = 0.005). The IL-12B rs3212227 A/C polymorphism was associated with the mean value of the platelets (PLT), urea and complement C3 level. Furthermore, IL-12B rs17860508 genetic variant showed correlation with PLT, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and alkaline phosphatase. Our results revealed that IL-12B rs17860508 and IL-27 haplotype CG are genetic risk factors for SLE and that both IL-12B rs17860508 and rs3212227 predict disease phenotype. PMID:27059274

  9. Missing metastases as a model to challenge current therapeutic algorithms in colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Valerio; Hendlisz, Alain; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Donckier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In oncosurgical approach to colorectal liver metastases, surgery remains considered as the only potentially curative option, while chemotherapy alone represents a strictly palliative treatment. However, missing metastases, defined as metastases disappearing after chemotherapy, represent a unique model to evaluate the curative potential of chemotherapy and to challenge current therapeutic algorithms. We reviewed recent series on missing colorectal liver metastases to evaluate incidence of this phenomenon, predictive factors and rates of cure defined by complete pathologic response in resected missing metastases and sustained clinical response when they were left unresected. According to the progresses in the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimen, the incidence of missing liver metastases regularly increases these last years. Main predictive factors are small tumor size, low marker level, duration of chemotherapy, and use of intra-arterial chemotherapy. Initial series showed low rates of complete pathologic response in resected missing metastases and high recurrence rates when unresected. However, recent reports describe complete pathologic responses and sustained clinical responses reaching 50%, suggesting that chemotherapy could be curative in some cases. Accordingly, in case of missing colorectal liver metastases, the classical recommendation to resect initial tumor sites might have become partially obsolete. Furthermore, the curative effect of chemotherapy in selected cases could lead to a change of paradigm in patients with unresectable liver-only metastases, using intensive first-line chemotherapy to intentionally induce missing metastases, followed by adjuvant surgery on remnant chemoresistant tumors and close surveillance of initial sites that have been left unresected. PMID:27099436

  10. Discovery of pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamides as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Duan, James J-W; Lu, Zhonghui; Jiang, Bin; Yang, Bingwei V; Doweyko, Lidia M; Nirschl, David S; Haque, Lauren E; Lin, Shuqun; Brown, Gregory; Hynes, John; Tokarski, John S; Sack, John S; Khan, Javed; Lippy, Jonathan S; Zhang, Rosemary F; Pitt, Sidney; Shen, Guoxiang; Pitts, William J; Carter, Percy H; Barrish, Joel C; Nadler, Steven G; Salter-Cid, Luisa M; McKinnon, Murray; Fura, Aberra; Schieven, Gary L; Wrobleski, Stephen T

    2014-12-15

    A new class of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors was discovered using a rationally designed pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamide scaffold. Preliminary studies identified (R)-(2,2-dimethylcyclopentyl)amine as a preferred C4 substituent on the pyrrolopyridazine core (3b). Incorporation of amino group to 3-position of the cyclopentane ring resulted in a series of JAK3 inhibitors (4g-4j) that potently inhibited IFNγ production in an IL2-induced whole blood assay and displayed high functional selectivity for JAK3-JAK1 pathway relative to JAK2. Further modifications led to the discovery of an orally bioavailable (2-fluoro-2-methylcyclopentyl)amino analogue 5g which is a nanomolar inhibitor of both JAK3 and TYK2, functionally selective for the JAK3-JAK1 pathway versus JAK2, and active in a human whole blood assay. PMID:25453808

  11. A near-infrared transmission spectrum for the warm Saturn HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Line, Michael R.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee

    2013-12-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera-3 (WFC3) transmission spectrum for the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-12b. This warm (1000 K) sub-Saturn-mass planet has a smaller mass and a lower temperature than the hot Jupiters that have been studied so far. We find that the planet's measured transmission spectrum lacks the expected water absorption feature for a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere and is instead best described by a model with high-altitude clouds. Using a frequentist hypothesis testing procedure, we can rule out a hydrogen-dominated cloud-free atmosphere to 4.9σ. When combined with other recent WFC3 studies, our observations suggest that clouds may be common in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  12. Practical synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of the pyrazino[1,2-b]-isoquinoline ring system.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vázquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Luis D

    2016-06-01

    A practical three-step protocol for the synthesis of pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinolines is reported. This approach includes a one-pot parallel cyclization/cyclization parallel process followed by a non-common 6-endo Heck cyclization that transformed previously constructed Ugi adducts into diversely decorated tricyclic systems. Compounds bearing a t-butyl or 2,6-dimethylphenyl substituent showed significant cytotoxic activity. The most active analogue (6p) showed significant activity against HCT-15 and K562 (IC50 = 41.8 ± 3.3 and 57.7 ± 2.1 μM, respectively) with no cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts. PMID:27161451

  13. Prostatic carcinosarcoma with lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Stefanie R; Kang, David J; Armas, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the prostate is an uncommon malignancy with poor long-term prognosis. The cancer is typically discovered at an advanced stage, and with less than 100 reported cases, there is limited literature concerning treatment options. Our patient presented with a history of benign prostatic hypertrophy, erectile dysfunction, and nocturia. Biopsy of his prostate indicated that the patient had prostatic adenocarcinoma, but histopathology after prostatectomy revealed carcinosarcoma. It has been over six years since this patient's diagnosis of carcinosarcoma. Over this span of time, he has received a radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and androgen ablative therapy. The patient also developed multiple lung metastases that have been treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery and stereotactic body radiosurgery. Overall, he has remained unimpaired and in good condition despite his aggressive form of cancer. PMID:24294528

  14. Metastases of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Thomas, L C

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that effective therapy does not currently exist for the majority of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary site, the last decade has witnessed significant advances in the approach to this heterogeneous disease. The use of modern pathologic techniques that frequently provide better diagnostic precision and the recognition of specific subgroups with a favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment has improved the outcome for some patients. Currently the diagnostic strategy should emphasize the rapid identification of patients likely to benefit from available therapy, whereas clinical research should focus on the development of more effective treatments for those patients with unresponsive tumors. In the future, continued improvements in the molecular characterization of these tumors will likely enhance understanding of the metastatic process, allow for more specific definitions of cell lineage, and provide insights for better therapy. PMID:8569295

  15. Value of PET/CT and MR Lymphography in Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients With Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuin, Ansje S.; Deserno, Willem M.L.L.G.; Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Jager, Gerrit J.; Takahashi, Satoru; Debats, Oscar A.; Reske, Sven N.; Schick, Christian; Krause, Bernd J.; Oort, Inge van; Witjes, Alfred J.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical value of two novel molecular imaging techniques: {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and ferumoxtran-10 enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic resonance lymphography [MRL]) for lymph node (LN) treatment in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of PET/CT and MRL to assess the number, size, and location of LN metastases in patients with primary or recurrent PCa. Methods and Materials: A total of 29 patients underwent MRL and PET/CT for LN evaluation. The MRL and PET/CT data were analyzed independently. The number, size, and location of the LN metastases were determined. The location was described as within or outside the standard clinical target volume for elective pelvic irradiation as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Subsequently, the results from MRL and PET/CT were compared. Results: Of the 738 LNs visible on MRL, 151 were positive in 23 of 29 patients. Of the 132 LNs visible on PET/CT, 34 were positive in 13 of 29 patients. MRL detected significantly more positive LNs (p < 0.001) in more patients than PET/CT (p = 0.002). The mean diameter of the detected suspicious LNs on MRL was significantly smaller than those detected by PET/CT, 4.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.0001). In 14 (61%) of 23 patients, suspicious LNs were found outside the clinical target volume with MRL and in 4 (31%) of 13 patients with PET/CT. Conclusion: In patients with PCa, both molecular imaging techniques, MRL and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, can detect LNs suspicious for metastasis, irrespective of the existing size and shape criteria for CT and conventional magnetic resonance imaging. On MRL and PET/CT, 61% and 31% of the suspicious LNs were located outside the conventional clinical target volume. Therefore, these techniques could help to individualize treatment selection and enable image-guided radiotherapy for patients with PCa LN metastases.

  16. TNF, IL12B, and IFNG Gene Polymorphisms in Serbian Patients with Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Popadic, Svetlana; Savic, Emina; Markovic, Milos; Ramic, Zorica; Medenica, Ljiljana; Pravica, Vera; Spuran, Zorica; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a strong genetic basis. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (ILs) such are IL-12 and IL-23, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) are released from various inflammatory and resident cells, and have been implicated in the initiation/maintenance of inflammation. Certain alleles of the aforementioned cytokines may be associated with disease susceptibility/severity. Objective To investigate the association of three common functional gene polymorphisms, namely TNF -308 G/A (rs1800629), IL12B (encoding the p40 subunit of IL-12/23) +1188 A/C (rs3212227), and IFNG +874 T/A (rs2430561) with psoriasis development and severity in Serbian patients. Methods We genotyped 130 patients with psoriasis (26 of whom also had psoriatic arthritis) and 259 controls; rs1800629 and rs3212227, and rs2430561, by real-time PCR assay. Results The TNF GG genotype was detected at a higher frequency in patients with psoriasis compared to control subjects (OR, 1.420; 95% CI, 0.870~2.403) without statistical significance (p=0.191). Lack of the TNF G allele was associated with lower psoriasis severity (p=0.007). The IL12B AC genotype was underrepresented in the patients with psoriatic arthritis compared to healthy subjects (OR, 0.308; 95% CI, 0.090~1.057; p=0.049). The distribution of the rs2430561 allele and genotype frequencies was similar between patients with psoriasis and controls. Conclusion Our study demonstrates an effect of the rs1800629 on psoriasis severity, and a marginal impact of the rs3212227 on susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis. Collectively, our results obtained in a Serbian cohort expand current knowledge regarding individual predisposition to psoriatic disease. PMID:25834350

  17. Discovery of indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, You-Ren; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi; Liu, Wangta; Chou, Chon-Kit; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chen, Yeh-Long

    2016-01-27

    We have synthesized certain indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline derivatives for antiproliferative evaluation. Among them, 11-{[3-(dimethylamino)propoxy]imino}-N-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-6-carboxamide (10a) was active against the growth of MDA-MB231, PC-3, and Huh-7 with IC50 values of 0.87 (selectivity index, SI = 36.22), 0.82 (SI = 38.43), and 0.64 μM (SI = 49.23) respectively. Compound 10a was inactive against the growth of normal human fetal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) with an IC50 value of 31.51 μM. Its analogs, 10b and 10c, were also active against the growth of MB231, PC-3, and Huh-7 with IC50 values of <1.0 μM in each case. Our results have also indicated compounds 10a-10c exhibited comparable inhibitory activities against topo I and topo II with the positive compound 2 at a concentration of 10 μM. Mechanism studies indicated that compound 10a induced cell cycle arrest at S phase via activation of caspase-3, -7 and an increase in the protein expression of Bad and Bax but a decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and PARP, which consequently cause cell death. In addition, compound 10a attenuated the levels of phosphorylated Src, Akt-1, and Akt-2 protein levels but did not affect the total protein expression of Akt. We have also implanted human hepatocellular carcinoma cells into the yolk sac of zebrafish larvae and incubated larvae with various concentrations of 10a. Our results of the zebrafish xenograft assay confirmed the anti-tumor effect of 10ain vivo. PMID:26686931

  18. METALS IN THE EXOSPHERE OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED PLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Carter, A. E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.u E-mail: U.C.Kolb@open.ac.u

    2010-05-10

    We present near-UV transmission spectroscopy of the highly irradiated transiting exoplanet WASP-12b, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra cover three distinct wavelength ranges: NUVA (2539-2580 A), NUVB (2655-2696 A), and NUVC (2770-2811 A). Three independent methods all reveal enhanced transit depths attributable to absorption by resonance lines of metals in the exosphere of WASP-12b. Light curves of total counts in the NUVA and NUVC wavelength ranges show a detection at a 2.5{sigma} level. We detect extra absorption in the Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2800 resonance line cores at the 2.8{sigma} level. The NUVA, NUVB, and NUVC light curves imply effective radii of 2.69 {+-} 0.24 R {sub J}, 2.18 {+-} 0.18 R {sub J}, and 2.66 {+-} 0.22 R {sub J} respectively, suggesting the planet is surrounded by an absorbing cloud which overfills the Roche lobe. We detect enhanced transit depths at the wavelengths of resonance lines of neutral sodium, tin, and manganese, and at singly ionized ytterbium, scandium, manganese, aluminum, vanadium, and magnesium. We also find the statistically expected number of anomalous transit depths at wavelengths not associated with any known resonance line. Our data are limited by photon noise, but taken as a whole the results are strong evidence for an extended absorbing exosphere surrounding the planet. The NUVA data exhibit an early ingress, contrary to model expectations; we speculate this could be due to the presence of a disk of previously stripped material.

  19. Alginate Lyases from Alginate-Degrading Vibrio splendidus 12B01 Are Endolytic

    PubMed Central

    Badur, Ahmet H.; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Alginate lyases are enzymes that degrade alginate through β-elimination of the glycosidic bond into smaller oligomers. We investigated the alginate lyases from Vibrio splendidus 12B01, a marine bacterioplankton species that can grow on alginate as its sole carbon source. We identified, purified, and characterized four polysaccharide lyase family 7 alginates lyases, AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE, from V. splendidus 12B01. The four lyases were found to have optimal activity between pH 7.5 and 8.5 and at 20 to 25°C, consistent with their use in a marine environment. AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE were found to exhibit a turnover number (kcat) for alginate of 0.60 ± 0.02 s−1, 3.7 ± 0.3 s−1, 4.5 ± 0.5 s−1, and 7.1 ± 0.2 s−1, respectively. The Km values of AlyA, AlyB, AlyD, and AlyE toward alginate were 36 ± 7 μM, 22 ± 5 μM, 60 ± 2 μM, and 123 ± 6 μM, respectively. AlyA and AlyB were found principally to cleave the β-1,4 bonds between β-d-mannuronate and α-l-guluronate and subunits; AlyD and AlyE were found to principally cleave the α-1,4 bonds involving α-l-guluronate subunits. The four alginate lyases degrade alginate into longer chains of oligomers. PMID:25556193

  20. Deciphering the atmospheric composition of WASP-12b: A comprehensive analysis of its dayside emission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-08-10

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 μm. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent retrieval approaches. We find that when we exclude absorption due to C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN, which are not universally considered in the literature, our models require implausibly large atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances, regardless of the C/O. By including C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN in our models, we find that a physically plausible carbon-rich solution achieves the best fit to the available photometric and spectroscopic data. In comparison, the best-fit oxygen-rich models have abundances that are inconsistent with the chemical equilibrium expectations for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and are 670 times less probable. Our best-fit solution is also 7.3 × 10{sup 6} times more probable than an isothermal blackbody model.

  1. Bone metastases in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Portales, Fabienne; Thézenas, Simon; Samalin, Emmanuelle; Assenat, Eric; Mazard, Thibault; Ychou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal (CRC) and gastroesophageal (GEC) cancers unusually spread to the bone. However, bone metastases (BM) are responsible for skeletal-related events (SREs) associated with an altered quality of life. Aiming to describe the characteristics and prognostic influence of BM from gastro-intestinal cancers, we performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in patients treated in our institution (1996-2006). 189 patients (5.5 %) developed BM: 79 with GEC and 110 with CRC. 57 patients had bone-exclusive metastases. In univariate analyses, the median time to BM occurrence was correlated with the primary tumour (PT) localisation, surgery, histology and TNM staging. However, in multivariate analyses, the occurrence delay was significantly shorter only for patients with GEC (HR 2.1), N1-2 status (HR 1.9), M1 status (HR 2.4), and epidermoid carcinoma (HR 6.0). Pain was the most frequent clinical sign leading to BM diagnosis (77.2 %). SRE occurred in 55 % of patients. Median overall survivals (OSs) of patients with CRC and GEC were 9.4 months [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 6.4-11.1] and 3.4 months (95 % CI 2.5-9.0), respectively. In univariate analyses, OS was correlated with PT surgery and NM staging, and the number of BM. In multivariate analyses, only the PT surgery and the number of BM remained correlated with OS. Our results suggest that there may be a subset of patients associated with a quicker development of BM. Given their higher risk of SRE, they could benefit from an early screening, calling for further prospective studies encompassing patients with and without BM. PMID:25381591

  2. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient. PMID:16475029

  3. Future directions in treatment of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Barani, Igor J.; Larson, David A.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases affect up to 30% of patients with cancer. Management of brain metastases continues to evolve with ever increasing focus on cognitive preservation and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current state of brain metastases management and discusses various treatment controversies with focus on future clinical trials. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are discussed in context of multiple (4+ brain metastases) as well as new approaches combining radiation and targeted agents. A brief discussion of modified WBRT approaches, including hippocampal-avoidance WBRT (HA-WBRT) is included as well as a section on recently presented results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0614, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of menantine for prevention of neurocognitive injury after WBRT. Methods: A search of selected studies relevant to management of brain metastases was performed in PubMed as well as in various published meeting abstracts. This data was collated and analyzed in context of contemporary management and future clinical trial plans. This data is presented in tabular form and discussed extensively in the text. Results: The published data demonstrate continued evolution of clinical trials and management strategies designed to minimize and/or prevent cognitive decline following radiation therapy management of brain metastases. Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) and radiosurgery treatments for multiple brain metastases are discussed along with preliminary results of RTOG 0614, a trial of memantine therapy to prevent cognitive decline following WBRT. Trial results appear to support the use of memantine for prevention of cognitive decline. Conclusions: Different management strategies for multiple brain metastases (>4 brain metastases) are currently being evaluated in prospective clinical trials to minimize the likelihood of cognitive decline following WBRT. PMID

  4. I BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 2: APPROACH TO RESECTABLE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Héber Salvador de Castro; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins; MARQUES, Márcio Carmona; HERMAN, Paulo; KALIL, Antonio Nocchi; FERNANDES, Eduardo de Souza Martins; de OLIVEIRA, Fábio Ferreira; CASTRO, Leonaldson dos Santos; HANRIOT, Rodrigo; OLIVEIRA, Suilane Coelho Ribeiro; BOFF, Marcio Fernando; da COSTA, Wilson Luiz; GIL, Roberto de Almeida; PFIFFER, Tulio Eduardo Flesch; MAKDISSI, Fabio Ferrari; ROCHA, Manoel de Souza; do AMARAL, Paulo Cezar Galvão; COSTA, Leonardo Atem Gonçalves de Araújo; ALOIA, Tomas A.; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; COIMBRA, Felipe José Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients. Aim: In the second module of this consensus, management of resectable liver metastases was discussed. Method: Concept of synchronous and metachronous metastases was determined, and both scenarius were discussed separately according its prognostic and therapeutic peculiarities. Results: Special attention was given to the missing metastases due to systemic preoperative treatment response, with emphasis in strategies to avoid its reccurrence and how to manage disappeared lesions. Conclusion: Were presented validated ressectional strategies, to be taken into account in clinical practice. PMID:27120731

  5. Comparing Postoperative Radiation Therapies for Brain Metastases

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, patients with one to four brain metastases who have had at least one of the metastatic tumors removed surgically will be randomly assigned to undergo whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.

  6. Luminescence properties of YVO 4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buissette, V.; Huignard, A.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.; Aschehoug, P.; Viana, B.

    2003-06-01

    Concentrated colloidal solutions of well dispersed YVO 4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanocrystals are synthesized through the precipitation of citrate complexes of rare earth salts with sodium orthovanadate. Luminescence spectra of aqueous suspensions of YVO 4:Nd or Yb are very similar to the bulk material, with lower lifetimes of the emitting level. After heating at 600 °C, the luminescence properties of silica capped YVO 4:Ln nanoparticles are significantly improved. In these conditions, YVO 4:Yb, Er nanoparticles exhibit green up-conversion luminescence and 1.55 μm emission of the erbium ion under infrared excitation of the ytterbium ion.

  7. WASP-12b According to the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Lust, Nate B.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew SD; Foster, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  8. A Random Walk on WASP-12b with the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Bowman, Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Foster, Austin James; Stemm, Madison; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  9. [Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

  10. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  11. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  12. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  13. Synthesis, Photochemical Properties, and Cytotoxicities of 2H-Naphtho[1,2-b]pyran and Its Photodimers.

    PubMed

    Ota, Motohiro; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Onodera, Takefumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    A 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran, prepared by dimerization of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and O-methylation, readily undergoes solid-state [2 + 2] photodimerization to give a photodimer in excellent yield and with excellent selectivity. Retro [2 + 2] cycloaddition can be achieved by irradiation of a solution of the photodimer in chloroform. Interestingly, the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran dimerizes with a skeletal rearrangement to afford 2,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepin dimers upon irradiation in methanol or via irradiation with hexamethylditin. Furthermore, treatment of the resulting dimers with triethylamine regenerates the 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran monomer. Significant differences in the color, fluorescence, and cytotoxic properties of the monomer and dimers were observed. PMID:25927340

  14. New imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles as anticancer agents: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Sandrine; Mathieu, Véronique; Pillard, Christelle; Massip, Stéphane; Marchivie, Mathieu; Jarry, Christian; Bernard, Philippe; Kiss, Robert; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2014-09-12

    Synthesis and functionalization strategies of the imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole core were developed giving a rapid access to three series of novel imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole type derivatives: C-2/C-6/C-7 trisubstituted, C-2/C-3/C-6 tri(hetero)arylated and C-2/C-3/C-6/C-7 tetrasubstituted imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles. 39 of the synthetized products were evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity using the MTT colorimetric assay against 5 human and 1 murine cancer cell lines. Promising in vitro growth inhibitory activities were exhibited by some of the target compounds. Of the 39 evaluated products, 4 displayed an IC50 ≤ 10 μM in the 6 cell lines analyzed (compounds 4d, 4g, 9a, 11a). A structure activity relationship analysis is also reported in this paper. PMID:25064349

  15. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target. PMID:27179807

  16. Magnetic properties of EuLn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Keiichi; Doi, Yoshihiro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2009-07-15

    Ternary rare earth oxides EuLn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Ln=Gd, Dy-Lu) were prepared. They crystallized in an orthorhombic CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure with space group Pnma. {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements show that the Eu ions are in the divalent state. All these compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition at 4.2-6.3 K. From the positive Weiss constant and the saturation of magnetization for EuLu{sub 2}O{sub 4}, it is considered that ferromagnetic chains of Eu{sup 2+} are aligned along the b-axis of the orthorhombic unit cell, with neighboring Eu{sup 2+} chains antiparallel. When Ln=Gd-Tm, ferromagnetically aligned Eu{sup 2+} ions interact with the Ln{sup 3+} ions, which would overcome the magnetic frustration of triangularly aligned Ln{sup 3+} ions and the EuLn{sub 2}O{sub 4} compounds show a simple antiferromagnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Ternary rare earth oxides EuLn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Ln=Gd, Dy-Lu) crystallized in an orthorhombic CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure with space group Pnma. Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements show that the Eu ions are in the divalent state. All these compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition at 4.2-6.3 K. It is considered that ferromagnetic chains of Eu{sup 2+} are aligned along the b-axis of the orthorhombic unit cell, with neighboring Eu{sup 2+} chains antiparallel.

  17. [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] heterometallic compounds: rare linear SMMs with divalent manganese ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Min, Fan-Yong; Wang, Chao; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Liu, Zhiliang; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-02-21

    The reaction of Mn(OAc)2·4H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O with N-(2-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide and salicylic aldehyde in methanol/methylene dichloride produces yellow crystals of Ln2Mn(C7H5O2)8 (Ln = Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Ho () and Er ()), in the presence of triethylamine. Three metal ions are connected by six μ2-phenolate oxygen atoms of six salicylic aldehyde ligands, resulting in perfect linear [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] structures. Magnetic studies of these complexes have been performed and AC susceptibility measurements show the presence of a temperature-dependent out-of-phase ac signal for complexes and indicating single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. The Dy(III)2Mn(II) compound shows double relaxation pathways which may originate from the single ion behavior of individual Dy(III) ions and the weak coupling between Dy(III) and Mn(II) ions, respectively. The Ueff of 92.4(2) K is a relatively high value among 3d-4f SMMs. Moreover, complexes and represent the first linear Mn-Ln SMMs containing only divalent manganese ions as far as we know. The result suggests the positive effects of magnetic coupling to enhance their SMM behavior, presenting a promising strategy for constructing efficient heterometallic SMMs. PMID:25601415

  18. Synthesis and electronic properties of LnRhAsO and LnIrAsO compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, Sean; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the new compositions LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Nd) and LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) are reported. These compounds crystallize in the ZrCuSiAs type structure, isostructural to iron pnictide LnFeAsO materials. Upon substitution of Rh for Fe, both a and c lattice parameters increase relative to 3d transition metal compounds; however, when Ir is substituted for Rh the a-parameter decreases slightly while the c-parameter expands. The decrease in a lattice parameter corresponds to a short metal-metal distance in Ir compounds. CeRhAsO and CeIrAsO compositions show abrupt decreases in resistivity at 7 and 10 K, respectively, coinciding with a small shift in magnetization at the transition temperature. - Graphical abstract: LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) and LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Rh) have been synthesized. These new transition metal oxypnictide compositions are isostructural to LaFeAsO. The 5d Ir compositions demonstrate a shorter metal-metal interaction than the 4d Rh compositions. Highlights: > LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) and LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Nd) have been synthesized. > Ir compositions show a decreased a-parameter and increased c-parameter relative to Rh compositions. > All LnIrAsO and LnRhAsO compositions are metallic while CeIrAsO and CeRhAsO show a sudden drop in resistivity at 10 and 7 K, respectively.

  19. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  20. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  1. THE SUB-SATURN MASS TRANSITING PLANET HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius E-mail: jhyoon@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2012-04-15

    We present new photometric data of the transiting planet HAT-P-12b observed in 2011. Our three transit curves are modeled using the JKTEBOP code and adopting the quadratic limb-darkening law. Including our measurements, 18 transit times spanning about 4.2 yr were used to determine the improved ephemeris with a transit epoch of 2,454,187.85560 {+-} 0.00011 BJD and an orbital period of 3.21305961 {+-} 0.00000035 days. The physical properties of the star-planet system are computed using empirical calibrations from eclipsing binary stars and stellar evolutionary models, combined with both our transit parameters and previously known spectroscopic results. We found that the absolute dimensions of the host star are M{sub A} = 0.73 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }, R{sub A} = 0.70 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Sun }, log g{sub A} = 4.61 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub A} = 2.10 {+-} 0.09 {rho}{sub Sun }, and L{sub A} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 L{sub Sun }. The planetary companion has M{sub b} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Jup}, R{sub b} = 0.94 {+-} 0.01 R{sub Jup}, log g{sub b} = 2.77 {+-} 0.02, {rho}{sub b} = 0.24 {+-} 0.01 {rho}{sub Jup}, and T{sub eq} = 960 {+-} 14 K. Our results agree well with standard models of irradiated gas giants with a core mass of 11.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Induces HDAC1-Mediated Suppression of IL-12B Gene Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Aneesh; Antony, Cecil; Jose, Leny; Mundayoor, Sathish; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy; Kumar, R Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of host gene expression is one of the many strategies employed by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to survive inside the macrophages and cause disease. The underlying molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of host defense gene expression is largely unknown. In this study we explored the role of histone deacetylation in macrophages in response to infection by virulent MTB H37Rv in manipulating host gene expression. We show a significant increase in the levels of HDAC1 with a concomitant and marked reduction in the levels of histone H3-acetylation in macrophages containing live, but not killed, virulent MTB. Additionally, we show that HDAC1 is recruited to the promoter of IL-12B in macrophages infected with live, virulent MTB, and the subsequent hypoacetylation of histone H3 suppresses the expression of this gene which plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses. By inhibiting immunologically relevant kinases, and by knockdown of crucial transcriptional regulators, we demonstrate that protein kinase-A (PKA), CREB, and c-Jun play an important role in regulating HDAC1 level in live MTB-infected macrophages. By chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, we prove that HDAC1 expression is positively regulated by the recruitment of c-Jun to its promoter. Knockdown of HDAC1 in macrophages significantly reduced the survival of intracellular MTB. These observations indicate a novel HDAC1-mediated epigenetic modification induced by live, virulent MTB to subvert the immune system to survive and replicate in the host. PMID:26697414

  3. Statistical Electronic Structure Calibration Study of the CCSD(T*)-F12b Method for Atomization Energies.

    PubMed

    Feller, David

    2015-07-16

    In the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b coupled cluster method only the singles and doubles component of the energy benefits from inclusion of terms involving the interelectronic distance. Consequently, only that component exhibits accelerated convergence with respect to the 1-particle basis set. The smaller perturbative triples component converges at the same rate as the corresponding piece in standard CCSD(T). With the alternative CCSD(T*)-F12b method the triples correlation energy is scaled up by the ratio of explicitly correlated to standard second-order perturbation theory correlation energies in an attempt to better approximate the basis set limit. An extensive and diverse 212 molecule collection of reference total atomization energies, developed with large basis sets (up to aug-cc-pV9Z in some cases) and standard CCSD(T), was used to calibrate the performance of CCSD(T*). Scaling of the (T) energy led to improved results relative to raw F12b values but only provided a statistical advantage over previously proposed complete basis set extrapolation techniques for the smallest basis sets. With larger sets, scaling (T) produced noticeably poorer results, sometimes by a factor of 2. In agreement with earlier studies, basis set extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b was found to exhibit a systematic bias toward overestimating reference atomization energies with an error that increases with the magnitude of the valence correlation energy. PMID:25730633

  4. IS IL12B A POTENTIAL GENETIC TARGET FOR THE PREVENTION OF TYPE 1 DIABETES THROUGH DIETARY INTERVENTION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) results from decreased insulin production. Its clinical expression is the result of an array of genetic and environmental factors. The IL12B gene could be one of the loci implicated in the genetic susceptibility of T1D. Thus, this genetic predisposition could be modula...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain DPC6895, a Serotype 1/2b Isolate from Bovine Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Casey, Aidan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan; Hunt, Karen; Fanning, Seamus; Fox, Edward; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and is the causative agent of listeriosis among humans and animals. The draft genome sequence of L. monocytogenes DPC6895, a serotype 1/2b strain isolated from the raw milk of a cow with subclinical bovine mastitis, is reported. PMID:26067969

  6. Integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction up to 10 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Colonna, N.; Bosnar, D.; Ventura, A.; Mengoni, A.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Musumarra, A.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2016-04-01

    The integral measurement of the 12C(n, p)12B reaction was performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The total number of 12B nuclei produced per neutron pulse of the n_TOF beam was determined using the activation technique in combination with a time-of-flight technique. The cross section is integrated over the n_TOF neutron energy spectrum from reaction threshold at 13.6MeV to 10GeV. Having been measured up to 1GeV on basis of the 235U(n, f ) reaction, the neutron energy spectrum above 200MeV has been re-evaluated due to the recent extension of the cross section reference for this particular reaction, which is otherwise considered a standard up to 200MeV. The results from the dedicated GEANT4 simulations have been used to evaluate the neutron flux from 1GeV up to 10GeV. The experimental results related to the 12C(n, p)12B reaction are compared with the evaluated cross sections from major libraries and with the predictions of different GEANT4 models, which mostly underestimate the 12B production. On the contrary, a good reproduction of the integral cross section derived from measurements is obtained with TALYS-1.6 calculations, with optimized parameters.

  7. Ultrasharp magnetization steps in the antiferromagnetic itinerant-electron system LaF e12B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable intrinsic magnetic properties of the LaF e12B6 compound have been studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The NPD measurement reveals that LaF e12B6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure that can be described with a magnetic propagation vector of (¼, ¼, ¼) below TN. In the amplitude-modulated model used for the refinement, the Fe magnetic moments are confined to the a b plane with a maximum value of 0.43 μB at 1.5 K. It is shown that the AFM state can be transformed to a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced first-order transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. The LaF e12B6 compound is not only the unique stable R F e12B6 phase, along the rare-earth R series but also presents unique magnetic behavior for a purely 3 d itinerant electron system, including particularly low ordering temperature TN=36 K , remarkably small Fe moment, unusual amplitude-modulated magnetic arrangement, and a multicritical point in the magnetic phase diagram. In addition, we reveal that at 2 K, the AFM-FM transition is abrupt, leading to a large increase of the Fe magnetic moment up to 1.55 μB ; the magnetization curve presents ultrasharp steps, giving rise to an unusual staircaselike behavior.

  8. prdm12b specifies the p1 progenitor domain and reveals a role for V1 interneurons in swim movements.

    PubMed

    Zannino, Denise A; Downes, Gerald B; Sagerström, Charles G

    2014-06-15

    Proper functioning of the vertebrate central nervous system requires the precise positioning of many neuronal cell types. This positioning is established during early embryogenesis when gene regulatory networks pattern the neural tube along its anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. Dorsoventral patterning of the embryonic neural tube gives rise to multiple progenitor cell domains that go on to differentiate unique classes of neurons and glia. While the genetic program is reasonably well understood for some lineages, such as ventrally derived motor neurons and glia, other lineages are much less characterized. Here we show that prdm12b, a member of the PR domain containing-family of transcriptional regulators, is expressed in the p1 progenitor domain of the zebrafish neural tube in response to Sonic Hedgehog signaling. We find that disruption of prdm12b function leads to dorsal expansion of nkx6.1 expression and loss of p1-derived eng1b-expressing V1 interneurons, while the adjacent p0 and p2 domains are unaffected. We also demonstrate that prdm12b-deficient fish exhibit an abnormal touch-evoked escape response with excessive body contractions and a prolonged response time, as well as an inability to coordinate swimming movements, thereby revealing a functional role for V1 interneurons in locomotor circuits. We conclude that prdm12b is required for V1 interneuron specification and that these neurons control swimming movements in zebrafish. PMID:24631215

  9. prdm12b specifies the p1 progenitor domain and reveals a role for V1 interneurons in swim movements

    PubMed Central

    Zannino, Denise A.; Downes, Gerald B.; Sagerström, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Proper functioning of the vertebrate central nervous system requires the precise positioning of many neuronal cell types. This positioning is established during early embryogenesis when gene regulatory networks pattern the neural tube along its anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. Dorsoventral patterning of the embryonic neural tube gives rise to multiple progenitor cell domains that go on to differentiate unique classes of neurons and glia. While the genetic program is reasonably well understood for some lineages, such as ventrally derived motor neurons and glia, other lineages are much less characterized. Here we show that prdm12b, a member of the PR domain containing-family of transcriptional regulators, is expressed in the p1 progenitor domain of the zebrafish neural tube in response to Sonic Hedgehog signaling. We find that disruption of prdm12b function leads to dorsal expansion of nkx6.1 expression and loss of p1-derived eng1b-expressing V1 interneurons, while the adjacent p0 and p2 domains are unaffected. We also demonstrate that prdm12b-deficient fish exhibit an abnormal touch-evoked escape response with excessive body contractions and a prolonged response time, as well as an inability to coordinate swimming movements, thereby revealing a functional role for V1 interneurons in locomotor circuits. We conclude that prdm12b is required for V1 interneuron specification and that these neurons control swimming movements in zebrafish. PMID:24631215

  10. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  11. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bergmann, Marcel; Homeier, Derek

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  12. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Shi, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiangqian

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg-1·min-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes. PMID:26218520

  13. Treatment of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    März, Loreen; Piso, Pompiliu

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal seedings of a colorectal tumor represent the second most frequent site of metastasis (after the liver). In the era of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-only chemotherapy, the prognosis was poor for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases. Within the last few years, new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents have improved the prognosis; however, the response to these treatments seems to be lower than that for liver metastases. The combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have further improved both disease-free survival and overall survival. Keeping this in mind, every patient presenting with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer should be evaluated and receive adequate treatment, if possible in the above-mentioned combination. This paper reviews recent advancements in the therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:26424828

  14. Colorectal cancer: Metastases to a single organ

    PubMed Central

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Karapetis, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide. In CRC patients, metastases are the main cause of cancer-related mortality. In a group of metastatic CRC patients, the metastases are limited to a single site (solitary organ); the liver and lungs are the most commonly involved sites. When metastatic disease is limited to the liver and/or lungs, the resectability of the metastatic lesions will dictate the management approach and the outcome. Less commonly, the site of solitary organ CRC metastasis is the peritoneum. In these patients, cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy may improve the outcome. Rarely, CRC involves other organs, such as the brain, bone, adrenals and spleen, as the only site of metastatic disease. There are limited data to guide clinical practice in these cases. Here, we have reviewed the disease characteristics, management approaches and prognosis based on the metastatic disease site in patients with CRC with metastases to a single organ. PMID:26557001

  15. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Strobel, K

    2009-11-01

    Conventional bone scintigraphy is still the standard investigation for the detection of bone metastases, especially in breast and prostate cancer. In unclear scintigraphic uptakes in the appendicular skeleton conventional x-rays are problem solving in most of the cases. In unclear uptakes in the axial skeleton additional performance of SPECT/CT can increase the specificity. Fluoride-PET/CT is superior to conventional bone scintigraphy but is not yet available in clinical routine. Patients with high-risk breast cancer and patients with lung cancer should be staged with FDG-PET/CT primarily. An additional bone scan is than superfluous. The great advantage of FDG-PET/CT is the fact that bone metastases and organ metastases can be detected in the same investigation. There is a clear trend of shifting patients from conventional nuclear medicine to PET/CT. PMID:20029782

  16. [Systemic treatment of melanoma brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Mateus, C; Mortier, L; Dhermain, F; Guillot, B; Grob, J-J; Lebbe, C; Thomas, M; Jouary, T; Leccia, M-T; Robert, C

    2015-02-01

    Melanomas have a high rate of brain metastases. Both the functional prognosis and the overall survival are poor in these patients. Until now, surgery and radiotherapy represented the two main modalities of treatment. Nevertheless, due to the improvement in the management of the extracerebral melanoma, the systemic treatment may be an option in patients with brain metastases. Immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) - ipilimumab - or BRAF (serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf) inhibitors - vemurafenib, dabrafenib - has shown efficacy in the management of brain metastases in a- or pauci-symptomatic patients. Studies are ongoing with anti-PD1 (programmed cell death 1) and combinations of targeted therapies associating anti-RAF (raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) and anti-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). PMID:25656856

  17. The origin of prostate metastases: emerging insights.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Scarpelli, Marina; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Massari, Francesco; Iacovelli, Roberto; Berardi, Rossana; Santini, Daniele; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is mainly dependent on the presence or absence of distant metastases. Although several advances have been made in understanding the biological basis of this tumor, the mechanisms underlying PCa metastatic spread are not fully clear. The lack of a clear origin for PCa metastasis may be partially due to the evidence of PCa heterogeneity between primary tumor and metastases and among different metastatic sites. Cross-metastatic seeding and the de novo monoclonal seeding of daughter metastases have been proposed as crucial events during metastasis. This process requires the contribution of tumor environment, which modulates cancer cell homing and growth, and involves several components including cancer stem cells (CSCs), tumor secreted microvesicles, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and immune cells. In this review, we have focused on the recent findings on the origin of prostate metastasis, showing the contribution of tumor microenvironment to this evolutionary process. PMID:26363603

  18. Surgery for Liver Metastases From Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martella, Luca; Bertozzi, Serena; Londero, Ambrogio P.; Steffan, Agostino; De Paoli, Paolo; Bertola, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of surgical therapy in patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the results obtained with local treatment of hepatic metastases in patients with gastric cancer, by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1990 and 2014. These works included multiple studies that evaluated the different survival rate among patients who underwent local treatment, such as hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation, for hepatic metastases derived from primary gastric cancer. The collected studies were evaluated for heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality, and a pooled hazard ratio (HR) was calculated with a confidence interval estimated at 95% (95% CI). After conducting a thorough research among all published works, 2337 studies were found and after the review process 11 observational studies were included in the analysis. The total amount of patients considered in the survival analysis was 1010. An accurate analysis of all included studies reported a significantly higher survival rate in the group of patients who underwent the most aggressive local treatment for hepatic metastases (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.46–0.95) as opposed to patients who underwent only palliation or systemic treatment. Furthermore, palliative local treatment of hepatic metastases had a higher survival rate if compared to surgical (without liver surgery) and systemic palliation (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96). Considering the only 3 studies where data from multivariate analyses was available, we found a higher survival rate in the local treatment groups, but the difference was not significant (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.22–1.15). Curative and also palliative surgery of liver metastases from gastric cancer may improve patients’ survival. However, further trials are needed in order to better understand the role of surgery in this

  19. Microwave Ablation for Palliation of Bone Metastases.

    PubMed

    Kinczewski, Leigh

    2016-06-01

    Bone metastases are the most common source of pain for patients with cancer. For pain that is refractory to conventional measures, microwave ablation (MWA) is an emerging alternative therapy. Studies show that MWA is effective in reducing pain and analgesic requirements while improving function. This article describes studies of MWA that include patients with bone metastases to a variety of locations from a range of primary malignancies. Although studies are limited, MWA has proven to be well tolerated with impressive efficacy. 
. PMID:27206291

  20. Recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma with heart metastases.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Olli; Vornanen, Martine; Kähkönen, Marketta; Vettenranta, Kim; Parto, Katriina; Arola, Mikko

    2012-07-01

    Congenital fibrosarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in soft tissues. In infants this unique tumor does not commonly metastasize, even though there may be local recurrences. We report here a boy who had congenital fibrosarcoma in his right foot, which was completely excised at the age of 3 days. Four months later, a solitary encapsulated metastasis emerged in thoracic chest wall, which was operated. During adjuvant chemotherapy he developed histologically confirmed fibrosarcoma metastases in the heart. After extended treatment with cyclophosphamide/topotecan and gemcitabine/docetaxel, the heart tumors disappeared and he has been in complete remission for 3 years. PMID:22217490

  1. Case Report: Pulmonary metastases of malignant meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Basunaid, Suhail; Franssen, Frits M.E.; Accord, Ryan; Hamid, Myrurgia Abdul; Mahesh, Shekar; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Schijns, Olaf E.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Meningioma accounts for approximately one-third of primary central nervous system tumors. Most meningiomas are benign, although up to one third are classified as atypical or malignant. We describe a 63-year Caucasian male presenting with pleural metastases from an intracranial meningioma. Distant metastases from meningiomas are infrequently found in clinical practice and mostly are associated with atypical or malignant meningiomas. There is no standard treatment; however surgical resection of both the primary and metastatic lesions is the safest therapy. The overall prognosis of atypical meningiomas is poor. Our patient died one week after discharge from our hospital. PMID:25254095

  2. Management of Sarcoma Metastases to the Lung.

    PubMed

    Digesu, Christopher S; Wiesel, Ory; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-10-01

    For decades, surgical resection of pulmonary metastases has been performed; despite limited randomized data, surgery is increasingly accepted as an integral part in the management of metastatic disease. Long-term results indicate resection is potentially curative with significantly improved survival following complete resection. Recurrence, however, is not uncommon with many patients undergoing repeat resection. With advancing surgical technique and adjuvant therapies, patients with high or recurrent tumor burden are increasingly afforded disease control and potential cure. In this review, the prognostic characteristics of pulmonary metastases from sarcoma, preoperative evaluation, operative technique, long-term outcomes, and management of complex patients are highlighted. PMID:27591495

  3. Synthesis, structures and magnetic characterizations of isostructural tetranuclear Ln4 clusters (Ln = Dy, Ho, and Eu).

    PubMed

    Koo, Bong Ho; Lim, Kwang Soo; Ryu, Dae Won; Lee, Woo Ram; Koh, Eui Kwan; Hong, Chang Seop

    2013-05-21

    Isostructural tetranuclear clusters [Ln4(salen)6]·xH2O [Ln = Dy, 1·5.5H2O; Ho, 2·4.6H2O; Eu, 3·5.2H2O; salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato)dianion] were prepared by self-assembling the corresponding lanthanide ions and a quadridentate Schiff base. Interestingly, the Ln ions are surrounded by the N- and O-donors of the Schiff bases, leading to seven- and eight-coordinate environments. The heptacoordinated Ln centers adopt a distorted capped trigonal prism, while the octacoordinated Ln atoms are in a dodecahedral disposition. The Dy complex exhibits slow magnetic relaxation, characteristic of a single-molecule magnet. Two relaxation modes in the Dy system are evident when H(dc) = 1.4 kG is applied, which is attributable to the existence of the dissimilar coordination geometries around Dy. In comparison, the Ho and Eu analogues were magnetically inspected, displaying no typical slow magnetic relaxation. These findings elucidate that the metal component in the system plays a central role in the occurrence of the magnetization relaxation process. The pronounced long-range order may contribute to intrachain exchange couplings and through-space dipolar interactions between adjacent chains. PMID:23525365

  4. Enthalpies of melting of LnSF compounds (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, P. O.; Mikhalkina, O. G.; Andreev, O. V.; Elyshev, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The melting temperatures and enthalpies of such congruently melting compounds as LaSF ( T m = 1713 ± 7 K, Δ H = 45.7 ± 4.6 kJ/mol), CeSF ( T m = 1683 ± 7 K, Δ H = 40.7 ± 4.1 kJ/mol), PrSF ( T m = 1661 ± 7 K, Δ H = 39.7 ± 4.0 kJ/mol), NdSF ( T m = 1654 ± 7 K, Δ H = 40.2 ± 4.0 kJ/mol), and SmSF ( T m = 1587 ± 7 K, Δ H = 36.1 ± 3.6 kJ/mol) are determined via synchronous thermal analysis. The tetrad effect is evident in the change of the melting temperatures and enthalpies of LnSF compounds (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) depending on r(Ln3+).

  5. Spinal metastases from pituitary hemangiopericytic meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Skultety, F.M.; Masih, A.S.; McComb, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    A rare, previously irradiated, recurrent malignant angioblastic meningioma of the pituitary, hemangiopericytic type, was locally controlled by a new endocurietherapy technique that allows delivery of very high (10,000 cGy), sharply localized irradiation. Rather than succumbing to the local tumor recurrence, as would otherwise be expected, the patient developed distant spinal metastases several years later.

  6. [Mangement of brain metastases based on EBM].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2005-04-01

    Some three hundred thousand of patients die of cancers yearly and at least 20-40%, i. e., 60,000-120,000 of them suffered from brain metastases. Those with such metastases have a generally poor outcome with a median survival of 1-2 months with steroids only, and approximately 6 months with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The results of important and historical clinical trials including surgery, WBRT, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and chemotherapy are reviewed. Surgery with WBRT has been used in the treatment of a single brain metatasis with a diameter of more than 3 cm, while survival time of those patients is approximately 12 months. SRS including gamma knife is widely used for treatment of small and multiple brain metastases. However, many clinical studies have revealed that SRS+WBRT is superior to WBRT or SRS alone in survival time and local control rates. The accurate incident rates of radiation-induced dementia or neurological deficit are still unclear, so the problem and possible avoidance of an additional WBRT after surgery or SRS are discussed. To improve neurologic function and survival, the treatment for patients with brain metastases should be selected with accurate knowledge of EBM. PMID:15853211

  7. Interleukin-18, interleukin-12B and interferon-γ gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Angelo, H D; Gomes Silva, I I F; Oliveira, R D R; Louzada-Júnior, P; Donadi, E A; Crovella, S; Maia, M M D; de Souza, P R E; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ genes are associated with different levels of cytokines expression and have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-18 +105 A/C, IL-12B +1188 A/C and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification refractory mutation system PCR from 90 RA patients and 186 healthy individuals. There were significant differences to IL-18 +105 A/C polymorphism between the RA and control groups (odds ratio = 3.77; P < 0.0001). Individual carriers of the variant allele C had a 3.77-fold increased risk of for RA (P = 0.0032). No association was observed for IL-12B and IFN-γ polymorphisms. Our finds suggest a possible role for IL-18 polymorphism in the RA susceptibility in studied population. PMID:26302971

  8. Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J

    2008-08-20

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of heterodinuclear Ln(3+)-Fe3+ and Ln(3+)-Co3+ complexes, bridged by cyanide ligand (Ln3+ = lanthanide ions). Nature of the magnetic interaction in the Ln(3+)-Fe3+ complexes.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Albert; Diaz, Carmen; Ribas, Joan; Tangoulis, Vassilis; Granell, Jaume; Lloret, Francesc; Mahía, José; Maestro, Miguel

    2003-01-27

    The reaction of Ln(NO3)3.aq with K3[Fe(CN)6] or K3[Co(CN)6] in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) led to 25 heterodinuclear [Ln(DMF)4(H2O)3(mu-CN)Fe(CN)5].nH2O and [Ln(DMF)4(H2O)3(mu-CN)Co(CN)5].nH2O complexes (with Ln = all the lanthanide(III) ions, except promethium and lutetium). Five complexes (Pr(3+)-Fe3+), (Tm(3+)-Fe3+), (Ce(3+)-Co3+), (Sm(3+)-Co3+), and (Yb(3+)-Co3+) have been structurally characterized; they crystallize in the equivalent monoclinic space groups P21/c or P21/n. Structural studies of these two families show that they are isomorphous. This relationship in conjunction with the diamagnetism of the Co3+ allows an approximation to the nature of coupling between the iron(III) and the lanthanide(III) ions in the [Ln(DMF)4(H2O)3(mu-CN)Fe(CN)5].nH2O complexes. The Ln(3+)-Fe3+ interaction is antiferromagnetic for Ln = Ce, Nd, Gd, and Dy and ferromagnetic for Ln = Tb, Ho, and Tm. For Ln = Pr, Eu, Er, Sm, and Yb, there is no sign of any significant interaction. The isotropic nature of Gd3+ helps to evaluate the value of the exchange interaction. PMID:12693250

  10. Spectroscopic Classification of M33N 2015-12b (PNV J01335420+3026108) as a Classical Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a spectrum of nova candidate M33N 2015-12b (PNV J01335420+3026108; see CBAT TOCP) with the SPRAT spectrograph on the 2m Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004) on 2016 January 4.81 UT. The spectrum shows strong Balmer emission and numerous Fe II lines (including multiplets 27, 28 and 42). Na I (D) and O I (7773 & Aring;) emission lines are also present.

  11. An Experimental Wireless Mesh Network Node Based on AVR ATmega16 Microcontroller and RFM12B Radio Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Remigiusz

    The paper describes a simple node designed to act as part of an experimental wireless mesh network. The node is based on Atmel AVR ATmega16 microcontroller and Hope Microelectronics RFM12B radio module. Along with technical details of the node, the network layer (addressing scheme and routing algorithms) is presented. Fundamental principles on wireless mesh networks are also presented. Experimental results summarize the paper and prove limited usability of the project.

  12. Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9 years. During the 2 months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6 mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12 cc to 2.8±4.48 cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15 cc to 12.85±24.47 cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change <10%, 0-2 cc) and increased in four patients (by >10%, 2-14 cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40 cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21 cc to 24.84±35.6 cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids. PMID:25533053

  13. The 1990 vertical distribution of two important halons (F-12B1 and F-13B1) in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, O. N.; Borchers, R.; Lal, Shyam; Subbarya, B. H.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Fabian, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The first vertical profiles of F-12B1 and F-13B1 had been obtained in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere by us in 1987. The measurement of these substances responsible for almost the entire anthropogenic contribution to the stratospheric BrO(x) budget is important in the tropics, as tropical upwelling provides their injection along with that of other pollutants, into the stratosphere. To ascertain the trends of these distributions and foster the data, the 1987 experiment was repeated in April 1990. Like 1987, the MPAE cryogenic whole air sampler was launched on a balloon from Hyderabad, India (17.5 deg N), and 14 samples were collected between 10 and 35 km altitude. The results obtained by means of GC and GC-MS analyses showed that the atmospheric abundance of both F-12B1 and F-13B1 is increasing at a fast rate, respectively by about 15 percent and 10 percent per year. From 1987 to 1990, F-12B1 and F-13B1 tropospheric mixing ratios have been growing from 1.2 and 1.3 ppt to 1.8 and 1.7 ppt, respectively. The vertical profiles will be discussed.

  14. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM CoRoT-1b AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ming; Swain, Mark R.; Monnier, John D.; Barman, Travis; Hinkley, Sasha

    2012-01-10

    We report a new detection of the H-band thermal emission of CoRoT-1b and two confirmation detections of the Ks-band thermal emission of WASP-12b at secondary eclipses. The H-band measurement of CoRoT-1b shows an eclipse depth of 0.145% {+-} 0.049% with a 3{sigma} percentile between 0.033% and 0.235%. This depth is consistent with the previous conclusions that the planet has an isothermal region with inefficient heat transport from day side to night side, and has a dayside thermal inversion layer at high altitude. The two Ks-band detections of WASP-12b show a joint eclipse depth of 0.299% {+-} 0.065%. This result agrees with the measurement of Croll and collaborators, providing independent confirmation of their measurement. The repeatability of the WASP-12b measurements also validates our data analysis method. Our measurements, in addition to a number of previous results made with other telescopes, demonstrate that ground-based observations are becoming widely available for characterization of atmospheres of hot Jupiters.

  15. Crystallographic and infrared spectroscopic study of bond distances in Ln[Fe(CN) 6]·4H 2O ( Ln=lanthanide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianju; Wong, Wing-Tak; Faucher, Michèle D.; Tanner, Peter A.

    2008-11-01

    Along with crystallographic data of Ln[Fe(CN) 6]·4H 2O ( Ln=lanthanide), the infrared spectra are reassigned to examine bond length trends across the series of Ln. The changes in mean Ln-O, Ln-N, C tbnd N and Fe-C distances are discussed and the bond natures of Ln-N and Ln-O are studied by bond length linear or quadratic fitting and comparisons with relevant ionic radii. The two different C tbnd N bond distances have been simulated by the covalo-electrostatic model.

  16. Crystallographic and infrared spectroscopic study of bond distances in Ln[Fe(CN){sub 6}].4H{sub 2}O (Ln=lanthanide)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xianju; Wong, W.-T.; Faucher, Michele D.; Tanner, Peter A.

    2008-11-15

    Along with crystallographic data of Ln[Fe(CN){sub 6}].4H{sub 2}O (Ln=lanthanide), the infrared spectra are reassigned to examine bond length trends across the series of Ln. The changes in mean Ln-O, Ln-N, C{identical_to}N and Fe-C distances are discussed and the bond natures of Ln-N and Ln-O are studied by bond length linear or quadratic fitting and comparisons with relevant ionic radii. The two different C{identical_to}N bond distances have been simulated by the covalo-electrostatic model. - Graphical abstract: Crystallographic and FTIR data for Ln[Fe(CN){sub 6}].4H{sub 2}O enable the changes in Ln-O, Ln-N, C{identical_to}N and Fe-C distances to be determined and modeled across the lanthanide series.

  17. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of LnNiGa4 (Ln = Y, Gd-Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Thomas, Kandace; Hembree, Richard; Karki, Amar; Young, David; Ditusa, John; Zhang, Jiandi; Chan, Julia

    2010-03-01

    Rare earth intermetallic compounds often display a competition between RKKY- and Kondo-type interactions as evident inmagnetic and transport properties. To understand how exchange interactions vary with rare earth elements, we have synthesized and studied a series of LnNiGa4 (Ln = Y, Gd - Tm) compounds. Single crystals of the orthorhombic LnNiGa4 with Cmcm space group symmetry have been grown. Along the crystallographic b-axis, slabs of Ni@Ga7Ln2 and non-magnetic slabs of Ga-only atoms alternate throughout the lattice. Two distinct Ga-sites have been confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, XPS of TmNiGa4 shows that Ni is in the metallic state. There is a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic behavior in the series. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements reveal magnetic moments larger than expected for a free rare earth ion and is due to conduction electrons contributing to the magnetism. The changes in the Curie-Weiss temperatures are consistent with an RKKY coupling of the magnetic moments.

  19. Kinetic schemes of chemical transformations and particle morphology upon interaction between Ln2(SO4)3 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, P. O.; Sal'nikova, E. I.; Andreev, O. V.; Kovenskii, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    The phase compositions of samples obtained during the treatment of anhydrous sulfates Ln2(SO4)3 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) in a stream with an excess of hydrogen in the temperature range of 400 to 1100°C at exposures of up to 420 min are determined. Kinetic schemes are compiled for the chemical transformations and changes of phase composition of the mixtures in coordinates of temperature and time that have six fields of the phase combinations: Ln2(SO4)3, Ln2(SO4)3 + Ln2O2SO4, Ln2O2SO4, Ln2O2SO4 + Ln2O2S, Ln2O2S, and Ln2O2S + Ln2O3. Single-phase samples of Ln2O2SO4 compounds are obtained at temperatures (°C) of 540-560 (La), 460-520 (Pr), 470-520 (Nd), and 480-520 (Sm). The temperatures (°C) of Ln2O2S compounds are 580-920 (La), 600-900 (Pr), 600-900 (Nd), and 600-800 (Sm). It is shown via electron microscopy that particles of La2(SO4)3 in the shape of cylinders are converted into flakes of Ln2O2SO4, predominantly flat Ln2O2S crystallites.

  20. Over-expression of HSPA12B protects mice against myocardium ischemic/reperfusion injury through a PPARγ-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanjun; Ye, Lincai; Jiang, Chuan; Jiang, Jun; Hong, Haifa; Qiu, Lisheng

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury leads to severe arrhythmias and a high lethality. We aim to determine the effect of heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B), a newly discovered member of the Hsp70 family, on heart injury parameters following MIR surgery. We used HSPA12B transgenic mice to determine its effects on heart function parameters, infarct size and cellular apoptosis following MIR surgery. Proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative products and anti-oxidative enzymes in the myocardium were measured to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of HSPA12B over-expression. The role of PPARs/eNOS/PI3k/Akt pathway was investigated using their inhibitors. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters, histopathological, apoptotic and infarct size caused by MIR was greatly attenuated in HSPA12B over-expressed mice. HSPA12B also greatly mitigated the inflammatory response, demonstrated by the decrease in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a and MPO. Anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, Catalase and GPx) were restored by HSPA12B; oxidative products (8-OHdG, MDA and protein carbonyl) were decreased. HSPA12B activated the PPARγ-dependent eNOS/PI3k/Akt pathway, and the influence of HSPA12B on cardiac function was reversed by the inhibitors of eNOS, PPARγ, Akt and PI3K. Our results present a novel signaling mechanism that HSPA12B protects MIR injury through a PPARγ-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. PMID:26885270

  1. Evolving treatment options for melanoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Parkinson, Christine; Fife, Kate; Corrie, Pippa; Jefferies, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma is a leading cause of lost productivity due to premature cancer mortality. Melanoma frequently spreads to the brain and is associated with rapid deterioration in quality and quantity of life. Until now, treatment options have been restricted to surgery and radiotherapy, although neither modality has been well studied in clinical trials. However, the new immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted agents that have been introduced for treatment of metastatic melanoma are active against brain metastases and offer new opportunities to improve disease outcomes. New challenges arise, including how to integrate or sequence multiple treatment modalities, and current practice varies widely. In this Review, we summarise evidence for the treatment of melanoma brain metastases, and discuss the rationale and evidence for combination modalities, highlighting areas for future research. PMID:26433822

  2. [Latest pain management for painful bony metastases].

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Masayuki

    2006-04-01

    Pain management for painful bony metastases is the most important problem for symptom relief of terminally-ill cancer patients. Pathological fractures often decrease the activity of daily life (ADL) of patients, and cause deterioration of the quality of life (QOL) and prognosis. Basically pharmacological therapies of the World Health Organization (WHO) method are essential for symptom relief from cancer pain. This article provides the latest pain managements (palliative irradiation, bisphosphonate, orthopedic surgery, percutaneous vertebroplasty and radiopharmaceutical therapy) of bony metastases, and mentions the indications and the problems of these interventions. In consideration to prognosis, the QOL and patient's needs, medical staffs have to perform multidisciplinary approach for providing suitable palliative care. PMID:16582515

  3. Triple orbital metastases from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tun, Kagan; Bulut, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma, when metastatic, typically involves bone and produces both osteoblastic and osteolytic changes. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our department because of unilateral progressive proptosis and visual blurriness for 3 months. The patient had a history of prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosis 5 years ago. We report a case of orbital involvement presented that intraorbital mass (including periocular structures), temporal bone and temporal muscle from prostate cancer. The mass was removed with total excision. Despite the frequency of bone metastasis in prostatic carcinoma, triple orbital metastases are extremely rare. The best of our knowledge, prostate adenocarcinoma and its triple (temporal bone, temporal muscle and intraorbital mass) orbital metastases have not been published previously. Metastatic orbital tumor secondary to prostate cancer should be considered in patients who have varying degrees of eye symptoms. PMID:27591068

  4. Pancreatic Cancer Metastases Harbor Evidence of Polyclonality

    PubMed Central

    Maddipati, Ravikanth; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the cancer genome have demonstrated that tumors are comprised of multiple sub-clones with varied genetic and phenotypic properties. However, little is known about how metastases arise and evolve from these sub-clones. To understand the cellular dynamics that drive metastasis, we used multi-color lineage tracing technology in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that precursor lesions exhibit significant clonal heterogeneity but that this diversity decreases during pre-malignant progression. Furthermore, we present evidence that a significant fraction of metastases are polyclonally seeded by distinct tumor sub-clones. Finally, we show that clonality during metastatic growth – leading to either monoclonal or polyclonal expansion – differs based on the site of metastatic invasion. These results provide an unprecedented window into the cellular dynamics of tumor evolution and suggest that heterotypic interactions between tumor subpopulations contribute to metastatic progression in native tumors. PMID:26209539

  5. Percutaneous ablation of colorectal lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastasectomy can prolong survival in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Thermal ablation offers a potential solution with similar reported survival outcomes. It has minimal effect on pulmonary function, or quality of life, can be repeated, and may be considered more acceptable to patients because of the associated shorter hospital stay and recovery. This review describes the indications, technique, reported outcomes, complications and radiologic appearances after thermal ablation of colorectal lung metastases. PMID:26697202

  6. Multimodal management of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Frilling, Andrea; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Li, Jun; Kornasiewicz, Oskar; Plöckinger, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background: The incidence of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has increased over the past three decades. Hepatic metastases which occur in up to 75% of NET patients significantly worsen their prognosis. New imaging techniques with increasing sensitivity enabling tumour detection at an early stage have been developed. The treatment encompasses a panel of surgical and non-surgical modalities. Methods: This article reviews the published literature related to management of hepatic neuroendocrine metastases. Results: Abdominal computer tomography, magnetic resonance tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy are widely accepted imaging modalities. Hepatic resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Liver transplantation is justified in highly selected patients. Liver-directed interventional techniques and locally ablative measures offer effective palliation. Promising novel therapeutic options offering targeted approaches are under evaluation. Conclusions: The treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases still needs to be standardized. Management in centres of expertise should be strongly encouraged in order to enable a multidisciplinary approach and personalized treatment. Development of molecular prognostic factors to select treatment according to patient risk should be attempted. PMID:20662787

  7. Temperature-dependent self-assembly of near-infrared (NIR) luminescent Zn2Ln and Zn2Ln3 (Ln=Nd, Yb or Er) complexes from the flexible Salen-type Schiff-base ligand.

    PubMed

    Miao, Tiezheng; Zhang, Zhao; Feng, Weixu; Su, Peiyang; Feng, Heini; Lü, Xingqiang; Fan, Daidi; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Jones, Richard A; Su, Chengyong

    2014-11-11

    Through the self-assembly of the precursor [Zn(L)(MeCN)] (H2L=N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-salicylidene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine) with LnCl3·6H2O (Ln=La, Nd, Yb, Er or Gd) and NaN3 in alcohol-containing solutions, two series of mixed anions-induced Zn2Ln-arrayed complexes [Zn2(L)2(MeOH)ClLn(N3)]·Cl (Ln=La, 1; Ln=Nd, 2; Ln=Yb, 3; Ln=Er, 4 or Ln=Gd, 5) and Zn2Ln3-arrayed complexes [Zn2(L)3Cl2(μ2-OH)(μ3-OH)2Ln3(N3)2] (Ln=La, 6; Ln=Nd, 7; Ln=Yb, 8; Ln=Er, 9 or Ln=Gd, 10) are obtained at room temperature or under reflux, respectively. In contrast to Zn2Ln-arrayed complexes with the two Zn2+ ions in the inner cis-N2O2 cores and one Ln3+ ion in the outer O2O2 moieties, the demetalation of partial precursors leads to the selective exchange of Zn2+ centers for the Ln3+ ions for the formation of novel heterometallic Zn2Ln3-arrayed complexes with the Ln3+ ions in both the inner cis-N2O2 core and the outer O2O2 moieties of the ligands. The result of their photophysical properties shows that the characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescence of Nd3+ or Yb3+ ion has been sensitized from the excited state (both 1LC and 3LC) of the ligand H2L, while relatively lower quantum yields for Zn2Ln3-arrayed complexes than those for Zn2Ln-arrayed complexes, correspondingly, should be due to the luminescent quenching with the involvement of OH- oscillators around the Ln3+ ions. PMID:24866087

  8. GROUND-BASED, NEAR-INFRARED EXOSPECTROSCOPY. II. TENTATIVE DETECTION OF EMISSION FROM THE EXTREMELY HOT JUPITER WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Barman, Travis

    2012-02-10

    We report the tentative detection of the near-infrared emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b with the low-resolution prism on Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We find a K - H contrast color of 0.137% {+-} 0.054%, corresponding to a blackbody of temperature 2400{sup +1500}{sub -500} K and consistent with previous, photometric observations. We also revisit WASP-12b's energy budget on the basis of secondary eclipse observations: the dayside luminosity is a relatively poorly constrained (2.0-4.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}, but this still allows us to predict a day/night effective temperature contrast of 200-1000 K (assuming A{sub B} = 0). Thus, we conclude that WASP-12b probably does not have both a low albedo and low recirculation efficiency. Our results show the promise and pitfalls of using single-slit spectrographs for characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres, and we suggest future observing techniques and instruments which could lead to further progress. Limiting systematic effects include the use of too narrow a slit on one night-which observers could avoid in the future-and chromatic slit losses (resulting from the variable size of the seeing disk) and variations in telluric transparency-which observers cannot control. Single-slit observations of the type we present remain the best option for obtaining {lambda} > 1.7 {mu}m spectra of transiting exoplanets in the brightest systems. Further and more precise spectroscopy is needed to better understand the atmospheric chemistry, structure, and energetics of this, and other, intensely irradiated planet.

  9. Computational study on the complexation behavior of tetrapropyl diglycolamide with Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Pm, Sm, and Eu) cation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Nikoo, Sepideh

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we have focused mainly on the survey of interactions in Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu) complexes with tetrapropyl diglycolamide (TPDGA) by means of density functional theory (DFT) methods. In the first step, the interaction of TPDGA ligand with Ln3+ cation series has been assessed thermodynamically in the gas phase and in presence of three solvents: n-hexane, chloroform and toluene, via polarized continuum model (PCM) calculations. The trend of metal-ligand interaction strength has been investigated and compared with the trend of ionic hardness within the series of lanthanide cations. Our results for the gas and solution phases demonstrate a consistency between the increasing trend in the hardness of Ln3+ cation series with the increasing in thermodynamical stability of [Ln(TPDGA)]3+ complex series. Moreover, our PCM calculations show that using n-hexane as a solvent is more favorable thermodynamically than chloroform and toluene for the complexation reaction of all [Ln(TPDGA)]3+ complex series. It should be stated that this issue has been observed in many experimental calculations. Finally the assessment of calculated deformation energies and also the variation in bond order of some selected key bonds in [Ln(TPDGA)]3+ complex series shows a similar trend with increasing in the hardness of Ln3+ cation series.

  10. Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] Thiophene Tetraesters: A New Class of Luminescent Columnar Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Pradhan, Balaram; Pathak, Suraj Kumar; Gupta, Monika; Pal, Santanu Kumar; Sudhakar, Achalkumar Ammathnadu

    2015-07-28

    Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] thiophene tetraesters exhibiting wide-range hexagonal columnar phase have been synthesized. These compounds also exhibit good homeotropic alignment in the liquid-crystalline phase which is very important for the device fabrication. These compounds showed sky-blue luminescence in solution under the long-wavelength UV light. With high solubility and high quantum yield these compounds can serve as standards to measure quantum yields of unknown samples. This new class of materials is promising, considering the emissive nature and stabilization of hexagonal columnar mesophase over a wide thermal range and ease of synthesis. PMID:26077109

  11. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  12. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION FROM WASP-12b: DETECTIONS OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE IN Ks, H, AND J

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafreniere, David; Albert, Loic; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Murray, Norman

    2011-02-15

    We present Ks, H, and J-band photometry of the very highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-12b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Our photometry brackets the secondary eclipse of WASP-12b in the Ks and H bands, and in J band starts in mid-eclipse and continues until well after the end of the eclipse. We detect its thermal emission in all three near-infrared bands. Our secondary eclipse depths are 0.309{sup +0.013}{sub -0.012}% in Ks band (24{sigma}), 0.176{sup +0.016}{sub -0.021}% in H band (9{sigma}), and 0.131{sup +0.027}{sub -0.029}% in J band (4{sigma}). All three secondary eclipses are best fit with a consistent phase, {phi}, that is compatible with a circular orbit: {phi} = 0.4998{sup +0.0008}{sub -0.0007}. The limits on the eccentricity, e, and argument of periastron, {omega}, of this planet from our photometry alone are thus |ecos {omega}| < 0.0040. By combining our secondary eclipse times with others published in the literature, as well as the radial-velocity and transit-timing data for this system, we show that there is no evidence that WASP-12b is precessing at a detectable rate and that its orbital eccentricity is likely zero. Our thermal-emission measurements also allow us to constrain the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere; our Ks-band eclipse depth argues strongly in favor of inefficient day to nightside redistribution of heat and a low Bond albedo for this very highly irradiated hot Jupiter. The J- and H-band brightness temperatures are slightly cooler than the Ks-band brightness temperature, and thus hint at the possibility of a modest temperature inversion deep in the atmosphere of WASP-12b; the high-pressure, deep atmospheric layers probed by our J- and H-band observations are likely more homogenized than the higher altitude layer probed by our Ks-band observations. Lastly, our best-fit Ks-band eclipse has a marginally longer duration than would otherwise be expected; this may be tentative evidence for

  13. Overexpression of soybean R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, and tolerance to UV radiation and salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, X W; Wang, Y; Yan, F; Li, J W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Zhai, Y; Wang, Q Y

    2016-01-01

    MYB, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog, proteins play central roles in plant stress response. Previously, we identified a novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, which affected the expression levels of some key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of GmMYB12B2 under salt, low temperature, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation treatments in soybean using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of GmMYB12B2 was drastically induced by UV irradiation and salt treatment, but no response was detected under low temperature, drought, and ABA stresses. A detailed characterization of the GmMYB12B2 overexpression lines revealed that GmMYB12B2 might be involved in response of plants to UV radiation and salt stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing GmMYB12B2 showed an increased tolerance to salt and UV radiation treatment compared with wild-type plants. The expression levels of certain salt stress-responsive genes, such as DREB2A and RD17, were found to be elevated in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that GmMYB12B2 acts as a regulator in the plant stress response. PMID:27323089

  14. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor accompanied with multiple liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tomohide; Takaori, Kyoichi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (P-NET) is rare and slow-growing. Current classifications predict its prognosis and postoperative recurrence. Curative resection is ideal, although often difficult, because over 80% of patients have unresectable multiple liver metastases and extrahepatic metastasis. Aggressive surgery for liver metastases is important to improve survival. Aggressive or cytoreductive surgery for liver metastases is indicated to reduce hormone levels and improve symptoms and prognosis. Liver transplantation was originally conceived as an ideal therapy for unresectable liver metastases. Unfortunately, there is no clear consensus on the role and timing of surgery for primary tumor and liver metastases. Surgeons still face questions in deciding the best surgical scenario in patients with P-NET with unresectable liver metastases. PMID:25232452

  15. Unusual Thyroid Carcinoma Metastases: a Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Farina, Eleonora; Monari, Fabio; Tallini, Giovanni; Repaci, Andrea; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Giunchi, Francesca; Panzacchi, Riccardo; Cammelli, Silvia; Padula, Gilbert D A; Deodato, Francesco; Pasquali, Renato; Fanti, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2016-03-01

    The most common sites of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer are the neck lymph nodes, while distant metastases typically involve the lungs, the bones, and less frequently the brain. Uncommon metastatic sites include the liver, adrenal gland, kidney, pancreas, and skin. The epidemiological aspects of thyroid metastases in rare sites are largely unknown and their identification could have a significant impact on patients management. A mini-series of unusual metastatic sites of thyroid carcinoma is proposed as a contribution to current knowledge on anatomopathological characteristics and clinical outcome. Of the six cases that were assessed, the metastases were the following: skin metastases (2), skin and pancreas metastases (1), renal metastasis (1), adrenal metastasis (1), and liver metastasis (1). In our experience, metastases in rare sites do not always represent a negative prognostic factor for disease outcome. In fact they can occur as single distant lesion and if surgically resectable, their treatment can also lead to local disease remission. PMID:26662609

  16. Penile Metastases From Prostate Adenocarcinoma: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Poorna Chander; Bhat, Rahul; Prabhu, Shivananda

    2015-01-01

    Penile metastases are rare in occurrence and are usually secondary to other genitourinary primary tumours. It is a debilitating near terminal condition at presentation with a dismal prognosis and poor survival rates. Supportive and palliative care is generally recommended to improve the quality of life of patients. We present a case of penile metastases in a 74-year-old male patient with prostatic adenocarcinoma in association with multiple skeletal metastases. PMID:26500946

  17. Applying a Hydrodynamical Treatment of Stream Flow and Accretion Disk Formation in WASP-12/b Exoplanetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Ian; Lopez, Aaron; Macias, Phil

    2016-01-01

    WASP-12b is a hot Jupiter orbiting dangerously close to its parent star WASP-12 at a radius 1/44th the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or roughly 16 times closer than Mercury. WASP-12's gravitational influence at this incredibly close proximity generates tidal forces on WASP-12b that distort the planet into an egg-like shape. As a result, the planet's surface overflows its Roche lobe through L1, transferring mass to the host star at a rate of 270 million metric tonnes per second. This mass transferring stream forms an accretion disk that transits the parent star, which aids sensitive instruments, such as the Kepler spacecraft, whose role is to examine the periodic dimming of main sequence stars in order to detect ones with orbiting planets. The quasi-ballistic stream trajectory is approximated by that of a massless point particle released from analogous initial conditions in 2D. The particle dynamics are shown to deviate negligibly across a broad range of initial conditions, indicating applicability of our model to "WASP-like" systems in general. We then apply a comprehensive fluid treatment by way of hydrodynamical code FLASH in order to directly model the behavior of mass transfer in a non-inertial reference frame and subsequent disk formation. We hope to employ this model to generate virtual spectroscopic signatures and compare them against collected light curve data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).

  18. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Langevin, Stanley A; Huang, Claire Y-H; Maharaj, Payal D; Delorey, Mark J; Bowen, Richard A; Kinney, Richard M; Brault, Aaron C

    2016-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. WNV strains isolated in North America, such as the prototype strain NY99, elicit a highly pathogenic response in certain avian species, notably American crows (AMCRs; Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a closely related strain, KN3829, isolated in Kenya, exhibits a low viremic response with limited mortality in AMCRs. Previous work has associated the difference in pathogenicity primarily with a single amino acid mutation at position 249 in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein. The NY99 strain encodes a proline residue at this position, while KN3829 encodes a threonine. Introduction of an NS3-T249P mutation in the KN3829 genetic background significantly increased virulence and mortality; however, peak viremia and mortality were lower than those of NY99. In order to elucidate the viral genetic basis for phenotype variations exclusive of the NS3-249 polymorphism, chimeric NY99/KN3829 viruses were created. We show herein that differences in the NS1-2B region contribute to avian pathogenicity in a manner that is independent of and additive with the NS3-249 mutation. Additionally, NS1-2B residues were found to alter temperature sensitivity when grown in avian cells. PMID:27548738

  19. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Elizabeth A.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Maharaj, Payal D.; Delorey, Mark J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Kinney, Richard M.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. WNV strains isolated in North America, such as the prototype strain NY99, elicit a highly pathogenic response in certain avian species, notably American crows (AMCRs; Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a closely related strain, KN3829, isolated in Kenya, exhibits a low viremic response with limited mortality in AMCRs. Previous work has associated the difference in pathogenicity primarily with a single amino acid mutation at position 249 in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein. The NY99 strain encodes a proline residue at this position, while KN3829 encodes a threonine. Introduction of an NS3-T249P mutation in the KN3829 genetic background significantly increased virulence and mortality; however, peak viremia and mortality were lower than those of NY99. In order to elucidate the viral genetic basis for phenotype variations exclusive of the NS3-249 polymorphism, chimeric NY99/KN3829 viruses were created. We show herein that differences in the NS1-2B region contribute to avian pathogenicity in a manner that is independent of and additive with the NS3-249 mutation. Additionally, NS1-2B residues were found to alter temperature sensitivity when grown in avian cells. PMID:27548738

  20. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln2O3, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln2O3 oxides were converted to [Ln(dien)2]3+ complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS4 unit. In 1-3, the AsS4 units interconnect the [Ln(dien)2]3+ cations via Ln-S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4 bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln1). In 4-6, the AsS4 units coordinate with the Ln3+ ion of [Ln(dien)2]3+ as 1κ2-AsS4 chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln2). The Ln3+ ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln3+ ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1-6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18-3.21 eV.

  1. Two novel pillared-layer lanthanide borates built by Ln@B12O28/29 ring clusters and dicarboxylate linkers (Ln = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Li, Lei-Lei; Pan, Rui; Zhao, Jun-Wei; Yang, Bai-Feng; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Two organic-inorganic hybrid pillared-layer lanthanide borates, [Ln2B8O12(bdc)3(H2O)]·H2O (Ln = Pr, 1; Nd, 2; H2bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid), have been made, in which inorganic layers are built by Ln-centred oxoboron ring clusters, Ln@B12O28/Ln@B12O29, while the pillars are organic bdc linkers. Interestingly, two types of linkages, Ln-O-C and B-O-C bonds, exist in the structures, showing firstly novel linking modes between inorganic polyborate and organic dicarboxylate. PMID:27332080

  2. Magnetic properties of ternary sodium oxides Na LnO 2 ( Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuta; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2003-11-01

    Magnetic properties of ternary sodium oxides Na LnO 2 ( Ln=rare earths) are investigated. Their crystal structures are grouped into three types of structures, which are α-LiFeO 2, β-LiFeO 2, and α-NaFeO 2, depending on the size of rare earths. Their magnetic susceptibilities and specific heats have been measured from 1.8 to 300 K. Among them, NaGdO 2, NaDyO 2, and NaHoO 2 show antiferromagnetic transitions at 2.4, 2.2, and 2.4 K, respectively, and NaNdO 2 transforms to the ferromagnetic state below 2.4 K. NaSmO 2, NaErO 2, and NaYbO 2 exhibit a magnetic anomaly below 1.8 K.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of binary LnN (Ln=La and Lu): First principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Sreeparvathy, P. C.; Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Svane, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    2015-06-24

    First principles density functional calculations were carried out to study the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of LnN (Ln = La and Lu) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The thermoelectric properties were calculated by solving the Boltzmann transport equation within the constant relaxation time approximation. The obtained lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical results. The calculated band gaps using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (TB-mBJ), of both compounds are in good agreement with the available experimental values. Thermoelectric properties like thermopower (S), electrical conductivity scaled by relaxation time (σ/τ) and power-factor (S{sup 2}σ/τ) are calculated as functions of the carrier concentration and temperature for both compounds. The calculated thermoelectric properties are compared with the available experimental results of the similar material ScN.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of binary LnN (Ln=La and Lu): First principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeparvathy P., C.; Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Svane, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    2015-06-01

    First principles density functional calculations were carried out to study the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of LnN (Ln = La and Lu) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The thermoelectric properties were calculated by solving the Boltzmann transport equation within the constant relaxation time approximation. The obtained lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical results. The calculated band gaps using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (TB-mBJ), of both compounds are in good agreement with the available experimental values. Thermoelectric properties like thermopower (S), electrical conductivity scaled by relaxation time (σ/τ) and power-factor (S2σ/τ) are calculated as functions of the carrier concentration and temperature for both compounds. The calculated thermoelectric properties are compared with the available experimental results of the similar material ScN.

  5. Isolated Splenic Metastases of Her2+++ Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sigrand, Julie; Bazin, Camille; Ewald, Jacques; Dermeche, Slimane; Ries, Pauline; Poizat, Flora; Guiramand, Jerome; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Isolated metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma to the spleen are very infrequent. Usually, there are multiple metastases from gastric cancer, and isolated splenic metastases are very rare [Lam and Tang: Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:526–530] because of certain anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., angulation between the splenic artery and celiac trunk, paucity of afferent lymph flow toward the spleen, contractility of the spleen and major immune content). Here, we report 2 cases of isolated splenic metastases from an adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, both with long-term survival outcome and overexpression of Her2. PMID:27065846

  6. Isolated Splenic Metastases of Her2+++ Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sigrand, Julie; Bazin, Camille; Ewald, Jacques; Dermeche, Slimane; Ries, Pauline; Poizat, Flora; Guiramand, Jerome; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Isolated metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma to the spleen are very infrequent. Usually, there are multiple metastases from gastric cancer, and isolated splenic metastases are very rare [Lam and Tang: Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:526-530] because of certain anatomical and physiological characteristics (e.g., angulation between the splenic artery and celiac trunk, paucity of afferent lymph flow toward the spleen, contractility of the spleen and major immune content). Here, we report 2 cases of isolated splenic metastases from an adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, both with long-term survival outcome and overexpression of Her2. PMID:27065846

  7. Rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wenlong; Shi, Youguo; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jianguo; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-05-01

    Fifteen new rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides, Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni), have been synthesized by solid state reactions. They are isostructural, adopt Ce{sub 3}Al{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}—related structure type, and crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}. They adopt a three-dimensional framework composed of LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms with the interesting [MQ{sub 3}]{sup 4−} chains and isolated GaQ{sub 4} tetrahedra lying in two sets of channels in the framework. The magnetic susceptibility measurements on Ln{sub 3}CoGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=Dy, Er, Q=S; Ln=Dy, Q=Se) indicate that they are paramagnetic and obey the Curie–Weiss law over the entire experimental temperature, while the magnetic susceptibility of Sm{sub 3}CoGaSe{sub 7} deviates from the Curie–Weiss law as a result of the crystal field splitting. - Graphical abstract: Ln{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln{sub 3}MGaSe{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni) adopt a three-dimensional framework composed of LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms with interesting [MQ{sub 3}]{sup 4−} chains and isolated GaQ{sub 4} tetrahedra lying in two sets of channels in the framework. - Highlights: • New compounds, Ln{sub 3}MGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=rare-earth; M=Co, Ni; Q=S, Se), were synthesized. • They are isostructural and crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space group P6{sub 3}. • They adopt a three-dimensional framework built by LnQ{sub 7} monocapped trigonal prisms. • Ln{sub 3}CoGaQ{sub 7} (Ln=Dy, Er; Q=S, Se) are paramagnetic and obey the Curie–Weiss law. • The magnetic susceptibility of Sm{sub 3}CoGaSe{sub 7} deviates from the Curie–Weiss law.

  8. Unequivocal synthetic pathway to heterodinuclear (4f,4f') complexes: magnetic study of relevant (Ln(III), Gd(III)) and (Gd(III), Ln(III)) complexes.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Nicodème, Franck

    2002-08-01

    The tripodal ligand tris[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-aza-3-buten]amine (LH(3)) is capable of coordinating to two different lanthanide ions to give complexes formulated as [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O. The stepwise synthetic procedure consists of introducing first a Ln(III) ion in the inner N(4)O(3) coordination site. The isolated neutral complex LLn is then allowed to react with a second and different Ln' ion that occupies the outer O(6) site, thus yielding a [LLnLn'(NO(3))(3)].x H(2)O complex. A FAB(+) study has confirmed the existence of (Ln, Ln') entities as genuine, when the Ln' ion in the outer site has a larger ionic radius than the Ln ion in the inner site. The qualitative magnetic study of the (Gd, Ln) and (Ln, Gd) complexes, based on the comparison of the magnetic properties of (Gd, Ln) (or (Ln, Gd)) pairs and (Y, Ln) (or (Ln, La)) pairs, is very informative. Indeed, these former complexes are governed by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels and the Ln-Gd interaction, while the latter are influenced by the thermal population of the Ln(III) Stark levels. We have been able to show that a ferromagnetic interaction exists at low temperature in the (Gd, Nd), (Gd, Ce), and (Yb, Gd) complexes. In contrast, an antiferromagnetic interaction occurs in the (Dy, Gd) and (Er, Gd) complexes. Although we cannot give a quantitative value to these interactions, we can affirm that their magnitudes are weak since they are only perceptible at very low temperature. PMID:12203324

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of intramammary metastases.

    PubMed

    Wienbeck, Susanne; Herzog, Aimee; Kinner, Sonja; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intramammary metastases (IM). We identified 8 cases with IM, which were investigated by breast MRI (1.5T). In every case, the diagnosis of IM was proven histopathologically on breast biopsy specimens. Overall, 187 IM were identified. IM had inconsistent MRI features, which cannot be clearly classify as benign or malignant. IM should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions to avoid possible misinterpretations. PMID:27133668

  10. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11–51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND. PMID:25038184

  11. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GAS DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE EXOPLANET WASP-12b AND ITS HOST STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bisikalo, D.; Kaygorodov, P.; Ionov, D.; Shematovich, V.; Lammer, H.; Fossati, L.

    2013-02-10

    Hubble Space Telescope transit observations in the near-UV performed in 2009 made WASP-12b one of the most 'mysterious' exoplanets; the system presents an early ingress, which can be explained by the presence of optically thick matter located ahead of the planet at a distance of {approx}4-5 planet radii. This work follows previous attempts to explain this asymmetry with an exospheric outflow or a bow shock, induced by a planetary magnetic field, and provides a numerical solution of the early ingress, though we did not perform any radiative transfer calculation. We performed pure 3D gas dynamic simulations of the plasma interaction between WASP-12b and its host star and describe the flow pattern in the system. In particular, we show that the overfilling of the planet's Roche lobe leads to a noticeable outflow from the upper atmosphere in the direction of the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points. Due to the conservation of the angular momentum, the flow to the L{sub 1} point is deflected in the direction of the planet's orbital motion, while the flow toward L{sub 2} is deflected in the opposite direction, resulting in a non-axisymmetric envelope, surrounding the planet. The supersonic motion of the planet inside the stellar wind leads to the formation of a bow shock with a complex shape. The existence of the bow shock slows down the outflow through the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points, allowing us to consider a long-living flow structure that is in the steady state.

  13. Heat capacity, entropy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd), and the high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. M.; Suponitskiy, Y. L.; Liashenko, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The low-temperature heat capacity of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd) is investigated by means of adiabatic calorimetry within the range of 60-300 K. The temperature dependences of the heat capacity are found and the values of the standard entropy are calculated, based on extrapolations to 0 K. Characteristic temperatures for molybdates are determined from the results of IR spectroscopic studies. The high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho) is measured via high-temperature microcalorimetry, and the temperature dependence of heat capacity is calculated in the range of 298-1000 K. Since samarium and gadolinium molybdates are of the same structural type as terbium molybdate, we can estimate the anomaly of the heat capacity in the low-temperature region using the data for terbium molybdate and find the entropy of samarium and gadolinium molybdates.

  14. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  18. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING WEST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. Surgical Treatment of Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ser Yee; Cheow, Peng Chung; Teo, Jin Yao; Ooi, London L. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of Neuroendocrine liver metastases (NELM) is challenging. The presence of NELM worsens survival outcome and almost 10% of all liver metastases are neuroendocrine in origin. There is no firm consensus on the optimal treatment strategy for NELM. A systematic search of the PubMed database was performed from 1995–2010, to collate the current evidence and formulate a sound management algorithm. There are 22 case series with a total of 793 patients who had undergone surgery for NELM. The overall survival ranges from 46–86% at 5 years, 35–79% at 10 years, and the median survival ranges from 52–123 months. After successful cytoreductive surgery, the mean duration of symptom reduction is between 16–26 months, and the 5-year recurrence/progression rate ranges from 59–76%. Five studies evaluated the efficacy of a combination cytoreductive strategy reporting survival rate of ranging from 83% at 3 years to 50% at 10 years. To date, there is no level 1 evidence comparing surgery versus other liver-directed treatment options for NELM. An aggressive surgical approach, including combination with additional liver-directed procedures is recommended as it leads to long-term survival, significant long-term palliation, and a good quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach should be established as the platform for decision making. PMID:22319650

  1. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Benign leiomyomas of the uterus are uncommonly found in association with benign smooth muscle tumors beyond the confines of the uterus. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease in which the lung is described to be the most afflicted extrauterine organ. We present a brief review of the literature, along with case reports for four patients who were followed up after resection of a pulmonary lesion or after pathological confirmation by biopsy. The clinical course of BML varies from chronic asymptomatic appearance to rapid progression, leading to respiratory failure and death. Our BML patients did not complain of pulmonary symptoms, such as cough, dyspnea, or chest tightness. Pathology revealed benign leiomyomas with no atypia and mitotic activity <5 per 10 high-power field. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for actin and desmin. A standard treatment for BML has not yet been established. Because of the hormone-sensitive characteristics of BML, treatments are based on hormonal manipulation along with either surgical or medical oophorectomy. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma can be observed in postmenopausal women. We observed four patients who did not receive adjuvant hormonal therapy because they were postmenopausal or perimenopausal. All patients are still healthy and show no evidence of recurrence or progression of the disease. PMID:24134076

  2. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, R; Sharanowski, K; Senger, JL; Fesser, J; Chibbar, R; Kanthan, SC

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung), or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. PMID:19650900

  3. Non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Boone, Christine; Ruiz-Valls, Alejandro; Sankey, Eric W; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Metastases to the spine from non-hepatocellular carcinomas, such as cholangiocarcinoma and angiosarcoma, occur rarely. With improvements in oncologic care, the number of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer is expected to increase. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the clinical presentation, treatment, outcome and survival of patients diagnosed with non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. We identified 19 cases of spinal metastases from non-hepatocellular carcinomas that fit our pre-specified criteria. The mean age at presentation was 62.3years and cholangiocarcinoma was the most common subtype. Patients frequently presented with pain, weakness or paraparesis and at the time of diagnosis, most of them had multi-level involvement of the spine. A majority of patients with spinal metastasis were treated either with radiation or chemotherapy or received no treatment. A minority of the reports included information on survival, which revealed a median survival of 1.5months following diagnosis of the spinal metastasis. Although there is a paucity of published literature on non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis, this systematic review provides descriptive clinical characteristics of these patients. PMID:26778049

  4. [Morphology of secondary ovarian tumors and metastases].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Einenkel, J; Handzel, R; Höhn, A K

    2014-07-01

    The distinction between primary and secondary (metastatic) ovarian tumors is essential for the selection of appropriate surgical interventions, chemotherapeutic treatment and prognostic evaluation for the patient. Metastatic tumors of the ovary range between 5 % and 30 %. The majority of ovarian metastases in Europe and North America derive from colorectal (25-50 %) and breast cancers (8-25 %). A major issue is the differential diagnosis of mucinous tumors. Major features favoring metastasis include bilaterality, size < 10 cm, ovarian surface involvement, extensive intra-abdominal spread, and infiltrative growth within the ovary involving the corpus albicans and corpora lutea. An algorithm using bilaterality and tumor size (cut-off 10 cm) allows correct categorization in approximately  85 % of the cases. Although immunohistochemistry (especially CK7 and CK20 in mucinous tumors) using a panel of antibodies plays a valuable role and is paramount in the diagnosis, the results must be interpreted with caution and within the relevant clinical and histopathological context. It is necessary to note that the correct diagnosis of ovarian metastases always needs interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:24859239

  5. The Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel A.; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic bone metastases are a growing concern in the field of orthopedic surgery. Patients with pelvic metastasis are individually different with different needs of treatment in order to attain the best possible quality of life despite the advanced stage of disease. A holistic collaboration among the oncologist, radiation therapist, and orthopedic surgeon is mandatory. Special attention has to be directed to osteolytic lesions in the periacetabular region as they can provoke pathological fractures and subsequent functional impairment. Different reconstruction techniques for the pelvis are available; the choice depends on the patient's prognosis, size of the bone defect, and response of the tumor to adjuvant treatment. If all the conservative treatments are exhausted and the patient is not eligible for surgery, one of the various percutaneous ablation procedures can be considered. We propose a pelvic analogue to the treatment algorithm in long bone metastasis and a scoring system in pelvic metastasis. This algorithm aims to simplify the teamwork and to avoid under- or overtreatment of pelvic bone metastases. PMID:25810925

  6. Surgical management of breast cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, Maria A; Hammill, Chet W; Ujiki, Michael B; Wolf, Ronald F; Swanström, Lee L; Hansen, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Selected patients with isolated breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) may benefit from surgical management; however, indications remain unclear and the risks may outweigh the benefits in patients with a generally poor prognosis. Methods Between 1998 and 2006, 17 patients diagnosed with BCLM were considered for surgical management (<4 tumours, tumour <4 cm in diameter and no/stable extrahepatic metastases). Peri-operative and outcomes data were analysed and compared. Results Eight patients were found to have extensive or untreatable disease on staging laparoscopy and intra-operative ultrasound (SL/IOUS). The remaining nine patients underwent surgical management [seven laparoscopic radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and two hepatic resections]. Median length of follow-up for patients treated surgically was 40.0 months, median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32.2 months and median time to disease progression was 17.7 months. Of the eight patients not amenable to surgery, median length of follow-up was 21.8 months. Conclusion SL/IOUS prevented unnecessary laparotomy in half of the patients taken to the operating room for surgical treatment of BCLM. In patients with BCLM, SL/IOUS should be considered standard of care before surgical intervention. The small number of patients and short follow-up may be inadequate to determine the true value of surgical management in this group of patients with BCLM. PMID:21418133

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Halasz, Lia M; Rockhill, Jason K

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) have become important treatment modalities for brain metastases. While effective, there are still areas of extensive debate on its appropriate use in patients with life-limiting diseases. This review provides an overview of the indications and challenges of SRS and HFSRT in the management of brain metastases. PMID:23717789

  8. Radiotherapy: Neurocognitive considerations in the treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    The results of a randomized, controlled trial investigating the neurocognitive effects of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), with or without whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), to treat brain metastases demonstrated a significant reduction in learning and memory, associated with the addition of WBRT to SRS. the results indicate that SRS monotherapy is an effective and safe initial management strategy for brain metastases. PMID:20354539

  9. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Brain Metastases: From Biology to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Venur, Vyshak A; Preusser, Matthias; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has been a subject of intense research over the last several years, leading to new approaches for modulation of the immune system to treat malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CLTA-4 antibodies and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) potentiate the host's own antitumor immune response. These immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown impressive clinical efficacy in advanced melanoma, metastatic kidney cancer, and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-all malignancies that frequently cause brain metastases. The immune response in the brain is highly regulated, challenging the treatment of brain metastases with immune-modulatory therapies. The immune microenvironment in brain metastases is active with a high density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in certain patients and, therefore, may serve as a potential treatment target. However, clinical data of the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in brain metastases compared with extracranial metastases are limited, as most clinical trials with these new agents excluded patients with active brain metastases. In this article, we review the current scientific evidence of brain metastases biology with specific emphasis on inflammatory tumor microenvironment and the evolving state of clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with brain metastases. PMID:27249713

  10. Application of rhenium-188 HEDP in bone metastases therapy.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Justyna; Derejko, Mirosława; Bandurski, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Grzegorz

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide bone metastases therapy is a major achievement of nuclear medicine. Development of less radiotoxic and more effective radiopharmaceuticals is therefore a challenge for radiopharmacists and industry. This paper reviews the application of rhenium-188 HEDP as a reactor- or generator-produced nuclide for bone metastases therapy. PMID:14600935

  11. Investigation of upconversion and downconversion fluorescence emissions from β-NaLn1F{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Ln2{sup 3+} (Ln1 = Y, Lu; Ln2 = Er, Ho, Tm, Eu) hexagonal disk system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Enjie; Zheng, Hairong; Gao, Wei; Tu, Yinxun; Lu, Ying; Li, Guian

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Well-defined β-NaLn1F4:Yb{sup 3+}, Ln2{sup 3+} (Ln1 = Y, Lu; Ln2 = Er, Ho, Tm, Eu) hexagonal thin disks with a simple and user-friendly hydrothermal approach by using sodium citrate as a shape modifier. Much stronger UC and DC fluorescence emissions were observed in NaLuF{sub 4}-based hexagonal disks than that for NaYF{sub 4} counterparts. The strength of hypersensitive transitions is mainly attributed to the decrease of local symmetry Ln-F bond lengths in β-NaLuF{sub 4}. It will show a great potential in improving near-infrared conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells and removable sub-micro luminescent platforms. - Highlights: • Regular hexagonal disks (NaLnF{sub 4}) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • Much stronger UC and DC emissions were observed in NaLuF{sub 4}-based disks. • Stronger fluorescence emissions in NaLuF{sub 4}-based disks were explained reasonably. • NaLuF{sub 4}-based disks can act as a removable luminescent platform for nano-assembly. • NaLuF{sub 4}-based disks can be applied in improving efficiency of solar cells. - Abstract: Uniform hexagonal β-NaLn1F{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Ln2{sup 3+} (Ln1 = Y, Lu; Ln2 = Er, Ho, Tm, Eu) disks were synthesized with hydrothermal method in which the sodium citrate was used as a shape modifier. The experimental observation indicated that both upconversion and downconversion fluorescence emissions were significantly stronger in β-NaLuF{sub 4} than that for β-NaYF{sub 4}. It was found that the stronger hypersensitive transitions were mainly due to the increase of J–O parameter (Ω{sub 2}) in β-NaLuF{sub 4} host, while the stronger insensitive transitions were mainly caused by the stronger overlap of electron cloud that was induced by the decrease of Ln-F bond lengths. Additionally, the larger absorption strength in the near-infrared region is another important factor for the stronger fluorescence emissions. The current research has a great potential in

  12. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  13. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/cm2, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  14. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/sq cm, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  15. MOLTEN SALT SYNTHESIS OF YF3:Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln = Er3+, Tm3+) MICROSHEETS WITH MULTICOLOR UPCONVERSION LUMINESCENCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingye; Lu, Chunhua; Cao, Linhai; Ni, Yaru; Xu, Zhongzi

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, highly crystalline YF3:Yb3+/Ln3+(Ln = Er3+, Tm3+) microsheets were successfully synthesized by a surfactant-free molten salt method for the first time. The results indicated that the as-obtained samples belonged to orthorhombic system and exhibited microsheets morphology with side lengths of 30 to 80 μm and wall thickness from 1 to 1.5 μm. By changing the dopant's species (Ln3+), multicolor (yellow and blue) upconversion emission can be observed in YF3:Yb3+/Ln3+ microsheets under 980 nm laser diode (LD) excitation. The upconversion mechanisms in co-doping YF3 samples were analyzed in detail based on the emission spectra. Importantly, this approach not only proposes a new alternative in synthesizing such materials, but also opens the possibility to meet the increasing commercial demand.

  16. Theoretical aspects of photonic band gap in 1D nano structure of LN: MgLN periodic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sisodia, Namita

    2015-06-24

    By using the transfer matrix method, we have analyzed the photonic band gap properties in a periodic layer of LN:MgLN medium. The Width of alternate layers of LN and MgLN is in the range of hundred nanometers. The birefringent and ferroelectric properties of the medium (i.e ordinary, extraordinary refractive indices and electric dipole moment) is given due considerations in the formulation of photonic band gap. Effect of electronic transition dipole moment of the medium on photonic band gap is also taken into account. We find that photonic band gap can be modified by the variation in the ratio of the width of two medium. We explain our findings by obtaining numerical values and the effect on the photonic band gap due to variation in the ratio of alternate medium is shown graphically.

  17. Layered phases in the composites prepared using ZrC and LnB6 (Ln = La, Ce, and Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. Y.; Wang, K. S.

    2016-07-01

    We found some layered phases in the composite prepared by reactive hot pressing at 1800°C for 30 mins, using ZrC and LnB6 (Ln = La, Ce, and Gd) as raw materials. The layered phases are related to rare-earth metal borocarbides, but they are relatively and chemically stable in moisture environment. XRD patterns of these layered phases cannot be identified far away, indicating that the layered phases are possibly some new compounds.

  18. A novel endothelial-specific heat shock protein HspA12B is required in both zebrafish development and endothelial functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Tang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Yanfeng; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Galloway, Jenna; Bedell, Victoria; Bahary, Nathan; Han, Zhihua; Ramchandran, Ramani; Thisse, Bernard; Thisse, Christine; Zon, Leonard I; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2006-10-01

    A zebrafish transcript dubbed GA2692 was initially identified via a whole-mount in situ hybridization screen for vessel specific transcripts. Its mRNA expression during embryonic development was detected in ventral hematopoietic and vasculogenic mesoderm and later throughout the vasculature up to 48 hours post fertilization. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of GA2692 in embryos resulted in multiple defects in vasculature, particularly, at sites undergoing active capillary sprouting: the intersegmental vessels, sub-intestinal vessels and the capillary sprouts of the pectoral fin vessel. During the course of these studies, a homology search indicated that GA2692 is the zebrafish orthologue of mammalian HspA12B, a distant member of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family. By a combination of northern blot and real-time PCR analysis, we showed that HspA12B is highly expressed in human endothelial cells in vitro. Knockdown of HspA12B by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells blocked wound healing, migration and tube formation, whereas overexpression of HspA12B enhanced migration and accelerated wound healing - data that are consistent with the in vivo fish phenotype obtained in the morpholino-knockdown studies. Phosphorylation of Akt was consistently reduced by siRNAs against HspA12B. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of Akt rescued the inhibitory effects of knockdown of HspA12B on migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Collectively, our data suggests that HspA12B is a highly endothelial-cell-specific distant member of the Hsp70 family and plays a significant role in endothelial cells during development and angiogenesis in vitro, partially attributable to modulation of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:16968741

  19. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  20. Decanuclear Ln10 Wheels and Vertex-Shared Spirocyclic Ln5 Cores: Synthesis, Structure, SMM Behavior, and MCE Properties.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Kundu, Subrata; Biswas, Sourav; Narayanan, Ramakirushnan Suriya; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Lorusso, Giulia; Evangelisti, Marco; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2015-11-16

    The reaction of a Schiff base ligand (LH3) with lanthanide salts, pivalic acid and triethylamine in 1:1:1:3 and 4:5:8:20 stoichiometric ratios results in the formation of decanuclear Ln10 (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)) and pentanuclear Ln5 complexes (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), and Dy (6)), respectively. The formation of Ln10 and Ln5 complexes are fully governed by the stoichiometry of the reagents used. Detailed magnetic studies on these complexes (1-6) have been carried out. Complex 1 shows a SMM behavior with an effective energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization (Ueff) = 16.12(8) K and relaxation time (τo) = 3.3×10(-5) s under 4000 Oe direct current (dc) field. Complex 6 shows the frequency dependent maxima in the out-of-phase signal under zero dc field, without achieving maxima above 2 K. Complexes 3 and 4 show a large magnetocaloric effect with the following characteristic values: -ΔSm = 26.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.2 K for 3 and -ΔSm = 27.1 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.4 K for 4, both for an applied field change of 7 T. PMID:26420030

  1. New Antimony Lanthanide Disulfide Dibromides LnSbS

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, D.; Jobic, S.; Evain, M.; Brec, R.

    2001-05-01

    CeSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (I), Ce{sub 1/2}La{sub 1/2}SbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (II), and LaSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (III) have been synthesized at 700 C from a mixture of LnBr{sub 3}, Ln{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Sb, and S and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The three phases are isostructural (space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4) and crystallize in a novel, dense, bidimensional structure with cell parameters a=8.709(3) {angstrom}, b=9.187(2) {angstrom}, c=17.397(5) {angstrom} {beta}=104.26(3) for I, a=8.739(7) {angstrom}, b=9.219(7) {angstrom}, c=17.41(2) {angstrom}, =104.3(1) for II, and a=8.785(1) {angstrom}, b=9.236(2) {angstrom}, c=17.372(3) {angstrom}, {beta}=104.09(2) for III. In these compounds, [Ln S{sub 5}Br{sub 4}] and [Ln S{sub 3}Br{sub 6}] (Ln=Ce, La) distorted tricapped trigonal prisms define infinite {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[LnS{sub 2}Br{sub 2}] layers counterbalanced and capped by antimony cations. In good accordance with the structural features, the charge balance in these materials is to be written Ln{sup III}Sb{sup III}S{sup -II}{sub 2}Br{sup -I}{sub 2}. These compounds exhibit a yellow hue with a measured absorption threshold of 2.42(1), 2.55(1), and 2.72(1) eV for I, II, and III, respectively. In the two cerium containing bromothioantimonates I and II, the origin of the color is assigned to a Ce-4f{yields}Ce-5d electronic transition, which shifts to higher energy from I to II due either to a matrix effect (increase of the mean Ln-S distances under the substitution of Ce for La) or to an atomic ordering between Ce and La cations on the Ln(1) and Ln(2) crystallographic sites. In contrast, the electronic transition at play in III involves a charge transfer from the bromine and sulfur ions to the antimony ions, the latter contributing substantially to the lowermost levels of the conduction band.

  2. New therapeutic targets for cancer bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Krzeszinski, Jing Y.; Wan, Yihong

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are dejected consequences of many types of tumors including breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid cancers. This complicated process begins with the successful tumor cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition, escape from the original site, and penetration into circulation. The homing of tumor cells to the bone depends on both tumor-intrinsic traits and various molecules supplied by the bone metastatic niche. The colonization and growth of cancer cells in the osseous environment, which awaken their dormancy to form micro- and macro-metastasis, involve an intricate interaction between the circulating tumor cells and local bone cells including osteoclasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and macrophages. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the identification of new molecules and novel mechanisms during each step of bone metastasis that may serve as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25962679

  3. [Bone metastases: new trends in diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Herneth, A M; Dominkus, M; Kurtaran, A; Lang, Susanna; Rand, T; Kainberger, F

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal metastases are common in patients with cancers of the breast, lung, kidneys, prostate, and thyroid gland. Two main aspects have to be considered in diagnostic imaging. Screening in patients with known primary tumor. Triphasic Sczintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for this purpose, however, whole-body-magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a potential alternative. Evaluation of suspicious skeletal lesions, which is currently dominated by magnetic resonance imaging. New perspectives for preoperative staging as well as for reconstruction- and implant-surgery are made available by multidetector-row-computed tomography. Non-invasive techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging, positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography are now available, which seem to have potential for reliable tissue characterization. This feature is critical for monitoring treatment response in oncology. PMID:12621852

  4. [Spinal tuberculosis or bone metastases? Case report].

    PubMed

    Dima-Cozma, Corina; Mitu, F; Rezuş, Elena; Arhire, Oana; Petcu, I; Grigoraş, C; Banu, Claudia; Cozma, S

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the most important infectious disease worldwide and skeletal form has an incidence between 3% and 10%, depending on geographic area. The thoracolumbar junction is the most commonly involved in vertebral tuberculosis; some radiologic features are specifics, but other could be indistinguishable from that of lymphoma or metastases. We discuss the case of a 80-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of thoracolumbar pain, fatigability and fever. The vertebral radiography showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space between T1 and T12, adjacent irregularity, erosion and lisis of vertebres, features visibles also on computed tomography. After the exclusion of the other causes of osteolisis, we started a standard regimen of tuberculostatic treatment and after one month of treatment the symptoms of patient improved noticeably. Other problems of diagnostic and treatment modalities of spinal tuberculosis are discussed. PMID:20509287

  5. {NiLn} (Ln = Gd, Dy) rod-like nano-sized heteronuclear coordination clusters with a double carbonate bridge skeleton and remarkable MCE behaviour.

    PubMed

    Guarda, Eliana; Bader, Katharina; van Slageren, Joris; Alborés, Pablo

    2016-05-17

    The newly obtained complexes [NiLn(Piv)16(teaH)6(OCH3)2(CO3)2(H2O)2] Ln = Gd, Dy, show a remarkable μ5-carbonate bridged octanuclear planar {Ni4Ln4} core further capped with embedded {Ni3Ln} cubane motifs to afford a rod shaped nano-sized molecule of about 1.2 × 2.8 nm. Unusual MCE behaviour has been found due to multiple low lying excited states arising from competing ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic Ni-Ni and Ni-Ln exchange interactions. PMID:27126965

  6. Phases observed at 900-1100 degree C in the binary Ln-Ba-O systems for Ln = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Hodorowicz, E.; Hodorowicz, S.A.; Eick, H.A. )

    1990-02-01

    The compounds Ln{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ln{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}O{sub 7}, and Ln{sub 4}Ba{sub 3}O{sub 9}, for Ln = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb, have been prepared and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Phase interrelationships were established as a function of temperature by quenching specimens annealed at 900-l 100{degree}C. Comparable Ln = Tb phases could not be prepared. Lattice parameters are presented for all phases observed.

  7. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J.; Rose, Peter S.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Brown, Paul D.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Laack, Nadia N.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  8. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Shada, Amber L.; Dengel, Lynn T.; Petroni, Gina R.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0–5, >5–15, >15–30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from −1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. Results IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0–5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5–15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15–30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%–100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15–30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Conclusions Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23043862

  9. Consideration of role of radiotherapy for lymph node metastases in patients with HCC: Retrospective analysis for prognostic factors from 125 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Zhaochong . E-mail: ZCZeng@ZSHospital.net; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Qin Lunxiu; Ye Shenlong; Zhou Jian; Sun Huichuan; Wang Binliang; Wang Jianhua

    2005-11-15

    size. The incidence of death resulting from LN-related complications was lower in the EBRT group. Conclusion: Lymph node metastasis from HCC is sensitive to EBRT. EBRT with 25 fractions of 2 Gy is an effective palliative treatment for patients with LN metastases from HCC presenting with good performance status and may prolong overall survival.

  10. Rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides Ln3MGaS7 (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln3MGaSe7 (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenlong; Shi, Youguo; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jianguo; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-05-01

    Fifteen new rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides, Ln3MGaS7 (Ln=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er; M=Co, Ni) and Ln3MGaSe7 (Ln=Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, M=Co; Ln=Nd, Gd, Dy, M=Ni), have been synthesized by solid state reactions. They are isostructural, adopt Ce3Al1.67S7-related structure type, and crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal space group P63. They adopt a three-dimensional framework composed of LnQ7 monocapped trigonal prisms with the interesting [MQ3]4- chains and isolated GaQ4 tetrahedra lying in two sets of channels in the framework. The magnetic susceptibility measurements on Ln3CoGaQ7 (Ln=Dy, Er, Q=S; Ln=Dy, Q=Se) indicate that they are paramagnetic and obey the Curie-Weiss law over the entire experimental temperature, while the magnetic susceptibility of Sm3CoGaSe7 deviates from the Curie-Weiss law as a result of the crystal field splitting.

  11. Update on treatment of liver metastases: focus on ablation therapies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jeffrey; Toomay, Seth

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial and growing interest in the use of local therapies to treat patients with metastatic cancer, especially those deemed to have "oligometastatic" disease. Much of the literature to date consists of reports on metastasectomy for liver and lung metastases. Non-surgical minimally or non-invasive treatments including thermal ablation, irreversible electroporation, and high-dose radiation therapy (stereotactic ablative radiation therapy) can also be used in the treatment of primary and secondary tumors, including in the treatment of liver metastases. In this review, we discuss the rationale for using these ablative treatments in the treatment of liver metastases including similarities and differences between them. PMID:25416314

  12. Magnetic properties of orthorhombic fluorite-related oxides Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Ebisawa, Haruka; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2009-07-15

    Ternary rare earth antimonates Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths) were prepared and their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite (space group Cmcm for Ln=La, Pr, Nd; C222{sub 1} for Ln=Nd-Lu), in which Ln{sup 3+} ions occupy two different crystallographic sites (the 8-coordinated and 7-coordinated sites). Their magnetic properties were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements from 1.8 to 400 K. The Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Gd-Ho) compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition at 2.2-3.2 K. Sm{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} and Eu{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} show van Vleck paramagnetism. Measurements of the specific heat down to 0.4 K for Gd{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} and the analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicate that the antiferromagnetic ordering of the 8-coordinated Gd ions occur at 2.6 K, and the 7-coordinated Gd ions order at a furthermore low temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Ternary rare earth antimonates Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths) crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite (space group Cmcm for Ln=La, Pr, Nd; C222{sub 1} for Ln=Nd-Lu), in which Ln{sup 3+} ions occupy two different crystallographic sites (the 8-coordinated and 7-coordinated sites). Any of these compounds Ln{sub 3}SbO{sub 7} (Ln=Nd, Gd-Ho) shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 2.2-3.2 K.

  13. Magnetic properties and structural transitions of fluorite-related rare earth osmates Ln{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} (Ln=Pr, Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-15

    Ternary rare-earth osmates Ln{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} (Ln=Pr, Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an ortho-rhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Both of these compounds undergo a structural phase transition at 130 K (Ln=Pr) and 580 K (Ln=Tb). These compounds show complex magnetic behavior at low temperatures. Pr{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} exhibits magnetic transitions at 8 and 73 K, and Tb{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} magnetically orders at 8 and 60 K. The Os moments become one-dimensionally ordered, and when the temperature is furthermore decreased, it provokes the ordering in the Ln{sup 3+} sublattice that simultaneously becomes three-dimensionally ordered with the Os sublattice. - Graphical abstract: Ternary rare-earth osmates Ln{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} (Ln=Pr, Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Both of these compounds undergo a structural phase transition at 130 K (Ln=Pr) and 580 K (Ln=Tb). These compounds show complex magnetic behavior at low temperatures. Pr{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} exhibits magnetic transitions at 8 and 73 K, and Tb{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} magnetically orders at 8 and 60 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary rare-earth osmates Ln{sub 3}OsO{sub 7} (Ln=Pr, Tb) with an ordered defect-fluorite structure have been prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both of these compounds undergo a structural phase transition at 130 K (Ln=Pr) and 580 K (Ln=Tb). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds show complex magnetic behavior at low temperatures due to magnetic ordering of Ln and Os.

  14. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of fluorite-related oxides Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} (Ln=lanthanides)

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yuka; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2009-04-15

    Crystal structures and magnetic properties of the ternary oxides Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu) are reported. Their powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analyzes show that they have the fluorite-related structures with space group Pnma (Ln=La, Pr, Nd), C222{sub 1} (Ln=Sm-Tb), or Fm-3m (Ln=Dy-Lu). Magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out from 1.8 to 400 K. The Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} compounds for Ln=Pr, Gd, Dy-Yb show Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior, and Sm{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and Eu{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} show van Vleck paramagnetism. On the other hand, two magnetic anomalies were observed for both Nd{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} (0.6 and 2.7 K) and Tb{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} (2.0 and 3.2 K). From the results of specific heat measurements, it was found that these anomalies are due to the antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln ions in two different crystallographic sites (the 8-coordinated and 7-coordinated sites). - Ternary oxides Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} (Ln=lanthanides) have the fluorite-related structures with space group Pnma (Ln=La, Pr, Nd), C222{sub 1} (Ln=Sm-Tb), or Fm-3m (Ln=Dy-Lu). In them, Nd{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and Tb{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} show 'two-step' antiferromagnetic transitions due to the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln ions in different crystallographic sites.

  15. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  16. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i.e. synchronous metastases. Most common are hepatic metastases followed by pulmonary involvement. The optimal staging modality for detecting synchronous pulmonary metastases is debated. It has been argued, that synchronous pulmonary metastases (SPCM) are rare in CRC and that the consequence of detecting SPCM is minimal. Furthermore, the current staging practice is complicated by a high number of incidental findings on the thoracic CT, so-called indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN). IPN can potentially represent SPCM. The purpose of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence, characteristics and clinical significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9% of all patients staged with a thoracic CT had IPN, however, the prevalence varied significantly between patients series. This was mainly attributed to varying/lacking definitions on IPN and variable radiological expertise in the assessment of the scans. Data were too inconsistently reported in the case series for a robust statement to be made on potential radiological characteristics suggestive of malignancy in IPN. Lymph node metastasis was the most common clinicopathological finding associated with malignancy of IPN. In conclusion, one patient of every 100 scanned patients had an IPN proving to a SPCM at follow-up, but we found no evidence that IPN should result in intensified diagnostic work-up besides routine follow-up for CRC. Study II was an analysis of the

  17. Real-time ultrasound elastography in 180 axillary lymph nodes: elasticity distribution in healthy lymph nodes and prediction of breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the general appearance of normal axillary lymph nodes (LNs) in real-time tissue sonoelastography and to explore the method′s potential value in the prediction of LN metastases. Methods Axillary LNs in healthy probands (n=165) and metastatic LNs in breast cancer patients (n=15) were examined with palpation, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler and sonoelastography (assessment of the elasticity of the cortex and the medulla). The elasticity distributions were compared and sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) were calculated. In an exploratory analysis, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated based upon the estimated prevalence of LN metastases in different risk groups. Results In the elastogram, the LN cortex was significantly harder than the medulla in both healthy (p=0.004) and metastatic LNs (p=0.005). Comparing healthy and metastatic LNs, there was no difference in the elasticity distribution of the medulla (p=0.281), but we found a significantly harder cortex in metastatic LNs (p=0.006). The SE of clinical examination, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and sonoelastography was revealed to be 13.3%, 40.0%, 14.3% and 60.0%, respectively, and SP was 88.4%, 96.8%, 95.6% and 79.6%, respectively. The highest SE was achieved by the disjunctive combination of B-mode and elastographic features (cortex >3mm in B-mode or blue cortex in the elastogram, SE=73.3%). The highest SP was achieved by the conjunctive combination of B-mode ultrasound and elastography (cortex >3mm in B-mode and blue cortex in the elastogram, SP=99.3%). Conclusions Sonoelastography is a feasible method to visualize the elasticity distribution of LNs. Moreover, sonoelastography is capable of detecting elasticity differences between the cortex and medulla, and between metastatic and healthy LNs. Therefore, sonoelastography yields additional information about axillary LN status and can improve the PPV, although this method is still experimental. PMID

  18. Myasthenia gravis and invasive thymoma with multiple intracranial metastases.

    PubMed

    Koç, Filiz; Yerdelen, Deniz; Sarica, Yakup

    2003-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease. Approximately 15% of patients with MG have thymoma. Approximately 30% to 40% of them are invasive. A 26-year-old man was admitted with cough and difficulty breathing. He had transsternal thymectomy resulting from MG accompanied by thymoma 6 years previously. Thorax computerized tomography (CT) scans showed metastases to the extra-mediastinum. Diagnosis of invasive thymoma was made by CT-guided biopsy. A PAC regimen (cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) and radiotherapy were added to MG treatment. Ten months later, he presented again with headache, weakness, and difficulty swallowing. We determined that he had intracranial multiple metastases. He was hospitalized. Cerebral multiple metastases were evaluated as inoperable. However, he died of transtentorial herniation after 1 month. This MG case accompanied by invasive thymoma with multiple intracranial metastases is discussed. PMID:19078711

  19. Robotic surgery for rectosigmoid junction tumor with ovarian metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Salman, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Isolated ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are rare disease presenting in approximately 3% of all patients undergoing colorectal resection. Most reports describe an open approach to the disease, but we report a case isolated ovarian metastases from CRC managed completely by robotic technique. A 54-year-old female, with a family history of CRC, was admitted for rectosigmoid junction cancer. Computed tomography scan demonstrated in rectosigmoid tumor and pelvic mass, presumed as teratoma. Robotic surgery discovered a 10-cm encapsulated tumor, attached to the left ovary, with no macroscopic peritoneal involvement. The pathologic diagnosis of the resected pelvic mass, ovarian metastases from CRC. Robotic anterior resection was performed. Operative time was lasted 165 min, considering 25 min for robotic system set up. This is the first report to describe robot-assisted anterior resection and oophorectomy in patient with isolated ovarian metastases from rectosigmoid junction cancer. PMID:25598608

  20. Ln(3+)-doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: controllable synthesis and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Meiying; Hui, Junfeng; Fan, Daidi; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Yen

    2015-08-21

    In this paper we report two different doping strategies to prepare a series of novel HAp:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanocrystals with tunable aspect ratios via facile hydrothermal synthetic routes. Adopting a one-pot synthetic strategy, with increasing rare-earth doping dosage, the as-prepared nanocrystals have relatively weak fluorescence intensity, and change from nanorods with lengths of about 150 nm into nanowires with lengths of about 2 μm. Using the synthetic pure HAp nanorods as matrices, they are endowed with bright green or red luminescent properties by doping Tb(3+) or Eu(3+) ions via a second hydrothermal process, and simultaneously retain their original morphologies (diameter 8 nm, length 150 nm). The hydrophobic HAp:Ln(3+) nanorods with strong optical properties are converted into hydrophilic particles with a surfactant (Pluronic F127) and successfully applied to live cell imaging. PMID:26190155

  1. Positron emission tomography and bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Ignac; Cook, Gary; Israel, Ora; Van der Wall, Hans

    2005-04-01

    The use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the evaluation and management of patients with malignancy continues to increase. However, its role in the identification of bone metastases is far from clear. FDG has the advantage of demonstrating all metastatic sites, and in the skeleton it is assumed that its uptake is directly into tumor cells. It is probable that for breast and lung carcinoma, FDG-PET has similar sensitivity, although poorer specificity, when compared with the isotope bone scan, although there is conflicting evidence, with several articles suggesting that it is less sensitive than conventional imaging in breast cancer. There is convincing evidence that for prostate cancer, FDG-PET is less sensitive than the bone scan and this may be tumor specific. There is very little data relating to lymphoma, but FDG-PET seems to perform better than the bone scan. There is an increasing body of evidence relating to the valuable role of FDG-PET in myeloma, where it is clearly better than the bone scan, presumably because FDG is identifying marrow-based disease at an early stage. There are, however, several other important variables that should be considered. The morphology of the metastasis itself appears to be relevant. At least in breast cancer, different patterns of FDG uptake have been shown in sclerotic, lytic, or lesions with a mixed pattern, Furthermore, the precise localization of a metastasis in the skeleton may be important with regard to the extent of the metabolic response induced. Previous treatment is highly relevant and it has been found that although the majority of untreated bone metastases are positive on PET scans and have a lytic pattern on computed tomography (CT), after treatment, incongruent CT-positive/PET-negative lesions are significantly more prevalent and generally are blastic, which presumably reflects a direct effect of treatment. Finally, the aggressiveness of the tumor itself may be relevant

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Treatment of Adrenal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, Sheema; Chen, Yuhchyau; Katz, Alan W.; Muhs, Ann G.; Philip, Abraham; Okunieff, Paul; Milano, Michael T.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry and outcomes of patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases to the adrenal glands. Methods and Materials: At University of Rochester, patients have been undergoing SBRT for limited metastases since 2001. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who had undergone SBRT for adrenal metastases from various primary sites, including lung (n = 20), liver (n = 3), breast (n = 3), melanoma (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), head and neck (n = 1), and unknown primary (n = 1). Results: Of the 30 patients, 14 with five or fewer metastatic lesions (including adrenal) underwent SBRT, with the intent of controlling all known sites of metastatic disease, and 16 underwent SBRT for palliation or prophylactic palliation of bulky adrenal metastases. The prescribed dose ranged from 16 Gy in 4 fractions to 50 Gy in 10 fractions. The median dose was 40 Gy. Of the 30 patients, 24 had >3 months of follow-up with serial computed tomography. Of these 24 patients, 1 achieved a complete response, 15 achieved a partial response, 4 had stable disease, and 4 developed progressive disease. No patient developed symptomatic progression of their adrenal metastases. The 1-year survival, local control, and distant control rate was 44%, 55%, and 13%, respectively. No patient developed Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 or greater toxicity. Conclusion: SBRT for adrenal metastases is well tolerated. Most patients developed widespread metastases shortly after treatment. Local control was poor, although this was a patient population selected for adverse risk factors, such as bulky disease. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of SBRT for oligometastatic adrenal metastases, given the propensity of these patients to develop further disease progression.

  3. Unusual metastases of lung cancer: bulbus oculi and maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ates, I; Yazici, O; Ates, H; Ozdemir, N; Zengin, N

    2015-09-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma often makes metastasis to the brain, liver, kidneys, bone, bone marrow and adrenal glands. It can also make metastasis to other parts of the body rarely for example eye, nose, parotid gland and paranasal sinus. We did not encounter with combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung cancer in the accessible literature. In this case report, a patient who was combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung adenocarcinoma will be discussed. PMID:26928715

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for four or more intracranial metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Ajay K.; Flickinger, John C. . E-mail: flickingerjc@upmc.edu; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes after a single stereotactic radiosurgery procedure for the care of patients with 4 or more intracranial metastases. Methods and Materials: Two hundred five patients with primary malignancies, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma (42%), breast carcinoma (23%), melanoma (17%), renal cell carcinoma (6%), colon cancer (3%), and others (10%) underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for 4 or more intracranial metastases at one time. The median number of brain metastases was 5 (range, 4-18) with a median total treatment volume of 6.8 cc (range, 0.6-51.0 cc). Radiosurgery was used as sole management (17% of patients), or in combination with whole brain radiotherapy (46%) or after failure of whole brain radiotherapy (38%). The median marginal radiosurgery dose was 16 Gy (range, 12-20 Gy). The mean follow-up was 8 months. Results: The median overall survival after radiosurgery for all patients was 8 months. The 1-year local control rate was 71%, and the median time to progressive/new brain metastases was 9 months. Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification system, the median overall survivals for RPA classes I, II, and III were 18, 9, and 3 months, respectively (p < 0.00001). Multivariate analysis revealed total treatment volume, age, RPA classification, and marginal dose as significant prognostic factors. The number of metastases was not statistically significant (p 0.333). Conclusion: Radiosurgery seems to provide survival benefit for patients with 4 or more intracranial metastases. Because total treatment volume was the most significant predictor of survival, the total volume of brain metastases, rather than the number of metastases, should be considered in identifying appropriate radiosurgery candidates.

  5. Polymorphisms on IFNG, IL12B and IL12RB1 genes and paracoccidioidomycosis in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M C; Busser, F D; Freitas, V L T; Furucho, C R; Sadahiro, A; Kono, A S G; Criado, P R; Moretti, M L; Sato, P K; Shikanai-Yasuda, M A

    2016-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic chronic mycosis, endemic in Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the eighth leading cause of death among chronic and recurrent infectious diseases. PCM infection is characterized by the presence of Th1 immune response; the acute form, by a mixed Th2/Th9, while the chronic form is characterized by Th17/Th22 profiles. The occurrence and severity of human PCM may also be associated with genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on cytokines encoding genes. We investigated the association between these polymorphisms and the different clinical forms of PCM. We included 156 patients with PCM (40 with the acute form, 99 with the chronic multifocal and 17 with the chronic unifocal form) and assayed their DNA samples for IFNG +874 T/A SNP by PCR-ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutational System), IL12B +1188 A/C SNP on 3' UTR and IL12RB1 641 A/G SNP on exon 7 by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). We found similar genotypic and allelic frequencies of the investigated SNPs among the clinical forms of PCM. Considering male patients, the IL12RB1 641 AA genotype was more frequent in the chronic multifocal form while heterozygosis was in the chronic unifocal form of PCM (p=0.048). Although our data suggest that the AA genotype (IL12RB1) may be associated with the more disseminated chronic disease, more patients of the chronic unifocal PCM group need to be analyzed as well as the secretion patterns of IFN-γ combined with the IL-12Rβ1 expression for a better comprehension of this association. PMID:27223631

  6. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Masko, Elizabeth; Allott, Emma H.; Shuler, Kathryn; McPhail, Megan; Gaines, Alexis; Calloway, Elizabeth; Gerber, Leah; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Freedland, Stephen J.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR = 6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92) (p-interaction = 0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:22927849

  7. Antiferromagnetic transitions of osmium-containing rare earth double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect

    Hinatsu, Yukio Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto

    2013-10-15

    The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) have been prepared. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis show that Ln{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are structurally ordered at the M site of the perovskite BaMO{sub 3}. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements show that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 65–71 K. Magnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} moments occurs when the temperature is furthermore decreased. - Graphical abstract: The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) have been prepared. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 65–71 K. Measurements and analysis of the specific heat for Ba{sub 2}PrOsO{sub 6} show that magnetic ordering of the Pr{sup 3+} moments should have occurred at ∼20 K. Display Omitted.

  8. Hydroxide-free cubane-shaped tetranuclear [Ln4] complexes.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-04-01

    The reaction of the lanthanide(III) chloride salts [Gd(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III)] with a new chelating, flexible, and sterically unencumbered multisite coordinating compartmental Schiff-base ligand (E)-2-((6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-2-yl)methyleneamino)phenol (LH2) and pivalic acid (PivH) in the presence of triethylamine (Et3N) affords a series of tetranuclear Ln(III) coordination compounds, [Ln4(L)4(μ2-η(1)η(1)Piv)4]·xH2O·yCH3OH (1, Ln = Gd(III), x = 3, y = 6; 2, Ln = Tb(III), x = 6, y = 2; 3, Ln = Dy(III), x = 4, y = 6). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the molecular structure contains a distorted cubane-like [Ln4(μ3-OR)4](+8) core, which is formed by the concerted coordination action of four dianionic L(2-) Schiff-base ligands. Each lanthanide ion is eight-coordinated (2N, 6O) to form a distorted-triangular dodecahedral geometry. Alternating current susceptibility measurements of complex 3 reveal frequency- and temperature-dependent two-step out-of-phase signals under zero direct current (dc) field, which is characteristic of single-molecule magnet behavior. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic data under an applied dc field of 1000 Oe to fully or partly suppress the quantum tunneling of magnetization relaxation process affords the anisotropic barriers and pre-exponential factors: Δ/kB = 73(2) K, τ0 = 4.4 × 10(-8) s; Δ/kB = 47.2(9) K, τ0 = 5.0 × 10(-7) s for the slow and fast relaxations, respectively. PMID:24673300

  9. [Systemic treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Conforti, R; Bonneterre, J; Bachelot, T; Le Rhun, E; Bernard-Marty, C

    2015-02-01

    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been observed over the last years, mainly because the recent development of new drugs including therapies targeting HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) resulted in an increased survival of these patients. With HER2+ patients living longer and the well-known neurotropism of HER2+ tumour cells, the resulting high incidence of brain metastases is not really surprising. Moreover, brain metastases more often occur within a context of existing extracranial metastases. These need to be treated at the same time in order to favourably impact patients' survival. Consequently, the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases clearly relies on a multidisciplinary approach, including systemic treatment. A working group including neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and oncologists was created in order to provide French national guidelines for the management of brain metastases within the "Association des neuro-oncologues d'expression française" (ANOCEF). The recommendations regarding the systemic treatment in breast cancer patients are reported here including key features of their management. PMID:25662600

  10. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months. PMID:25118474

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of 12L-perovskites Ba{sub 4}LnIr{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=lanthanides)

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2009-10-15

    New quadruple perovskite oxides Ba{sub 4}LnIr{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ln=lanthanides) were prepared and their magnetic properties were investigated. They crystallize in the monoclinic 12L-perovskite-type structure with space group C2/m. The Ir{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimers and LnO{sub 6} octahedra are alternately linked by corner-sharing and form the perovskite-type structure with 12 layers. The Ln and Ir ions are both in the tetravalent state for Ln=Ce, Pr, and Tb compounds (Ba{sub 4}Ln{sup 4+}Ir{sub 3}{sup 4+}O{sub 12}), and for other compounds (Ln=La, Nd, Sm-Gd, Dy-Lu), Ln ions are in the trivalent state and the mean oxidation state of Ir ions is +4.33(Ba{sub 4}Ln{sup 3+}Ir{sub 3}{sup 4+.33}O{sub 12}). An antiferromagnetic transition has been observed for Ln=Ce, Pr, and Tb compounds at 10.5, 35, and 16 K, respectively, while the other compounds are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. - Graphical abstract: New quadruple perovskite oxides Ba{sub 4}LnIr{sub 3}O{sub 12} were prepared and they form the perovskite-type structure with 12 layers, in which Ir{sub 3}O{sub 12} trimers and LnO{sub 6} octahedra are alternately linked by corner-sharing. For Ln=Ce, Pr, and Tb compounds, an antiferromagnetic transition was observed at 10.5, 35, and 16 K, respectively.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ultrafine Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Sm, Gd, Dy, Er) pyrochlore oxides by stearic acid method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weiguang; Zhang Lili; Zhong Hui; Lu Lude; Yang Xujie; Wang Xin

    2010-02-15

    Stearic acid method (SAM) was developed to synthesize series of pyrochlore Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Sm, Gd, Dy, Er) nanocrystals. The synthesis process was monitored by X-ray diffraction, Thermal-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis and Fourier Transform InfraRed methods. Comparing with traditional solid-state reaction (SSR), Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} can be synthesized at relatively low temperature (700-800 deg. C) with shortened reaction time (2-4 h). The average particle size of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was greatly reduced (ca. 40 nm) and the BET surface area was increased (ca. 12 m{sup 2}/g) by using SAM. From the X-ray diffraction patterns, we found that Ln has an effect on the crystal structure of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, every lattice peak shifted to larger angle slightly with the increasing atomic number of Ln. Also, the lattice constant of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was calculated by Jade.5 and found it decreased along with the decrease of ionic radius of Ln{sup 3+}. The morphology of obtained Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was determined by transmission electron microscopy technique. Results showed that the obtained Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} were all square-like and the interplanar distance of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Sm, Gd, Dy, Er) according to (111) plane was 0.65, 0.64, 0.63, and 0.62 nm respectively, which was measured from High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images. Possible reason for this phenomenon was presented.

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of LnMnSbO ( Ln=La and Ce)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Qiang; Kumar, C. M. N.; Tian, Wei; Dennis, Kevin W.; Goldman, Alan I.; Vaknin, David

    2016-03-11

    Here, a neutron powder diffraction (NPD) study of LnMnSbO (Ln = La or Ce) reveals differences between the magnetic ground state of the two compounds due to the strong Ce-Mn coupling compared to La-Mn. The two compounds adopt the P4/nmm space group down to 2 K, and whereas magnetization measurements do not show obvious anomaly at high temperatures, NPD reveals a C-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) order below TN = 255K for LaMnSbO and 240 K for CeMnSbO. While the magnetic structure of LaMnSbO is preserved to base temperature, a sharp transition at TSR = 4.5K is observed in CeMnSbO due tomore » a spin-reorientation (SR) transition of the Mn2+ magnetic moments from pointing along the c axis to the ab plane. The SR transition in CeMnSbO is accompanied by a simultaneous long-range AFM ordering of the Ce moments, which indicates that the Mn SR transition is driven by the Ce-Mn coupling. The ordered moments are found to be somewhat smaller than those expected for Mn2+ (S = 5/2) in insulators, but large enough to suggest that these compounds belong to the class of local-moment antiferromagnets. The lower TN found in these two compounds compared to the As-based counterparts (TN = 317 for LaMnAsO, TN = 347K for CeMnAsO) indicates that the Mn-Pn (Pn=As or Sb) hybridization that mediates the superexchange Mn-Pn-Mn coupling is weaker for the Sb-based compounds.« less

  14. Magnetism in Ln MnSbO (Ln = La or Ce)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Naveen, Kumar Chogondahalli M.; Dennis, Kevin; Goldman, Alan; Vaknin, David

    Neutron diffraction of polycrystalline (PND) LnMnSbO (Ln = La or Ce) reveals differences between the magnetic ground state of the two compounds due to the strong Ce-Mn coupling compared to La-Mn. The two compounds adopt the P4/nmm space group down to 1.5 K and whereas magnetization measurements do not show any anomaly at high temperatures, PND reveals a C-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) order below TN = 255 K for LaMnSbO and 240 K for CeMnSbO. While the magnetic structure of LaMnSbO is preserved to base temperature, a sharp transition at TSR = 5 K in CeMnSbO due to a spin-reorientation (SR) transition of the Mn2+ from pointing along the c-axis to the ab-plane is found. The SR transition in CeMnSbO is accompanied by a simultaneous long-range AFM ordering of the Ce moments. This indicates that the Mn SR transition is driven by the Ce-Mn coupling similar to recent observation in the isostructural CeMnAsO. The ordered moments are found to be somewhat smaller than those expected for Mn2+ (S = 5/2) in insulators, but large enough to suggest that these compounds belong to the class of local-moment antiferromagnets. The lower TN found in this compound compared to the As-based counterpart (TN = 347K for CeMnAsO) indicates that the Mn-Pn (Pn = As or Sb) hybridization that mediates the exchange Mn-Mn coupling is weaker for the Sb-based compounds. Ames Laboratory is supported by U.S. DOE, BES, DMSE under contract # DE-AC02-07CH11358. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source is sponsored by U.S. DOE, BES, SUFD.

  15. Linear Dependence of Photoluminescence in Mixed Ln-MOFs for Color Tunability and Barcode Application.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Yuan; Pan, Mei; Wei, Shi-Chao; Li, Kang; Du, Bin-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-06-15

    Multicolored photoluminescence tuning in a single-phase material has invaluable potential in display and security applications. By deliberate design of a multifunctional antenna ligand and precise control of mixed metal ionic compositions in lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), we achieved dichromatic fine-tuning among red, green, or blue primary colors through growth of a series of isomorphous Ln-MOF crystals·solvents of formula [LnnLn'1-n(TTP)2·H2O]Cl3 (Ln = Ln' = Eu, Tb, and Gd, 1-3; Ln = Eu, Ln' = Tb, 4-8; Ln = Gd, Ln' = Eu, 9-11; Ln = Gd, Ln' = Tb, 12-14; 0 < n < 1; TTP = 1',1″-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris(methylene)tris(pyridine-4(1H)-one)). The linear dependence of the emissions were analyzed, and the mathematical matrix models were established, which are useful to control the synthetic conditions and to predict the color chromaticity coordinates under varied excitation wavelengths. The potential relevance of these multicolored photoluminescent Ln-MOFs to barcoded materials was demonstrated. PMID:25822084

  16. Updates in the management of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Arvold, Nils D; Lee, Eudocia Q; Mehta, Minesh P; Margolin, Kim; Alexander, Brian M; Lin, Nancy U; Anders, Carey K; Soffietti, Riccardo; Camidge, D Ross; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Dunn, Ian F; Wen, Patrick Y

    2016-08-01

    The clinical management/understanding of brain metastases (BM) has changed substantially in the last 5 years, with key advances and clinical trials highlighted in this review. Several of these changes stem from improvements in systemic therapy, which have led to better systemic control and longer overall patient survival, associated with increased time at risk for developing BM. Development of systemic therapies capable of preventing BM and controlling both intracranial and extracranial disease once BM are diagnosed is paramount. The increase in use of stereotactic radiosurgery alone for many patients with multiple BM is an outgrowth of the desire to employ treatments focused on local control while minimizing cognitive effects associated with whole brain radiotherapy. Complications from BM and their treatment must be considered in comprehensive patient management, especially with greater awareness that the majority of patients do not die from their BM. Being aware of significant heterogeneity in prognosis and therapeutic options for patients with BM is crucial for appropriate management, with greater attention to developing individual patient treatment plans based on predicted outcomes; in this context, recent prognostic models of survival have been extensively revised to incorporate molecular markers unique to different primary cancers. PMID:27382120

  17. Irreversible Electroporation for Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Hester J; Melenhorst, Marleen C A M; Echenique, Ana M; Nielsen, Karin; van Tilborg, Aukje A J M; van den Bos, Willemien; Vroomen, Laurien G P H; van den Tol, Petrousjka M P; Meijerink, Martijn R

    2015-09-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation techniques have significantly broadened the treatment possibilities for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. A new ablation technique, irreversible electroporation (IRE), was recently added to the treatment armamentarium. As opposed to thermal ablation, cell death with IRE is primarily induced using electrical energy: electrical pulses disrupt the cellular membrane integrity, resulting in cell death while sparing the extracellular matrix of sensitive structures such as the bile ducts, blood vessels, and bowel wall. The preservation of these structures makes IRE attractive for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) that are unsuitable for resection and thermal ablation owing to their anatomical location. This review discusses different technical and practical issues of IRE for CRLM: the indications, patient preparations, procedural steps, and different "tricks of the trade" used to improve safety and efficacy of IRE. Imaging characteristics and early efficacy results are presented. Much is still unknown about the exact mechanism of cell death and about factors playing a crucial role in the extent of cell death. At this time, IRE for CRLM should only be reserved for small tumors that are truly unsuitable for resection or thermal ablation because of abutment of the portal triad or the venous pedicles. PMID:26365546

  18. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Yoshihiro Satou, Tatsuya; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2013-10-15

    The synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) were investigated. The LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compounds crystallize in the dolomite-type structure with space group R3{sup ¯}, in which the Ln and Cr ions occupy two octahedral sites. From the result of structural analysis, it was found that there is an anti-site disorder between these two sites and its chemical formula is more exactly Ln{sub 1−r}Cr{sub r}[Cr{sub 1−r}Ln{sub r}](BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. On the other hand, the LnSc(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} adopt the calcite-type structure with space group R3{sup ¯}c. The Ln and Sc ions randomly occupy an octahedral site and the chemical formula is represented as (Ln{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})BO{sub 3}. From the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, we found that all the LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show an antiferromagnetic transition at 6.1–8.1 K. This transition is mainly due to the ordering of Cr{sup 3+} magnetic moments. Among the compounds with magnetic Ln{sup 3+} ions, only YbCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} ion at 2.1 K. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) have the dolomite-type (Ln=Cr) and calcite-type (Ln=Sc) structures. Both structures are similar to each other except for the difference in the partially or fully disordered arrangements of octahedral sites. At low temperatures, the LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compounds show an antiferromagnetic transition due to a long-range ordering of Cr{sup 3+} moments. Among them only YbCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows an antiferromagnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} ion at 2.1 K. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide containing borates LnM(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Ho–Lu; M=Sc, Cr) have been synthesized. • LnCr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} has the dolomite-type structure with an anti-site disorder between Ln and Cr sites. • LnSc(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} has the calcite

  19. Morphology-controllable synthesis of LaOF:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb) crystals with multicolor luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiqing; Yu, Guihong; Liang, Yimai; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Yali; Gan, Shucai

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, well defined LaOF crystals with multiform morphologies were first prepared via the urea-based precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. The morphologies of the LaOF samples, including nanospheres and nanorods, can be easily modulated by changing the fluorine sources. XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, and emission spectra were used to characterize the prepared samples. Under ultraviolet excitation, the LaOF:Ln(3+) nanospheres display the characteristic f-f transitions of Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb) ions and give bright red, and green emissions, respectively. Furthermore, by codoping the Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) ions into LaOF host and varying the doping concentration of the Eu(3+) ions, multicolor tunable emissions have been obtained under the irradiation of 379nm. These results show this material may have potential applications in field-emission displays. PMID:26343980

  20. Flux growth and grey colouration characteristics in KTiOPO4:Ln (Ln= Yb, Nd, Ho, Er, La)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Single crystals of KTiOPO4:Ln (Ln=Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and La) were successfully grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method using potassium polyphosphate as a flux. A series of rare earth metal (Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and La) doped KTP crystals was subjected to high electric field and hydrogen annealing treatment at 973 K temperature. The vital role of alkali ionic conduction and Ti3+ in colouration of KTP has been studied by permittivity and ac conductivity studies. The hydrogen anneal- and UV bleach-induced grey colouration was studied by absorption and transmittance characteristics. The structural changes induced by grey tracking on KTP:Ln were studied by Raman shift analysis. The oxygen vacancies or Ti3+ centres were created by various treatments and the degree of colouration in the crystal was evaluated. The mechanisms of colouration in the crystal and resistance behaviour of grey colouration by lanthanide doping were studied.

  1. RE-EVALUATING WASP-12b: STRONG EMISSION AT 2.315 {mu}m, DEEPER OCCULTATIONS, AND AN ISOTHERMAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Tanaka, Ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2012-12-01

    We revisit the atmospheric properties of the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b in light of several new developments. First, we present new narrowband (2.315 {mu}m) secondary eclipse photometry, which exhibits a planet/star flux ratio of 0.45% {+-} 0.06%, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 3640 {+-} 230 K; second, recent Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations; and third, a recently observed star only 1'' from WASP-12, which has diluted previous observations and which we further characterize here. We correct past WASP-12b eclipse measurements for the presence of this object, and we revisit the interpretation of WASP-12b's dilution-corrected emission spectrum. The resulting planetary emission spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody, and consequently our primary conclusion is that the planet's infrared photosphere is nearly isothermal. Thus, secondary eclipse spectroscopy is relatively ill suited to constrain WASP-12b's atmospheric abundances, and transmission spectroscopy may be necessary to achieve this goal.

  2. 17 CFR 249.210 - Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form 10 and Form 10-SB, general form for registration of securities pursuant to section 12 (b) or (g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. 249.210 Section 249.210 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE...

  3. Experimental study of the {sup 11,12}B(n,gamma) reactions and their influence on r-process nucleosynthesis of light elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm , K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Goodman, N. J.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Otsuki, K.; Patel, N.; Beard, M.; Notani, M.; Tang, X. D.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; GSI; Colorado School of Mines; Univ. of Notre Dame

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the neutron-transfer reactions {sup 11,12}B(d,p){sup 12,13}B in inverse kinematics to obtain information about the neutron-capture reactions {sup 11,12}B(n,{gamma}). These capture reactions are suggested to play a role in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis through the production of light, neutron-rich nuclei. The neutron spectroscopic factors of the states in {sup 12,13}B were deduced and the branching ratio of the neutron-unbound state at E{sub X} = 3.389 MeV in {sup 12}B was obtained to provide the ratio of partial widths, {Lambda}{sub n}/{Lambda}{sub {gamma}}. The reaction rates for {sup 11,12}B(n,{gamma}) are estimated for direct captures and resonant captures and compared with previous compilations. The astrophysical implications, especially for neutrino-driven wind models in core-collapse supernovae, are discussed in the r-process network framework using our updated reaction rates.

  4. Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outb...

  5. Identification of phosphorylated MYL12B as a potential plasma biomarker for septic acute kidney injury using a quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Dong, Xiu-Juan; Li, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Qiu-Lin; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and increasingly encountered complication in hospitalized patients with critical illness in intensive care units (ICU). According to the etiology, Sepsis-induced AKI (SAKI) is a leading contributor to AKI and significantly has very poor prognosis, which might be related to the late detection when the elevation of BUN and serum creatinine (SCr) is used. Many genes are up-regulated in the damaged kidney with the corresponding protein products appearing in plasma and urine. Some of these are candidate biomarkers for more timely diagnosis of SAKI. Therefore, extensive research efforts over this past decade have been directed at the discovery and validation of novel SAKI biomarkers to detect injury prior to changes in kidney function, a number of serum and urinary proteins, including NGAL, KIM-1, cystatin-C, IL-18, and L-FABP, have been identified for predicting SAKI before a rise in BUN and serum creatinine in several experimental and clinical trainings. Unfortunately, an ideal biomarker of SAKI with highly sensitivity and specificity has not been identified yet. Recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to discover biomarkers for SAKI. In the present study, kidney tissue samples from SAKI mice were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 4 up-regulated proteins, which were actin (ACTB), myosin regulatory light chain 12B (MYL12B), myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9), and myosin regulatory light chain 12A (MYL12A) were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Among all the varied proteins, MYL12B was validated by western blot. Interestingly, there was no change between the SAKI and control kidney tissues, however, phosphorylated MYL12B was detected to be consistent with the proteomics data. Furthermore, phosphorylated MYL12B was found similarly to be increased in SAKI plasma

  6. Identification of phosphorylated MYL12B as a potential plasma biomarker for septic acute kidney injury using a quantitative proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Dong, Xiu-Juan; Li, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Qiu-Lin; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and increasingly encountered complication in hospitalized patients with critical illness in intensive care units (ICU). According to the etiology, Sepsis-induced AKI (SAKI) is a leading contributor to AKI and significantly has very poor prognosis, which might be related to the late detection when the elevation of BUN and serum creatinine (SCr) is used. Many genes are up-regulated in the damaged kidney with the corresponding protein products appearing in plasma and urine. Some of these are candidate biomarkers for more timely diagnosis of SAKI. Therefore, extensive research efforts over this past decade have been directed at the discovery and validation of novel SAKI biomarkers to detect injury prior to changes in kidney function, a number of serum and urinary proteins, including NGAL, KIM-1, cystatin-C, IL-18, and L-FABP, have been identified for predicting SAKI before a rise in BUN and serum creatinine in several experimental and clinical trainings. Unfortunately, an ideal biomarker of SAKI with highly sensitivity and specificity has not been identified yet. Recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to discover biomarkers for SAKI. In the present study, kidney tissue samples from SAKI mice were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 4 up-regulated proteins, which were actin (ACTB), myosin regulatory light chain 12B (MYL12B), myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9), and myosin regulatory light chain 12A (MYL12A) were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Among all the varied proteins, MYL12B was validated by western blot. Interestingly, there was no change between the SAKI and control kidney tissues, however, phosphorylated MYL12B was detected to be consistent with the proteomics data. Furthermore, phosphorylated MYL12B was found similarly to be increased in SAKI plasma

  7. The evolution of surgery in the management of neck metastases

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S; Chiesa, F; Lyubaev, V; Aidarbekova, A; Brzhezovskiy, V

    2006-01-01

    Summary In spite of advancement in science, molecular medicine and target therapies, surgical treatment of metastases using different techniques, from selective neck dissection to extended radical neck dissections, form a major part in the management of neck metastases. This is due to the fact that, so far, there is no treatment more effective for resectable neck metastases, than surgery. Since most head and neck cancer patients die due to loco-regional progression of disease, and a very large majority of them do not live long enough to develop distant metastases, the status of neck lymph nodes remains the single most important prognostic factor, in these cases. In the 100 years since George Washington Crile described Radical Neck Dissection, we now have a much better understanding of the biological and clinical behaviour of neck metastases. This has ultimately led to the conservative approaches of selective neck dissections depending on the primary site of the tumour, type of tumour and the characteristic features of the metastases themselves. A search of the literature on neck lymph nodes and neck dissections, on the internet and in old publications, not available in the electronic media, has been carried out. Using this as the basis, we arranged, in sequence, the dates of various landmarks in the treatment of head and neck cancer related to neck dissections to emphasize the overall process of evolution of neck dissection thereby showing how the field of head and neck surgery has travelled a long way from radical neck dissection to its modifications and further to selective neck dissections and sentinel node biopsies. The present understanding of the patterns of neck metastases enables us not only to adequately treat the neck metastases, but also to diagnose metastases from unknown primaries. Therefore, depending on the site of the primary tumour, it is now easy to predict the most probable route of metastatic spread and vice versa. This has enabled us to adopt

  8. Study on optical properties of rare-earth ions in nanocrystalline monoclinic SrAl2O4: Ln (Ln = Ce3+, Pr3+, Tb3+).

    PubMed

    Fu, Zuoling; Zhou, Shihong; Zhang, Siyuan

    2005-08-01

    SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) nanocrystals have been synthesized by the combustion method. The results of XRD indicated that the resulting SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) nanocrystals have a reduced and distorted monoclinic lattice compared with bulk materials. The spectral properties are measured, and it is found that the excitation peaks of 5d energy levels red shift in nanocrystals in contrast to that in bulk crystals. The mechanism of spectra and energy changes is investigated. The order of the degree of red shift for nano SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) crystals is Pr(3+) > Ce(3+) > Tb(3+), which is in good agreement with our predicted results. PMID:16852811

  9. PYRROLO[1,2-b][1,2,5]BENZOTHIADIAZEPINES (PBTDs) induce apoptosis in K562 cells

    PubMed Central

    Marfe, Gabriella; Di Stefano, Carla; Silvestri, Romano; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Catalano, Gianfranco; Di Renzo, Livia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Giorda, Ezio; La Regina, Giuseppe; Morgante, Emanuela; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Amadori, Sergio; Sinibaldi-Salimei, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of induced cell death (apoptosis) by PYRROLO [1,2-b][1,2,5]BENZOTHIADIAZEPINES (PBTDs) series compounds, using human (K562) cells as a model. Methods We focused our attention on some members of the PBTDs family to test their potential apoptotic activity in K562 cells. Important apoptotic activity was demonstrated, as evidenced by the concentration and percentage of cell death quantified by measuring PI-uptake by flow cytometry, and DNA fragmentation analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, generating a characteristic ladder pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments. The expression of Bcl-2 family was tested using western blotting and transfection method. Results PBTDs-mediated suppression of K562 cell proliferation was induced by apoptosis characterized by the appearance of DNA fragmentation and was associated with the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage. PBTD-1 and -3 treatment resulted in caspase-3 activation through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Furthermore, we used K562/vector and K562/bcl-2 cells, which were generated by transfection of the cDNA of the Bcl-2 gene. As compared with K562/vector, K562/Bcl-2 cells exhibited a 4-fold greater expression of Bcl-2. Treatment with 10 μM PBTD-1 and -3 for 24 h produced morphological features of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in K562/vector cells, respectively. In contrast, PBTD-1 and -3-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis were inhibited in K562/Bcl-2. Furthermore, Bcl-2 overexpressing cells exhibited less cytocrome c release during PBTDs-induced apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicate that PBTDs effectively induce apoptosis of K562 leukemia cells through the activation of caspase cascades. In addition, these findings indicate that Bcl-2 inhibits PBTD-1 and -3 induced-apoptosis via a mechanism that interferes with cytocrome c release, and the activity of caspase-3, which is involved in the execution of apoptosis. PMID:17996085

  10. Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Nanorod Bundle Ln4O(OH)9NO3:Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) Prepared by Hydrothermal Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Liu, Xiaoguang; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Well-crystallized nanorod bundles Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase, size and optical properties were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), infrared (IR) spectrograph and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. Site occupations of Eu3+ in crystals Ln4O(OH)9NO3:Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) were discussed based on excitation spectra and the empirical relationship formula between the charge transfer (CT) energy and the environmental factor. The emission spectra exhibited that the strongest emission peaks with an excitation wavelength of 395 nm were at 617 and 626 nm in crystal Lu4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu and Y4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu, respectively, both of which come from 5D0-7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ions. The broad excitation peaks at about 254 and 255 nm were found when monitored at 617 and 628 nm in crystal Lu4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu and Y4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu, respectively, which were due to O-Eu CT transition. Based on the dielectric theory of complex crystal, the CT bands at about 254 and 255 nm in Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu) were assigned to the transition of O-Eu at Ln3(Ln = Y, Lu) site, from which we can conclude that Eu3+ ions occupied the site of Ln3(Ln = Y, Lu) in crystal Ln4O(OH)9NO3:1%Eu(Ln = Y, Lu). It put forward a new route to investigate site occupation of luminescent center ions in rare earth doped complex inorganic luminescence materials. PMID:26373076

  11. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland. PMID:26959528

  12. Structures and magnetic properties of new fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=Eu-Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space groups C2221 and Cmcm, respectively. The results of the Rietveld analysis for LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) indicate that there exists no structural ordering of the Ln and Y ions at the eight-coordinate 4b site and the seven-coordinate 8c site, but the larger Ln ions occupy the eight-coordinate 4b site rather than the seven-coordinate 8c site, with increasing the Ln ionic radius. On the other hand, the results of the Rietveld analysis for the X-ray diffraction profiles of LaTb2RuO7 showed that La and Tb atoms are almost situated at the eight-coordinated site (4a site) and seven-coordinated site (8g site), respectively, i.e., cation ordering occurs on the 4a and 8g sites. All compounds LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. On the other hand, LaTb2RuO7 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 17 K. In addition, another magnetic anomaly has been found at 10 K. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat for LaTb2RuO7 indicates that the magnetic transitions at 10 and 17 K are due to the magnetic ordering of Tb3+ and Ru5+ ions, respectively.

  13. Crystal Growth, Structure, and Physical Properties of LnCu[subscript 2](Al,Si)[subscript 5] (Ln = La and Ce)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, W. Adam; Kangas, Michael J.; Drake, Brenton L.; Zhao, Liang L.; Wang, Jiakui K.; DiTusa, J.F.; Morosan, Emilia; Chan, Julia Y.

    2012-03-15

    LnCu{sub 2}(Al,Si){sub 5} (Ln = La and Ce) were synthesized and characterized. These compounds adopt the SrAu{sub 2}Ga{sub 5} structure type and crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mmm with unit cell dimensions of a {approx} 4.2 {angstrom} and c {approx} 7.9 {angstrom}. Herein, we report the structure as obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. Additionally, we report the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, resistivity, and specific heat capacity data obtained for polycrystalline samples of LnCu{sub 2}(Al,Si){sub 5} (Ln = La and Ce).

  14. Magnetic and structural properties of NaLnMnWO{sub 6} and NaLnMgWO{sub 6} perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    King, Graham; Wayman, Lora M.; Woodward, Patrick M.

    2009-06-15

    We have prepared 14 new AA'BB'O{sub 6} perovskites which possess a rock salt ordering of the B-site cations and a layered ordering of the A-site cations. The compositions obtained are NaLnMnWO{sub 6} (Ln=Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, and Ho) and NaLnMgWO{sub 6} (Ln=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho). The samples were structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction which has revealed metrically tetragonal lattice parameters for compositions with Ln=Ce, Pr and monoclinic symmetry for compositions with smaller lanthanides. Magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature measurements have found that all six NaLnMnWO{sub 6} compounds undergo antiferromagnetic ordering at temperatures between 10 and 13 K. Several compounds show signs of a second magnetic phase transition. One sample, NaPrMnWO{sub 6}, appears to pass through at least three magnetic phase transitions within a narrow temperature range. All eight NaLnMgWO{sub 6} compounds remain paramagnetic down to 2 K revealing that the ordering of the Ln{sup 3+} cations in the NaLnMnWO{sub 6} compounds is induced by the ordering of the Mn{sup 2+} sub-lattice. - Graphical abstract: Evidence for multiple magnetic phase transitions in the A and B-site ordered perovskite NaPrMnWO{sub 6}.

  15. The crystal structure and luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ in KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Y, Lu, Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camardello, S. J.; Her, J. H.; Toscano, P. J.; Srivastava, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The structure of KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Lu, Gd] was solved by Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data. The materials crystallize with the mineral Buetschliite [K2Ca(CO3)2] structure. The lattice parameters of KBaLn3+(BO3)2 [Ln3+ = Sc, Lu, Gd] increased with increasing ionic radius of the Ln3+ cation. In this structure, the Ln3+ cations are octahedrally coordinated. The phase formation region is dependent on the ionic radii of the Ln3+ cation. The optical properties of Ce3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ and their dependence on the host lattice composition are investigated and discussed. It is noteworthy that the optical properties of these ions are independent of the Ln3+ cation in KBaLn3+(BO3)2. It is concluded that in this family of materials, the crystalline field strength and the covalence at the rare earth site is independent of the host lattice composition.

  16. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides were converted to [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS{sub 4} unit. In 1−3, the AsS{sub 4} units interconnect the [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} cations via Ln−S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln1). In 4−6, the AsS{sub 4} units coordinate with the Ln{sup 3+} ion of [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} as 1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln2). The Ln{sup 3+} ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln{sup 3+} ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1−6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4}{sup 3–} ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. • The soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4} ligand coordinate Ln{sup 3+} ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. • Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. • The Ln-thioarsenates are potential semiconductors

  17. [ANOCEF guidelines for the management of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Dhermain, F; Noël, G; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Mandonnet, E; Taillibert, S; Metellus, P

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of brain metastases is increasing because of the use of new therapeutic agents, which allow an improvement of overall survival, but with only a poor penetration into the central nervous system brain barriers. The management of brain metastases has changed due to a better knowledge of immunohistochemical data and molecular biological data, the development of new surgical, radiotherapeutic approaches and improvement of systemic treatments. Most of the time, the prognosis is still limited to several months, nevertheless, prolonged survival may be now observed in some sub-groups of patients. The main prognostic factors include the type and subtype of the primitive, age, general status of the patient, number and location of brain metastases, extracerebral disease. The multidisciplinary discussion should take into account all of these parameters. We should notice also that treatments including surgery or radiotherapy may be proposed in a symptomatic goal in advanced phases of the disease underlying the multidisciplinary approach until late in the evolution of the disease. This article reports on the ANOCEF (French neuro-oncology association) guidelines. The management of brain metastases of breast cancers and lung cancers are discussed in the same chapter, while the management of melanoma brain metastases is reported in a separate chapter due to different responses to the brain radiotherapy. PMID:25666314

  18. Inferring the Origin of Metastases from Cancer Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Woo Suk; Shpak, Max; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Determining the evolutionary history of metastases is a key problem in cancer biology. Several recent studies have presented inferences regarding the origin of metastases based on phylogenies of cancer lineages. Many of these studies have concluded that the observed monophyly of metastatic subclones favored metastasis-to-metastasis spread ("a metastatic cascade" rather than parallel metastases from the primary tumor). In this article, we argue that identifying a monophyletic clade of metastatic subclones does not provide sufficient evidence to unequivocally establish a history of metastatic cascades. In the absence of a complete phylogeny of the subclones within the primary tumor, a scenario of parallel metastatic events from the primary tumor is an equally plausible interpretation. Future phylogenetic studies on the origin of metastases should obtain a complete phylogeny of subclones within the primary tumor. This complete phylogeny may be obtainable by ultra-deep sequencing and phasing of large sections or by targeted sequencing of many small, spatially heterogeneous sections, followed by phylogenetic reconstruction using well-established molecular evolutionary models. In addition to resolving the evolutionary history of metastases, a complete phylogeny of subclones within the primary tumor facilitates the identification of driver mutations by application of phylogeny-based tests of natural selection. PMID:26260528

  19. [Treatment strategy for advanced prostate cancer with bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki

    2006-08-01

    The introduction of PSA screening has led to confirming a shift towards an earlier pathological stage in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Consequently, the proportion of detecting early stage prostate cancer has clearly been increasing. On the other hand, progressive cancers in the form of distant metastases and locally advanced ones that have been confirmed at the initial diagnosis exhibit a constant rate. In addition, there have been a lot of cases where hormonal resistance was acquired during hormonal therapy which resulted in advanced metastases of the prostate. Prostate cancer has a tendency to be metastatic to bones. Combining the fact that the survival period of patients undergoing treatment is prolonged after metastases, the length of suffering caused by complications, such as ostealgia, pathological fracture and myelopathy, becomes an issue in which QOL and ADL of the patient are sacrificed for a long time. As for treatment of prostate cancer with metastases, a palliative treatment is common in the clinical scene. However, we can extend a life prognosis with use of radiotherapy and surgical treatment in addition to the palliative treatment at an appropriate time. It appears that a combination of new chemotherapy and hormonal therapy will be promising. In the future, we believe that the appearance of new anticancer drugs, endocrine therapies, bisphosphonates and strontium treatment could be used as a part of the treatment strategy for prostate cancer with bone metastases. PMID:16912523

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carla, Ripamonti; Fabio, Trippa; Gloria, Barone; Ernesto, Maranzano

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression). Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26237068

  1. Brain metastases from cervical carcinoma: overview of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastasis from cervical carcinoma is rare with only about 100 cases documented in the literature and an incidence among cervical carcinoma patients of 0.6%. The median interval between diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and brain metastases is 18 months. The brain can be the only site of distant metastasis of cervical carcinoma ("isolated brain metastases") (46.8%) or brain metastasis can be part of a disseminated cervical carcinoma involving also other sites of the body (53.2%). Brain metastasis of cervical carcinoma affects most often the cerebrum (73%) and can be either single (one metastasis) (50.6%) or multiple (> or = two metastases) (49.4%). Treatment of brain metastases has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone to multimodal therapy including surgical resection (craniotomy) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) followed by WBRT +/- chemotherapy. The median overall survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is four months; however, a better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy (craniotomy followed by WBRT) compared to craniotomy alone or WBRT alone. The worst survival is observed in patients with no treatment. Although based on a very small number of patients, the best survival is noticed in patients having SRS either alone or in combination with other treatment modality. PMID:23327047

  2. Staging lymph node metastases from lung cancer in the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Terán, Mario D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of tumor metastases in the mediastinum is one of the most important elements in determining the optimal treatment strategy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This review is aimed at examining the current strategies for investigating lymph node metastases corresponding to an “N2” classification delineated by The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Methods Extensive review of the existing scientific literature related to the investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastases was undertaken in order to summarize and report current best practices. Conclusions N2 disease is very heterogeneous requiring multiple modalities for thorough investigation. New research is now focusing on better identifying, defining, and classifying lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Molecular staging and sub-classifying mediastinal lymph node metastases are being actively researched in order to provide better prognostic value and to optimize treatment strategies. Non-invasive imaging, such as PET/CT and minimally invasive techniques such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy, are now the lead investigative methods in evaluating the mediastinum for metastatic presence. PMID:24624287

  3. Surgical Options for Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin Tiberiu

    2012-01-01

    Although the frontiers of liver resection for colorectal liver metastases have broadened in recent decades, approximately 75% of these patients present with unresectable metastases at the time of their diagnosis. In the past, these patients underwent only palliative treatment, without the chance of a cure. In the previous two decades, several therapeutic strategies have been developed that render resectable those metastases that were initially unresectable, thus offering the chance of long-term survival and even a cure to these patients. The oncosurgical modalities that are available include liver resection following portal vein ligation/embolization, “two-stage” liver resection, one-stage ultrasonically guided liver resection, hepatectomy following conversion chemotherapy, and liver resection combined with thermal ablation. Moreover, in recent years, certain authors have recommended the revisiting of the concept of liver transplantation in highly selected patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases and favorable prognostic factors. By employing such therapies, the number of patients with colorectal liver metastases who undergo a potentially curative treatment could increase to 40%. The safety profile of these approaches is acceptable (morbidity rates as high as 45%, mortality rates of less than 5%). Furthermore, the 5-year survival rates (approximately 30%) are significantly increased over those that were achieved with palliative treatment. PMID:23082042

  4. [Clinical value of testicular lymphangiography in diagnosis of retroperitoneal metastases].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, N; Matsuse, K; Okada, S; Ra, S; Ueda, H; Ogita, T

    1984-11-01

    Testicular lymphangiography was performed before retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in 20 patients with testicular tumor. The clinical value of testicular lymphangiography in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal metastases was evaluated retrospectively in comparison with the findings obtained by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. In 12 patients who had no metastasis in the primary lymph nodes of the testis, testicular lymphangiography showed the lymph vessels to be diverged into 2 to 6 vessels (mean: 3.5) at the level between L2 and L4, and 4 to 10 lymph nodes (mean: 6.2) at the level between L1 and L4 were filled with contrast medium. On the other hand, in 8 patients who had metastases in the primary lymph nodes, several abnormal findings were observed in both lymph vessels and nodes, i.e., discontinuity, extravasation of contrast medium, dilatation, displacement and reflux to the distal side in the lymph vessels, and decrease in number (less than 2), non-visualization, filling defect, displacement and contrastfilling in the contralateral side in lymph nodes. Three to 5 of these abnormal findings were usually found in each case. The extravasation of contrast medium was not a finding specific to cases with lymph node metastases, because it was also found in a few cases without metastases. Testicular lymphangiography is a valuable method to detect primary lymph node metastases from testicular tumor. However, the combination of testicular and foot lymphangiography is imperative to demonstrate wide spread lymph node involvement in the retroperitoneum. PMID:6528843

  5. Luminescent LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres for encapsulation of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Chunlei; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-10-01

    In this study, LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) hollow porous spheres, synthesized via self-sacrificing templated route, are developed for enzyme immobilization and protein adsorption. The four LuVO4 hollow spheres with diameter of 180 nm, 280 nm, 370 nm and 480 nm were obtained. The size of LuVO4 hollow sphere is dependent on Lu(OH)CO3 template. Upon excitation by UV light, hollow LuVO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Er) spheres exhibit red (Eu3+), orange (Sm3+), yellow-green (Dy3+), and green (Er3+) emissions. The good biocompatibility of sample is validated by MTT assay. Due to structure feature and size of obtained sample, the rapid encapsulation of biomolecules within samples has been achieved. Furthermore, the hollow spheres show different biomolecules adsorption capacities at different buffer solution pH values. The release behaviors of two kinds of biomolecules (lysozyme and bovine serum albumin) are also investigated. LuVO4 hollow spheres are suitable carriers for biomolecules. The emission intensity of Eu3+ in the LuVO4:Eu3+ varies with the released amount of LYZ. This enables the monitoring of release process by the change in the luminescence intensity.

  6. Pre-treatment factors associated with detecting additional brain metastases at stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wardak, Zabi; Augustyn, Alexander; Zhu, Hong; Mickey, Bruce E; Whitworth, Louis A; Madden, Christopher J; Barnett, Samuel L; Abdulrahman, Ramzi E; Nedzi, Lucien A; Timmerman, Robert D; Choe, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    The number of brain metastases identified on diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key factor in consideration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, additional lesions are often detected on high-resolution SRS-planning MRI. We investigated pre-treatment clinical characteristics that are associated with finding additional metastases at SRS. Patients treated with SRS for brain metastases between the years of 2009-2014 comprised the study cohort. All patients underwent frame-fixed, 1 mm thick MRI on the day of SRS. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed for an association with increase in number of metastases identified on SRS-planning MRI. 289 consecutive SRS cases were analyzed. 725 metastases were identified on pre-treatment MRI and 1062 metastases were identified on SRS-planning MRI. An increase in the number of metastases occurred in 34 % of the cases. On univariate analysis, more than four metastases and the diameter of the largest lesion were significantly associated with an increase in number of metastases on SRS-planning MRI. When stratified by the diameter of the largest lesion into <2, 2-3, or ≥3 cm, additional metastases were identified in 37, 29, and 18 %, respectively. While this increase in the number of metastases is largely due to the difference in imaging technique, the number and size of the metastases were also associated with finding additional lesions. These clinical factors may be considered when determining treatment options for brain metastases. PMID:26966096

  7. Snynthesis and magnetization of BaLn2O4 (Ln = lanthanide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Matthew

    The BaLn2O4 family has been synthesized successfully as single crystals by the flux-growth method. The phases crystallize in the CaV2O4 structure prototype in space group Pnma (# 62). The structure has been studied using single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and stoichiometry confirmed with EDS, and the unit cell parameters and atomic positions have been determined for the whole lanthanide series (with the exception of the Lu compound). The effects of the lanthanide ionic radius on the atomic positions in the unit cell has been studied in terms of fractional atomic coordinates, bond lengths and angles, and bond valence sums. Magnetic measurements have been performed on the series with the exception of the La, Eu, and Lu members in the form of susceptibility versus temperature. The crystals all show signs of geometric antiferromagnetic frustration with the Neel temperatures significantly below the temperature predicted by the Weiss constant. Additionally some members of the family, namely BaCe2O4, BaNd2O4, BaPr 2O4, BaSm2O4, BaTb2O 4, and BaYb2O4 show significant crystal field splitting, that causes deviation from Currie-Weiss behavior.

  8. Synthesis and magnetic properties of rare earth ruthenates, Ln{sub 5}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathy, M.; Gemmill, W.R.; Fox, A.H.; Darriet, J.; Smith, M.D.; Hadermann, J.; Remy, M.S.; Loye, H.-C. zur

    2009-05-15

    Single crystals of Ln{sub 5}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tb) were grown out of either NaOH or KOH fluxes in sealed silver tubes. The crystals of all the phases were observed to be twinned as confirmed by TEM studies. The series crystallize in the C2/m monoclinic system with lattice parameters, a=12.4049(4)-12.7621(6) A, b=5.8414(2)-5.9488(3) A, c=7.3489(2)-7.6424(4) A, beta=107.425(3)-107.432(2){sup o} and Z=2. The crystal structure is isotypic with the defect/disorder model of Ln{sub 5}Re{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ln = Y, Gd) and consists of one dimensional edge shared RuO{sub 6} octahedral chains separated by a two dimensional LnO{sub x} polyhedral framework. Magnetic measurements indicate paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic behavior for Ln=Nd, Sm-Gd and Ln=Tb, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of Ln{sub 5}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tb) were grown out of NaOH/KOH fluxes in sealed silver tubes. The crystal structure consists of one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing RuO{sub 6} octahedral pairs along the b axis, separated by a two dimensional LnO{sub x} polyhedral framework. Each RuO{sub 6} octahedral pair is separated alternately by Ln atoms and its disordered component, observed as stacking faults in the HRTEM images.

  9. Cerebral metastases from epithelial ovarian carcinoma treated with carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K G; Kitchener, H C; Parkin, D E

    1994-11-01

    We describe three women with cerebral metastases who presented following treatment for ovarian cancer. In all three cases the primary tumor underwent complete remission following cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Cerebral metastases occurred at 18, 19, and 25 months following initial diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. These cerebral lesions were treated with carboplatin 400 mg/m2 as a single agent. In one case total resolution of a single cerebral metastasis was achieved. In the other two women a significant reduction in tumor mass occurred and one of these responded to repeat treatment on two occasions. Survival times from diagnosis of the cerebral lesions were 11, 16, and 25 months. The treatment afforded rapid subjective and objective relief, significantly improved survival times, and was associated with good quality of life. Carboplatin should be considered for the treatment of cerebral metastases for ovarian cancer. PMID:7959302

  10. [Complex treatment of breast cancer patients with brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S V; Tkachev, S I; Moskvina, E A; Mikhina, Z P; Naskhletashvili, D R; Bulychkin, P V; Romanov, D S; Trofimova, O P; Berdnik, A V; Bykova, Yu B; Gutnik, R A; Yazhgunovich, I P; Fedoseenko, D I

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases in breast cancer develop for 24-32 months after the detection of the primary tumor. The study included patients with brain metastases who were divided into three groups: the first group--with early chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without induction chemotherapy (IC) by capecitabine; the second group--with delayed CRT with 4 or 8 courses of IC by capecitabine; the third group (a historical control) who received only whole brain radiation therapy. The median time to progression of intracranial metastases was 15.3, 12 and 5 months, respectively. The median time to the intracranial progression significantly less in the third group (5 months) compared with the first (15.3 months) (p = 0.0007) and the second (12 months) (p = 0.027) groups. The overall survival rate was 22.1, 15.1 and 6.8 months in three groups, respectively. PMID:26995988

  11. Radiographic features of osseous metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Kaiser, L.R.; Gold, R.H.; Fon, G.T.

    1982-04-01

    In contrast to most other neoplastic processes of bone, in our study osseous metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) were more reliably detected by radiography than by scintigraphy. The radiographic manifestations of 65 skeletal metastases in 23 patients with STS were reveiwed. Although most metastases (88%) were osteolytic, eight (12%) lesions were osteoblastic. The destructive patterns were geographic in 29%, moth-eaten in 55%, and permeative in 12% of the lesions. The axial skeleton was most commonly involved. In the long bones the diaphyses were the predominant sites of involvement. The bony cortex was frequently breached, with resultant soft-tissue swelling and pathologic fractures. Noteworthy features included subarticular location, involvement of the sarcoiliac joint, and an expansile appearance.

  12. MRI-guided laser ablation of neuroendocrine tumor hepatic metastases

    PubMed Central

    Perälä, Jukka; Klemola, Rauli; Kallio, Raija; Li, Chengli; Vihriälä, Ilkka; Salmela, Pasi I; Tervonen, Osmo

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) represent a therapeutically challenging and heterogeneous group of malignancies occurring throughout the body, but mainly in the gastrointestinal system. Purpose To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided laser ablation of NET liver metastases and assess its role within the current treatment options and methods. Material and Methods Two patients with NET tumor hepatic metastases were treated with MRI-guided interstitial laser ablation (LITT). Three tumors were treated. Clinical follow-up time was 10 years. Results Both patients were successfully treated. There were no local recurrences at the ablation site during the follow-up. Both patients had survived at 10-year follow-up. One patient is disease-free. Conclusion MRI-guided laser ablation can be used to treat NET tumor liver metastases but combination therapy and a rigorous follow-up schedule are recommended. PMID:24778794

  13. Unsanctifying the sanctuary: challenges and opportunities with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Puhalla, Shannon; Elmquist, William; Freyer, David; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Adkins, Chris; Lockman, Paul; McGregor, John; Muldoon, Leslie; Nesbit, Gary; Peereboom, David; Smith, Quentin; Walker, Sara; Neuwelt, Edward

    2015-01-01

    While the use of targeted therapies, particularly radiosurgery, has broadened therapeutic options for CNS metastases, patients respond minimally and prognosis remains poor. The inability of many systemic chemotherapeutic agents to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has limited their use and allowed brain metastases to become a burgeoning clinical challenge. Adequate preclinical models that appropriately mimic the metastatic process, the BBB, and blood-tumor barriers (BTB) are needed to better evaluate therapies that have the ability to enhance delivery through or penetrate into these barriers and to understand the mechanisms of resistance to therapy. The heterogeneity among and within different solid tumors and subtypes of solid tumors further adds to the difficulties in determining the most appropriate treatment approaches and methods of laboratory and clinical studies. This review article discusses therapies focused on prevention and treatment of CNS metastases, particularly regarding the BBB, and the challenges and opportunities these therapies present. PMID:25846288

  14. PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bone scintigraphy augmented with radiographs or cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has remained the commonest method to diagnose and follow up skeletal metastases. However, bone scintigraphy is associated with relatively poor spatial resolution, limited diagnostic specificity and reduced sensitivity for bone marrow disease. It also shows limited diagnostic accuracy in assessing response to therapy in a clinically useful time period. With the advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners there has been an increasing interest in using various PET tracers to evaluate skeletal disease including [18F]fluoride (NaF) as a bone-specific tracer and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]choline as tumour-specific tracers. There is also early work exploring the receptor status of skeletal metastases with somatostatin receptor analogues. This review describes the potential utility of these tracers in the assessment of skeletal metastases. PMID:20663736

  15. Reader's digest of the pathophysiology of bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Bone metastases are a process originally proposed as the "seed and soil theory" in the eighteenth century. Tumor cell disseminating from patients with breast or prostate cancer typically use the bony environment to grow outside the primary tumor location. The severe clinical consequences of bone metastasis such as pain, fractures, and hypercalcemia result from a serious misbalance of bone turnover. Most bone metastases cause catabolic changes of bone turnover. The severity of bone resorption is associated with tumor growth, suggesting the existence of a vicious cycle that needs to be interrupted. Osteoblastic metastasis showing signs of osteosclerotic lesions are observed in prostate cancer. Understanding the pathophysiology of bone metastases and their detrimental consequence provide the scientific basis for therapeutic interventions at various levels including homing of tumors to bone, survival and growth of the tumor cell in the bone niche, and the mechanisms causing bone destruction. PMID:22797871

  16. Rapidly aggravated skeletal muscle metastases from an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyoung; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Su Young; Rhyou, Hyo In

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with multiple skeletal muscle metastases. The patient was a 55-year-old Asian woman presenting with abdominal pain; abdominal and pelvic computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed an unresectable ICC with hepatic metastasis and metastastatic lymphadenopathy in the porto-caval area. After 3 mo of treatment with palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine detected right psoas muscle and paraspinous muscle metastases. We performed an ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle biopsy that confirmed a similar pattern of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient treated with palliative chemotherapy and achieved 10 mo of survival. Here we report the first case quickly spread to multiple sites of muscle even though the three-month treatment, compare to the other cases reported muscle metastases at diagnosis. PMID:25684968

  17. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling of Substituted Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    Alchab, Faten; Ettouati, Laurent; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Bollacke, Andre; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Gertzen, Christoph G.W.; Gohlke, Holger; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Guillon, Jean; Fenet, Bernard; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Due to their system of annulated 6-5-5-6-membered rings, indenoindoles have sparked great interest for the design of ATP-competitive inhibitors of human CK2. In the present study, we prepared twenty-one indeno[1,2-b]indole derivatives, all of which were tested in vitro on human CK2. The indenoindolones 5a and 5b inhibited human CK2 with an IC50 of 0.17 and 0.61 µM, respectively. The indeno[1,2-b]indoloquinone 7a also showed inhibitory activity on CK2 at a submicromolar range (IC50 = 0.43 µM). Additionally, a large number of indenoindole derivatives was evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the cell lines 3T3, WI-38, HEK293T and MEF. PMID:26061121

  18. THE TRANSIT LIGHT-CURVE PROJECT. XIV. CONFIRMATION OF ANOMALOUS RADII FOR THE EXOPLANETS TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tucker; Ingemyr, Mikael; Winn, Joshua N.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Holman, Matthew J.; Esquerdo, Gil; Everett, Mark

    2011-06-15

    We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems' parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be 'bloated' planets, with radii of 1.706 {+-} 0.056R{sub Jup} and 1.736 {+-} 0.092R{sub Jup}, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 {+-} 0.055R{sub Jup}, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

  19. OPTICAL AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF M31N 2007-12b: AN EXTRAGALACTIC RECURRENT NOVA WITH A DETECTED PROGENITOR?

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Hilton, T.; Shafter, A. W.; Page, K. L.; Smirnova, O.; Anupama, G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report combined optical and X-ray observations of nova M31N 2007-12b. Optical spectroscopy obtained 5 days after the 2007 December outburst shows evidence of very high ejection velocities (FWHM Halpha approx = 4500 km s{sup -1}). In addition, Swift X-ray data show that M31N 2007-12b is associated with a Super-Soft Source (SSS) which appeared between 21 and 35 days post-outburst and turned off between then and day 169. Our analysis implies that M {sub WD} approx> 1.3 M {sub sun} in this system. The optical light curve, spectrum, and X-ray behavior are consistent with those of a recurrent nova. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the pre-outburst location of M31N 2007-12b reveal the presence of a coincident stellar source with magnitude and color very similar to the Galactic recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi at quiescence, where the red giant secondary dominates the emission. We believe that this is the first occasion on which a nova progenitor system has been identified in M31. However, the greatest similarities of outburst optical spectrum and SSS behavior are with the supposed Galactic recurrent nova V2491 Cygni. A previously implied association of M31N 2007-12b with nova M31N 1969-08a is shown to be erroneous, and this has important lessons for future searches for recurrent novae in extragalactic systems. Overall, we show that suitable complementary X-ray and optical observations can be used not only to identify recurrent nova candidates in M31, but also to determine subtypes and important physical parameters of these systems. Prospects are therefore good for extending studies of recurrent novae into the Local Group with the potential to explore in more detail such important topics as their proposed link to Type Ia Supernovae.

  20. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XVI. Tomographic measurement of the low obliquity of KOI-12b, a warm Jupiter transiting a fast rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrier, V.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Hébrard, G.; Santerne, A.; Deleuil, M.; Almenara, J. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruno, G.; Courcol, B.; Diaz, R. F.; Montagnier, G.; Moutou, C.

    2015-07-01

    We present the detection and characterization of the transiting warm Jupiter KOI-12b, first identified with Kepler with an orbital period of 17.86 days. We combine the analysis of Kepler photometry with Doppler spectroscopy and line-profile tomography of time-series spectra obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph to establish its planetary nature and derive its properties. To derive reliable estimates for the uncertainties on the tomographic model parameters, we devised an empirical method of calculating statistically independent error bars on the time-series spectra. KOI-12b has a radius of 1.43 ± 0.13 RJup and a 3σ upper mass limit of 10 MJup. It orbits a fast-rotating star (vsini⋆ = 60.0 ± 0.9 km s-1) with mass and radius of 1.45 ± 0.09 M⊙ and 1.63 ± 0.15 R⊙, located at 426 ± 40 pc from the Earth. Doppler tomography allowed higher precision on the obliquity to be reached by comparison with analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin radial velocity anomaly, and we find that KOI-12b lies on a prograde, slightly misaligned orbit with low sky-projected obliquity λ = 12.63.0-2.9°. The properties of this planetary system, with a 11.4 mag host star, make of KOI-12b a precious target for future atmospheric characterization. Tables 2 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. An expanded calibration study of the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method using large basis set standard CCSD(T) atomization energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, David; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2013-08-01

    The effectiveness of the recently developed, explicitly correlated coupled cluster method CCSD(T)-F12b is examined in terms of its ability to reproduce atomization energies derived from complete basis set extrapolations of standard CCSD(T). Most of the standard method findings were obtained with aug-cc-pV7Z or aug-cc-pV8Z basis sets. For a few homonuclear diatomic molecules it was possible to push the basis set to the aug-cc-pV9Z level. F12b calculations were performed with the cc-pVnZ-F12 (n = D, T, Q) basis set sequence and were also extrapolated to the basis set limit using a Schwenke-style, parameterized formula. A systematic bias was observed in the F12b method with the (VTZ-F12/VQZ-F12) basis set combination. This bias resulted in the underestimation of reference values associated with small molecules (valence correlation energies <0.5 Eh) and an even larger overestimation of atomization energies for bigger systems. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the use of F12b for high accuracy studies. Root mean square and mean absolute deviation error metrics for this basis set combination were comparable to complete basis set values obtained with standard CCSD(T) and the aug-cc-pVDZ through aug-cc-pVQZ basis set sequence. However, the mean signed deviation was an order of magnitude larger. Problems partially due to basis set superposition error were identified with second row compounds which resulted in a weak performance for the smaller VDZ-F12/VTZ-F12 combination of basis sets.

  2. Phospho-ΔNp63α regulates AQP3, ALOX12B, CASP14 and CLDN1 expression through transcription and microRNA modulation.

    PubMed

    Ratovitski, Edward A

    2013-11-01

    Cisplatin-induced and ATM-phosphorylated (p)-ΔNp63α regulates the expression of epidermal differentiation and skin barrier regulators (AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B, and CLDN1) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells by dual transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. We found that p-ΔNp63α bound to target gene promoters, and regulated the activity of the tested promoters in vitro. P-ΔNp63α was shown to upregulate miR-185-5p and downregulate let7-5p, which subsequently modulated AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B and CLDN1 through their respective 3'-untranslated regions. The introduction of miR-185-5p into resistant SCC-11M cells, which are unable to phosphorylate ΔNp63α, render these cells more sensitive to cisplatin treatment. Further studies of the AQP3, CASP14, ALOX12B, and CLDN1 contributions to chemoresistance may assist in developing novel microRNA-based therapies for human SCC. PMID:24070899

  3. Femoral metastases from ovarian serous/endometroid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beresford–Cleary, NJA; Mehdi, SA; Magowan, B

    2012-01-01

    Bony metastases from ovarian cancer are rare, tend to affect the axial skeleton and are associated with abdomino-pelvic disease. The median time interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and presentation of bony metastases is 44 months (1). We describe a rare case of high grade left ovarian serous / endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathological right femoral fracture 4 weeks following diagnosis and optimal debulking of the ovarian tumour. Orthopaedic surgeons must be vigilant when planning treatment of fractures presenting in patients with a history of ovarian cancer. PMID:24960734

  4. [Diagnostic imaging techniques for hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Mollerup, Talie Khadem; Lorentzen, Torben; Møller, Jakob M; Nørgaard, Henrik; Achiam, Michael P

    2015-07-27

    Hepatic metastases (HM) are amongst the most important prognostic factors in patient survival from colorectal cancer. The diagnostic imaging techniques for accurate detection and characterization of colorectal metastases are therefore vital. In a review of the literature, MRI showed the highest sensitivity for detection of HM lesions < 1 cm, but the amount of MR scanners is insufficient. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography have similar sensitivity for detection of HM, but each method also have limitation such as operator dependency or enhanced risk of cancer due to ionizing radiation. PMID:26238008

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  6. A Simple Scoring System Predicting the Survival Time of Patients with Bone Metastases after RT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Hui-Fang; Su, Meng; Lin, Rui-Fang; Chen, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Ping; Zou, Chang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop a scoring system to predict the survival time of patients with bone metastases after radiation therapy (RT). The scoring system can guide physicians to a better selection of appropriate treatment regimens. Materials and Methods The medical records of 125 patients with bone metastases treated with RT between January 2007 and September 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Fifteen potential prognostic factors were investigated: sex, age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), type of primary tumor, resection of tumor before bone metastases, interval between primary tumor diagnosis and diagnosis of bone metastases, Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA), lung metastases before bone metastases, liver metastases before bone metastases, brain metastases before bone metastases, stage, T, N, M, and degree of cellular differentiation. Results In an univariate analysis, 10 factors were significantly associated with survival time after bone metastasis: sex, KPS, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, interval between tumor diagnosis and diagnosis of bone metastases, CEA, lung metastases before bone metastases, T-staging, and differentiation. In a multivariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be significant: sex, KPS, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, interval between tumor diagnosis and diagnosis of bone metastases, T-staging, and differentiation. The median survival of all patients with bone metastases after RT was 14.1 months. There were significant differences in the median survival of patients with bone metastases after RT of 4.9 months, 10.5 months, and 29.7 months in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion According to this scoring system, the survival time of patients after bone metastasis can be estimated. PMID:27438606

  7. Multiple skeletal metastases as unusual manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma in a noncirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Shakya, V C; Agrawal, C S; Pandey, S R; Rauniyar, R K; Dhungel, K; Adhikary, S

    2010-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor of the liver. Bony metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma are usually rare, in which most common sites involved are vertebra and pelvis. Still rarer are metastases to the chest wall and skull. We report a case of a 45-year old man with unusual metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma to skull, sternum and ribs. These combinations of metastases have rarely been reported in literature. PMID:21446373

  8. Synthesis, Magnetic Properties, Map Images, and Water Proton Relaxivities of D-Glucuronic Acid Coated Ln2O3 Nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er).

    PubMed

    Kattel, Krishna; Kim, Cho Rong; Xu, Wenlong; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Jang Woo; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    T2 MRI contrast agents cannot be synthesized by using molecules but nanoparticles because appreciable magnetic moments at room temperature are needed. Recently, some of lanthanide (Ln) oxide nanoparticles have shown decent magnetic moments at room temperature and even at ultrasmall particle diameters. In this study, we explored D-glucuronic acid coated Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er) with ultrasmall particle diameters. They showed decent magnetic moments at room temperature and as a result, appreciable transverse water proton relaxivities (r2s) at 1.5 tesla MR field. Clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R2 map images were observed in both samples. These results showed that D-glucuronic acid coated Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Ho and Er) would be potential T2 MRI contrast agents at high MR fields. PMID:26716328

  9. Magnetic properties and structural transitions of fluorite-related rare earth osmates Ln3OsO7 (Ln=Pr, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-01

    Ternary rare-earth osmates Ln3OsO7 (Ln=Pr, Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an ortho-rhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Both of these compounds undergo a structural phase transition at 130 K (Ln=Pr) and 580 K (Ln=Tb). These compounds show complex magnetic behavior at low temperatures. Pr3OsO7 exhibits magnetic transitions at 8 and 73 K, and Tb3OsO7 magnetically orders at 8 and 60 K. The Os moments become one-dimensionally ordered, and when the temperature is furthermore decreased, it provokes the ordering in the Ln3+ sublattice that simultaneously becomes three-dimensionally ordered with the Os sublattice.

  10. Tensile test of SS 316LN jacket with different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jinggang; Dai, Chao; Liao, Guojun; Wu, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng; wang, Kun; Shen, Xiaogang; Tu, Zhengpin; Ji, Hui

    2014-11-01

    316LN stainless steel is selected as a material for Toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). When energized, the ITER TF coils experience large pulsed electromagnetic forces that the conductor jacket itself must withstand. The conductor will be compacted, spooled and aged at approximately 650 °C during manufacture. Therefore, the sample jackets were prepared under compaction, stretching and annealing to simulate the manufacturing process and operation of TF coils. The present Chinese TF jacket has good performance under standard conditions. In order to investigate more mechanical properties of 316LN jacket, the different cold working and annealing were applied to the raw materials. The samples were measured at 4.2 K, 77 K and 300 K. Youngs modulus, yield strength (0.2% offset), elongation at failure and SEM images are reported. There is no big deviation among different conditions. The test results show that Chinese TF jacket has good performance.

  11. LN2 Dewar 42 Delivery Overfill Inlet Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-26

    Pressure vessels must be protected against overpressure scenarios. A scenario of particular concern is that from a high pressure LN2 pump, now standard on LN2 delivery trailers. A safety mechanism must be in place to prevent the overfilling, and subsequent overpressure from occurring because these pumps have a higher mass flow output than reasonably sized relief valves provide. The original solution to the problem was to close a valve on the fill line when a certain liquid level in the dewar is reached. The valve remains closed until the level drops below that threshold. The trigger level was about 13,000 gallons for the 20,000 gallon capacity dewar. The solution was in place from 1989 until present, 2004.

  12. Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler ofr Calorimeters LN2 Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

    2002-09-16

    This note provides calculations of heat load and coil sizing for a LN2 subcooler which will be installed in the liquid nitrogen line going from Dewar 42 to the. Liquid argon calorimeters. This subcooler must improve LN2 quality and facilitate LAr pressure regulation. The system is described in Engineering note 3740.510-EN-382. This note contains the calculations of heat loads/pressure drops of the liquid Nitrogen supply line going from the Dewar 42 to the liquid Argon calorimeters, and also the sizing of existing LN2 subcooler located in the V-tube. The note is used as a reference. The state of Nitrogen {at} point 6 - ECS entrance (according to 3740.510-EN-382) is used in the calculations. The quality of liquid x = 0.0066 with the use of existing 75 W LN2 subcooler. It has been determined that we need 29.3 W of additional subcooling in order to obtain. 100% liquid at this point with the mass flow of 25 g/s. Keeping in mind the possible error in heat transfer calculations, a 300W subcooler will be installed to replace the old 75 W subcooler. In order to achieve an acceptable conclusion, an assumption of a fully developed boundary layer was made. The hot fluid or the fluid condensing on the inside surface will determine the rate of heat transfer because A{sub o} = A{sub i} and h{sub o}A{sub o} >> h{sub i}A{sub i}. The conclusion drawn is to use a 1/2-inch copper tube wound approximately 8 times about a 9-inch diameter circle. The pressure drop in this coil will be 0.05 psi (0.0034 atm) and can be neglected.

  13. Exploring the effect of the Ln(III)/Ln(II) redox potential on C-F activation and on oxidation of some lanthanoid organoamides.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Kelly, Rory P; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-28

    The divalent europium complexes, and (L(Me/Et) = p-HC6F4N(CH2)2NMe2/Et2), have been prepared from redox-transmetallation/protolysis (RTP) reactions between Eu metal, Hg(C6F5)2 and L(Me/Et)H in thf. The complexes exhibit close (C)F-Ln interactions and the amide ligands feature tridentate N,N',F chelation. The complexes are thermally robust but on exposure to light they undergo C-F activation. From exposure of to light, the Eu(III) mixed fluoride/oxide cluster, was isolated, but other well-defined C-F activation products have proven elusive due to the stability of Eu(II). Oxidation of [Ln(L(R))2(thf)2] (Ln = Eu, R = Me; Ln = Yb, R = Et) with I2 afforded the heteroleptic iodo complexes, [Ln(L(R))2I(thf)n] (Ln = Eu, n = 1; Ln = Yb, n = 0), and the homoleptic complexes, [Ln(L(R))3]. The formation of the iodo complexes and the heteroleptic complexes appear to occur by different routes. shows interesting structural differences from reported [Ln(L(Et))3] (Ln = La, Ce, Nd) complexes, and highlights an incomplete shift towards N,N' chelation to the much smaller Yb ion. was prepared from a protolysis reaction between [Sm(CH2C6H4-NMe2-o)3] and L(Me)H. Heating a solution of in toluene at 110 °C for three days did not afford any samarium fluoride complex. An RTP reaction with Sm afforded the heteroleptic samarium complex, , in very low yield. From an attempted protolysis reaction between [Sm(DippForm)2(thf)2] and L(Me)H, the mixed ligand samarium fluoride complex, , was isolated. Overall, the instability of Sm(II) precludes control over the C-F activation reactions. PMID:26673146

  14. Structure and stability of the low-temperature modification compounds Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] (Ln = La-Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, H.J.; Fink, H. ); Baumgartner, B. )

    1993-11-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature modification of Cs[sub 3]LaCl[sub 6] has been determined from X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. The monoclinic lattice with a = 27.286(5) [angstrom]; b = 8.291(1) [angstrom]; c = 13.305(2) [angstrom]; [beta] = 99.64(1)[degrees] belongs to the Cs[sub 3]BiCl[sub 6]-type (space group C2/c). All other compounds Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] (Ln = Gd) and the analogous Rb-compounds are isotypic. Emf measurements in a galvanic cell for solid electrolytes for the reactions CsCl + Cs[sub 2]LnCl[sub 5] = Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] reveal that the compounds with Ln = La,Ce,Pr,Nd are formed with a loss of lattice enthalpy, compensated by a considerable gain in entropy; they therefore are stable only at temperatures higher than O K. The compounds with Ln = Sm,Eu,Dg are formed with a gain in lattice enthalpy and are stable at T = OK, too. This difference is attributed to the different crystal structures of the neighboring compounds Cs[sub 2]LnCl[sub 5]: they crystallize with the K[sub 2]PrCl[sub 5]-structure (CN = 7 for Ln[sup 3+]) for the compounds with Ln = La-Nd, while the other compounds belong to the Cs[sub 2]DyCl[sub 5]-type with octahedral surroundings for the Ln[sup 3+] ions.

  15. Rare earth niobium oxynitrides, LnNbON{sub 2-{delta}} (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy): Synthesis, structure and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Ammonolysis of LnNbO{sub 4} (Ln = rare earth or Y) leads to the formation of oxynitrides of different structures depending on the size of the rare earth. Highlights: {yields} We have carried out ammonolysis of LnNbO{sub 4} (Ln = rare earth and Y) to form oxynitrides of different structures depending on the size of the rare earth. {yields} Infrared spectroscopy shows the marked difference between oxides and the corresponding oxynitrides. {yields} The oxynitrides are stable in air upto {approx}400 {sup o}C above which an intermediate phase with nitrogen molecules attached to the oxide lattice forms. {yields} Gadolinium niobium oxynitride shows paramagnetism. -- Abstract: Ammonolysis of rare earth niobates of the type LnNbO{sub 4} (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy) yields oxynitrides of different structures. When Ln = La, Nd and Pr, the structure is that of an orthorhombic perovskite of the general formula LnNbON{sub 2}. As the size of the rare earth decreases, the oxynitride has a nitrogen-deficient defect fluorite (Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd), or pyrochlore (Ln = Y) structure. The IR spectra of the oxynitrides and the corresponding oxides are significantly different. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests the formation of an intermediate phase wherein the N{sub 2} molecule is attached to the oxide lattice above 400 {sup o}C and decomposes to give the oxide on heating in an oxygen atmosphere. Raman spectra of the intermediate phases show evidence for the N{identical_to}N stretching vibration. Gadolinium niobium oxynitride is found to be paramagnetic.

  16. Lanthanide stannate pyrochlores Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er, Yb) nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wanjun; Liang, Shijing; Bi, Jinhong; Yu, Jimmy C.; Wong, Po Keung; Wu, Ling

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er, Yb) are synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Light absorption edge shows red shift with decreasing Ln{sup 3+} radius from Nd{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. • Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows increasing photocatalytic activity with the decease of Ln{sup 3+} radius. • Electronic configuration reaches 4f{sup 14} under light irradiation may decrease photocatalytic activity. • Hydroxyl radicals are detected to be the major reactive species. - Abstract: A series of lanthanide stannate pyrochlores Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er, Yb) nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. With the decrease of Ln{sup 3+} radius, the light absorption edge of the as-prepared Ln{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows a red shift from Nd{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. Their photocatalytic activities are found to be improved with the decrease of Ln{sup 3+} radius. However, the photocatalytic activity of Yb{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is a little lower than Er{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, although the Yb{sup 3+} radius is smaller than Er{sup 3+}, which may be attributed to the full-filled electronic configuration (4f{sup 14}) of surface Yb{sup 2+} intermediates (formed by Yb{sup 3+} trapping a photo-excited electron). The crystallite size and surface area play the most important role in determining the activities. Furthermore, hydroxyl radicals are detected to be the major reactive species during the photo-degradation process. Our findings provide insights in the fabrication of highly efficient stannate photocatalysts, thus enlarging the family of photocatalysts available.

  17. Perioperative management of patients with lung carcinoma and cerebral metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghita, Eva; Pruna, Viorel Mihai; Neagoe, Luminita; Bucur, Cristina; Cristescu, Catioara; Gorgan, Mircea Radu

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The present study proposes to present the importance of perioperative therapeutic management in survival prolongation and the quality of life for patients that have undergone surgery for cerebral metastases secondary to pulmonary tumors. Method: During 2001-2009, 40 patients with ages between 43-74 years have been diagnosed in our clinic with pulmonary tumor and cerebral metastases. The patients presented single cerebral lesion (excepting one patient with 2 cerebral metastases) and pulmonary tumor. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was high in all cases. All patients have undergone operation with general anesthesia. Results:For all patients the reduction of ICP and keeping an optimal CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure) was pursued. In 38 cases, general anesthesia was performed with Sevoflurane and opioids (fentanyl, remifentanyl, sufentanyl) and in 2 cases the TIVA (total intravenous anesthesia) technique was used with propofol and remifentanyl. 14 of the patients required intraoperative depletive treatment through administering mannitol 20%. 37 patients (92%) have been discharged with improved neurological condition without showing signs of intracranial hypertension, convulsive seizures and with partially or totally remitted hemiparesis and one patient had worse postoperative neurological status. Conclusion:Pulmonary tumor with cerebral metastases represent an important cause for death rate. To solve secondary cerebral lesions, the perioperative management must include assesment and choosing an anesthesia technique with a proper intraoperative management. PMID:21977115

  18. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A; Carbonell, W Shawn; Robson, Matthew D; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Muschel, Ruth J; Sibson, Nicola R

    2012-04-24

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1-targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1-targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3-3 × 10(5) cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (10(7)-10(8) cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  19. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A.; Carbonell, W. Shawn; Robson, Matthew D.; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C.; Choudhury, Robin P.; Muschel, Ruth J.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1–targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1–targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3–3 × 105 cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (107–108 cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  20. FDG-PET/CT of Vulvar Adenocarcinoma With Diffuse Metastases.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan; Anderson, Thomas M; Lu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    A 52 year-old woman presented to her gynecologist with a 1-year history of a 1.5-cm left labial mass. Punch biopsy of the vulvar lesion revealed primary infiltrating adenocarcinoma. Staging FDG-PET/CT demonstrated multiorgan diffuse metastases. PMID:27187733

  1. Effect of saracatinib on pulmonary metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ju; Wu, Jin-Sheng; Mao, Shan-Shan; Yu, Xiang-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Xi

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Src is involved in multiple processes of cancer metastasis; however, its significance in HCC is not well defined. In the present study, overexpression of Src phosphorylation (Y416) was observed in the highly metastatic MHCC97H cell line; additionally, through inhibition of Src kinase activation, HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation were significantly reduced in vitro. Tumour growth was not affected in the orthotopic xenograft HCC model, but the metastasic potential was inhibited as revealed by reduced lung metastasic foci after administration of saracatinib. Phosphorylation level of Src pathway signalling molecules, such as Src, FAK and Stat3, were also reduced in vitro and in vivo, as a result of the anti-metastasic effects caused by saracatinib treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated the pro-metastasic role of Src in HCC, and further experiments suggest the use of the Src inhibitor in combination with cytotoxic agents and other anticancer treatments to improve HCC prognosis. PMID:27460949

  2. [Supportive care, cognition and quality of life in brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Taillibert, S; Blonski, M; Jouniaux Delbez, N; Delgadillo, D; Taillia, H; Auquier, P; Belin, C; Bonnetain, F; Varin, D; Tallet, A; Taillandier, L

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases impact on the survival of the patients, but on their quality of life as well. The objective of the management of these patients is then double. Currently, due to medical advances, survivals tend to improve, especially for some tumor subtypes. During the course of the disease, different neurological signs and symptoms can be observed according to the location, the number and the volume of the metastase(s). Patients and caregivers are especially worried about the loss of autonomy and cognitive impairments. A permanent dialogue, during the course of the disease, is mandatory, in order to adapt the management to the objectives determined by the patients and the medical team. These objectives may vary according to the objective response rates of the disease to anticancer therapies, according to the impact of the disease and its management in daily living. Anticancer therapies and supportive care must be appreciated according to their impact on the survival, on the preservation of the functional independence and the quality of life of the patient, on their abilities to preserve the neurological status and delay the apparition of new neurological signs and symptoms, and their adverse events. Supportive care, cognition and quality of life should be regularly evaluated and adapted according to the objectives of the management of brain metastases patients. Different approaches are described in this paper. PMID:25640218

  3. [Multiple cavitary pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Takechi, A; Kashiyama, T

    2001-06-01

    Cavitation in pulmonary metastases is thought to be uncommon. To date, few cases of pulmonary metastases originating from ovarian cancer and showing cavitation have been reported. We report a patient with multiple cavitation in pulmonary metastases from ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting with cough and fever. The patient had undergone right ovariectomy for ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma at the age of 23 years. Her chest radiograph on admission showed multiple cavities associated with infiltration in both lungs. Histological sections obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy revealed mucus-secreting adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of metastatic lung cancer from the ovary was made. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest demonstrated various findings, including multiple thick-walled cavities, thin-walled cavities, air-space consolidations, ground glass opacities, and centrilobular nodular shadows formed by aspiration of the mucinous secretions. It is important to recognize that cavitation can occur in pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer. PMID:11530393

  4. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix

    PubMed Central

    Raś, Renata; Książek, Mariusz; Skręt-Magierło, Joanna; Kąziołka, Wojciech; Fudali, Ludmiła; Filipowska, Justyna; Skręt, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1) uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2) four tumors in the parametria, 3) tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%). Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations. PMID:27582687

  5. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix.

    PubMed

    Raś, Renata; Książek, Mariusz; Barnaś, Edyta; Skręt-Magierło, Joanna; Kąziołka, Wojciech; Fudali, Ludmiła; Filipowska, Justyna; Skręt, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1) uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2) four tumors in the parametria, 3) tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%). Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations. PMID:27582687

  6. Resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma. The registry data.

    PubMed

    Asbun, H J; Tsao, J I; Hughes, K S

    1994-01-01

    When liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma are detected, the surgeon must decide whether or not the patient is a candidate for resection. Even though long-term survival after resection is far from optimal, the relegation of patients to nonresective treatment means denying them the only chance for cure currently available. Better understanding of liver anatomy and improvement in resection techniques have decreased the morbidity and mortality. The RHM and the GITSG reports have better defined the prognostic factors for resections of colorectal liver metastases and allowed for a better understanding of the indications for resection. During the last decades, liver resection has been extended to older patients, patients with multiple liver lesions, and patients with larger solitary metastases. At the same time, anatomic rather than wedge resections are more common, and it is preferable to perform the colon and liver resection at different stages. The end result has been a marked increase in the number of hepatic resections performed for colorectal liver metastases during the last two decades. PMID:8031663

  7. Cystosarcoma phylloides: calcified pulmonary metastases detected by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Samuels, T; Kerenyi, N; Hamilton, P

    1990-08-01

    We report the appearance of calcifications on computed tomography (CT) images of pulmonary metastases from a rare breast tumor, malignant cystosarcoma phylloides. Histologic examination of the pulmonary masses revealed malignant spindle cells with osteoid and cartilage components in the cellular stroma. This appearance has not been described previously. PMID:2169970

  8. New insights and emerging therapies for breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elgene; Lin, Nancy U

    2012-07-01

    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are the second most frequent secondary central nervous system metastases following those associated with non-small-cell lung cancer. It is increasingly evident that BCBM arises as a function of the biology of the primary tumor and the metastatic niche, which combine to create a unique microenvironment in the brain impacting both metastatic colonization and therapeutic response. Clinical outcomes are improving for BCBM patients as a result of modern combinatorial therapies, challenging the traditionally nihilistic approach to this patient subgroup. This review will focus on the breast cancer subtypes with the highest incidence of BCBM-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, and triple-negative (estrogen receptor [ER]-negative, progesterone receptor [PR]-negative, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (TNBC)-and will characterize differences in the clinical behavior of brain metastases that arise from these different subtypes. We will also highlight some of the recent preclinical studies that may shed light on the biological mechanisms and mediators underlying brain metastases. Finally, we will review published and current prospective trials of systemic therapies specifically for BCBM, including novel pathway-specific therapies. PMID:22888567

  9. Significantly high lymphatic vessel density in cutaneous metastasizing melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Špirić, Z; Erić, M; Eri, Ž; Skrobić, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma has the propensity to early metastatic spread via the lymphatic vessels. Recent studies have found a positive correlation between an increased number of tumor-associated lymphatics and lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) when cutaneous metastasizing melanomas were compared with nonmetastasizing melanomas and nevi. Methods Ninety-five melanoma specimens (45 with lymph node metastasis, 50 nonmetastasizing) and 22 nevi specimens (7 compound, 5 intradermal, 4 blue, and 6 dysplastic) were investigated by immunostaining for the lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40. The quantification of lymphatics was conducted by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. Metastasizing and nonmetastasizing melanoma specimens were matched according to their thickness into three classes ≤2.0 mm, 2.01 – 4.0 mm, >4.0 mm. Results Metastasizing melanomas thick 2.01–4.0 mm and thicker than 4.0 mm, showed a significantly higher intratumoral and peritumoral LVD compared with nonmetastasizing melanomas (2.01–4.0 mm, p =0.006 and p =0.032, respectively; >4.0 mm, p =0.045 and p =0.026, respectively). No significant difference in intratumoral and peritumoral LVD was found between metastasizing and nonmetastasizing melanomas of thickness ≤2.0 mm. Metastasizing melanomas showed a significantly higher intratumoral LVD compared with compound, intradermal, blue and dysplastic nevi p <0.001, p =0.002, p =0.002 and p <0.001, respectively), and significantly higher peritumoral LVD compared with compound nevi (p=0.039). Total average LVD was significantly higher in metastasizing melanomas than in nonmetastasizing melanomas (p <0.001), compound, intradermal, blue and dysplastic nevi (p <0.001, p <0.001, p =0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). Conclusions This study shows higher LVD in metastasizing melanomas compared with nonmetastasizing melanomas and nevi. In melanomas with

  10. Chemical Substitution and High Pressure Effects on Superconductors in the LnOBiS$_2$ (Ln = La-Nd) System

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yuankan; Wolowiec, Christian T.; Yazici, Duygu; Maple, M. Brian

    2015-12-14

    A large number of compounds which contain BiS$_2$ layers exhibit enhanced superconductivity upon electron doping. Much interest and research effort has been focused on BiS$_2$-based compounds which provide new opportunities for exploring the nature of superconductivity. Important to the study of BiS2-based superconductors is the relation between structure and superconductivity. By modifying either the superconducting BiS$_2$ layers or the blocking layers in these layered compounds, one can effectively tune the lattice parameters, local atomic environment, electronic structure, and other physical properties of these materials. In this article, we will review some of the recent progress on research of the effects of chemical substitution in BiS$_2$-based compounds, with special attention given to the compounds in the LnOBiSS$_2$ (Ln = La-Nd) system. Strategies which are reported to be essential in optimizing superconductivity of these materials will also be discussed.

  11. Chemical Substitution and High Pressure Effects on Superconductivity in the LnOBiS2 (Ln = La-Nd) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Wolowiec, C. T.; Yazici, D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    A large number of compounds which contain BiS2 layers exhibit enhanced superconductivity upon electron doping. Much interest and research effort has been focused on BiS2-based compounds which provide new opportunities for exploring the nature of superconductivity. Important to the study of BiS2-based superconductors is the relation between structure and superconductivity. By modifying either the superconducting BiS2 layers or the blocking layers in these layered compounds, one can effectively tune the lattice parameters, local atomic environment, electronic structure, and other physical properties of these materials. In this article, we will review some of the recent progress on research of the effects of chemical substitution in BiS2-based compounds, with special attention given to the compounds in the LnOBiS2 (Ln = La-Nd) system. Strategieswhich are reported to be essential in optimizing superconductivity of these materials will also be discussed.

  12. Observation of upconversion white light and ultrabroad infrared emission in YbAG:Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Sm, Tb, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Cui, Shaobo; Liu, Mao; Liu, Xuyan; Lu, Cheng; Xu, Xiumei; Xu, Wen

    2015-07-01

    We report on the intense white-light upconversion and ultrabroad infrared (IR) emission for the sol-gel synthesis of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG):Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Sm, Tb, Er) following excitation with low-energy near-infrared light (λex = 980 nm). Sufficient cross relaxations and photon avalanches play important roles in the formation of efficient visible and IR broad bands. The brightness of white-light upconversion was 6.2 × 104 cd/m2 at a laser power of 1.47 W, and the IR broad bands (1200-1700 nm) covered all the bands in optical communication media, which indicates that the material might be promising for the development of devices such as white lasers, LEDs, and integrated waveguides.

  13. Lanthanoid single-ion magnets with the LnN10 coordination geometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhong-Xia; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jiang; Jia, Jian-Hua; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2016-05-01

    We have reported two unprecedented single-ion magnets (SIMs) with the homoatomic LnN10 coordination geometry, where the central Ln (Ln = Dy(III) or Er(III)) ion is interlocked by two pentadentate ligands (N5) affording a low symmetry polyhedron. Studies of dynamic magnetic behaviours show an effective energy of 79(4) K for [Dy(N5)2](3+) and 59(4) K for [Er(N5)2](3+), respectively. PMID:27077708

  14. Phase equilibria and crystal structure of the complex oxides in the Ln-Ba-Co-O (Ln=Nd, Sm) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilova, L.Ya.; Aksenova, T.V.; Volkova, N.E.; Podzorova, A.S.; Cherepanov, V.A.

    2011-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Ln-Ba-Co-O (Ln=Nd, Sm) systems were systematically studied at 1100 deg. C in air. The homogeneity ranges and crystal structure of the solid solutions: Ln{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (0Ln=Nd and 0Ln=Sm), Nd{sub 3-y}Ba{sub y}Co{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0.70{<=}y{<=}0.80), BaCo{sub 1-z}Sm{sub z}O{sub 3-{delta}} (0.1{<=}z{<=}0.2) were determined by X-ray diffraction of quenched samples. The values of oxygen content (5+{delta}) for slowly cooled LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} (Ln=Nd, Sm) samples were estimated as 5.73 for Ln=Nd, and 5.60 for Ln=Sm. The unit cell parameters were refined using Rietveld full-profile analysis. It was shown that NdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.73} possesses tetragonal structure and SmBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.60} - orthorhombic structure. The projections of isothermal-isobaric phase diagrams for the Ln-Ba-Co-O (Ln=Nd, Sm) systems to the compositional triangle of metallic components were presented. - Graphical Abstract: Projections of isobaric isothermal phase diagrams of the Nd-Ba-Co-O system and Sm-Ba-Co-O system. Highlights: > Phase equilibria in the Ln-Ba-Co-O systems (Ln=Nd, Sm). > The homogeneity range for Nd{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions at studied conditions 0 The homogeneity range for Sm{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions at studied conditions 0 Nd{sub 3-y}Ba{sub y}Co{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solutions within the range 0.7{<=}y{<=}0.8. > BaCo{sub 1-z}Sm{sub z}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions within the range 0.1{<=}z{<=}0.2.

  15. Magnetic properties and structural transitions of orthorhombic fluorite-related compounds Ln{sub 3}MO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths, M=transition metals)

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2010-11-15

    Magnetic properties and structural transitions of ternary rare-earth transition-metal oxides Ln{sub 3}MO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths, M=transition metals) were investigated. In this study, we prepared a series of molybdates Ln{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} (Ln=La-Gd). They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, in which Ln{sup 3+} ions occupy two different crystallographic sites (the 8-coordinated and 7-coordinated sites). All of these compounds show a phase transition from the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} to Pnma in the temperature range between 370 and 710 K. Their magnetic properties were characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements from 1.8 to 400 K and specific heat measurements from 0.4 to 400 K. Gd{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 1.9 K. Measurements of the specific heat for Sm{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} and the analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicate a 'two-step' antiferromagnetic transition due to the ordering of Sm magnetic moments in different crystallographic sites, i.e., with decreasing temperature, the antiferromagnetic ordering of the 7-coordinated Sm ions occur at 2.5 K, and then the 8-coordinated Sm ions order at 0.8 K. The results of Ln{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} were compared with the magnetic properties and structural transitions of Ln{sub 3}MO{sub 7} (M=Nb, Ru, Sb, Ta, Re, Os, or Ir). -- Graphical Abstract: Magnetic properties and structural transitions of ternary rare-earth transition-metal oxides Ln{sub 3}MO{sub 7} (Ln=rare earths, M=transition metals) were investigated. In this study, we prepared a series of molybdates Ln{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} (Ln=La{approx}Gd). These compounds show a phase transition from the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} to Pnma in the temperature range between 370 and 710 K. Their magnetic properties were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements from 0.4 to 400 K. The results of Ln{sub 3}MoO{sub 7} were

  16. Octanuclear Heterobimetallic {Ni4Ln4} Assemblies Possessing Ln4 Square Grid [2 × 2] Motifs: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Goura, Joydeb; Das, Sourav; Topping, Craig V; Brambleby, Jamie; Goddard, Paul A; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-09-01

    Octanuclear heterobimetallic complexes, [Ln4Ni4(H3L)4(μ3-OH)4(μ2-OH)4]4Cl·xH2O·yCHCl3 (Dy(3+), x = 30.6, y = 2 (1); Tb(3+), x = 28, y = 0 (2) ; Gd(3+), x = 25.3, y = 0 (3); Ho(3+), x = 30.6, y = 3 (4)) (H5L = N1,N3-bis(6-formyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methylphenol)diethylenetriamine) are reported. These are assembled by the cumulative coordination action of four doubly deprotonated compartmental ligands, [H3L](2-), along with eight exogenous -OH ligands. Within the core of these complexes, four Ln(3+)'s are distributed to the four corners of a perfect square grid while four Ni(2+)'s are projected away from the plane of the Ln4 unit. Each of the four Ni(2+)'s possesses distorted octahedral geometry while all of the Ln(3+)'s are crystallographically equivalent and are present in an elongated square antiprism geometry. The magnetic properties of compound 3 are dominated by an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy of the Ni(2+) ions [DNi = 6.7(7) K] and dipolar interactions between Gd(3+) centers. Detailed ac magnetometry reveals the presence of distinct temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals for compounds 1 and 2, indicative of slow magnetic relaxation. Magnetochemical analysis of complex 1 implies the 3d and the 4f metal ions are engaged in ferromagnetic interactions with SMM behavior, while dc magnetometry of compound 2 is suggestive of an antiferromagnetic Ni-Tb spin-exchange with slow magnetic relaxation due to a field-induced level crossing. Compound 4 exhibits an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy for the Ho(3+) ions and weak interactions between spin centers. PMID:27500314

  17. Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Baggett, Brenda K.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Roe, Denise J.; Dosescu, Julie; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Morse, David L.; Raghunand, Natarajan; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The external pH of solid tumors is acidic as a consequence of increased metabolism of glucose and poor perfusion. Acid pH has been shown to stimulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in cells before tail vein injection in vivo. The present study investigates whether inhibition of this tumor acidity will reduce the incidence of in vivo metastases. Here, we show that oral NaHCO3 selectively increased the pH of tumors and reduced the formation of spontaneous metastases in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer. This treatment regimen was shown to significantly increase the extracellular pH, but not the intracellular pH, of tumors by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the export of acid from growing tumors by fluorescence microscopy of tumors grown in window chambers. NaHCO3 therapy also reduced the rate of lymph node involvement, yet did not affect the levels of circulating tumor cells, suggesting that reduced organ metastases were not due to increased intravasation. In contrast, NaHCO3 therapy significantly reduced the formation of hepatic metastases following intrasplenic injection, suggesting that it did inhibit extravasation and colonization. In tail vein injections of alternative cancer models, bicarbonate had mixed results, inhibiting the formation of metastases from PC3M prostate cancer cells, but not those of B16 melanoma. Although the mechanism of this therapy is not known with certainty, low pH was shown to increase the release of active cathepsin B, an important matrix remodeling protease. PMID:19276390

  18. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Metastases From Atypical Laryngeal Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui-Rong; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Bao, Yang-Yang; Feng, Zhi-Ying; Yao, Hong-Tian; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy. Routine pathology revealed atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Immunohistochemical staining of the sections of primary tumor was positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, P53, and CD56. GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K were negative. The Ki-67 index was 15%. Supraglottic laryngectomy and selective right-neck dissection were performed. After 6 months, the patient complained of pain in the right wall of the chest; multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules were evident at that site and in the abdomen. An abdominal nodule was biopsied and pathology revealed that the atypical metastatic carcinoid had metastasized to both cutaneous and subcutaneous areas of the abdomen. Chemotherapy was then prescribed. Currently, the intrathecal drug delivery system remains in place. No local recurrence has been detected. Furthermore, we systematically reviewed clinical manifestations of the disease, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment. The metastasis rate (cutaneous and subcutaneous) was approximately 12.2%. Thirty patients (62.5%) with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases exhibited contemporaneous lymph node invasion. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 44.0%, 22.0%, and 13.0%, respectively. The prognosis of patients with atypical laryngeal carcinoids was poor. Relevant prognostic factors included the level of p53, human papilloma virus status, certain hypoxic markers, and distant metastasis. No

  19. Outcomes of Proton Therapy for the Treatment of Uveal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kamran, Sophia C.; Collier, John M.; Lane, Anne Marie; Kim, Ivana; Niemierko, Andrzej; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Munzenrider, John E.; Gragoudas, Evangelos; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Radiation therapy can be used to treat uveal metastases with the goal of local control and improvement of quality of life. Proton therapy can be used to treat uveal tumors efficiently and with expectant minimization of normal tissue injury. Here, we report the use of proton beam therapy for the management of uveal metastases. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was made of all patients with uveal metastases treated at our institution with proton therapy between June 2002 and June 2012. Patient and tumor characteristics, fractionation and dose schemes, local control, and toxicities are reported. Results: Ninety patients were identified. Of those, 13 were excluded because of missing information. We report on 77 patients with 99 affected eyes with available data. Patients were 68% female, and the most common primary tumor was breast carcinoma (49%). The median age at diagnosis of uveal metastasis was 57.9 years. Serous retinal detachment was seen in 38% of treated eyes. The median follow-up time was 7.7 months. The median dose delivered to either eye was 20 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) in 2 fractions. Local control was 94%. The median survival after diagnosis of uveal metastases was 12.3 months (95% confidence interval, 7.7-16.8). Death in all cases was secondary to systemic disease. Radiation vasculopathy, measured decreased visual acuity, or both was observed in 50% of evaluable treated eyes. The actuarial rate of radiation vasculopathy, measured decreased visual acuity, or both was 46% at 6 months and 73% at 1 year. The 6 eyes with documented local failure were successfully salvaged with retreatment. Conclusions: Proton therapy is an effective and efficient means of treating uveal metastases. Acutely, the majority of patients experience minor adverse effects. For longer-term survivors, the risk of retinal injury with vision loss increases significantly over the first year.

  20. Thermoablation of Liver Metastases: Efficacy of Temporary Celiac Plexus Block

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, A.N. Schaefer, M.; Werk, M.; Pech, M.; Wieners, G.; Cho, C.; Ricke, J.

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of celiac plexus block during thermoablation of liver metastases. Methods. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent thermoablation therapy of liver tumors by laser-induced thermotherapy. Twenty-nine patients received a temporary celiac plexus block, 26 patients acted as control group. In both groups fentanyl and midazolam were administered intravenously upon request of the patient. The duration of the intervention, consumption of opiates, and individual pain sensations were documented. Results. No complications resulting from the celiac plexus block were recorded. Celiac plexus block significantly reduced the amount of pain medication used during thermoablation therapy of liver tumors (with block, 2.45 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight; without block, 3.58 {mu}g fentanyl per kg body weight, p < 0.05; midazolam consumption was not reduced) in patients with metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule. For metastases farther away from the capsule no significant differences in opiate consumption were seen. Celiac plexus block reduced the time for thermoablation significantly (178 min versus 147 min, p < 0.05) no matter how far the metastases were from the liver capsule. Average time needed to set the block was 12 min (range 9-15 min); additional costs for the block were marginal. As expected (as pain medications were given according to individual patients' needs) pain indices did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion. In patients with liver metastases {<=}5 mm from the liver capsule, celiac plexus block reduces the amount of opiates necessary, simplifying patient monitoring. In addition celiac plexus block reduces intervention time, with positive effects on overall workflow for all patients.

  1. Polymeric nanocomposites loaded with fluoridated hydroxyapatite Ln3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb)/iron oxide for magnetic targeted cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Liu, Wei-Jiao; Hua, Chao; Wang, Li-Li; Wan, Dong; Gong, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To fabricate polymeric nanocomposites with excellent photoluminescence, magnetic properties, and stability in aqueous solutions, in order to improve specificity and sensitivity of cellular imaging under a magnetic field. Methods Fluoridated Ln3+-doped HAP (Ln3+-HAP) NPs and iron oxides (IOs) can be encapsulated with biocompatible polymers via a modified solvent exaction/evaporation technique to prepare polymeric nanocomposites with fluoridated Ln3+-HAP/iron oxide. The nanocomposites were characterized for surface morphology, fluorescence spectra, magnetic properties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Magnetic targeted cellular imaging of such nanocomposites was also evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscope using A549 cells with or without magnetic field. Results The fabricated nanocomposites showed good stability and excellent luminescent properties, as well as low in vitro cytotoxicity, indicating that the nanocomposites are suitable for biological applications. Nanocomposites under magnetic field achieved much higher cellular uptake via an energy-dependent pathway than those without magnetic field. Conclusion The nanocomposites fabricated in this study will be a promising tool for magnetic targeted cellular imaging with improved specificity and enhanced selection. PMID:26487962

  2. [Advances in Bevacizumab Therapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
with Brain Metastases].

    PubMed

    Qu, Liyan; Geng, Rui; Song, Xia

    2016-08-20

    Brain metastases are frequently encountered in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Antiangiogenesis therapy plays a major role in the management of brain metastases in lung cancer. Bevacizumab have become the novel method for the treatment of lung cancer with brain metastases beyond the whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapy. Recently, more and more studies and trials laid emphasis on the bevacizumab for NSCLC with brain metastases treatment. The key point is the efficacy and safety. In this review, bevacizumab therapy of NSCLC with brain metastases were summarized. PMID:27561800

  3. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with multiple hemorrhagic brain metastases (case report)].

    PubMed

    Halefoğlu, Ahmet M; Ertürk, Mehmet; Ozel, Alper; Calişkan, K Can

    2004-06-01

    Intracranial metastases represent 7-17% of all brain tumors. Renal cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, choriocarcinoma, melanoma, retinoblastoma, lung cancer and breast cancer have a propensity for producing hemorrhagic brain metastases. Leukemias have also been rarely reported to cause hemorrhagic brain metastases. We describe an 18-year-old girl diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with multiple hemorrhagic brain metastases. MRI demonstrated high signal intensity lesions on both T1- and T2-weighted images which were characteristic for extracellular methemoglobin and consistent with hemorrhagic metastases. PMID:15236125

  4. Comparative study of ultrasonography and scintigraphy in liver metastases detection in cases of colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaud, J.P.; Daly, R.; Leguillou, A.; Adloff, M. )

    1982-02-01

    A comparative study has been realized to test the accuracy of ultrasonography and scintigraphy for detecting the presence of liver metastases in 305 patients with colorectal carcinomas. Presence or absence of hepatic metastases has been affirmed by laparotomy and biopsy. In the 47 cases with metastases, the sensitivity of ultrasonography was 93%, that of scintigraphy being 76%. In 258 cases without metastases the specificity of ultrasonography was 97%, that of scintigraphy being 92%. These results, confirmed by report in the published literature, show that ultrasonography should be the first examination for suspected hepatic metastases.

  5. Highly uniform and monodisperse GdOF:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Sm) microspheres: hydrothermal synthesis and tunable-luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Xiaojiao; Geng, Dongling; Shang, Mengmeng; Wu, Yuan; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2013-10-21

    GdOF:Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Tm, Dy, Ho and Sm) microspheres (1.5 μm) with high uniformity and monodispersity have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment (600 °C). X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are used to characterize the resulting samples. A series of controlled experiments indicate that sodium citrate (Cit(3-)) as a shape modifier introduced into the reaction system plays a critical role in the shape evolution of the final products. Furthermore, the shape and size of the products can be further manipulated by adjusting the dosage of Cit(3-) and pH values in the initial solution. The possible formation mechanism for these microspheres has been presented. Under UV light and low-voltage electron beam excitation, GdOF:Ln(3+) microspheres show the characteristic f-f transitions of Ln(3+) (Eu, Tb/Ho, Tm, Dy and Sm) ions and give bright red, green, blue, yellow and yellowish-orange emission, respectively. In addition, multicolored luminescence containing white emission have been successfully confected for co-doped GdOF:Ln(3+) phosphors by changing the doped Ln(3+) ions and adjusting their doping concentrations due to the simultaneous luminescence of Ln(3+) in the GdOF host, making these materials have potential applications in field-emission display devices. PMID:23942823

  6. Magnetic ordering of divalent europium in double perovskites Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Yoshitaka; Doi, Yoshihiro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2011-06-15

    Structures and magnetic properties of double perovskite-type oxides Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=Eu, Dy-Lu) were investigated. These compounds adopt a distorted double perovskite structure with space group P2{sub 1}/n. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements show that the Eu{sup 2+} ions at the 12-coordinate sites of the perovskite structure are antiferromagnetically ordered at {approx}4 K, and that Ln{sup 3+} ions at the 6-coordinate site are in the paramagnetic state down to 1.8 K. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic properties of double perovskite-type oxides Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=Eu, Dy-Lu) were investigated. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements show that the Eu{sup 2+} ions at the 12-coordinate sites of the perovskite structure are antiferromagnetically ordered at {approx}4 K. Highlights: > Crystal structures of double perovskites Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earth) were determined. > We found that these compounds show an antiferromagnetic ordering at {approx}4 K. > The magnetic ordering is due to the interactions of Eu{sup 2+} ions. > It was elucidated by specific heat and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements.

  7. Gold-gold bonding: the key to stabilizing the 19-electron ternary phases LnAuSb (Ln = La-Nd and Sm).

    PubMed

    Seibel, Elizabeth M; Schoop, Leslie M; Xie, Weiwei; Gibson, Quinn D; Webb, James B; Fuccillo, Michael K; Krizan, Jason W; Cava, Robert J

    2015-01-28

    We report a new family of ternary 111 hexagonal LnAuSb (Ln = La-Nd, Sm) compounds that, with a 19 valence electron count, has one extra electron compared to all other known LnAuZ compounds. LaAuSb, CeAuSb, PrAuSb, NdAuSb, and SmAuSb crystallize in the YPtAs-type structure, and have a doubled unit cell compared to other LnAuZ phases as a result of the buckling of the Au-Sb honeycomb layers to create interlayer Au-Au dimers. The dimers accommodate the one excess electron per Au and thus these new phases can be considered Ln2(3+)(Au-Au)(0)Sb2(3-). Band structure, density of states, and crystal orbital calculations confirm this picture, which results in a nearly complete band gap between full and empty electronic states and stable compounds; we can thus present a structural stability phase diagram for the LnAuZ (Z = Ge, As, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi) family of phases. Those calculations also show that LaAuSb has a bulk Dirac cone below the Fermi level. The YPtAs-type LnAuSb family reported here is an example of the uniqueness of gold chemistry applied to a rigidly closed shell system in an unconventional way. PMID:25543990

  8. Enhanced visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity of LnFeO{sub 3} (Ln = La, Sm) nanoparticles by synergistic catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiong; Zhang, Yange

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • LnFeO{sub 3} (Ln = La, Sm) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile sol–gel method. • The samples exhibit superior visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activity. • Synergistic effect will enhance the photodegradation of RhB under visible light. - Abstract: LnFeO{sub 3} (Ln = La, Sm) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile sol–gel method with assistance of glycol at different calcination temperatures. The as-synthesized LnFeO{sub 3} was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behaviors of LnFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity of LnFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles was enhanced remarkably by the synergistic effect between the semiconductor photocatalysis and Fenton-like reaction. And a possible catalytic mechanism was also proposed based on the experimental results.

  9. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  10. A Detection of Water in the Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b and Implications for Its Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Barstow, Joanna K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed characterization of exoplanets has begun to yield measurements of their atmospheric properties that constrain the planets’ origins and evolution. For example, past observations of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b indicated that its atmosphere has a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O > 1), suggesting it had a different formation pathway than is commonly assumed for giant planets. Here we report a precise near-infrared transmission spectrum for WASP-12b based on six transit observations with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3. We bin the data in 13 spectrophotometric light curves from 0.84 to 1.67 μm and measure the transit depths to a median precision of 51 ppm. We retrieve the atmospheric properties using the transmission spectrum and find strong evidence for water absorption (7σ confidence). This detection marks the first high-confidence, spectroscopic identification of a molecule in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. The retrieved 1 σ water volume mixing ratio is between 10-5 and 10-2, which is consistent with C/O > 1 to within 2σ. However, we also introduce a new retrieval parameterization that fits for C/O and metallicity under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. With this approach, we constrain C/O to {0.5}-0.3+0.2 at 1σ and rule out a carbon-rich atmosphere composition (C/O > 1) at >3σ confidence. Further observations and modeling of the planet’s global thermal structure and dynamics would aid in resolving the tension between our inferred C/O and previous constraints. Our findings highlight the importance of obtaining high-precision data with multiple observing techniques in order to obtain robust constraints on the chemistry and physics of exoplanet atmospheres.

  11. Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  12. HAT-P-12b: A LOW-DENSITY SUB-SATURN MASS PLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR K DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Pal, A.; Latham, D. W.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Kovacs, Gabor; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.

    2009-11-20

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-12b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V approx 12.8 K4 dwarf GSC 03033 - 00706, with a period P = 3.2130598 +- 0.0000021 d, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454419.19556 +- 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.0974 +- 0.0006 d. The host star has a mass of 0.73 +- 0.02 M{sub sun}, radius of 0.70{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01} R{sub sun}, effective temperature 4650 +- 60 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.29 +- 0.05. We find a slight correlation between the observed spectral line bisector spans and the radial velocity, so we consider, and rule out, various blend configurations including a blend with a background eclipsing binary, and hierarchical triple systems where the eclipsing body is a star or a planet. We conclude that a model consisting of a single star with a transiting planet best fits the observations, and show that a likely explanation for the apparent correlation is contamination from scattered moonlight. Based on this model, the planetary companion has a mass of 0.211 +- 0.012 M{sub J} and radius of 0.959{sup +0.029}{sub -0.021} R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.295 +- 0.025 g cm{sup -3}. Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-12b is consistent with a approx1-4.5 Gyr, mildly irradiated, H/He-dominated planet with a core mass M{sub C} approx< 10 M {sub +}. HAT-P-12b is thus the least massive H/He-dominated gas giant planet found to date. This record was previously held by Saturn.

  13. Renal cancer seeding metastases following retroperitoneoscopic-assisted cryoablation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Maaike W.; Kortekaas, Bettina; Lagerveld, Brunolf W.

    2015-01-01

    Nephron-sparing laparoscopy is the standard surgical treatment for clinical T1a renal tumours. However, the laparoscopic technique brings in its specific oncological safety concerns. Seeding metastases are reported: peritoneal metastases, port-tract metastases, and (sub-) cutaneous metastases. The method of laparoscopic assisted renal mass cryoablation is marked by the fact that traumatic tumour tissue handling is unavoidable. This case report reviews the rare occasion of seeding metastases in the retroperitoneal space following laparoscopic cryoablation of a small renal mass. The primary tumour showed no focal recurrence as reported by histological examination. The combination of two events as harming the integrity of cancer tissue and gas-circulation leading to the development of metastases in the retroperitoneal cavity is discussed. The combination of iatrogenic harming cancer tissue integrity and CO2-circulation leads to metastases in the retroperitoneal cavity. Therefore, we recommend performing image-guided renal mass biopsies before considering cryoablative surgery. PMID:26425230

  14. A case of brain and leptomeningeal metastases from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Erhamamcı, S; Reyhan, M; Altinkaya, N

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases are unusual from urethelial carcinoma of bladder and particularly the occurrence of leptomeningeal metastases is extremely rare, with few cases described in the literature. We present a case of a 45-year-old man with a rare brain metastases as the first metastatic manifestation secondary to urethelial carcinoma of bladder followed by leptomeningeal metastases without any other organ involvement. Eleven months after the diagnosis of high-grade urethelial carcinoma of bladder (T2N0M0), the patient was detected having brain metastases by MRI. FDG PET/CT images for the metastatic evaluation showed no abnormal FDG uptake elsewhere in the body except the brain. Histopathology examination from brain lesion demonstrated the cerebral lesion to be a metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Two months later, the patient was diagnosed to have leptomeningeal metastases by MRI. Our patient's condition gradually worsened, and he died 3 months after the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases. PMID:25043771

  15. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  16. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  17. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  18. Syntheses, crystal structures and vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Höppe, Henning A.

    2010-09-01

    The potassium lanthanide double sulphates K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of rare earth (III) sulphates and potassium thiocyanate at 298 K. X-ray single-crystal investigations show that K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O ( Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) crystallise monoclinically ( Ln=Sm: P2 1/ c, Z=4, a=10.047(1), b=8.4555(1), c=10.349(1) Å, w R2=0.060, R1=0.024, 945 reflections, 125 parameters) while KLa(SO 4) 2·H 2O adopts space group P3 221 (Z=3, a=7.1490(5), c=13.2439(12) Å, w R2=0.038, R1=0.017, 695 reflections, 65 parameters). The coordination environment of the lanthanide ions in K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O is different in the case of the Nd/Sm/Gd and the Eu/Dy compounds, respectively. In the first case the Ln atoms are nine-fold coordinated in contrast to the latter where the Ln ions are eight-fold coordinated by oxygen atoms. The vibrational spectra of K Ln(SO 4) 2·H 2O and the UV-vis reflection spectra of KEu(SO 4) 2·H 2O and KNd(SO 4) 2·H 2O are also reported.

  19. The structure of new nickel(I) oxides: LnSr 5Ni 3O 8 (Ln = Y, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Attfield, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    Stoichiometric oxides of 3d 9 nickel(I), LnSr 5Ni 3O 8 (Ln = Y, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm), have been prepared through the hydrogen reduction of LnSr 5Ni 3O 11, resulting in a change from a tetragonal K 2NiF 4 type structure to an orthorhombic Sr 2CuO 3 arrangement in which {1}/{3} of the bridging oxygen atoms are missing from chains of apex-linked nickel oxide square planes.

  20. A quantum chemistry investigation on the structure of lanthanide triflates Ln(OTf)3 where Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Er, Yb and Lu.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Douniazed; Ouddai, Nadia; Chermette, Henry

    2010-04-21

    Density functional theory has been used to probe the electronic structure, coordination number, optical properties and the vibration spectra of monolanthanide trifluoromethane sulfonate Ln(OTf)(3) complexes where Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Er, Yb and Lu. The study reveals that the OTf group is bonded to Ln as a bidentate ligand. TDDFT calculations show that, for La(OTf)(3), MLTC and HOMO-LUMO transitions in the UV-vis are strongly bathochromically shifted compared to those of Lu(OTf)(3.). PMID:20354620

  1. Crystal structure of LiLnW{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ln=lanthanides and Y): An X-ray powder diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Postema, J.M.; Fu, W.T.; IJdo, D.J.W.

    2011-08-15

    Crystal structures that occur in LiLnW{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ln=lanthanides and Y) have been studied using Rietveld profile analysis of X-ray diffraction data. Two types of structures were observed. The scheelite structure of the space group I4{sub 1}/a is adopted for compounds containing large lanthanides Ln=La-Gd. For smaller lanthanides (Ln=Dy-Lu and Y) the wolframite structure with the space group P2/n is observed. In LiTbW{sub 2}O{sub 8}, both structures occur. The phase transition between the two is a slow process making the obtainment of pure low temperature phase (wolframite) difficult. The space groups P1-bar and P2, recently reported for LiEuW{sub 2}O{sub 8} and LiYW{sub 2}O{sub 8}, have not been observed in this series of compounds. - Graphical abstract: Part of the X-ray diffraction patterns of LiSmW{sub 2}O{sub 8} and LiDyW{sub 2}O{sub 8} representing two structure types in LiLnW{sub 2}O{sub 8}: the scheelite with Ln=La-Gd and wolframite with Ln=Dy-Lu and Y. In LiTbW{sub 2}O{sub 8} both the scheelite and the wolframite structures occur at high and low temperatures, respectively. Highlights: > Double tungstates of the formula LiLnW{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ln=lanthanides and Y) were systematically synthesised and their crystal structures were determined. > LiLnW{sub 2}O{sub 8} adopt either the scheelite structure (I4{sub 1}/a) (Ln=La-Gd) or wolframite structure (P2/n) (Ln=Dy-Lu and Y). > Both structures occur in LiTbW{sub 2}O{sub 8} and the I4{sub 1}/a{yields}P2/n phase transition is a slow process. > The space groups P1-bar and P2 recently reported for LiEuW{sub 2}O{sub 8} and LiYW{sub 2}O{sub 8} were not observed.

  2. Solvothermal syntheses, and characterization of [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb): The effect of lanthanide contraction on the crystal structures of lanthanide selenidoantimonates(V)

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Dingxian Zhu Aimei; Jin Qinyan; Zhang Yong; Jiang Wenqing

    2008-09-15

    Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Pr(1b)) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu(2a), Gd(2b), Er(2c), Tm(2d), Yb(2e); en=ethylenediamine) were solvothermally synthesized by reactions of LnCl{sub 3}, Sb and Se with the stoichiometric ratio in en solvent at 140 deg. C. The four-en coordinated lanthanide complex cation [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} formed in situ balances the charge of SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion. In compounds 1a and 1b, the SbSe{sub 4}{sup 3-} anion act as a monodentate ligand to coordinate complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+} and the neutral compound [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] is formed. The Ln{sup 3+} ion has a nine-coordinated environment involving eight N atoms and one Se atom forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. In 2a-2e the lanthanide(III) ion exists as isolated complex [Ln(en){sub 4}]{sup 3+}, in which the Ln{sup 3+} ion is in a bicapped trigonal prism geometry. A systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series. TG curves show that compounds 1a-1b and 2a-2e remove their organic components in one and two steps, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates [Ln(en){sub 4}(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce, Pr) and [Ln(en){sub 4}]SbSe{sub 4}.0.5en (Ln=Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb; en=ethylenediamine) have been synthesized under the mild solvothermal conditions, and a systematic investigation of the crystal structures reveals that two types of structural features of these lanthanide selenidoantimonates are related with lanthanides contraction across the lanthanide series.

  3. Converting potent indeno[1,2-b]indole inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 into selective inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Jabor Gozzi, Gustavo; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Aichele, Dagmar; Nacereddine, Abdelhamid; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Zeinyeh, Waël; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Lacoudre, Aline; Pinaud, Noël; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives were synthesized as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors contained a N(5)-isopropyl substituent on the C-ring. The same series of compounds was found to also inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 but with totally different structure-activity relationships: a N(5)-phenethyl substituent was critical, and additional hydrophobic substituents at position 7 or 8 of the D-ring or a methoxy at phenethyl position ortho or meta also contributed to inhibition. The best ABCG2 inhibitors, such as 4c, 4h, 4i, 4j, and 4k, behaved as very weak inhibitors of CK2, whereas the most potent CK2 inhibitors, such as 4a, 4p, and 4e, displayed limited interaction with ABCG2. It was therefore possible to convert, through suitable substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione scaffold, potent CK2 inhibitors into selective ABCG2 inhibitors and vice versa. In addition, some of the best ABCG2 inhibitors, which displayed a very low cytotoxicity, thus giving a high therapeutic ratio, and appeared not to be transported, constitute promising candidates for further investigations. PMID:25272055

  4. Analysis of SRM model nozzle calibration test data in support of IA12B, IA12C and IA36 space shuttle launch vehicle aerodynamics tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of nozzle performance characteristics of the model nozzles used in the Space Shuttle IA12B, IA12C, IA36 power-on launch vehicle test series are shown by comparison between experimental and analytical data. The experimental data are nozzle wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs of the exhaust plume shapes. The exhaust plume shapes were simulated experimentally with cold flow while the analytical data were generated using a method-of-characteristics solution. Exhaust plume boundaries, boundary shockwave locations and nozzle wall pressure measurements calculated analytically agree favorably with the experimental data from the IA12C and IA36 test series. For the IA12B test series condensation was suspected in the exhaust plumes at the higher pressure ratios required to simulate the prototype plume shapes. Nozzle calibration tests for the series were conducted at pressure ratios where condensation either did not occur or if present did not produce a noticeable effect on the plume shapes. However, at the pressure ratios required in the power-on launch vehicle tests condensation probably occurs and could significantly affect the exhaust plume shapes.

  5. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatic Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Mihir; Bande, Dinesh; Pillai, Anil K.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Ganguli, Suvranu; Beg, Muhammad S.; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2014-01-01

    Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) result in substantial morbidity and mortality. The primary treatment is systemic chemotherapy, and in selected patients, surgical resection; however, for patients who are not surgical candidates and/or fail systemic chemotherapy, liver-directed therapies are increasingly being utilized. Yttrium-90 (Y-90) microsphere therapy, also known as selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) or radioembolization, has proven to be effective in terms of extending time to progression of disease and also providing survival benefit. This review focuses on the use of Y-90 microsphere therapy in the treatment of liver metastases from CRC, including a comprehensive review of published clinical trials and prospective studies conducted thus far. We review the methodology, outcomes, and side effects of Y-90 microsphere therapy for metastatic CRC. PMID:25120951

  6. [A Case of Cecal Cancer with Multiple Cutaneous Metastases].

    PubMed

    Komoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Ryota; Kametani, Naoki; Kato, Yukihiro; Yamagata, Shigehito; Nakazawa, Kazunori; Kanehara, Isao; Ako, Eiji; Yamada, Nobuya; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Fujita, Shigeki; Taenaka, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    We encountered a case of cutaneous metastases from colorectal carcinoma. A 63-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic-assisted ileocecal resection for cecal cancer. Computed tomography (CT) showed multiple liver metastases. The tumor was diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and was staged as pSE, pN1, sH2, ly1, v1, CP0cM0, fStage Ⅳ. She was treated with 33 courses of the 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) regimen and 15 courses of the 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab regimen. Thirty-four months after resection, multiple cutaneous tumors were noted, predominantly on the lower abdomen, and we resected 2 of them. Histologically, the specimens were diagnosed as well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was similar to that of cecal carcinoma. After 1 course of regorafenib, she died 3 years after the primary surgical resection. PMID:26805285

  7. Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Goéré, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Occurring either synchronously or metachronously to the primary tumor, peritoneal metastases (PM) are diagnosed in 8 to 20 % of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognosis of these patients appears to be worse than those with other sites of metastases. While systemic therapy has shown significant prolongation of survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, the outcomes in the subset of patients with PM has been much inferior. Over the last 2 decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been effective in substantially prolonging survival in patients with colorectal PM and have the potential to cure certain patients as well. This article reviews the current evidence for CRS and HIPEC to treat colorectal PM as well as future research going on in this form of locoregional treatment. PMID:27065708

  8. Multiple pulmonary metastases with cavitation from gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, K; Ishii, Y; Hironaka, M; Kitamura, S

    1998-03-01

    We report a rare case of multiple pulmonary metastases with cavitation from gallbladder cancer. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of productive cough and exertional dyspnea. Chest X-ray film showed multiple nodular shadows with some cavitation. Computed tomography showed multiple cavities, up to 2 cm in diameter, as well as nodules, in bilateral lung fields. Under a survey of primary focus, the ultrasonographic test of the abdomen revealed a hypoechoic mass in the hepatic hilum. The patient died of respiratory failure. Autopsy findings revealed that that multiple lung tumors had metastasized from papillary adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and that cavitation of the lung was formed by bronchioloectasis. PMID:9617865

  9. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  10. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wiencek-Weiss, Alina Janina; Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  11. Right cardiac intracavitary metastases from a primary intracranial myxofibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diogo Alpuim; Barata, Pedro; Gouveia, Emanuel; Mafra, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Primary intracranial myxofibrosarcoma is exceedingly rare, with less than 10 cases published. We present a case of a 23-year-old man with previous history of a primary low grade myxofibrosarcoma of the left parietal-occipital convexity resected in March 1999. He subsequently underwent several interventions for multiple local recurrent disease until March 2004. At that time, complete remission was documented. About 8 years later, in February 2012, the patient was admitted to the emergency room with refractory acute pulmonary oedema. On work up, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and hyperechoic myocardial mass with invasion of the right ventricular cavity were detected. Electrical cardioversion was unsuccessful and irreversible cardiac arrest followed. The autopsy confirmed multiple bilateral lung metastases, malignant pulmonary embolism and myocardial invasion by the primary tumour, with intracavitary cardiac thrombosis and absence of intracranial disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of extracranial metastases of this neoplasm. PMID:27013654

  12. Surgical treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulfas, Georgios; Pramateftakis, Manousos Georgios; Kanellos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers in Western societies with an incidence of around 700 per million people. About half of the patients develop metastases from the primary tumor and liver is the primary metastatic site. Improved survival rates after hepatectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported in the last few years and these may be the result of a variety of factors, such as advances in systemic chemotherapy, radiographic imaging techniques that permit more accurate determination of the extent and location of the metastatic burden, local ablation methods, and in surgical techniques of hepatic resection. These have led to a more aggressive approach towards liver metastatic disease, resulting in longer survival. The goal of this paper is to review the role of various forms of surgery in the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. PMID:21267397

  13. Radiofrequency ablation for neuroendocrine liver metastases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Helen; Nicholson, Patrick; Winter, Des C; O'Shea, Donal; O'Toole, Dermot; Geoghegan, Justin; Maguire, Donal; Hoti, Emir; Traynor, Oscar; Cantwell, Colin P

    2015-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases. A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Eight studies were included (N = 301). Twenty-six percent of RF ablation procedures were percutaneous (n = 156), with the remainder conducted at surgery. Forty-eight percent of patients had a concomitant liver resection. Fifty-four percent of patients presented with symptoms, with 92% reporting symptom improvement following RF ablation (alone or in combination with surgery). The median duration of symptom improvement was 14-27 months. However, recurrence was common (63%-87%). RF ablation can provide symptomatic relief in NET liver metastases alone or in combination with surgery. PMID:25840836

  14. An update in the management of spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Powers, Ann; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark H

    2015-09-01

    The best clinical treatment for spinal metastases requires an integrated approach with input from an interdisciplinary cancer team. The principle goals of treatment are maintenance or improvement in neurologic function and ambulation, spinal stability, durable tumor control, and pain relief. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of new technologies that have impacted our ability to reach these goals, such as separation surgery and minimally invasive spinal procedures. The biggest advance, however, has been the evolution of stereotactic radiosurgery that has demonstrated durable tumor control both when delivered as definitive therapy and as a postoperative adjuvant even for tumors considered markedly resistant to conventional external beam radiation. In this paper, we perform an update on the management of spinal metastases demonstrating the integration of these new technologies into a decision framework NOMS that assesses four basic aspects of a patient's spine disease: Neurologic, Oncologic, Mechanical Instability and Systemic disease. PMID:26352500

  15. Targeting tumor metastases: drug delivery mechanisms and technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Vidya; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Roth, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Primary sites of tumor are the focal triggers of cancers, yet it is the subsequent metastasis events that cause the majority of the morbidity and mortality. Metastatic tumor cells exhibit a phenotype that differs from that of the parent cells, as they represent a resistant, invasive subpopulation of the original tumor, may have acquired additional genetic or epigenetic alterations under exposure to prior chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic treatments, and reside in a microenvironment differing from that of its origin. This combination of resistant phenotype and distal location make tracking and treating metastases particularly challenging. In this review, we highlight some of the unique biological traits of metastasis, which in turn, inspire emerging strategies for targeted imaging of metastasized tumors and metastasis-directed delivery of therapeutics. PMID:26409123

  16. Urothelial Cancer With Occult Bone Marrow Metastases and Isolated Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Alva, Ajjai; Davis, Elizabeth; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Dhanasekaran, Saravana; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer rarely presents clinically with a myelophthisic picture from diffuse bone marrow infiltration especially in the absence of detectable skeletal metastases. A 75-year old man presented with newly diagnosed urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pathology from transurethral resection of bladder tumor demonstrated muscle-invasive disease. Pre-therapy imaging including CT abdomen/pelvis, CXR and bone scan demonstrated liver lesions concerning for metastatic disease but no skeletal metastases. Labs were notable for isolated thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury prompting hospitalization. Hematologic work-up including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by urothelial cancer. The case illustrates the importance of fully investigating otherwise unexplained clinical findings in patients with clinically localized urothelial cancer prior to curative intent surgery. PMID:26793516

  17. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    El-Habashy, Salma E.; Nazief, Alaa M.; Adkins, Chris E.; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H.; Hamdan, Ahmed M.; Hanafy, Amira S.; Terrell, Tori O.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Lockman, Paul R.; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood–brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  18. [Efficacy of Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer with Bone Metastases].

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, So; Watanabe, Takafumi; Makuuchi, Yosuke; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Sumi, Tetsuo; Takagaki, Shinichi; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tachibana, Shingo; Oosaka, Yoshiaki; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Kawachi, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    We retrospectively considered the validity of radiotherapy for patients with bone metastases from esophageal cancer. Eight patients have received radiotherapy in our hospital since 2007. The median age of the patients was 63 years, with 5 men and 3 women. Bone metastatic sites were 4 to the vertebrae, 3 to the ribs, 3 to the femur and 1 each to the humerus, ulna, and radius, respectively. All of the patients had other unresectable sites of metastasis. Radiotherapy reduced pain of 3 patients of PS 1 clearly. Median survival time from the start of radiation therapy was 50 days. When PS was relatively good, the possibility of easing pain and improving QOL was suggested by our data. There is a possibility that radiation therapy for patients with bone metastases from esophageal cancer can improve the QOL and alleviate pain. PMID:26805091

  19. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Nazief, Alaa M; Adkins, Chris E; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H; Hamdan, Ahmed M; Hanafy, Amira S; Terrell, Tori O; Mohammad, Afroz S; Lockman, Paul R; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2014-05-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood-brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  20. Recommendations for management of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Frilling, Andrea; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Russell, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan; Salem, Riad; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Lau, Wan-yee; Klersy, Catherine; Vilgrain, Valerie; Davidson, Brian; Siegler, Mark; Caplin, Martyn; Solcia, Enrico; Schilsky, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Many management strategies exist for neuroendocrine liver metastases. These strategies range from surgery to ablation with various interventional radiology procedures, and include both regional and systemic therapy with diverse biological, cytotoxic, or targeted agents. A paucity of biological, molecular, and genomic information and an absence of data from rigorous trials limit the validity of many publications detailing management. This Review represents the views from an international conference, for which 15 expert working groups prepared evidence-based assessments addressing specific questions, and from which an independent jury derived final recommendations. The aim of the conference was to review the existing approaches to neuroendocrine liver metastases, assess the evidence on which management decisions were based, develop internationally acceptable recommendations for clinical practice (when evidence was available), and make recommendations for clinical and research endeavours. This report represents the final clinical statements and proposals for future research. PMID:24384494

  1. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  2. Galactic chemical evolution - Z versus ln(1/mu) relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The ways in which a radial abundance gradient in a disk galaxy may be interpreted are reexamined, asking how metallicity Z depends upon gas mass fraction mu in analytic models characterized by a temporally varying history of metal-poor infall. Six different such models are studied, and it is shown that the metallicity versus gas fraction relationship is well approximated by an expression which is the analog of the Z = y ln(1/mu) relation for closed evolution. The approximation appears valid when the infall rate is nonneglible, but not so great that it dominates the gas budget.

  3. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jiayong; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  4. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical profile of ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kir, Gozde; Gurbuz, Ayse; Karateke, Ates; Kir, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma of the ovary is not an uncommon occurrence and ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma frequently mimic endometrioid and mucinous primary ovarian carcinoma. The clinical and pathologic features of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the ovary is reviewed with particular focus on the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains that may be useful in the differential diagnosis of metastatic colorectal tumors to the ovary and primary ovarian tumors are detailed. PMID:21160859

  5. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  6. Halofuginone inhibits the establishment and progression of melanoma bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Patricia; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Yin, Juan Juan; Fournier, Pierrick GJ.; McKenna, Ryan C.; Davis, Holly W.; Peng, Xiang H.; Niewolna, Maria; Javelaud, Delphine; Chirgwin, John M.; Mauviel, Alain; Guise, Theresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) derived from bone fuels melanoma bone metastases by inducing tumor secretion of pro-metastatic factors that act on bone cells to change the skeletal microenvironment. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid derivative that blocks TGF-β signaling with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that halofuginone therapy decreases development and progression of bone metastasis caused by melanoma cells through inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Halofuginone treatment of human melanoma cells inhibited cell proliferation, phosphorylation of SMAD proteins in response to TGF-β, and TGF-β-induced SMAD-driven transcription. In addition, halofuginone reduced expression of TGF-β target genes that enhance bone metastases, including PTHrP, CTGF, CXCR4, and IL11. Also, cell apoptosis was increased in response to halofuginone. In nude mice inoculated with 1205Lu melanoma cells, a preventive protocol with halofuginone inhibited bone metastasis. The beneficial effects of halofuginone treatment were comparable to those observed with other anti-TGF-β strategies, including systemic administration of SD208, a small molecule inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I kinase, or forced overexpression of Smad7, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, mice with established bone metastases treated with halofuginone had significantly less osteolysis than mice receiving placebo assessed by radiographys. Thus, halofuginone is also effective in reducing the progression of melanoma bone metastases. Moreover, halofuginone treatment reduced melanoma metastasis to the brain, showing the potential of this novel treatment against cancer metastasis. PMID:23002206

  7. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Single Brainstem Metastases: The Cleveland Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Chao, Samuel T.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the imaging and clinical outcomes of patients with single brainstem metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data from patients with single brainstem metastases treated with SRS. Locoregional control and survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Between 1997 and 2007, 43 patients with single brainstem metastases were treated with SRS. The median age at treatment was 59 years, the median Karnofsky performance status was 80, and the median follow-up was 5.3 months. The median dose was 15 Gy (range, 9.6-24), and the median conformality and heterogeneity index was 1.7 and 1.9, respectively. The median survival was 5.8 months from the procedure date. Of the 33 patient with post-treatment imaging available, a complete radiographic response was achieved in 2 (4.7%), a partial response in 8 (18.6%), and stable disease in 23 (53.5%). The 1-year actuarial rate of local control, distant brain control, and overall survival was 85%, 38.3%, and 31.5%, respectively. Of the 43 patients, 8 (19%) died within 2 months of undergoing SRS, and 15 (36%) died within 3 months. On multivariate analysis, greater performance status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.95, p = .004), score index for radiosurgery (HR, 0.7; p = .004), graded prognostic assessment score (HR, 0.48; p = .003), and smaller tumor volume (HR, 1.23, p = .002) were associated with improved survival. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that SRS is a safe and effective local therapy for patients with brainstem metastases.

  8. Single-Session Radiofrequency Ablation of Bilateral Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Palussiere, Jean Gomez, Fernando; Cannella, Matthieu; Ferron, Stephane; Descat, Edouard; Fonck, Marianne; Brouste, Veronique; Avril, Antoine

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study examined the feasibility and efficacy of bilateral lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in a single session. Methods: From 2002-2009, patients with bilateral lung metastases were treated by RFA, where possible in a single session under general anesthesia with CT guidance. The second lung was punctured only if no complications occurred after treatment of the first lung. Five lung metastases maximum per patient were treated by RFA and prospectively followed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of acute and delayed complications. Secondary endpoints were calculation of hospitalization duration, local efficacy, median survival, and median time to tumor progression. Local efficacy was evaluated on CT or positron emission tomography (PET) CT. Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated for bilateral lung metastases with RFA (mean age, 62 years). Single-session treatment was not possible in 40 due to severe pneumothoraces (n = 24), bilateral pleural contact (n = 14), and operational exclusions (n = 2). Twenty-seven (41%) received single-session RFA of lesions in both lungs for 66 metastases overall. Fourteen unilateral and four bilateral pneumothoraces occurred (18 overall, 66.7%). Unilateral (n = 13) and bilateral (n = 2) chest tube drainage was required. Median hospitalization was 3 (range, 2-8) days. Median survival was 26 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-33). Four recurrences on RFA sites were observed (4 patients). Median time to tumor progression was 9.5 months (95% CI, 4.2-23.5). Conclusions: Although performing single-session bilateral lung RFA is not always possible due to pneumothoraces after RFA of first lung, when it is performed, this technique is safe and effective.

  9. Outcome after Radiofrequency Ablation of Sarcoma Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Koelblinger, Claus; Strauss, Sandra; Gillams, Alice

    2013-05-14

    PurposeResection is the mainstay of management in patients with sarcoma lung metastases, but there is a limit to how many resections can be performed. Some patients with inoperable disease have small-volume lung metastases that are amenable to thermal ablation. We report our results after radiofrequency ablation (RFA).MethodsThis is a retrospective study of patients treated from 2007 to 2012 in whom the intention was to treat all sites of disease and who had a minimum CT follow-up of 4 months. Treatment was performed under general anesthesia/conscious sedation using cool-tip RFA. Follow-up CT scans were analyzed for local control. Primary tumor type, location, grade, disease-free interval, prior resection/chemotherapy, number and size of lung tumors, uni- or bilateral disease, complications, and overall and progression-free survival were recorded.ResultsTwenty-two patients [15 women; median age 48 (range 10–78) years] with 55 lung metastases were treated in 30 sessions. Mean and median tumor size and initial number were 0.9 cm and 0.7 (range 0.5–2) cm, and 2.5 and 1 (1–7) respectively. Median CT and clinical follow-up were 12 (4–54) and 20 (8–63) months, respectively. Primary local control rate was 52 of 55 (95 %). There were 2 of 30 (6.6 %) Common Terminology Criteria grade 3 complications with no long-term sequelae. Mean (median not reached) and 2- and 3-year overall survival were 51 months, and 94 and 85 %. Median and 1- and 2-year progression-free survival were 12 months, and 53 and 23 %. Prior disease-free interval was the only significant factor to affect overall survival.ConclusionRFA is a safe and effective treatment for patients with small-volume sarcoma metastases.

  10. Non-operative therapies for colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Nosher, John L.; Ahmed, Inaya; Patel, Akshar N.; Gendel, Vyacheslav; Murillo, Philip G.; Moss, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Locoregional therapies for colorectal liver metastases complement systemic therapy by providing an opportunity for local control of hepatic spread. The armamentarium for liver-directed therapy includes ablative therapies, embolization, and stereotactic body radiation therapy. At this time, prospective studies comparing these modalities are limited and decision-making relies on a multidisciplinary approach for optimal patient management. Herein, we describe multiple therapeutic non-surgical procedures and an overview of the results of these treatments. PMID:25830041

  11. Surgical approaches for liver metastases in carcinoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ahmad; Buell, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Liver is the commonest site for metastasis in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs); it occurs in 45-95% of patients. Available treatment options include surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and biotherapy. Surgery is the gold standard for curative therapy. Typically, a multidisciplinary approach is a cornerstone for decision making while dealing with this aggressive disease. This review will focus on the performance and safety of open, laparoscopic, and liver transplant surgical approaches in NETs patients with liver metastases. PMID:26425458

  12. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  13. Extraneural Metastases of Glioblastoma without Simultaneous Central Nervous System Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonki; Yoo, Heon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Gwak, Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known as the most common malignant primary brain tumor. It could easily spread into the adjacent or distant brain tissue by infiltration, direct extension and cerebro-spinal fluid dissemination. The extranueural metastatic spread of GBM is relatively rare but it could have more progressive disease course. We report a 39-year-old man who had multiple bone metastases and malignant pleural effusion of the GBM without primary site recurrence. PMID:25408938

  14. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Cystic Cerebral Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinu, Julius O.; Lwu, Shelly; Monsalves, Eric; Arayee, Mandana; Chung, Caroline; Laperriere, Normand J.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Goetz, Pablo; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of nonsurgical cystic brain metastasis, and to determine predictors of response to GKRS. Methods: We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of brain metastases patients treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. All lesions with a cystic component were identified, and volumetric analysis was done to measure percentage of cystic volume on day of treatment and consecutive follow-up MRI scans. Clinical, radiologic, and dosimetry parameters were reviewed to establish the overall response of cystic metastases to GKRS as well as identify potential predictive factors of response. Results: A total of 111 lesions in 73 patients were analyzed; 57% of lesions received prior whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Lung carcinoma was the primary cancer in 51% of patients, 10% breast, 10% colorectal, 4% melanoma, and 26% other. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were recursive partitioning analysis class 1, the remainder class 2. Mean target volume was 3.3 mL (range, 0.1-23 mL). Median prescription dose was 21 Gy (range, 15-24 Gy). Local control rates were 91%, 63%, and 37% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Local control was improved in lung primary and worse in patients with prior WBRT (univariate). Only lung primary predicted local control in multivariate analysis, whereas age and tumor volume did not. Lesions with a large cystic component did not show a poorer response compared with those with a small cystic component. Conclusions: This study supports the use of GKRS in the management of nonsurgical cystic metastases, despite a traditionally perceived poorer response. Our local control rates are comparable to a matched cohort of noncystic brain metastases, and therefore the presence of a large cystic component should not deter the use of GKRS. Predictors of response included tumor subtype. Prior WBRT decreased effectiveness of SRS for local control rates.

  15. Variable Emission Changes in Bi3+/Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) Co-doped Lutetium Vanadates (LuVO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Hu, Jing; Deng, Surong; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Qianming

    2016-06-01

    High-purity LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) phosphors with tetragonal zircon structures were successfully synthesized. The reactions have been carried out by multiple irradiations with very high efficiency. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the phosphors had rod-like structures with average lengths of about 200 nm. The host absorption edge of LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm) shifted to the longer wavelength side. Furthermore, the red emission of Eu3+ ion and the orange emission of Sm3+ ion are remarkably enhanced by encapsulating Bi3+ in LuVO4 system, whereas in the case of LuVO4: Dy3+/Bi3+, the host absorption and the yellow emission from dysprosium have been suppressed in the presence of Bi3+. These novel findings will facilitate their use in the display field.

  16. Effect of LN2 injection station location on the drive fan power and LN2 requirements of a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis comparing the fan power and coolant (LN2) flow rates resulting from injection of the LN2 either upstream or downstream of the drive fan of a closed circuit transonic cryogenic tunnel is presented. The analysis is restricted to steady state tunnel operation and to the condition that the tunnel walls are adiabatic. The stagnation pressure and temperature range of the tunnel is from 1.0 to 8.8 atm and from 300 K to liquefaction temperature, respectively. Calculations are made using real gas properties of nitrogen. Results show that the fan power and LN2 flow rates are lower if the LN2 is injected upstream of the fan. The lower fan inlet temperature resulting from injecting upstream of the fan has a greater influence on the power than does the additional mass flow going through the fan.

  17. Variable Emission Changes in Bi3+/Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) Co-doped Lutetium Vanadates (LuVO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Hu, Jing; Deng, Surong; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Qianming

    2016-02-01

    High-purity LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) phosphors with tetragonal zircon structures were successfully synthesized. The reactions have been carried out by multiple irradiations with very high efficiency. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the phosphors had rod-like structures with average lengths of about 200 nm. The host absorption edge of LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm) shifted to the longer wavelength side. Furthermore, the red emission of Eu3+ ion and the orange emission of Sm3+ ion are remarkably enhanced by encapsulating Bi3+ in LuVO4 system, whereas in the case of LuVO4: Dy3+/Bi3+, the host absorption and the yellow emission from dysprosium have been suppressed in the presence of Bi3+. These novel findings will facilitate their use in the display field.

  18. Synthesis of LnBa 2Cu 4O 8 (Ln=rare earth elements) ceramics at one atmosphere oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Seiji; Adachi, Hideaki; Setsune, Kentaro; Wasa, Kiyotaka

    1991-05-01

    Bulk superconducting LnBa 2Cu 4O 8 (“124” phase; Ln=Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho) samples were successfully synthesized at one atmosphere oxygen pressure. Rare earth oxides, BaCuO 2 and CuO powders were used as starting materials. Pellets of powder mixtures were sintered at 815°C for 10 days in flowing oxygen, and then pulverized. After addition of small amounts of NaNO 3 and diluted nitric acid, re-pressed pellets were sintered for 10 days again. In the ceramics obtained, the lattice constants increased and Tc values decreased with increasing ionic radii of Ln. The “124” phases were hardly obtained for Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu.

  19. Orbital Metastases from Breast Cancer: Retrospective Analysis at an Academic Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Tiffany M; Tebit, Emaculate V; El Sayed, Ali; Smolkin, Mark E; Dillon, Patrick M

    2016-07-01

    Orbital metastases from breast cancer (BC) are rare, but often debilitating. BC accounts for nearly half of metastases to the orbit. Orbital metastases may be discovered years after the initial diagnosis of BC, and are rare at initial presentation. A search of the institutional data base at an academic cancer center identified BC patients who developed or presented with orbital metastases from 2000 to 2013. Baseline characteristics, treatment modalities, survival and treatment responses were collected from the electronic medical record. There were 20 patients identified with orbital metastases (0.7% of all BC cases). The median age at diagnosis of BC was 49 years; 80% had estrogen positive disease. The interval between the initial diagnosis of BC and the presentation of orbital metastases was 8.5 years (0-19 years). Orbital disease was the initial presentation of BC in two cases. Three patients developed bilateral orbital metastases and seven had accompanying brain metastases. The most common presentation was decreased vision (55%), followed by diplopia (25%). The median survival after orbital metastases was 24 months. Thirteen patients (65%) received local radiation therapy. Of those radiated, 90% reported improvement of orbital symptoms. Other treatments included intraocular bevacizumab, surgery, and systemic therapy. Orbital metastases tend to occur in estrogen receptor positive disease and are often found years after BC onset. Orbital metastases may be associated with the development of brain metastases. Radiotherapy is the preferred local therapy and had high symptom control in this cohort. Oncologists should be aware of the signs of orbital metastases and the treatment options. PMID:27143519

  20. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases.

    PubMed

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both with respect to traditional clinical treatment targets and on the genomic and transcriptomic level. With the increasing use of molecularly targeted therapy, discordance of actionable molecular targets between primary tumors and recurrences can result in nonoptimal treatment or unnecessary side effects. The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine receptors, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic insight into the biology underlying metastatic progression and has the potential to identify novel, potentially druggable, drivers of progression. PMID:27089067

  1. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Casamassima, Franco; Livi, Lorenzo; Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura; Meattini, Icro; Bonucci, Ivano; Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Doro, Raffaela

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  2. Image guidance improves localization of sonographically occult colorectal liver metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L.; Adams, Lauryn B.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Kingham, T. Peter

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the therapeutic benefit of surgical navigation systems is a challenging problem in image-guided surgery. The exact clinical indications for patients that may benefit from these systems is not always clear, particularly for abdominal surgery where image-guidance systems have failed to take hold in the same way as orthopedic and neurosurgical applications. We report interim analysis of a prospective clinical trial for localizing small colorectal liver metastases using the Explorer system (Path Finder Technologies, Nashville, TN). Colorectal liver metastases are small lesions that can be difficult to identify with conventional intraoperative ultrasound due to echogeneity changes in the liver as a result of chemotherapy and other preoperative treatments. Interim analysis with eighteen patients shows that 9 of 15 (60%) of these occult lesions could be detected with image guidance. Image guidance changed intraoperative management in 3 (17%) cases. These results suggest that image guidance is a promising tool for localization of small occult liver metastases and that the indications for image-guided surgery are expanding.

  3. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  4. Port-Site Metastases After Robotic Surgery for Gynecologic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Christine L.; Tabbarah, Rami; Wright, Valena

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is increasingly used for the management of patients with gynecologic malignancies. The rate of port-site metastases in patients undergoing these procedures is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospective database. A total of 220 women underwent robotic-assisted surgery from 2007 through 2011. Malignancy was detected in 145 cases, and 142 met the inclusion criteria with histologically proven cancer and robotically completed surgery. All women who underwent surgical treatment for their malignancies were followed up at the study site for oncology treatments. Results: There were 710 potential port sites for metastasis. We found that 2 of 142 patients each had a single port-site metastasis, for an overall rate of 1.41%, or 0.28% per trocar site. Recurrent disease was not isolated in the two patients found to have port-site metastases because both had concurrent sites of pelvic recurrence. Conclusion: The rate of port-site metastases in patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic malignancies is similar to the published rate in the literature for traditional laparoscopic oncology. PMID:24680146

  5. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming; Li, Tian

    2014-06-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

  6. A direct measurement of strontium-89 activity in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, E; Maughan, R L; Vasan, S; Porter, A T

    1995-06-01

    The total absorbed dose after systemic administration of 89Sr has been determined by measuring directly its activity in bone metastases. Autoradiography was performed on sections of bones obtained from patients treated with 89Sr to study the pattern of deposition. Discs of 5 and 8 mm diameter were cut from metastatic sites and normal bone. The beta-ray activity was determined with a scintillation counter, which was calibrated using similar bovine cancellous bone discs, onto which a known activity of 89Sr was transferred by pipette. From the activity measured, the initial activity (at the time of 89Sr administration) was calculated. The absorbed dose was estimated using the methodology described in NCRP Report No. 58. The estimated initial activity of 89Sr in the bone metastases varied from 2.3 to 240 MBq kg-1, with a mean value of 31 +/- 27 MBq kg-1. The total absorbed dose ranged from 1.3 to 64 Gy, with a mean of 18 +/- 16 Gy. The average total dose to normal bone sites was 1.1 +/- 0.4 Gy. The metastases to normal bone dose ratio in individual samples varied from 8 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 25. These estimates are in agreement with those obtained previously by indirect methods. PMID:7675358

  7. A determination of the oxygen non-stoichiometry of the oxygen storage materials LnBaMn2O5+δ (Ln=Gd, Pr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeamjumnunja, Kannika; Gong, Wenquan; Makarenko, Tatyana; Jacobson, Allan J.

    2016-07-01

    The A-site ordered double-perovskite oxides, LnBaMn2O5+δ (Ln=Gd, Pr), were synthesized and investigated to understand the effect of A site cation substitution on the oxygen storage properties of these materials. The present results are compared with our previous data for YBaMn2O5+δ. The results clearly reveal that changing the Ln cation strongly influences the oxidation/reduction behavior of LnBaMn2O5+δ. Based on thermogravimetric analysis data, oxygen uptake begins at lower temperatures in both air and oxygen in compounds with Ln3+ ions larger than Y3+. These oxides exhibit almost complete and reversible oxygen uptake/release between fully-reduced LnBaMn2O5 and fully-oxidized LnBaMn2O6 during changes of the oxygen partial pressure between air and 1.99% H2/Ar. In addition, the oxygen non-stoichiometries of GdBaMn2O5+δ and PrBaMn2O5+δ were determined as a function of pO2 at 600, 650, 700 and 750 °C by Coulometric titration at near-equilibrium conditions. The results confirm that these materials have two distinct phases on oxidation/reduction with δ≈0, 0.5 and a third phase with a range of composition with an oxygen content (5+δ) approaching ~6. The stabilities of the LnBaMn2O5+δ phases extend over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (∼10-25≤pO2 (atm)≤∼1) depending on temperature. Isothermal experiments show that the larger the Ln3+ cation the lower pO2 for phase conversion. At some temperatures and pO2 conditions, the LnBaMn2O5+δ compounds are unstable with respect to decomposition to BaMnO3-δ and LnMnO3. This instability is more apparent in Coulometric titration experiments than in thermogravimetric analysis. The Coulometric titration experiments are necessarily slow in order to achieve equilibrium oxygen compositions.

  8. Effect of inclining strain on the crystal lattice along an extended series of lanthanide hydroxysulfates Ln(OH)SO4 (Ln = Pr-Yb, except Pm).

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Ralph A; Wilson, Christopher S; Christy, Hunter T; Harris, Kenneth S; Chauhan, Varun; Schutz, Victor; Sullivan, Matthew; Zeller, Matthias; Fronczek, Frank R; Myers, Jacob A; Dammann, Kyle; Duck, James; Smith, Peter M; Okuma, Antony; Johnson, Kristin; Sovesky, Robert; Stroudt, Cameron; Renn, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    A series of trivalent lanthanide hydroxysulfates, Ln(OH)SO(4), (Ln = Pr through Yb, except radioactive Pm) has been synthesized via hydrothermal methods from Ln(2)(SO(4))(3)·8H(2)O by reaction with aqueous NaOH at 170 °C in Teflon lined Parr steel autoclaves, and were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. Two types of arrangements were found in the solid state. The lighter (Ln = Pr-Nd, Sm-Gd) and heavier lanthanide(III) hydroxysulfates (Tb-Yb) are each isostructural. Both structure types exhibit the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, but the unit cell content is doubled with two crystallographically distinct LnO(8) polyhedra for the heavier lanthanide compounds. The lighter complexes maintain the coordination number 9, forming a three-dimensional extended lattice. The heavier counterparts exhibit the coordination number 8, and arrange as infinite columns of two crystallographically different LnO(8) polyhedra, while extending along the "c" axis. These columns of LnO(8) polyhedra are surrounded and separated by six columns of sulfate ions, also elongating in the "c" direction. The rigid sulfate entities seem to obstruct the closing in of the lighter LnO(9) polyhedra, and show an inclining degree of torsion into the "ac" layers. The crystal lattice of the lighter 4f complexes can sufficiently withstand the tension buildup, caused by the decreasing Ln(3+) radius, up to Gd(OH)SO(4). The energy profile of this structural arrangement then seems to exceed levels at which this structure type is favorable. The lattice arrangement of the heavier Ln-analogues seems to offer a lower energy profile. This appears to be the preferred arrangement for the heavier lanthanide hydroxysulfates, whose crystal lattice exhibits more flexibility, as the coordination sphere of these analogues is less crowded. The IR absorbance frequencies of the hydroxide ligands correlate as a function of the Ln(3+) ionic radius. This corresponds well with the X-ray single

  9. Chloride derivatives of lanthanoid(III) ortho-oxidotungstates(VI) with the formula LnCl[WO4] (Ln=Gd-Lu): Syntheses, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schustereit, Tanja; Schleid, Thomas; Höppe, Henning A.; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hartenbach, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    The lanthanoid(III) chloride ortho-oxidotungstates(VI) with the formula LnCl[WO4] crystallize monoclinically in space group C2/m (a=1019-1032, b=721-733, c=682-689 pm and β=107-108°, Z=4) for Ln=Gd-Er and triclinically in space group P1¯ (a=593-596, b=719-721, c=684-686 pm, α=93-94, β≈103 and γ≈122°, Z=2) for Ln=Tm-Lu. The monoclinic structure contains crystallographically unique Ln3+ cations, which are surrounded by two Cl- and six O2- anions forming distorted trigonal dodecahedra. Their fusion via common edges leads to anionic layers ∞ 2 {[ LnCl2/2eO4/2eO2/1t ] 6 - }. The polyhedra around the Ln3+ cations in the triclinic crystal structure are also built up by two Cl-, but only five O2- anions to form distorted monocapped trigonal prisms. Their linkage through edges constitutes anionic strands ∞ 1 {[ LnCl2/2eO2/2eO3/1t ] 6 - } along [100]. The complex anionic entities of both LnCl[WO4] arrangements become interconnected by W6+ cations to complete the structures by generating discrete [WO4]2- tetrahedra. Since the title compounds emerge as pure phases according to X-ray powder diffractometry, spectroscopic measurements such as single crystal Raman as well as diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were performed. Furthermore, GdCl[WO4] and LuCl[WO4] are suitable host materials for doping with Eu3+, which leads to materials with a red luminescence upon excitation with UV light for both structures. Moreover, TbCl[WO4] exhibits a Tb3+-typical yellow-green bulk luminescence upon UV excitation, which could be analyzed by luminescence spectroscopy.

  10. Magnetic, dielectric and transport characteristics of Ln2CoMnO6 (Ln=Nd and Sm) double perovskite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Z.; Liu, X. Q.; Zhao, H. J.; Chen, X. M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of Nd2CoMnO6 and Sm2CoMnO6 double perovskite ceramics have been investigated by comparing with those of La2CoMnO6 and Ln2NiMnO6 (Ln=La, Nd and Sm) ceramics. Differing from the single magnetic state of Ln2NiMnO6 (Ln=La, Nd and Sm) ceramics, both Nd2CoMnO6 and Sm2CoMnO6 are multiphase magnetic state with the monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/n). Ferromagnetic Curie point TC generally decreases with decreasing bond angles which depends on lanthanide ionic radius (RLn). This result indicates that the bond angle plays an important role in magnetic properties of Ln2MMnO6 (Ln=La, Nd and Sm, M=Ni and Co) ceramics. Meanwhile, only one relaxor-like dielectric peak with strong frequency dispersion is observed in Nd2CoMnO6 and Sm2CoMnO6 ceramics, which is similar with that of La2CoMnO6. The dielectric constant ε‧ also decreases with decreasing RLn. Both magnetic and dielectric properties of Ln2CoMnO6 (Ln=La, Nd and Sm) ceramics have similar variation tendency with decreasing RLn, and have been correlated with cos2, demonstrating some coupling between magnetic and dielectric response. In addition, transport behaviors of the present ceramics conform to the three-dimensional variable-range hopping mechanism, which may be attributed to the phase separation nature.

  11. Intracluster interactions in "butterfly" {Fe3LnO2} molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Romano, L.; Rubín, J.; Bartolomé, F.; Bartolomé, J.; Luzón, J.; Prodius, D.; Turta, C.; Mereacre, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetization contributions of the Fe3 and Ln subcluster in the "butterfly" molecule [Fe3Ln(μ3-O)2(CCl3COO)8(H2O)(THF)3], in brief {Fe3LnO2}, with Ln=Lu, Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho, have been determined by a combination of vibrating sample magnetometry and x-ray circular magnetic dichroism at low temperature and magnetic field up to 14 T. These contributions have been explained in terms of an effective spin model where the Fe3 is described by a SFe3 = 5 / 2 spin, Gd by an isotropic J=7/2, Dy by a Kramers doublet, and non-Kramers ions Tb and Ho by a ligand field split doublet. The intracluster interactions JFeLn have been found to amount to a few K.

  12. Structural and physical properties of layered oxy-arsenides LnRuAsO (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.

    2012-07-15

    Polycrystalline samples of LaRuAsO, NdRuAsO, SmRuAsO, and GdRuAsO have been synthesized and studied using powder x-ray diffraction, electrical transport, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Variations in structural properties across the series reveal a trend toward more ideal tetrahedral coordination around Ru as the size of the rare earth element is reduced. The lattice parameters of these Ru compounds show a more anisotropic response to variation in Ln than their Fe analogs, and significant anisotropy in thermal expansion is also observed. Transport measurements show metallic behavior, and carrier concentrations near 10{sup 21}-10{sup 22} electrons per cm{sup 3} are inferred from simple analysis of Hall effect measurements. Anomalies in resistivity, magnetization, and heat capacity indicate antiferromagnetic ordering of rare earth moments at 5 K for GdRuAsO, 4.5 K for SmRuAsO, and <2K for NdRuAsO. Magnetization measurements on LaRuAsO show no evidence of a magnetic moment on Ru. Observed behaviors are compared to those reported for similar Fe and Ru compounds. - Graphical abstract: Analysis of crystal structure, electrical transport, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of LaRuAsO, NdRuAsO, SmRuAsO, and GdRuAsO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental investigation of LaRuAsO, NdRuAsO, SmRuAsO, and GdRuAsO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropic lattice response to changing Ln radius and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru coordination becomes more ideal as Ln radius is reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport measurements reveal metallic conduction dominated by electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements indicate antiferromagnetic ordering Nd, Sm, and Gd moments.

  13. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra

    2015-07-15

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na{sub 2}O·MoO{sub 3} at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be −8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO{sub 3}, −9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO{sub 3}, −10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO{sub 3} and −12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO{sub 3}. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds. - Graphical abstract: A linear relationship between the enthalpy of formation and the tolerance factor for interlanthanide LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) and other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites. - Highlights: • Interlanthanide perovskites were synthesized by solid state reactions. • Their enthalpies of formation were measured by oxide melt solution calorimetry. • ΔH{sub f,ox} shows a linear relationship with tolerance factor.

  14. Synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic double perovskites Ln {sub 2}LiOsO{sub 6} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm)

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmill, William R.; Smith, Mark D.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur . E-mail: jssc@mail.chem.sc.edu

    2006-06-15

    A series of osmium double perovskite oxides, Ln {sub 2}LiOsO{sub 6} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm), has been prepared as single crystals from acidic molten hydroxide. All four oxides crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (Glazer tilt system no. 10, a {sup -} a {sup -} b {sup +}), forming a 1:1 ordered rock salt lattice of Li{sup +} and Os{sup 5+} cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that these compounds are antiferromagnetic at low temperature with ordering temperatures of 39, 35, 23, and 32 K for Ln {sub 2}LiOsO{sub 6} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm), respectively. - Graphical abstract: Approximate (110) view of the crystal structure of Pr{sub 2}LiOsO{sub 6} (representative of the series Ln {sub 2}LiOsO{sub 6} (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm) consisting of OsO{sub 6} octahedra (striped) and LiO{sub 6} octahedra (gray). Praseodymium cations are shown as gray spheres and oxygen atoms as black spheres.

  15. Structural and electrical properties of T'-type Ln2CuO4 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salame, Paresh Hiralal

    2016-05-01

    T'-type Ln2CuO4 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) were successfully synthesized in phase pure form using conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. For all the Ln2CuO4 samples, the solid state reaction temperature was found to be 950 °C and pure phase was realized only after 2-3 intermediate milling and solid state reaction cycles, irrespective of the lanthanide ion radius. Effect of lanthanide ion contraction on the structural properties was clearly revealed by the powder X-ray diffraction, with the XRD peaks observed to be shifting towards higher 2θ values with the decrease in Ln ionic radii. The optimum sintering temperature of these solid state reacted Ln2CuO4 powder was found to be 1100 °C except for Pr2CuO4 powder. The conductivity of these samples were tested over a wide temperature range (-100 to 150 °C), an anomaly was observed in the conductivity of all the Ln2CuO4 samples near the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of Cu (~ 30 °C), thus suggesting the bearing of ordering of magnetic moments on the electrical properties.

  16. B-site disordering in Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho, Er) perovskites: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Larregola, S.A.; Alonso, J.A.; Garcia Hernandez, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2009-06-15

    We describe the preparation, structure determination and magnetic properties of two Ba perovskites containing rare-earth cations at the B-sublattice. Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) were synthesized by ceramic procedures. Joint X-ray (XRPD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction refinements were carried out to analyse the crystal structure. At room temperature, both phases are tetragonal, space group I4/mcm, Z=4. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites. Magnetic measurements at 0.1 T show that both samples are paramagnetic between 3 and 300 K, following a Curie-Weiss law. M vs. H curves show a region of paramagnetic behaviour and above 2.5 T a magnetic saturated system is observed. Finally, the temperature evolution of the NPD patterns of Ba{sub 3}Ho{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} reveals the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K. - Graphical Abstract: Preparation, structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) are descripted. Joint XRPD and NPD refinements confirm a tetragonal I4/mcm structure. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of new Ln xSb 2- xSe 3 (Ln: Yb 3+, Er 3+) nanoflowers and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi, Abdolali; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo; Khandar, Aliakbar; Morsali, Ali; Min, Bong-Ki

    2012-01-01

    New Ln xSb 2- xSe 3 (Ln: Yb 3+, Er 3) based nanomaterials were synthesized by a co-reduction method. Powder XRD patterns indicate that the Ln xSb 2- xSe 3crystals (Ln=Yb 3+, Er 3+, x=0.00-0.12) are isostructural with Sb 2Se 3. The cell parameters b and c decrease for Ln=Er 3+ and Yb 3+ upon increasing the dopant content ( x), while a increases. SEM images show that doping of the lanthanide ions in the lattice of Sb 2Se 3 generally results in nanoflowers. UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals mainly electronic transitions of the Ln 3+ ions in case of Yb 3+ doped nanomaterials. Emission spectra of doped materials, in addition to the characteristic red emission peaks of Sb 2Se 3, show additional emission bands centered at 955 nm, originating from the 2F 7/2→ 2F 5/2 transition (f-f transitions) of the Yb 3+ ions. DSC curves indicate that Sb 2Se 3 has the highest thermal stability. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of doped-Sb 2Se 3 with Yb 3+ and Er 3+ was studied.

  18. Two susceptibility loci to Takayasu arteritis reveal a synergistic role of the IL12B and HLA-B regions in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Kimura, Akinori; Matsumura, Takayoshi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Takahashi, Meiko; Shimizu, Masakazu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Chen, Zhiyong; Naruse, Taeko K; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ebana, Yusuke; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Murakami, Kosaku; Kawabata, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Narita, Ichiei; Tazaki, Junichi; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Yurugi, Kimiko; Miura, Yasuo; Maekawa, Taira; Ogawa, Seishi; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Yamada, Ryo; Tabara, Yasuharu; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2013-08-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although previous studies have revealed that HLA-B*52:01 has an effect on TAK susceptibility, no other genetic determinants have been established so far. Here, we performed genome scanning of 167 TAK cases and 663 healthy controls via Illumina Infinium Human Exome BeadChip arrays, followed by a replication study consisting of 212 TAK cases and 1,322 controls. As a result, we found that the IL12B region on chromosome 5 (rs6871626, overall p = 1.7 × 10(-13), OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16) and the MLX region on chromosome 17 (rs665268, overall p = 5.2 × 10(-7), OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.28-1.76) as well as the HLA-B region (rs9263739, a proxy of HLA-B*52:01, overall p = 2.8 × 10(-21), OR = 2.44, 95% CI 2.03-2.93) exhibited significant associations. A significant synergistic effect of rs6871626 and rs9263739 was found with a relative excess risk of 3.45, attributable proportion of 0.58, and synergy index of 3.24 (p ≤ 0.00028) in addition to a suggestive synergistic effect between rs665268 and rs926379 (p ≤ 0.027). We also found that rs6871626 showed a significant association with clinical manifestations of TAK, including increased risk and severity of aortic regurgitation, a representative severe complication of TAK. Detection of these susceptibility loci will provide new insights to the basic mechanisms of TAK pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that IL12B plays a fundamental role on the pathophysiology of TAK in combination with HLA-B(∗)52:01 and that common autoimmune mechanisms underlie the pathology of TAK and other autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases in which IL12B is involved as a genetic predisposing factor. PMID:23830516

  19. A Study of the Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Ln

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Daijitsu; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-05-01

    Crystal structures, and magnetic, electric, and thermal properties of fluorite related compounds Ln{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} (Ln=Sm, Eu) have been investigated. For Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, a magnetic transition due to Ru{sup 5+} ions is found at T{sub N}=22.5 K on the susceptibility-temperature curve. Specific heat measurements also exhibit a {lambda}-type anomaly at the same temperature. The Moessbauer spectrum measured at 10 K shows broadening of the line corresponding to magnetic splitting. For Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, two magnetic anomalies have been observed at 10.5 and 22.5 K from its magnetic susceptibility measurements. Below 22.5 K Ru{sup 5+} ions are antiferromagnetically coupled, and when the temperature is decreased through 10.5 K the ordering of Sm{sup 3+} ions occurs rapidly. Specific heat measurements show first-order transition peaks at T=280 and 190 K for Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} and Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, respectively. T he results of magnetic susceptibility and electric resistivity measurements indicate that these transitions are structural phase transitions.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Unsymmetrical Indenofluorene Analogues: Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[1,2-b]thiophene and Benzo[5,6]-s-indaceno[2,1-b]thiophene.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jonathan L; O'Neal, Nathaniel J; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two benzo-indaceno-thiophene compounds (anti-BIT and syn-BIT) are described. Two sequential Suzuki cross-couplings utilizing the halogen selectivity of this reaction permit modular assembly of unsymmetrical indeno[1,2-b]fluorene analogues. Analysis of their cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectra reveal that the optical and electrochemical properties of the BITs lie between those of indeno[1,2-b]fluorenes and indacenodithiophene. PMID:27014864

  1. Brain metastases management paradigm shift: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    REFAAT, TAMER; SACHDEV, SEAN; DESAI, BRIJAL; BACCHUS, IAN; HATOUM, SALEH; LEE, PLATO; BLOCH, ORIN; CHANDLER, JAMES P.; KALAPURAKAL, JOHN; MARYMONT, MARYANNE HOFFMAN

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in adults, accounting for over half of all lesions. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been a cornerstone in the management of brain metastases for decades. Recently, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been considered as a definitive or postoperative approach instead of WBRT, to minimize the risk of cognitive impairment that may be associated with WBRT. This is the case report of a 74-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with lung cancer in November, 2002, and histopathologically confirmed brain metastases in January, 2005. The patient received 5 treatments with Gamma Knife SRS for recurring brain metastases between 2005 and 2014. The patient remains highly functional, with stable intracranial disease at 10 years since first developing brain metastases, and with stable lung disease. Therefore, Gamma Knife SRS is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with recurrent intracranial metastases, with durable local control and minimal cognitive impairment. PMID:27073647

  2. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  3. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  4. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  5. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  6. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing. PMID:27140224

  7. Dibenzosiloles and 12H-indololo[3,2-d]naphtho[1,2-b][1]siloles: exploration of organic chromophores exhibiting efficient solid-state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaki

    2015-02-01

    The construction of a diorganosilylene bridge over a biaryl moiety at the 2,2'-positions is a versatile strategy for fine-tuning its HOMO-LUMO energy gap, which is closely linked to the electronic and optical properties of the compounds. Therefore, there is growing interest in the use of silicon-bridged biaryl motifs as key cores of various types of advanced functional materials, such as light-emitting, semiconducting, photovoltaic, and sensing materials. To accelerate the advances of materials based on silicon-bridged biaryls, it is essential to create new classes of biaryls and explore their functions and properties. This Personal Account describes recent research on the development of organic chromophores based on functionalized dibenzosiloles and 12H-indololo[3,2-d]naphtho[1,2-b][1]siloles as solid-state emitters. PMID:25504808

  8. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing. PMID:27140224

  9. Treatment of distant metastases from follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastases from thyroid cancer of follicular origin are uncommon. Treatment includes levothyroxine administration at suppressive doses, focal treatment modalities with surgery, external radiation therapy and thermal ablation, and radioiodine in patients with uptake of (131)I in their metastases. Two thirds of distant metastases will become refractory to radioiodine at some point, and when there is a significant tumor burden and documented progression on imaging, a treatment with a kinase inhibitor may provide benefits. PMID:25750740

  10. Treatment of distant metastases from follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leboulleux, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Distant metastases from thyroid cancer of follicular origin are uncommon. Treatment includes levothyroxine administration at suppressive doses, focal treatment modalities with surgery, external radiation therapy and thermal ablation, and radioiodine in patients with uptake of 131I in their metastases. Two thirds of distant metastases will become refractory to radioiodine at some point, and when there is a significant tumor burden and documented progression on imaging, a treatment with a kinase inhibitor may provide benefits. PMID:25750740

  11. Broad-band spectrophotometry of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b from the near-UV to the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallonn, M.; Nascimbeni, V.; Weingrill, J.; von Essen, C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Herrero, E.; Sada, P. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Künstler, A.; Bernt, I.; Granzer, T.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detection of trends or gradients in the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets is possible with observations at very low spectral resolution. Transit measurements of sufficient accuracy using selected broad-band filters allow for an initial characterization of the atmosphere of the planet. Aims: We want to investigate the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-12b for an increased absorption at the very blue wavelength regions caused by scattering. Furthermore, we aim for a refinement of the transit parameters and the orbital ephemeris. Methods: We obtained time series photometry of 20 transit events and analyzed them homogeneously, along with eight light curves obtained from the literature. In total, the light curves span a range from 0.35 to 1.25 microns. During two observing seasons over four months each, we monitored the host star to constrain the potential influence of starspots on the derived transit parameters. Results: We rule out the presence of a Rayleigh slope extending over the entire optical wavelength range, a flat spectrum is favored for HAT-P-12b with respect to a cloud-free atmosphere model spectrum. A potential cause of such gray absorption is the presence of a cloud layer at the probed latitudes. Furthermore, in this work we refine the transit parameters, the ephemeris and perform a TTV analysis in which we found no indication for an unseen companion. The host star showed a mild non-periodic variability of up to 1%. However, no stellar rotation period could be detected to high confidence.

  12. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O3 (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na2O·MoO3 at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O3 (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, Tm2O3 and Yb2O3). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be -8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO3, -9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO3, -10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO3 and -12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO3. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM3+O3 (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds.

  13. Chemical Substitution and High Pressure Effects on Superconductors in the LnOBiS$_2$ (Ln = La-Nd) System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fang, Yuankan; Wolowiec, Christian T.; Yazici, Duygu; Maple, M. Brian

    2015-12-14

    A large number of compounds which contain BiS$_2$ layers exhibit enhanced superconductivity upon electron doping. Much interest and research effort has been focused on BiS$_2$-based compounds which provide new opportunities for exploring the nature of superconductivity. Important to the study of BiS2-based superconductors is the relation between structure and superconductivity. By modifying either the superconducting BiS$_2$ layers or the blocking layers in these layered compounds, one can effectively tune the lattice parameters, local atomic environment, electronic structure, and other physical properties of these materials. In this article, we will review some of the recent progress on research of the effectsmore » of chemical substitution in BiS$_2$-based compounds, with special attention given to the compounds in the LnOBiSS$_2$ (Ln = La-Nd) system. Strategies which are reported to be essential in optimizing superconductivity of these materials will also be discussed.« less

  14. Synthesis and anisotropic properties of single crystalline Ln2Ru3Al15+x (Ln=Gd, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Gregory; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Rai, Binod K.; Young, David P.; Stadler, Shane; Morosan, Emilia; Chan, Julia Y.

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of Ln2Ru3Al15+x (Ln=Gd, Tb) have been grown using the self-flux method under Ru-poor conditions. The structure of the Gd analog is found to be highly dependent on the synthesis method. Gd2Ru3Al15.08 orders antiferromagnetically at 17.5 K. Tb2Ru3Al15.05 enters an antiferromagnetic state at 16.6 K followed by a likely incommensurate-to-commensurate transition at 14.9 K for crystals oriented with H//ab. For crystals oriented with H//c, a broad maximum is observed in the temperature dependent M/H, indicative of a highly anisotropic magnetic system with the hard axis in the c-direction. The magnetization as a function of field and magnetoresistance along the ab-direction of Tb2Ru3Al15.05 display a stepwise behavior and indicate strong crystalline electric field effects.

  15. In-situ laser synthesis of rare earth aluminate coatings in the system Ln-Al-O ( Ln = Y, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Francisco, I.; Lennikov, V. V.; Bea, J. A.; Vegas, A.; Carda, J. B.; de la Fuente, G. F.

    2011-09-01

    Laser zone melting (LZM) was employed in this work to prepare Ln-Al-O coatings on polycrystalline Al 2O 3 substrates, using the corresponding mixtures of powdered rare-earth oxides and Al 2O 3 as starting materials. In-situ synthesis of the compounds Ln = Y, Gd was performed using a CO 2 laser, emitting at 10.6 μm. Microstructure (SEM) and phase nature (XRD) demonstrated in-situ formation of Al 2O 3/Y 3Al 5O 12(YAG) and Al 2O 3/GdAlO 3(GAP) eutectic systems. The interaction with the substrate resulted in mechanically stable, well integrated 200-500 μm thick composite coatings, as observed in nanoindentation tests. The phase relations found in these materials are consistent with the crystallographic concepts advanced by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, J. Solid State Chem. 128 (1997) 69), where cation sub-arrays are proposed to play an important role in governing metal oxide structures. These sub-arrays are suggested as the structural drive behind eutectic oxide formation. LZM proves to be a convenient method to investigate the behaviour of complex oxide systems at high temperature, to apply a rational concept towards the understanding of phase relations and to develop design criteria for oxide coatings.

  16. A family of 12-azametallacrown-4 structural motif with heterometallic Mn(III) -Ln-Mn(III) -Ln (Ln=Dy, Er, Yb, Tb, Y) alternate arrangement and single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Cao, Fan; Li, Dacheng; Zeng, Suyuan; Song, You; Dou, Jianmin

    2015-10-01

    Mixed 3d-4f 12-azametallacrown-4 complexes, [Mn2 Ln2 (OH)2 (hppt)4 (OAc)2 (DMF)2 ]⋅2 DMF⋅H2 O [Ln=Dy (1), Er (2), Yb (3), Tb (4) and Y (5), H2 hppt=3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyrazin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole)], were synthesized by reactions of H2 hppt with Mn(OAc)2 ⋅4 H2 O and Ln(NO3 )3 ⋅6 H2 O. This is the first 3d-4f azametallacrown family to incorporate Ln ions into the ring sets. These isostructural complexes exhibit alternating arrangements of two Mn and two Ln ions in the rings with each pair of metal centers bound by an NN group and μ2 -O bridging. Magnetic measurements revealed dominant antiferromagnetic interactions between metal centers, and frequency-dependent out-of-phase (${\\chi {^\\prime}{^\\prime}_{\\rm{M}} }$) signals below 4 K suggest slow relaxation of magnetization. PMID:26295925

  17. Genomic characterization of brain metastases reveals branched evolution and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Cahill, Daniel P.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Jones, Robert T.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ligon, Keith L.; Tabernero, Josep; Seoane, Joan; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Curry, William T.; Dunn, Ian F.; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Sung-Hye; McKenna, Aaron; Chevalier, Aaron; Rosenberg, Mara; Barker, Frederick G.; Gill, Corey M.; Van Hummelen, Paul; Thorner, Aaron R.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Hoang, Mai P.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Signoretti, Sabina; Sougnez, Carrie; Rabin, Michael S.; Lin, Nancy U.; Winer, Eric P.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Meyerson, Matthew; Garraway, Levi; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Baselga, Jose; Louis, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are associated with a dismal prognosis. Whether brain metastases harbor distinct genetic alterations beyond those observed in primary tumors is unknown. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 86 matched brain metastases, primary tumors and normal tissue. In all clonally related cancer samples, we observed branched evolution, where all metastatic and primary sites shared a common ancestor yet continued to evolve independently. In 53% of cases, we found potentially clinically informative alterations in the brain metastases not detected in the matched primary-tumor sample. In contrast, spatially and temporally separated brain metastasis sites were genetically homogenous. Distal extracranial and regional lymph node metastases were highly divergent from brain metastases. We detected alterations associated with sensitivity to PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK, and HER2/EGFR inhibitors in the brain metastases. Genomic analysis of brain metastases provides an opportunity to identify potentially clinically informative alterations not detected in clinically sampled primary tumors, regional lymph nodes, or extracranial metastases. PMID:26410082

  18. 18F-NaF PET/CT Imaging of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Salgarello, Matteo; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Inno, Alessandro; Pasetto, Stefano; Severi, Fabrizia; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Gori, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    F-NaF is a radiopharmaceutical widely used in PET imaging to detect bone metastases. Several cases of F-NaF uptake from brain metastases have been described, but a specific protocol for the evaluation of brain metastases with F-NaF has not been developed yet. Here we report images of F-NaF PET/CT, standard CT, and MRI of a brain metastasis in a patient with non-small lung cancer. Through a dynamic acquisition procedure, we have identified the first minutes after injection as the preferable time point of imaging acquisition for the study of brain metastases with F-NaF. PMID:27163462

  19. Cabazitaxel in castration resistant prostate cancer with brain metastases: 3 case reports.

    PubMed

    De Placido, Sabino; Rescigno, Pasquale; Federico, Piera; Buonerba, Carlo; Bosso, Davide; Puglia, Livio; Izzo, Michela; Policastro, Tania; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2014-06-16

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy for men. The skeleton is the most common metastatic site but, following an improvement in survival, metastases in uncommon sites are being found more frequently in clinical practice, especially brain metastases. Despite the new drugs now available for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, no clinical evidence exists about their effectiveness on brain metastases. We describe the clinical history of 3 patients treated with cabazitaxel plus whole brain radiotherapy. These case reports demonstrate that cabazitaxel is highly active and well tolerated in brain metastases. PMID:24945013

  20. Cabazitaxel in castration resistant prostate cancer with brain metastases: 3 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Placido, Sabino De; Rescigno, Pasquale; Federico, Piera; Buonerba, Carlo; Bosso, Davide; Puglia, Livio; Izzo, Michela; Policastro, Tania; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy for men. The skeleton is the most common metastatic site but, following an improvement in survival, metastases in uncommon sites are being found more frequently in clinical practice, especially brain metastases. Despite the new drugs now available for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, no clinical evidence exists about their effectiveness on brain metastases. We describe the clinical history of 3 patients treated with cabazitaxel plus whole brain radiotherapy. These case reports demonstrate that cabazitaxel is highly active and well tolerated in brain metastases. PMID:24945013

  1. Modern imaging techniques for preoperative detection of distant metastases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwee, Robert M; Kwee, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    A substantial portion of patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer has distant metastases (M1 disease). These patients have a very poor prognosis and it is generally accepted that they should be treated with noncurative intent. Because it dramatically changes prognosis and treatment plans, it is very important to diagnose distant metastases. In this article, the definition, pathways, incidence and sites of distant metastases in gastric cancer are described. Subsequently, the current performance of imaging in detecting distant metastases in newly diagnosed gastric cancer is outlined and future prospects are discussed. PMID:26457011

  2. Defect processes in orthorhombic LnBaCo2O5.5 double perovskites.

    PubMed

    Seymour, I D; Chroneos, A; Kilner, J A; Grimes, R W

    2011-09-01

    Static atomistic simulations based on the Born model were used to investigate intrinsic defect processes in orthorhombic LnBaCo(2)O(5.5) (Ln = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb) double perovskites. It was found that Ln/Ba antisite disorder is the lowest energy defect reaction, with the large Ln cations giving rise to smaller antisite energies. On the oxygen sublattice the oxygen Frenkel disorder dominates and also decreases in energy with increasing Ln cation size. The lowest energy oxygen vacancy and interstitial positions are in the LnO(0.5) and CoO(2) layers respectively. Interestingly, the calculations indicate that oxygen vacancies cluster with Ba antisite defects (occupying Ln sites). This suggests that the transport of oxygen vacancies will be influenced not only by the oxygen Frenkel energy but also the antisite energy. We propose that PrBaCo(2)O(5.5) most efficiently balances these two competing effects as it has an oxygen Frenkel energy of just 0.24 eV per defect combined with a high antisite energy (0.94 eV), which ensures that the A cation sublattice will remain more ordered. PMID:21769361

  3. One-dimensional GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Dy, Sm) nanofibers: Electrospinning preparation and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Yu, Min; Hou, Zhiyao; Li, Guogang; Ma, Ping'an; Wang, Wenxin; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2011-01-15

    One-dimensional GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Dy, Sm) nanofibers have been prepared by a combination method of sol-gel process and electrospinning technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), quantum efficiency (QE), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the samples. The XRD, FT-IR, and TG-DTA results show that GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} nanofibers samples crystallize at 700 {sup o}C. SEM images indicate that the as prepared precursor fibers are smooth. After being calcined at 700 {sup o}C for 4 h, the fibers still maintain their fiberlike morphology with rough surface. TEM image further manifests that the GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} nanofibers consist of nanoparticles. Under ultraviolet excitation and low-voltage electron beam excitation, GdVO{sub 4}:Ln{sup 3+} phosphors showed their strong characteristic emission due to an efficient energy transfer from vanadate groups to dopants. The optimum doping concentration of Ln{sup 3+} in the GdVO{sub 4} nanofibers also has been investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields}1D and Q-1D GdVO{sub 4} fiber-like nanostructures were prepared electrospinning technique. {yields}Under ultraviolet excitation and electron beam excitation, the Ln{sup 3+} ions show their characteristic emissions, respectively. {yields}The quantum efficiencies are 14 (Eu{sup 3+}), 6 (Dy{sup 3+}), and 5 % (Sm{sup 3+}) in GdVO{sub 4}, respectively.

  4. Magnetic properties and structural transitions of orthorhombic fluorite-related compounds Ln3MO 7 ( Ln=rare earths, M=transition metals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic properties and structural transitions of ternary rare-earth transition-metal oxides Ln3MO 7 ( Ln=rare earths, M=transition metals) were investigated. In this study, we prepared a series of molybdates Ln3MoO 7 ( Ln=La-Gd). They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group P2 12 12 1, in which Ln3+ ions occupy two different crystallographic sites (the 8-coordinated and 7-coordinated sites). All of these compounds show a phase transition from the space group P2 12 12 1 to Pnma in the temperature range between 370 and 710 K. Their magnetic properties were characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements from 1.8 to 400 K and specific heat measurements from 0.4 to 400 K. Gd 3MoO 7 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 1.9 K. Measurements of the specific heat for Sm 3MoO 7 and the analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicate a "two-step" antiferromagnetic transition due to the ordering of Sm magnetic moments in different crystallographic sites, i.e., with decreasing temperature, the antiferromagnetic ordering of the 7-coordinated Sm ions occur at 2.5 K, and then the 8-coordinated Sm ions order at 0.8 K. The results of Ln3MoO 7 were compared with the magnetic properties and structural transitions of Ln3MO 7 ( M=Nb, Ru, Sb, Ta, Re, Os, or Ir).

  5. Synthesis, structure, and thermally stable luminescence of Eu(2+)-doped Ba2Ln(BO3)2Cl (Ln = Y, Gd and Lu) host compounds.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Yingxia; Liao, Libing; Jing, Xiping

    2011-10-17

    A new family of chloroborate compounds, which was investigated from the viewpoint of rare earth ion activated phosphor materials, have been synthesized by a conventional high temperature solid-state reaction. The crystal structure and thermally stable luminescence of chloroborate phosphors Ba(2)Ln(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu(2+) (Ln = Y, Gd, and Lu) have been reported in this paper. X-ray diffraction studies verify the successful isomorphic substitution for Ln(3+) sites in Ba(2)Ln(BO(3))(2)Cl by other smaller trivalent rare earth ions, such as Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb. The detailed structure information for Ba(2)Ln(BO(3))(2)Cl (Ln = Y, Gd, and Lu) by Rietveld analysis reveals that they all crystallize in a monoclinic P2(1)/m space group. These compounds display interesting and tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties after Eu(2+)-doping. Ba(2)Ln(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu(2+) phosphors exhibit bluish-green/greenish-yellow light with peak wavelengths at 526, 548, and 511 nm under 365 UV light excitation for Ba(2)Y(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu(2+), Ba(2)Gd(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu(2+), and Ba(2)Lu(BO(3))(2)Cl:Eu(2+), respectively. Furthermore, they possess a high thermal quenching temperature. With the increase of temperature, the emission bands show blue shifts with broadening bandwidths and slightly decreasing emission intensities. It is expected that this series of chloroborate phosphors can be used in white-light UV-LEDs as a good wavelength-conversion phosphor. PMID:21919480

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery in elderly patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Esposito, Vincenzo; Clarke, Enrico; Scaringi, Claudia; Bozzao, Alessandro; Lanzetta, Gaetano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Valeriani, Maurizio; Osti, Mattia; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been increasingly employed as an alternative to whole brain radiation therapy in patients with brain metastases, with the aim to reduce its potential toxicity. We have evaluated clinical outcomes of SRS as initial treatment for brain metastases in patients 70 years and older. Between November 2007 and October 2011, 102 patients of 70 years and older with 1-4 metastases were treated with SRS. The primary end point of the study was overall survival. Secondary end points were local control and distant failure rates, cause of death, performance measurements, and toxicity of treatment. At a median follow-up of 11.0 months (range 1-48 months), median survival and median time to distant failure were 13.2 and 10 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 63 and 28 %, and respective distant failure rates were 54 and 78 %. Forty-five patients succumbed to their extracranial disease and 14 patients died of progressive intracranial disease. Nine patients recurred locally after SRS. The 1- and 2-year local control rates were 90 and 84 %, respectively. Evaluation of neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) showed no significant neurocognitive decline after SRS. MMSE score improved in 15 % of patients, worsened in 12 % of patients, and remained stable in the others. Severe neurological complications were reported in 7 (7 %) patients, requiring surgery or medical treatment. Initial treatment with SRS with close monitoring may represent a relatively safe treatment strategy associated with survival benefit, with outcomes similar to those reported in historical series of SRS for younger patients. PMID:23187817

  7. Frameless stereotactic body radiation therapy for multiple lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Mu, Jinming; Gu, Wendong; Chen, Yuan; Ning, Zhonghua; Jin, Jianxue; Pei, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Two patients with multiple lung metastases (≥ 5) were treated using frameless stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on an Elekta Axesse linear accelerator equipped with an interdigitation-capable multileaf collimator and four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D CBCT). The technique and the early clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patient A with five lung metastases and Patient B with seven lung metastases underwent SBRT (48 Gy/8 fractions for Patient A, 42 Gy/7 fractions for Patient B). The treatments were administered using a 6 MV photon beam. The nominal dose rate was 660 MUs/min. Patients were positioned and immobilized using thermoplastic masks and image guidance was done using 4D CBCT. The targets were delineated on the images of the 4D CT, and the positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images were taken as references. A two-step, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was designed for each patient. Step 1: the lesions in one lung were irradiated by a 210° arc field; Step 2: the rest of the lesions in the other lung were irradiated by a 120° arc field. Plans were evaluated using conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI). Patients were followed up and adverse events were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 (CTCAE v4.0). The beam-on time of each treatment was less than 10 min. The CI and HI for the two plans were 0.562, 0.0709 and 0.513, 0.0794, respectively. Pulmonary function deteriorated slightly in both patients, and the patient with seven lung lesions was confirmed to have Grade 1 radiation pneumonitis. The technique was fast, accurate, and well tolerated by patients, and the two-step plan is a helpful design in reducing the dose to the lungs. PMID:25207400

  8. Diagnosis and management of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Halkia, Evgenia; Spiliotis, John; Sugarbaker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:22888339

  9. GE-20GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BREAST CANCER BRAIN METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Michelhaugh, Sharon; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of central nervous system metastasis from primary breast cancer has steadily increased with introduction of more effective molecular-targeted therapies resulting in improved long-term survival. Current standard-of-care treatment modalities for CNS metastases include microsurgical resection, whole-brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery, either alone or in combination. There are currently no FDA-approved drugs with an indication for breast cancer brain metastases. Clearly, there is a dire need to identify biomarkers permitting earlier and accurate diagnosis of CNS metastases, development of prevention strategies in high-risk individuals, and establishing more effective treatment options such as targeted systemic and intrathecal therapies. METHODS: Extracted DNA from metastatic brain tumors (MBTs) and matched tissues from primary breast tumors was quantified and array comparative genomic hybridizations (aCGH) were performed with Agilent SurePrint arrays (G3 ISCA CGH + SNP 180K) using a commercially-available, genetically-normal female DNA standard. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using Agilent CytoGenomics Edition 2.5.8.1. Data were filtered against the Cancer Gene Census (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) to identify genes with well-characterized roles in cancer. RESULTS: From genomic copy number data analysis tailored to uncover the most frequent gene aberrations in breast cancer MBTs, we identified that MYC oncogene amplification was among the most common. Pathway analysis of the analyzed gene set of recurring gene aberrations identified the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency pathway as being over-represented. The genes in this pathway showing copy number gain include NTRK1, PIK3CA and SOX2. Direct comparisons of MBTs with their matched primary tumor (n = 4) revealed a range of examples for highly similar and divergent patterns of gene aberrations. In one case ERBB2 was confirmed to be in the MBT, and not in the

  10. Health State Utilities for Patients with Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dosoretz, Arie P; Hayman, James A; Yu, James B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating the cost-effectiveness of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), including Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), requires the quantitative measurement of patients’ health states after treatment. We sought to quantify individuals’ preferences for the relevant health states after WBRT or GKRS for brain metastases on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 is perfect health and 0 is death. Methods: We prospectively measured utilities in patients with brain metastases evaluated at Yale for consideration of WBRT and/or GKRS, as well as oncology nurses who had cared for patients with brain metastases before and after WBRT or GKRS, using the Standard Gamble (SG) technique. Demographic information was also collected. Nonparametric tests were used to compare potential differences in utility values and for subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Results: There were 24 patients and 31 nurses who completed the study between December 2013 and May 2015. Median utilities ranged from 0.85 for the status-post (S/P) GKRS state to 0.25 (for neurologic dying). The median utility of being S/P WBRT was 0.70 compared to 0.85 S/P GKRS (p < 0.001). The cognitive decline from WBRT was associated with a notably low utility score of 0.30. There were no statistically significant differences between patients’ and nurses’ median utility scores. Conclusions: These SG utilities provide unique insights into brain metastases-related health states from the patient and provider perspective. As perceived by individuals with direct knowledge of the health states in question, WBRT has a significantly lower utility compared to GKRS. Cognitive decline following WBRT is associated with significant perceived reduction in quality of life. Differences in the relative importance of overall survival and quality of life with treatment existed between patients with different stages of disease. These utilities can be used to calculate quality-adjusted life

  11. Perioperative chemotherapy and hepatic resection for resectable colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Baba, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    The role of perioperative chemotherapy in the management of initially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is still unclear. The EPOC trial [the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983] is an important study that declares perioperative chemotherapy as the standard of care for patients with resectable CRLM, and the strategy is widely accepted in western countries. Compared with surgery alone, perioperative FOLFOX therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) in eligible patients or those with resected CRLM. Overall survival (OS) data from the EPOC trial were recently published in The Lancet Oncology, 2013. Here, we discussed the findings and recommendations from the EORTC 40983 trial. PMID:25713806

  12. [Global brain metastases management strategy: a multidisciplinary-based approach].

    PubMed

    Métellus, P; Tallet, A; Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Spano, J-P; Azria, D; Noël, G; Barlési, F; Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases management has evolved over the last fifteen years and may use varying strategies, including more or less aggressive treatments, sometimes combined, leading to an improvement in patient's survival and quality of life. The therapeutic decision is subject to a multidisciplinary analysis, taking into account established prognostic factors including patient's general condition, extracerebral disease status and clinical and radiological presentation of lesions. In this article, we propose a management strategy based on the state of current knowledge and available therapeutic resources. PMID:25649388

  13. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma of the Mandible With Distant Metastases.

    PubMed

    Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Mohamadi, Mansoureh; Moshref, Mohammad; Soltaninia, Omid

    2015-10-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a mixed odontogenic tumor that can originate de novo or from a transformed ameloblastic fibroma. This report describes the case of a 34-year-old woman with a recurrent, rapidly growing, debilitating lesion. This lesion appeared as a large painful mandibular swelling that filled the oral cavity and extended to the infratemporal fossa. The lesion had been previously misdiagnosed as ameloblastoma. Twenty months after final surgery and postoperative chemotherapy, lung metastases were diagnosed after she reported respiratory signs and symptoms. PMID:26207695

  14. Decompression surgery for spinal metastases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Dara; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Phan, Kevin; Alentado, Vincent J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on reported outcomes following decompression surgery for spinal metastases. METHODS The authors conducted MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science database searches for studies reporting clinical outcomes and complications associated with decompression surgery for metastatic spinal tumors. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included. After meeting inclusion criteria, articles were categorized based on the following reported outcomes: survival, ambulation, surgical technique, neurological function, primary tumor histology, and miscellaneous outcomes. RESULTS Of the 4148 articles retrieved from databases, 36 met inclusion criteria. Of those included, 8 were prospective studies and 28 were retrospective studies. The year of publication ranged from 1992 to 2015. Study size ranged from 21 to 711 patients. Three studies found that good preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS ≥ 80%) was a significant predictor of survival. No study reported a significant effect of time-to-surgery following the onset of spinal cord compression symptoms on survival. Three studies reported improvement in neurological function following surgery. The most commonly cited complication was wound infection or dehiscence (22 studies). Eight studies reported that preoperative ambulatory or preoperative motor status was a significant predictor of postoperative ambulatory status. A wide variety of surgical techniques were reported: posterior decompression and stabilization, posterior decompression without stabilization, and posterior decompression with total or subtotal tumor resection. Although a wide range of functional scales were used to assess neurological outcomes, four studies used the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale to assess neurological function. Four studies reported the effects of radiation therapy and local disease control for spinal metastases. Two studies reported that

  15. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma originating from the chest wall with rib metastases.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Junichi; Kiyoshima, Moriyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Kitahara, Miyuki; Asato, Yuji; Iijima, Tatsuo; Amemiya, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    An asymptomatic 39-year-old woman was referred to us for an abnormal nodular opacity detected on the chest X-ray. Histopathological and further examinations revealed findings consistent with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) originating from the chest wall with metastases to the ribs. Complete excision was performed; however, adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered because of the patient's mental disorder. There are very few reports of EHE arising from the chest wall; therefore, we present this case report with the clinicopathological features of EHE and discuss the therapeutic aspects. PMID:24399489

  16. [Assessment of resectability of colorectal liver metastases and extended resection].

    PubMed

    Settmacher, U; Scheuerlein, H; Rauchfuss, F

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with colorectal liver metastases are treated within a multimodal therapy regime whereby liver resection is a key point in the curative treatment concept. The achievement of an R0 situation is of vital importance for long-term survival. Besides general operability and the assessment of comorbidities, resection depends on the quality of liver parenchyma (functional resectability) and the anatomical position of the tumor (oncological resectability). The improvement of operation techniques and perioperative medicine nowadays allow complex surgical procedures for metastasis surgery. This article presents the methods for the assessment of resectability and modern strategies of preoperative conditioning as well as approaches for extended liver resection. PMID:24317339

  17. Strength of nanostructured austenitic steel 316LN at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarkowski, P.; Krawczynska, A. T.; Brynk, T.; Nowacki, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of nano-refinement on the properties of austenitic steel. The material with the initial grain size of 40-50pm was subjected to hydrostatic extrusion at a room temperature to the total accumulated strain exceeding 1. The microstructure developed was investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Focus Ion Beam (FIB). The strength of the extruded samples was tested at 293K, 77K and 4.2K by means of cryostat for static tensile tests. The results show that the hydrostatically extruded steel 316LN has excellent strength in cryogenic conditions, which make this material interesting for applications in cryogenic devices.

  18. 4X6" Rotary Bayonet LN2 Test Fill

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1988-08-02

    This engineering note describes a test fill of the 4-inch x 6-inch rotary bayonet test fixture with LN{sub 2}. This test verifies the operation of valves on the fixture, and checks for proper construction/insulation. Further cold testing is imminent (with rotation and moment loading of the bayonet) after proper construction is verified and the test fixture is accepted. While this test fixture is a pressure vessel (4-inch), it does not require special safety treatment because it is under 6-inch in diameter. Flow capacity calculations were done to insure that the relief valve chosen would be capable of handling fire/loss of vacuum conditions. The D-Zero Safety Committee Chairman was notified of this testing.

  19. Structure, thermodynamic, and magnetic properties of Ln{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} with Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, M.; Grins, J.; Nygren, M.

    1999-09-01

    The structure of Nd{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} has been determined and refined using the Rietveld method and combined CuK{alpha}{sub 1} X-ray and neutron powder data in space group P{bar 1} with unit cell a = 15.972(2), b = 7.1927(7), c = 6.9160(6) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 96.299(4), {beta} = 131.643(3), {gamma} = 121.438(3){degree}, V = 353.83(6) {angstrom}{sup 3} and Z = 2, to R{sub F} = 2.0% (neutron data) and R{sub F} = 6.2% (X-ray data). The structure is closely related to the monoclinic La{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} structure and exhibits Nd atoms coordinated by seven O atoms and Pd atoms coordinated by a square of O atoms. Isolated chains of trans-corner-sharing PdO{sub 4} squares are straight in the La{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} structure and staggered in the Nd{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} structure. Electron and X-ray powder diffraction data show that Ln{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} with Ln = Sm, Eu, and Gd is isostructural with Nd{sub 4}PdO{sub 7}. The enthalpies of dissolution of Ln{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} (Ln = La, Nd) in 1.000 M HCl have been measured with an in-house built calorimeter, and from these values the enthalpies of formation for the compounds have been calculated. The decomposition temperatures of Ln{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} with Ln = La and Nd in oxygen have been determined by thermogravimetric measurements and found to decrease from 1645 {+-} 10 K for La{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} to 1540 {+-} 10 K for Nd{sub 4}PdO{sub 7}. Using these data, an Ellingham diagram has been constructed assuming temperature-independent {Delta}H{sub f}{degree} and {Delta}S{sub f}{degree}. The magnetic susceptibilities of Ln{sub 4}PdO{sub 7} with Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, recorded in the temperature range 10--320 K, were found to be in agreement with the expected ones for noninteracting Ln{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Structure, thermodynamic, and magnetic properties of Ln[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] with Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, M.; Grins, J.; Nygren, M. )

    1999-09-01

    The structure of Nd[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] has been determined and refined using the Rietveld method and combined CuK[alpha][sub 1] X-ray and neutron powder data in space group P[bar 1] with unit cell a = 15.972(2), b = 7.1927(7), c = 6.9160(6) [angstrom], [alpha] = 96.299(4), [beta] = 131.643(3), [gamma] = 121.438(3)[degree], V = 353.83(6) [angstrom][sup 3] and Z = 2, to R[sub F] = 2.0% (neutron data) and R[sub F] = 6.2% (X-ray data). The structure is closely related to the monoclinic La[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] structure and exhibits Nd atoms coordinated by seven O atoms and Pd atoms coordinated by a square of O atoms. Isolated chains of trans-corner-sharing PdO[sub 4] squares are straight in the La[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] structure and staggered in the Nd[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] structure. Electron and X-ray powder diffraction data show that Ln[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] with Ln = Sm, Eu, and Gd is isostructural with Nd[sub 4]PdO[sub 7]. The enthalpies of dissolution of Ln[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] (Ln = La, Nd) in 1.000 M HCl have been measured with an in-house built calorimeter, and from these values the enthalpies of formation for the compounds have been calculated. The decomposition temperatures of Ln[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] with Ln = La and Nd in oxygen have been determined by thermogravimetric measurements and found to decrease from 1645 [+-] 10 K for La[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] to 1540 [+-] 10 K for Nd[sub 4]PdO[sub 7]. Using these data, an Ellingham diagram has been constructed assuming temperature-independent [Delta]H[sub f][degree] and [Delta]S[sub f][degree]. The magnetic susceptibilities of Ln[sub 4]PdO[sub 7] with Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, recorded in the temperature range 10--320 K, were found to be in agreement with the expected ones for noninteracting Ln[sup 3+] ions.

  1. Preparation and photophysical studies of [Ln(hfac)3DPEPO], Ln = Eu, Tb, Yb, Nd, Gd; interpretation of total photoluminescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Congiu, Martina; Alamiry, Mohamed; Moudam, Omar; Ciorba, Serena; Richardson, Patricia R; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Anita C; Richards, Bryce S; Robertson, Neil

    2013-10-01

    Synthesis and photophysical characterisation of [Ln(hfac)3DPEPO] complexes (with Ln = Eu, Tb, Yb, Nd, Gd) has been carried out to investigate the factors responsible for the variation in total photoluminescence quantum yield within this family of emissive lanthanide complexes. Electronic absorption and emission spectroscopy, in conjunction with DFT calculations of the excited state of the Eu complex, elucidate the role of each ligand in the sensitisation of the lanthanide through the antenna effect. The X-ray crystal structure of [Gd(hfac)3DPEPO] has been determined and shows an 8-coordinate environment around the Gd and a ten-membered chelate ring involving the DPEPO ligand. Total photoluminescence quantum yields were measured to be 6%, 1% and 2% for Ln = Tb, Nd and Yb, respectively, in comparison with around 80% for Ln = Eu. The lower quantum yield for Nd and Yb, compared with Eu, can be attributed to more efficient quenching of the excited Ln state by high-energy oscillations within the ligands, whereas the lower quantum yield for Tb is assigned to a combination of poor energy transfer from the ligand excited state to the Tb and longer radiative lifetime. PMID:23900430

  2. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Ln3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Er3+)-doped Ca2Nb2O7 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Jieqiang; Yi, Shuangping; Deng, Yaomin; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-02-01

    A series of Ln3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+) ions doped Ca2Nb2O7 phosphors have been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The Ln3+-doped samples are well indexed to the pure Ca2Nb2O7 phase which revealed for the X-ray diffraction (XRD) result. Under the ultraviolet light, the prepared Ca2-xNb2O7:xLn3+ (Ln3+=Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+) phosphors show the characteristic cyan (Tb3+), green-white (Sm3+), yellowish (Dy3+) and green (Er3+) emissions. The energy transfer mechanisms in Ca2Nb2O7: Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+ phosphors have been investigated and it deduced to be a resonant type via an electric dipole-dipole interaction. In addition, their critical distances have been calculated by concentration quenching methods. The luminescence properties of Ca2Nb2O7:Tb3+/Dy3+/Sm3+/Er3+ phosphors indicated that the Ca2Nb2O7 is a suitable host for rare earth doped laser crystal and optical materials.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of three Mo(V)-Ln(III) (Ln = Ho, Er, Tm) magnetic chains based on [Mo(CN)8]3-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wen-Wen; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Tao, Jian-Qian

    2016-05-01

    Complexes 1-3 with general formula [Ln(tmphen)2(DMF)2Mo(CN)8]∞ (Ln = Ho(1), Er(2) and Tm(3)) have been prepared by reaction of Cs3[Mo(CN)8]·4H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O in the presence of the tmphen blocking ligand (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The structural determination reveals that complexes 1-3 consist of 1D chains, in which [LnIII(tmphen)2(DMF)2]3+ and [MoV(CN)8]3- ions are linked in an alternating fashion. Furthermore, two adjacent 1D chain are linked by π-π interaction between the benzene and pyridine rings and hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular three-dimensional framework. Investigation of the magnetic properties of complexes 1-3 reveals antiferromagnetic coupling interaction exists between heavy LnIII (HoIII, ErIII and TmIII) and MoV ions.

  4. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Misfit-Layered Sulfides [Ln2S2] p NbS2 (Ln = Lanthanides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Ogawa, Hidenori; Nakajo, Takaki; Kikuchii, Yuta; Hayashi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Polycrystalline samples of misfit-layered sulfides [Ln2S2] p NbS2 (Ln = lanthanides) have been prepared using the CS2 sulfidation method. Except for Ln = Eu and Lu, single-phase samples were prepared. The compounds consist of an alternate stacking of a trigonal prism-type [NbS2] layer and a double-layered NaCl [rock salt (RS)]-type [Ln2S2] block, parallel to the c-axis. Three types of stacking modes of the [NbS2] layer and the RS-type block have been confirmed with a (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace group description: two face-centered orthorhombic structures and one face-centered monoclinic structure. Slightly cation-deficient samples with Ln = Yb exhibit the highest Seebeck coefficient S ≈ 59 μV/K. With electrical resistivity of ρ = 1.4 m Upomega cm and thermal conductivity of κ = 0.69 W/Km, this yields a dimensionless figure of merit of ZT = 0.11 at 300 K.

  5. Loculated intracranial leptomeningeal metastases: CT and MR characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Tien, R D; Bruner, J M; De Pena, C A; Van Tassel, P

    1989-01-01

    Studies of twenty-five patients with loculated leptomeningeal tumor metastases diagnosed by CT and/or MR were analyzed retrospectively. Medulloblastoma was the most frequent primary tumor (8/25, 32%). Four subgroups of loculated patterns were identified. Type A included mass(es) limited to the subarachnoid space without obvious direct parenchymal infiltration; this pattern occurred in 12 patients, of whom five had associated diffuse pattern. Type B was characterized by mass(es) still predominantly in the subarachnoid space but with minor transpinal parenchymal infiltration; this pattern was found in five patients. Type C comprised subarachnoid mass(es) with marked transpinal extension mimicking parenchymal lesion; this pattern was observed in three patients. Type D consisted of subarachnoid mass(es) growing along the perineural CSF space; this pattern was noted in two patients. Additionally, two patients presented with combined A and C patterns, and one patient had a combined B and C pattern. More than half the patients (14/25, 56%) presented with a single lesion. The most frequent locations were the suprasellar cistern, ventricular walls, and lateral recesses of the fourth ventricle, Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted MR images appeared best for demonstrating the site and extent of disease. Recognition of the loculated patterns of leptomeningeal metastases, which are less common than the diffuse pattern, is important to radiologists and clinicians for correct diagnosis and proper management of patients with this disease. PMID:2512778

  6. Loculated intracranial leptomeningeal metastases: CT and MR characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Tien, R D; Bruner, J M; De Pena, C A; Van Tassel, P

    1990-02-01

    Studies of twenty-five patients with loculated leptomeningeal tumor metastases diagnosed by CT and/or MR were analyzed retrospectively. Medulloblastoma was the most frequent primary tumor (8/25, 32%). Four subgroups of loculated patterns were identified. Type A included mass(es) limited to the subarachnoid space without obvious direct parenchymal infiltration; this pattern occurred in 12 patients, of whom five had associated diffuse pattern. Type B was characterized by mass(es) still predominantly in the subarachnoid space but with minor transpinal parenchymal infiltration; this pattern was found in five patients. Type C comprised subarachnoid mass(es) with marked transpinal extension mimicking parenchymal lesion; this pattern was observed in three patients. Type D consisted of subarachnoid mass(es) growing along the perineural CSF space; this pattern was noted in two patients. Additionally, two patients presented with combined A and C patterns, and one patient had a combined B and C pattern. More than half the patients (14/25, 56%) presented with a single lesion. The most frequent locations were the suprasellar cistern, ventricular walls, and lateral recesses of the fourth ventricle, Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted MR images appeared best for demonstrating the site and extent of disease. Recognition of the loculated patterns of leptomeningeal metastases, which are less common than the diffuse pattern, is important to radiologists and clinicians for correct diagnosis and proper management of patients with this disease. PMID:2105030

  7. Role of surgery in colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Özgür; Çetinkaya, Erdinç; Ersöz, Şiyar; Tez, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer, and approximately 35%-55% of patients with CRC will develop hepatic metastases during the course of their disease. Surgical resection represents the only chance of long-term survival. The goal of surgery should be to resect all metastases with negative histological margins while preserving sufficient functional hepatic parenchyma. Although resection remains the only chance of long-term survival, management strategies should be tailored for each case. For patients with extensive metastatic disease who would otherwise be unresectable, the combination of advances in medical therapy, such as systemic chemotherapy (CTX), and the improvement in surgical techniques for metastatic disease, have enhanced prognosis with prolongation of the median survival rate and cure. The use of portal vein embolization and preoperative CTX may also increase the number of patients suitable for surgical treatment. Despite current treatment options, many patients still experience a recurrence after hepatic resection. More active systemic CTX agents are being used increasingly as adjuvant therapy either before or after surgery. Local tumor ablative therapies, such as microwave coagulation therapy and radiofrequency ablation therapy, should be considered as an adjunct to hepatic resection, in which resection cannot deal with all of the tumor lesions. Formulation of an individualized plan, which combines surgery with systemic CTX, is a necessary task of the multidisciplinary team. The aim of this paper is to discuss different approaches for patients that are treated due to CRC liver metastasis. PMID:24876733

  8. Strontium-89 therapy: measurement of absorbed dose to skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Blake, G M; Zivanovic, M A; Blaquiere, R M; Fine, D R; McEwan, A J; Ackery, D M

    1988-04-01

    We report measurements of absorbed dose to vertebral metastases in ten patients referred for 89Sr therapy for disseminated prostatic carcinoma. Patients received a tracer dose of 85Sr at the time of 89Sr treatment and metastatic strontium retention was monitored scintigraphically for 6 mo. Metastatic 85Sr activity corrected for tissue attenuation was measured using the conjugate view principle, with special care taken to eliminate errors due to the selection of the metastatic region of interest. Metastatic volume was determined from high resolution CT images, and density inferred from Hounsfield number using the QCT bone mineral calibration of Genant and Cann. The mean absorbed dose was 850 rad/mCi (23 cGy/MBq) with a range from 220-2260 rad/mCi (6 to 61 cGy/MBq). The wide range found was consistent with the variation expected to arise due to differences in strontium renal plasma clearance (range 0.1-11.81/day) and extent of skeletal metastatic disease (varying from two small metastases to a superscan on [99mTc]MDP images) among the patients studied. PMID:3351609

  9. Radiation Therapy for the Management of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Matthew D; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Yanagihara, Ted K; Jani, Ashish; Wang, Tony J C

    2016-08-01

    Brain metastases are the most common malignant intracranial tumors and carry a poor prognosis. The management of brain metastases may include a variety of treatment modalities including surgical resection, radiation therapy, and/or systemic therapy. The traditional treatment for brain metastasis involved whole brain irradiation. However, improved systemic control of primary cancers has led to longer survival for some groups of patients and there is increasing need to consider the late effects of radiation to the entire brain. With advances in imaging and radiation treatment planning and delivery stereotactic radiosurgery has become more frequently utilized and may be delivered through Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery or linear accelerator-based systems. Furthermore, experience in treating thousands of patients on clinical trials has led to diagnosis-specific prognostic assessment systems that help guide our approach to the management of this common clinical scenario. This review provides an overview of the literature supporting radiotherapy for brain metastasis and an update on current radiotherapeutic options that is tailored for the nonradiation oncologist. PMID:27213494

  10. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites.

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P; Silver, Carl E; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M; Bradley, Patrick J; Mendenhall, William M; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R; Werner, Jochen A; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-04-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2374-E2385, 2016. PMID:26713674

  11. Prevention of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients. Therapeutic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Beuzeboc, Philippe; Scholl, Suzy

    2014-01-01

    One in four breast cancer patients is at risk of developing bone metastases in her life time. The early prevention of bone metastases is a crucial challenge. It has been suggested that the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in the adjuvant setting may reduce the persistence of disseminated tumor cells and thereby might improve outcome, specifically in a population of patients with a low estrogen microenvironment. More recently, the results of a large meta-analysis from 41 randomized trials comparing a bisphosphonate (BP) to placebo or to an open control have been presented at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Meeting. Data on 17,016 patients confirm that adjuvant BPs, irrespective of the type of treatment or the treatment schedule and formulation (oral or intra-venously (IV)), significantly reduced bone recurrences and improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal women. No advantage was seen in premenopausal women. BPs are soon likely to become integrated into standard practice. Published data on the mechanisms involved in tumor cell seeding from the primary site, in homing to bone tissues and in the reactivation of dormant tumor cells will be reviewed; these might offer new ideas for innovative combination strategies. PMID:26237389

  12. Hepatic metastases from gastric cancer: A surgical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Guido Alberto Massimo; Roviello, Franco; Donini, Annibale; de Manzoni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Management of patients with hepatic metastases as the sole metastatic site at diagnosis of gastric cancer (synchronous setting) or detected during follow-up (metachronous) is controversial. The prevailing attitude in these cases is passive, leading to surgical palliation and, possibly, to chemotherapy. Authors focused this editorial in order to promote a more pragmatic attitude. They stress the importance of recognizing the good candidates to curative surgery of both gastric cancer and hepatic metastases (synchronous setting) or hepatic disease alone (metachronous disease) from those who will not benefit from surgical therapy. In fact, in adequately selected subgroup of patients surgery, especially if integrated in multimodal therapeutic strategies, may achieve unexpected 5-year survival rates, ranging from 10% to 40%. The critical revision of the literature suggests that some simple clinical criteria exist that may be effectively employed in patients selection. These are mainly related to the gastric cancer (factors T, N, G) and to the extent of hepatic involvement (factor H). Upon these criteria it is possible to adequately select about 50% of cases. In the remaining 50% of cases a critical discussion on a case-by-case basis is recommended, considering that among these patients some potential long-survivors exist, that survival is strictly influenced by the ablation of the tumor bulk and by multimodality treatments including chemotherapy and that in expert institutions this kind of surgery is performed with very low mortality and morbidity rates. PMID:26556981

  13. Detecting Tumor Metastases: The Road to Therapy Starts Here.

    PubMed

    Menezes, M E; Das, S K; Minn, I; Emdad, L; Wang, X-Y; Sarkar, D; Pomper, M G; Fisher, P B

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the complex process by which primary tumor cells migrate and establish secondary tumors in an adjacent or distant location in the body. Early detection of metastatic disease and effective therapeutic options for targeting these detected metastases remain impediments to effectively treating patients with advanced cancers. If metastatic lesions are identified early, patients might maximally benefit from effective early therapeutic interventions. Further, monitoring patients whose primary tumors are effectively treated for potential metastatic disease onset is also highly valuable. Finally, patients with metastatic disease can be monitored for efficacy of specific therapeutic interventions through effective metastatic detection techniques. Thus, being able to detect and visualize metastatic lesions is key and provides potential to greatly improve overall patient outcomes. In order to achieve these objectives, researchers have endeavored to mechanistically define the steps involved in the metastatic process as well as ways to effectively detect metastatic progression. We presently overview various preclinical and clinical in vitro and in vivo assays developed to more efficiently detect tumor metastases, which provides the foundation for developing more effective therapies for this invariably fatal component of the cancerous process. PMID:27613128

  14. Current Perspectives in the Management of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Saria, Marlon G; Piccioni, David; Carter, Joshua; Orosco, Heather; Turpin, Tiffany; Kesari, Santosh

    2015-08-01

    Brain metastases (BMs) are diagnosed in 10%-40% of all patients with cancer, and the incidence continues to increase along with the number of long-term survivors. When BMs occur, they are often associated with a myriad of symptoms, including neurologic dysfunction and functional decline; both are difficult to manage and can be distressing for patients and their caregivers. Although clinically significant findings have not kept up with the rapid pace of scientific breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms of BMs, novel approaches that affect the prognosis of patients with BMs have been introduced in clinical practice. At a Glance • Screening for brain metastases (BMs) is not routinely performed in patients with no neurologic symptoms. However, screening is indicated in lung cancer and possibly in the context of high-risk cancers. • Individual differences in patients warrant a personalized approach in the management of BMs. • Whole brain radiation therapy and steroids are considered to be the cornerstones of treatment for BMs. PMID:26207714

  15. Trichoblastic carcinoma ("malignant trichoblastoma") with lymphatic and hematogenous metastases.

    PubMed

    Regauer, S; Beham-Schmid, C; Okcu, M; Hartner, E; Mannweiler, S

    2000-06-01

    We report an aggressively behaving malignant trichogenic tumor arising in a trichoblastoma (TB) with widespread lymphatic and hematogenous metastases in a 55-year-old man with a concomitant B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The primary tumor had been present and unchanged for as long as 40 years before excision. Typical trichogenic TB with dystrophic calcification and even ossification was still present peripheral to the malignant transformation. The malignant neoplasm consisted of basaloid cells, spindle cells arranged in fascicles and densely packed rounded nests or "cell balls." The metastases consisted of immature basaloid cells and cell balls, and the recurrences became successively more undifferentiated. The residual TB reacted with antibodies to cytokeratin (CK) 6, 8, 14, and 17 and focally to S-100; the malignant primary tumor reacted uniformly with antibodies to vimentin and only focally with antibodies to CK and S-100. The metastatic tumor had lost epidermal CK expression but maintained expression of S-100 in paraffin-embedded tissues. Trichoblastic differentiation was confirmed in frozen tissues with antibodies to hair keratins. No expression of p53 or bcl-2 was identified, but p-glycoprotein (MDR-1 gene related) was expressed by primary and metastatic tumor cells. We believe that this neoplasm is best classified as a trichoblastic carcinoma arising in a TB in association with a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This case illustrates that TBs have the potential for malignant transformation and aggressive behavior. PMID:10874673

  16. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases.

    PubMed

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-15

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with "terminal status/despair". The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists' perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  17. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with “terminal status/despair”. The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists’ perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  18. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  19. Innovative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Caffo, Maria; Barresi, Valeria; Caruso, Gerardo; Cutugno, Mariano; La Fata, Giuseppe; Venza, Mario; Alafaci, Concetta; Tomasello, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and a poor performance status. Metastasis development involves the migration of a cancer cell from the bulk tumor into the surrounding tissue, extravasation from the blood into tissue elsewhere in the body, and formation of a secondary tumor. In the recent past, important results have been obtained in the management of patients affected by BM, using surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Conventional chemotherapies have generally produced disappointing results, possibly due to their limited ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The advent of new technologies has led to the discovery of novel molecules and pathways that have better depicted the metastatic process. Targeted therapies such as bevacizumab, erlotinib, gefitinib, sunitinib and sorafenib, are all licensed and have demonstrated improved survival in patients with metastatic disease. In this review, we will report current data on targeted therapies. A brief review about brain metastatic process will be also presented. PMID:23340652

  20. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-02-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported.