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Sample records for 12cgamma 3alpha ehnergeticheskoe

  1. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  2. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  3. Brassinolide activities of 2alpha,3alpha-diols versus 3alpha,4alpha-diols in the bean second internode bioassay: explanation by molecular modeling methods.

    PubMed

    Sísa, Miroslav; Vilaplana-Polo, Marc; Ballesteros, Carme Brosa; Kohout, Ladislav

    2007-10-01

    In general, the structural requirements postulated for a high brassinolide activity are: 2alpha,3alpha-diol, 6-ketone or better 7-oxalactone in B-ring, A/B trans fused ring junction, a cis C-22,C-23-diol preferentially with RR configurations, and a C-24 methyl or ethyl substituent [Takatsuto S, Yazawa N, Ikekawa N, Takematsu T, Takeuchi Y, Koguchi M. Structure-activity relationship of brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 1983;22:2437-41; Thompson MJ, Meudt WJ, Mandava NB, Dutky SR, Lusby WR, Spaulding DW. Synthesis of brassinosteroids and relationship of structure to plant growth-promoting effects. Steroids 1982;39:89-105]. We found that the 3alpha,4alpha-diols 4, 6 and 8 are more active than the 2alpha,3alpha-diols 3, 5 and 7 [Sísa M, Budesínský M, Kohout L. Synthesis of 7a-homo and 7a,7b-dihomo-5alpha-cholestane analogues of brassinolide. Collect Czech Chem Commun 2003;68:2171-89]. This fact is in strong contrast with the structure requirements mentioned above. Our hypothesis suggests that the lower activity of 2alpha,3alpha-diols and/or the higher activity of 3alpha,4alpha-diols could be explained by twisting and distortion of the molecule due to the seven- or eight-membered B-ring and also by the position of a carbonyl group relative to the A-ring diol. 3D-SAR computer methodologies as alignments and overlaps of GRID maps and 3D-QSAR analysis GRID-GOLPE (CoMFA-like) were used as an effort to explain the higher bioactivity of 3alpha,4alpha-diols 4, 6 and 8 in comparison with the 2alpha,3alpha-diols 3, 5 and 7 of B-ring enlarged brassinosteroids.

  4. 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: three dimensional structure and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Penning, T M

    1996-09-01

    Mammalian 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSDs) regulate steroid hormone levels. cDNA cloning indicates that the rat and human liver isoforms display high sequence identity and that they belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. Of these the most extensively characterized is rat liver 3 alpha-HSD. The recently solved X-ray crystal structure shows that this enzyme adopts an (alpha/beta)8-barrel scaffold (Hoog et al. 1994). NAD(P)H binds in an extended anti-conformation and lies along the inner surface of the barrel. The nicotinamide ring is stabilized by interaction with Y216. The 4-pro(R)-hydrogen transferred in the reaction is in close proximity to Y55. K84, D50 and H117 which are implicated in catalysis. These residues are located at the base of a hydrophobic pocket which is presumed to be involved in binding steroid hormone. This catalytic tetrad is conserved in members of the AKR superfamily. Mutant enzymes support roles for Y55 in steroid binding and for K84 as the general acid involved in catalysis. The gene for rat 3 alpha-HSD has been cloned and is 47 kb in length and contains 9 exon-intron boundaries which are highly conserved in the human gene(s). The 5'-flanking regions of the rat and human genes contain consensus sequences for AP-1, Oct-1 and multiple copies of perfect and imperfect steroid hormone response elements (REs) (estrogen, glucocorticoid (GRE), and progesterone) which may comprise a steroid response unit (SRU) (Lin & Penning 1995). Constitutive and regulated expression of the rat 3 alpha-HSD gene has been studied by transiently transfecting reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, CAT) constructs into human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. With respect to the transcription start-site (+1), a proximal (-498 to -199bp) and distal (-20 to -4.0kb) enhancer, as well as a powerful silencer (-755 to -498 bp) were located in the promoter. Band-shift and supershift assays provide evidence that Oct-1 binds to the silencer

  5. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA enhance exploratory, anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior and increase levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex of female rats.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2008-02-11

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) influence the onset and duration of sexual behavior and are also associated with changes in behaviors that may contribute to mating, such as exploration, anxiety, and social behaviors (socio-sexual behaviors). In the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), the P4 metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), modulates lordosis of E2-primed rodents; 3alpha,5alpha-THP can also influence anxiety and social behaviors. To examine if 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the VTA mediates socio-sexual behaviors, we infused 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA of diestrous and proestrous rats. As expected, proestrous, compared to diestrous, rats showed more exploratory (open field), anxiolytic (elevated plus maze), pro-social (partner preference, social interaction), and sexual (paced mating) behavior and had increased E2, P4, dihydroprogesterone (DHP), and 3alpha,5alpha-THP in serum, midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA, but not control sites, such as the substantia nigra (SN) or central grey (CG), of diestrous rats produced behavioral and endocrine effects akin to that of proestrous rats and increased DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon. Levels of DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP, but neither E2 nor P4 concentrations, in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and/or cortex were positively correlated with socio-sexual behaviors. Thus, 3alpha,5alpha-THP infusions to the VTA, but not SN or CG, can enhance socio-sexual behaviors and increase levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon.

  6. Progesterone's 5 alpha-reduced metabolite, 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, mediates lateral displacement of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2005-03-15

    5 alpha-Pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THP), progesterone (P4)'s 5 alpha-reduced, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreduced product, facilitates lordosis of rodents in part via agonist-like actions at GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whether 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP influences another reproductively-relevant behavior, lateral displacement, of hamsters was investigated. Lateral displacement is the movement that female hamsters make with their perineum towards male-like tactile stimulation. This behavior facilitates, and is essential for, successful mating. Hamsters in behavioral estrus had greater lateral displacement responses when endogenous progestin levels were elevated compared to when progestin levels were lower. Administration of P4, a prohormone for 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, dose-dependently (500 > 200 > 100, 50, or 0 microg) enhanced lateral displacement of ovariectomized hamsters that had been primed with SC estradiol benzoate (5 or 10 microg). Inhibiting P4's metabolism to 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP by co-administering finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, or indomethacin, a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase inhibitor, either systemically or to the VTA, significantly decreased lateral displacement and midbrain progestin levels of naturally receptive or hormone-primed hamsters compared to controls. These data suggest that lateral displacement is progestin-sensitive and requires the formation of 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP in the midbrain VTA.

  7. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-11-12

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  8. Fluoxetine may influence lordosis of rats through effects on midbrain 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP concentrations.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Petralia, Sandra M; Rhodes, Madeline E; Stein, Benjamin

    2003-12-01

    5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediates lordosis of rodents. If fluoxetine's effects on lordosis are mediated in part by midbrain 3alpha,5alpha-THP, then fluoxetine regimens that decrease and increase lordosis would be expected to respectively lower and elevate midbrain 3alpha,5-THP levels. Experiment 1: Ovariectomized (ovx) rats received estradiol benzoate (EB; 5 micro g, SC) at 0 and 24 h and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle 30 min before sex testing and tissue collection. Other rats received fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle for 15 days followed by EB-priming and testing. Systemic acute or chronic fluoxetine significantly decreased lordosis and midbrain 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels compared to vehicle. Experiment 2: Ovx rats with unilateral cannula to the VTA were primed with EB (5 micro g; 0, 24 h) and/or progesterone (0 or 100 micro g; 44 h, SC). At 47.5 h, fluoxetine (3.6 mM) or vehicle was infused to the VTA. At 48 h, rats were tested. Administering fluoxetine to the VTA significantly increased lordosis and midbrain 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels compared to vehicle infusions. Experiment 3: Ovx EB-primed rats were tested prior to, and 30 min after, treatmemt with acute fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, IP). Rats were then infused with 3alpha,5alpha-THP (100 ng) or vehicle to the VTA and were retested. 3alpha,5alpha-THP, but not vehicle, to the VTA reversed acute fluoxetine's inhibitory effects on lordosis. Together, these data suggest fluoxetine may alter lordosis in part through actions of 3alpha-THP in the midbrain.

  9. Potential bile acid metabolites. 19. The epimeric 3 alpha,6,7 beta-trihydroxy- and 3 alpha,6,7 beta,12 alpha-tetrahydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Nishida, S; Chang, F C; Niwa, T; Goto, J; Nambara, T

    1993-04-01

    Syntheses by a new procedure of the known 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta- and 3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids, and of the once-reported analog 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta,12 alpha-, as well as the new 3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,12 alpha-tetrahydroxy-5 alpha-cholanoic acids, are described. Key intermediates of the syntheses are the 6-oxo-7 beta-ols of the respective 5 alpha-cholanoic acids (and their methyl esters) prepared by allomerization at C-5 of appropriate 6-bromo-7-oxo derivatives of the corresponding 5 beta-acids. Successful reduction of the 6,7-ketols to the desired products depended on the proper choice of reagents, either Zn(BH4)2 or Li/NH3/MeOH.

  10. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  11. TOPO3alpha influences antigenic variation by monitoring expression-site-associated VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Cross, George A M

    2010-07-08

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates one of the major mechanisms of trypanosome antigenic variation by placing a different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene under the control of the active expression site (ES). It is believed that the majority of VSG switching events occur by duplicative gene conversion, but only a few DNA repair genes that are central to HR have been assigned a role in this process. Gene conversion events that are associated with crossover are rarely seen in VSG switching, similar to mitotic HR. In other organisms, TOPO3alpha (Top3 in yeasts), a type IA topoisomerase, is part of a complex that is involved in the suppression of crossovers. We therefore asked whether a related mechanism might suppress VSG recombination. Using a set of reliable recombination and switching assays that could score individual switching mechanisms, we discovered that TOPO3alpha function is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei and that TOPO3alpha plays a critical role in antigenic switching. Switching frequency increased 10-40-fold in the absence of TOPO3alpha and this hyper-switching phenotype required RAD51. Moreover, the preference of 70-bp repeats for VSG recombination was mitigated, while homology regions elsewhere in ES were highly favored, in the absence of TOPO3alpha. Our data suggest that TOPO3alpha may remove undesirable recombination intermediates constantly arising between active and silent ESs, thereby balancing ES integrity against VSG recombination.

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.

  13. Detection and localization of Mip-3alpha/LARC/Exodus, a macrophage proinflammatory chemokine, and its CCR6 receptor in human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, J; Kusama, T; Rossi, D L; Ishiwata, T; Maruyama, H; Friess, H; Büchler, M W; Zlotnik, A; Korc, M

    1999-05-17

    Macrophage Proinflammatory Human Chemokine-3alpha (Mip-3alpha/LARC/Exodus) belongs to a large family of chemotactic cytokines, which participate in directing inflammatory cell migration and in modulating angiogenesis. Mip-3alpha signals through a recently identified G-protein linked 7-transmembrane receptor, CCR6. In this study, we have characterized the expression of Mip-3alpha and CCR6 in 12 normal and 16 cancerous human pancreatic tissues and in 4 cultured pancreatic cancer cell lines, and assessed the effects of Mip-3alpha on growth and invasion of these cell lines. Pancreatic cancer tissues markedly overexpressed Mip-3alpha in comparison with normal pancreatic samples. By in situ hybridization Mip-3alpha and CCR6 mRNA moieties were present in cancer cells within the tumors. In addition, Mip-3alpha was abundant in the macrophages infiltrating the tumor mass. Mip-3alpha and its receptor CCR6 were expressed in all 4 tested pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mip-3alpha stimulated the growth of one cell line, enhanced the migration of another cell line, and was without effect in the other 2 cell lines. Together, our findings suggest that Mip-3alpha has the potential to act via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms to contribute to the pathobiology of human pancreatic cancer.

  14. Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, and chromosome localization.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R T; Boyd, J; Gladue, R P; Paradis, T; Thomas, R; Cunningham, A C; Lira, P; Brissette, W H; Hayes, L; Hames, L M; Neote, K S; McColl, S R

    2001-04-01

    We describe the genomic organization of a recently identified CC chemokine, MIP3alpha/CCL20 (HGMW-approved symbol SCYA20). The MIP-3alpha/CCL20 gene was cloned and sequenced, revealing a four exon, three intron structure, and was localized by FISH analysis to 2q35-q36. Two distinct cDNAs were identified, encoding two forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20, Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20, that differ by one amino acid at the predicted signal peptide cleavage site. Examination of the sequence around the boundary of intron 1 and exon 2 showed that use of alternative splice acceptor sites could give rise to Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 or Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20. Both forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 were chemically synthesized and tested for biological activity. Both flu antigen plus IL-2-activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphoblasts and cord blood-derived dendritic cells responded to Ser and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20. T lymphocytes exposed only to IL-2 responded inconsistently, while no response was detected in naive T lymphocytes, monocytes, or neutrophils. The biological activity of Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and the tissue-specific preference of different splice acceptor sites are not yet known.

  15. Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pernet, I; Reymermier, C; Guezennec, A; Branka, J-E; Guesnet, J; Perrier, E; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C; Schmitt, D; Viac, J

    2003-12-01

    The inducible epidermal beta-defensins and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) are important mediators involved in innate and adaptive immunity and in the recruitment of immune cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether calcium could trigger the induction of beta-defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) mRNA and the release of MIP-3alpha by normal human keratinocyte monolayers. Epidermal cells derived from foreskin were cultured in defined medium supplemented with different calcium levels (0.09, 0.8 and 1.7 mM) and were stimulated or not with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha 1-500 ng/ml) or interferon-gamma (INF-gamma 1-100 ng/ml). A high calcium concentration (1.7 mM) alone applied in culture medium for 4 days was sufficient to induce hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA expression. Whatever interindividual variability in the expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha secretion, the addition of TNF-alpha for a short duration (26h), initiated a dose-dependent and coordinated up-regulation of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha release in keratinocyte cultures. Unlike hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA was preferentially stimulated by IFN-gamma rather than TNF-alpha. In our experimental conditions, L-isoleucine, described to stimulate beta-defensin in bovine epithelial cells, did not exert any effect either on hBD-2 and hBD-3 transcripts or MIP-3alpha protein. Taken together, these results confirm the major role of the maturation/differentiation process of normal human keratinocytes in the induction of inducible beta-defensins and MIP-3alpha chemokine, which contribute in vivo to the immunosurveillance of the skin barrier function.

  16. Aqueous chemical growth of alpha-Fe2O3-alpha-Cr203 nanocompositethin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph

    2001-06-30

    We are reporting here on the inexpensive fabrication and optical properties of an iron(III) oxide chromium(III) oxide nanocomposite thin film of corundum crystal structure. Its novel and unique-designed architecture consists of uniformed, well-defined and oriented nanorods of Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) of 50 nm in diameter and 500nm in length and homogeneously distributed nonaggregated monodisperse spherical nanoparticles of Eskolaite (alpha-Cr2O3) of 250 nm in diameter. This alpha-Fe2O3 alpha-Cr2O3 nanocomposite thin film is obtained by growing, directly onto transparent polycrystalline conducting substrate, an oriented layer of hematite nanorods and growing subsequently, the eskolaite layer. The synthesis is carried out by a template-free, low-temperature, multilayer thin film coating process using aqueous solution of metal salts as precursors. Almost 100 percent of the light is absorbed by the composite film between 300 and 525 nm and 40 percent at 800 nm which yields great expectations as photoanode materials for photovoltaic cells and photocatalytic devices.

  17. Urinary analysis of 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: implications in anti-doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Baume, Norbert; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2004-10-15

    We present a method for the analysis of urinary 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol together with 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol and four testosterone metabolites: androsterone (Andro), etiocholanolone (Etio), 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5alphaA), 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5betaA) by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The within-assay and between-assay precision S.D.s of the investigated steroids were lower than 0.3 and 0.6 per thousand, respectively. A comparative study on a population composed of 20 subjects has shown that the differences of the intra-individual delta(13)C-values for 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol are less than 0.9 per thousand. Thereafter, the method has been applied in the frame of an excretion study following oral ingestion of 50 mg DHEA initially and oral ingestion of 50mg pregnenolone 48 h later. Our findings show that administration of DHEA does not affect the isotopic ratio values of 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol, whereas the isotopic ratio values of 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol vary by more 5 per thousand upon ingestion of pregnenolone. We have observed delta(13)C-value changes lower than 1 per thousand for 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol, though pregnenolone is a precursor of the 16-ene steroids. In contrast to 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol, the 16-ene steroid may be used as an endogenous reference compound when pregnenolone is administered.

  18. Formation of varanic acid, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid from 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid in Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Une, M; Inoue, A; Hoshita, T

    1996-11-01

    Varanic acid (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid; 24-OH-THCA) is almost the sole component of bile acids in the bile of Bombina orientalis. To examine in the mechanism of the formation of 24-OH-THCA, radiolabeled (25R)- and (25S)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acids [(25R)- and (25S)-THCA] and (24E)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) were administered intraperitoneally to B. orientalis, gallbladder bile was collected after 24 h, and bile acids were subsequently extracted. Then the bile acids were analyzed by means of radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography after conversion to p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives. Although delta 24-THCA was not converted to 24-OH-THCA, (25R)-THCA and (25S)-THCA were transformed to (24R,25R)-24-OH-THCA and (24R,25S)-24-OH-THCA, respectively. These results strongly suggest that 24-OH-THCA was transformed via direct hydroxylation of the saturated side chain of THCA, not via hydration to an alpha, beta-unsaturated acid, delta 24-THCA, in B. orientalis.

  19. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1984-03-01

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.

  20. Synthesis of [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol via stable tritiated 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione derivative.

    PubMed

    Batta, A K; Salen, G; Tint, G S; Honda, A; Shefer, S

    1997-11-01

    Synthesis of [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol is described via protection of the 5,7-diene system in 7-dehydrocholesterol as the Diels-Alder adduct with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione followed by oxidation of the hydroxyl group to give the 3-oxo adduct. Reduction of the keto adduct with [3H]sodium borohydride produced the adduct of [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol from which the radiolabeled sterol was obtained via treatment with lithium aluminum hydride. The advantage of the method is that highly labeled [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol can be prepared. Further, unlike 7-dehydrocholesterol, its adduct with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione is stable and can be stored. This allows the preparation of small batches of [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol for immediate use in biological experiments, and losses due to decomposition of excess radiolabeled 7-dehydrocholesterol are minimized.

  1. Relevance of classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (C-ANCA)-mediated inhibition of proteinase 3-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexation to disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, K M; Stegeman, C A; van de Wiel, B A; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Kallenberg, C G; Goldschmeding, R

    1993-01-01

    In the sera of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), C-ANCA can be detected that are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We have previously observed that C-ANCA interfere with PR3 proteolytic activity and with complexation of PR3 with its major physiologic inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). In the present study we investigated whether this inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation correlates with clinical activity of WG. Serial serum samples of eight consecutive patients with histologically proven relapses of WG were tested. At the moment of relapse all sera revealed inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation (median 22%, range 10-59%). Disease activity score (r = 0.87, P < 0.02) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (r = 0.66, P < 0.1) correlated with C-ANCA inhibition of PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, while they did not correlate with the C-ANCA titre detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) nor with IgG anti-PR3 antibody level measured by ELISA. The inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation had risen significantly at the moment of relapse compared with values 3 months (P < 0.05) and 6 months (P < 0.01) before relapse. Eight patients with established WG and positive for C-ANCA but without clinical evidence of relapse served as controls. In this group no inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation was observed in 7/8 patients sera. Sera of one control patient contained moderate C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, which remained at a constant level during the 6 months period of observation. Thus, disease activity in WG appears to be more closely related to C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation. PMID:8370167

  2. Evaluation of a fluorometric-enzymatic method based on 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the mycotoxin zearalenone determination in corn.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Yolanda; Castillo, Juan R; de Marcos, Susana; Galbán, Javier

    2004-09-08

    A new method for the fluorometric determination of zearalenone (ZEN) based on its reaction with betaNADH in the presence of the enzyme 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) is described. The procedure is based on the change in fluorescence intensity that takes place during the enzymatic reaction (excitation at 340nm and emission at 454nm). The optimum reaction conditions and the analytical characteristics were studied; linear response range (1-10mgl(-1)) and reproducibility (8mgl(-1), 2.7%, n=7). Moreover, a mathematical model explaining the analytical signal is proposed. The method has been applied to zearalenone determination in a spiked corn sample.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of a selective inhibitor for alpha-glucosidases: alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Su; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seob; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wan; Zhang, Ran; Withers, Stephen G; Kim, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2008-07-09

    Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of novel inhibitors using acarviosine-glucose as a donor and 3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen (alphaGP) as an acceptor. Maltogenic amylase from Thermus sp. (ThMA) catalyzed the transglycosylation of the acarviosine moiety to alphaGP. The two major reaction products were isolated using chromatographies. Structural analyses revealed that acarviosine was transferred to either C-7 or C-9 of the alphaGP, which correspond to C-4 and C-6 of glucose. Both inhibited rat intestine alpha-glucosidase competitively but displayed a mixed-type inhibition mode against human pancreatic alpha-amylase. The alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->7)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen showed weaker inhibition potency than acarbose against both alpha-glycosidases. In contrast, the alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen exhibited a 3.0-fold improved inhibition potency against rat intestine alpha-glucosidase with 0.3-fold inhibition potency against human pancreatic alpha-amylase relative to acarbose. In conclusion, alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen is a novel alpha-glucosidase-selective inhibitor with 10-fold enhanced selectivity toward alpha-glucosidase over alpha-amylase relative to acarbose, and it could be applied as a potent hypoglycemic agent.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase: a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Hoog, S S; Pawlowski, J E; Alzari, P M; Penning, T M; Lewis, M

    1994-01-01

    The 3.0-A-resolution x-ray structure of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD, EC 1.1.1.50) was determined by molecular replacement using human placental aldose reductase as the search model. The protein folds into an alpha/beta or triose-phosphate isomerase barrel and lacks a canonical Rossmann fold for binding pyridine nucleotide. The structure contains a concentration of hydrophobic amino acids that lie in a cavity near the top of the barrel and that are presumed to be involved in binding hydrophobic substrates (steroids, prostaglandins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and inhibitors (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs). At the distal end of this cavity lie three residues in close proximity that have been implicated in catalysis by site-directed mutagenesis--Tyr-55, Asp-50, and Lys-84. Tyr-55 is postulated to act as the general acid. 3 alpha-HSD shares significant sequence identity with other HSDs that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily and these may show similar architecture. Other members of this family include prostaglandin F synthase and rho-crystallin. By contrast, 3 alpha-HSD shares no sequence identity with HSDs that are members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family but does contain the Tyr-Xaa-Xaa-Xaa-Lys consensus sequence implicated in catalysis in this family. In the 3 alpha-HSD structure these residues are on the periphery of the barrel and are unlikely to participate in catalysis. Images PMID:8146147

  5. Merozoite surface protein-3 alpha as a genetic marker for epidemiologic studies in Plasmodium vivax: a cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread of the human malaria parasites in terms of geography, and is thought to present unique challenges to local efforts aimed at control and elimination. Parasite molecular markers can provide much needed data on P. vivax populations, but few such markers have been critically evaluated. One marker that has seen extensive use is the gene encoding merozoite surface protein 3-alpha (MSP-3α), a blood-stage antigen known to be highly variable among P. vivax isolates. Here, a sample of complete msp-3α gene sequences is analysed in order to assess its utility as a molecular marker for epidemiologic investigations. Methods Amplification, cloning and sequencing of additional P. vivax isolates from different geographic locations, including a set of Venezuelan field isolates (n = 10), yielded a sample of 48 complete msp-3α coding sequences. Characterization of standard population genetic measures of diversity, phylogenetic analysis, and tests for recombination were performed. This allowed comparisons to patterns inferred from the in silico simulation of a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol used widely. Results The larger sample of MSP-3α diversity revealed incongruence between the observed levels of nucleotide polymorphism, which were high in all populations, and the pattern of PCR-RFLP haplotype diversity. Indeed, PCR-RFLP haplotypes were not informative of a population’s genetic diversity and identical haplotypes could be produced from analogous bands in the commonly used protocol. Evidence of frequent and variable insertion-deletion mutations and recurrent recombination between MSP-3α haplotypes complicated the inference of genetic diversity patterns and reduced the phylogenetic signal. Conclusions The genetic diversity of P. vivax msp-3α involves intragenic recombination events. Whereas the high genetic diversity of msp-3α makes it a promising marker for some

  6. Prostate formation in a marsupial is mediated by the testicular androgen 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Renfree, M B; Leihy, M W; Shackleton, C H; Roitman, E; Wilson, J D

    2000-10-24

    Development of the male urogenital tract in mammals is mediated by testicular androgens. It has been tacitly assumed that testosterone acts through its intracellular metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to mediate this process, but levels of these androgens are not sexually dimorphic in plasma at the time of prostate development. Here we show that the 3 alpha-reduced derivative of DHT, 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (5 alpha-adiol), is formed in testes of tammar wallaby pouch young and is higher in male than in female plasma in this species during early sexual differentiation. Administration of 5 alpha-adiol caused formation of prostatic buds in female wallaby pouch young, and in tissue minces of urogenital sinus and urogenital tubercle radioactive 5 alpha-adiol was converted to DHT, suggesting that circulating 5 alpha-adiol acts through DHT in target tissues. We conclude that circulating 5 alpha-adiol is a key hormone in male development.

  7. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  8. Purification and properties of a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of rat liver cytosol and its inhibition by anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Penning, T M; Mukharji, I; Barrows, S; Talalay, P

    1984-01-01

    An NAD(P)-dependent 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.50) was purified to homogeneity from rat liver cytosol, where it is responsible for most if not all of the capacity for the oxidation of androsterone, 1-acenaphthenol and benzenedihydrodiol (trans-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene). The dehydrogenase has many properties (substrate specificity, pI, Mr, amino acid composition) in common with the dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.20) purified from the same source [Vogel, Bentley, Platt & Oesch (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 9621-9625]. Since 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids are by far the most efficient substrates, the enzyme is more appropriately designated a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It also promotes the NAD(P)H-dependent reductions of quinones (e.g. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-benzoquinone), aromatic aldehydes (4-nitrobenzaldehyde) and aromatic ketones (4-nitroacetophenone). The dehydrogenase is not inhibited by dicoumarol, disulfiram, hexobarbital or pyrazole. The mechanism of the powerful inhibition of this enzyme by both non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [Penning & Talalay (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 4504-4508] was examined with several substrates. Most non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are competitive inhibitors (e.g. Ki for indomethacin, 0.20 microM for 9,10-phenanthrenequinone reduction at pH 6.0, and 0.835 microM for androsterone oxidation at pH 7.0), except for salicylates, which act non-competitively (e.g. Ki for aspirin, 650 microM for androsterone oxidation). The inhibitory potency of these agents falls sharply as the pH is increased from 6 to 9. Most anti-inflammatory steroids are likewise competitive inhibitors, except for the most potent (betamethasone and dexamethasone), which act non-competitively. The enzyme is inhibited competitively by arachidonic acid and various prostaglandins. PMID:6435601

  9. A human-mouse chimera of the alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) collagen protomer rescues the renal phenotype in Col4a3-/- Alport mice.

    PubMed

    Heidet, Laurence; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Jouin, Mélanie; Sich, Mireille; Mattei, Marie-Geneviève; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Hastie, Nicholas; Antignac, Corinne; Gubler, Marie-Claire

    2003-10-01

    Collagen IV is a major structural component of basement membranes. In the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5(IV) collagen chains form a distinct network that is essential for the long-term stability of the glomerular filtration barrier, and is absent in most patients affected with Alport syndrome, a progressive inherited nephropathy associated with mutation in COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 genes. To investigate, in vivo, the regulation of the expression, assembly, and function of the alpha3alpha4alpha5(IV) protomer, we have generated a yeast artificial chromosome transgenic line of mice carrying the human COL4A3-COL4A4 locus. Transgenic mice expressed the human alpha3 and alpha4(IV) chains in a tissue-specific manner. In the kidney, when expressed onto a Col4a3(-/-) background, the human alpha3(IV) chain restored the expression of and co-assembled with the mouse alpha4 and alpha5(IV) chains specifically at sites where the human alpha3(IV) was expressed, demonstrating that the expression of all three chains is required for network assembly. The co-assembly of the human and mouse chains into a hybrid network in the GBM restores a functional GBM and rescues the Alport phenotype, providing further evidence that defective assembly of the alpha3-alpha4-alpha5(IV) protomer, caused by mutations in any of the three chains, is the pathogenic mechanism responsible for the disease. This line of mice, humanized for the alpha3(IV) collagen chain, will also provide a valuable model for studying the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies against this chain.

  10. Studies on the receptors to 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol in sow nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gennings, J N; Gower, D B; Bannister, L H

    1977-02-28

    The presence of receptors to the "boar taint" pheromones 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol has been demonstrated in sow olfactory mucosa. Binding studies indicated that a sufficiently low concentration of olfactory tissue homogenate exhibited saturation of binding of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one, and this was of high affinity compared with control tissues of non-olfactory and heated olfactory tissues. Analysis of receptor binding of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one gave a value for the affinity constant (Ka) of approx. 8.3-10(8) M-1 and the value for the molar concentration of binding sites (n[M]) was approx. 3.3 pmol/mg protein. Almost identical values of Ka and n [M] were obtained when receptor binding of 5alpha-[5alpha-3H]androst-16-en-3alpha-ol was investigated (Ka 8.4-10(8) M-1; n [M] 3.7 pmol/mg protein). This suggests that the same receptor binds both 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol with equally high affinity. In a preliminary investigation to establish the specificity of the receptor, the binding of 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one was assayed; this steroid is odourless but has a similar structure except in ring D to 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one. Binding was of the low affinity, non-specific type only, indicating that the sow olfactory receptors are not sensitive to this androgen.

  11. Potential anti-tumor-promoting activity of 3alpha-hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-2-one from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiko; Nakata, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Chiharu; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2008-03-01

    Four known friedelane-type triterpenoids, friedelin ( 1), 3-hydroxy-D:A-friedoolean-3-en-2-one ( 2), 2beta-hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-3-one ( 3), and 3alpha-hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-2-one ( 4), and two known lupane-type triterpenoids, lupeol ( 5) and betulin ( 6), were isolated from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensis. Isolates 1 - 4 and their synthetic analogues, 3-acetoxy-D:A-friedoolean-3-en-2-one ( 2A) and 3alpha-acetoxy-D:A-friedooleanan-2-one ( 4A), were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The inhibitory effect of compounds 2 (IC (50) = 292 mol ratio/32 pmol/TPA) and 4 (IC (50) = 288) was stronger than those of the other compounds tested and the positive control, curcumin (IC (50) = 343). Compound 4 strongly inhibited mouse skin tumor promotion in an IN VIVO two-stage carcinogenesis model. Studies have been conducted to identify the biologically active compounds extracted from the leaves, bark, and cones of trees that currently have no specific commercial use and are therefore treated as waste in the forestry industry.

  12. Phenotypic consequences of deletion of the gamma 3, alpha 5, or beta 3 subunit of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Culiat, C T; Stubbs, L J; Montgomery, C S; Russell, L B; Rinchik, E M

    1994-03-29

    Three genes (Gabrg3, Gabra5, and Gabrb3) encoding the gamma 3, alpha 5, and beta 3 subunits of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, respectively, are known to map near the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7. This region shares homology with a segment of human chromosome 15 that is implicated in Angelman syndrome, an inherited neurobehavioral disorder. By mapping Gabrg3 on a panel of p-locus deletions, we have determined that the order of genes within this cluster is centromere-p(D15S12h)-Gabrg3-Gabra5-Gabrb3-telom ere. Like Gabrb3, neither the Gabra5 nor Gabrg3 gene is functionally imprinted in adult mouse brain. Mice deleted for all three subunits die at birth with a cleft palate, although there are rare survivors (approximately 5%) that do not have a cleft palate but do exhibit a neurological abnormality characterized by tremor, jerky gait, and runtiness. We have previously suggested that deficiency of the beta 3 subunit may be responsible for the clefting defect. Most notably, however, in this report we describe mice carrying two overlapping, complementing p deletions that fail to express the gamma 3 transcript, as well as mice from another line that express neither the gamma 3 nor alpha 5 transcripts. Surprisingly, mice from both of these lines are phenotypically normal and do not exhibit any of the neurological symptoms characteristic of the rare survivors that are deleted for all three (gamma 3, alpha 5, and beta 3) subunits. These mice therefore provide a whole-organism type A gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor background that is devoid of any receptor subtypes that normally contain the gamma 3 and/or alpha 5 subunits. The absence of an overt neurological phenotype in mice lacking the gamma 3 and/or alpha 5 subunits also suggests that mutations in these genes are unlikely to provide useful animal models for Angelman syndrome in humans.

  13. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  14. Serum 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, androsterone, and testosterone concentrations in the male rat. Influence of age and gonadotropin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moger, W H

    1977-04-01

    Serum concentrations of testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (T-DHT), 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (Diol) and androsterone were measured during sexual maturation in male rats. Diol concentrations of 1 to 2.25 ng/ml were found in animals 10-90 days of age with no significant changes. Diol was the major androgen (5.75-8 times T-DHT) from age 20-40 days. Androsterone rose to 1.25 ng/ml at 25 days of age and declined to values of greater than 0.5 ng/ml from age 30-90 days. Testosterone-DHT levels were 1 ng/ml or less from 10-40 days of age, and then rose to a peak at 60 days. The ratio of Diol toT-DHT was significantly elevated from age 20-35 days, indicating that Diol is the major androgen in circulation at this time. Acute treatment of 33 day old rats with LH, but not with FSH, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in serum T-DHT, Diol, and androsterone. The dose-response and time course of response for the three steriods were nearly identical. Changes in testes capacity to secrete androgens were assessed 25, 33, 40 and 60 days of age by administering a maximum dose of LH before blood collection. Maximum response (sum of androsterone, Diol and T-DHT) occurred at 40 days with no further increase at 60 days.

  15. Molecular docking and QSAR studies on substituted acyl(thio)urea and thiadiazolo [2,3-alpha] pyrimidine derivatives as potent inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaying; Cai, Shaoxi; Mei, Hu; Li, Jian; Yan, Ning; Wang, Qin; Lin, Zhihua; Huo, Danqun

    2010-09-01

    Surflex-Dock was employed to dock 36 thiourea and thiadiazolo [2,3-alpha] pyrimidine derivatives into neuraminidase 1a4g. Molecular docking results showed that hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, and hydrophobic features were important factors affecting inhibitory activities of these neuraminidase inhibitors. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the predicted binding affinity (total scores) and experimental pIC50 values with correlation coefficient r=0.846 and p<0.0001. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship models. Squared multiple correlation coefficients (r2) of hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models were 0.899, 0.878, and 0.865, respectively. Squared cross-validated correlation coefficient (q2) of hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models was in turn 0.628, 0.656, and 0.509. In addition, squared multiple correlation coefficients for test set (r2test) of hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models were 0.558, 0.667, and 0.566, respectively. The most active sample ID 2 was taken as a template molecule to design new molecules. Based on the comparative molecular field analysis model, new compounds were designed by LeapFrog. Seven new compounds with improved binding energy and predicted activities were finally obtained.

  16. First and second transmembrane segments of alpha3, alpha4, beta2, and beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits influence the efficacy and potency of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Rush, Ray; Kuryatov, Alexander; Nelson, Mark E; Lindstrom, Jon

    2002-06-01

    The first three transmembrane segments (M1-M3) of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in determining the efficacy of nicotine by studies of alpha3/alpha4 subunit chimeras. Nicotine has full efficacy on the alpha4beta2 nAChR and partial efficacy on the alpha3beta2 nAChR. Now, we have exchanged individually three amino acids between the alpha4 and the alpha3 subunits at positions 226(M1), 258(M2), and 262(M2). Also, similar exchanges were made in the beta2 and beta4 subunits at positions 224(M1), 226(M1), and 254(M2) (using alpha subunit numbering). Expression of these mutated nAChRs in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that the mutated M1 amino acids were important in influencing the potency of ACh and nicotine. It is hypothesized that these M1 amino acids affect the stability between the resting and activated states of the nAChR. M2 amino acids altered the efficacy of nicotine, usually without altering its potency. When the residue located at position 258 in the M2 region of the alpha subunit was valine (as in the alpha3 subunit), the resulting nAChR exhibited partial efficacy for nicotine that was voltage-dependent. Therefore, we believe that these M2 amino acids contribute to the formation of a binding site for nicotine in the alpha3beta2 nAChR channel, which results in a low-affinity channel block, causing the lower efficacy of nicotine on this nAChR.

  17. Role of S114 in the NADH-induced conformational change and catalysis of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase from Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Hsun; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Hwang, Chi-Ching

    2009-10-01

    3alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of androsterone with NAD(+) to form androstanedione and NADH. In this study, we characterize the role of the conserved residue S114 in cofactor binding and catalysis, using site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements. The catalytic efficiency of V/K(NADH)Et for wild-type and S114A is 1.5 x10(7) and 3.8 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, suggesting that NADH association to wild-type and S114A mutant enzymes involves two steps, a bimolecular binding step and isomerization. The binding of NADH into a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of wild-type and S114A mutant enzymes restricts its motion and shields the fluorescence quenching from solvent, with an increase in the fluorescence intensity and a blue shift at the maximum wavelength. Furthermore, the binding of NADH leads to the protein fluorescence quenching, mainly due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer to NADH. S114A mutant enzyme decreases 3100-fold in V/Et with no apparent change in K(m) for substrates. Addition of NADH to S114A mutant enzyme induces a secondary structural change. These results suggest that S114 is important to maintain the correct conformation for the nucleotide binding and facilitate the reaction. Substitution of alanine for S114 eliminates the hydrogen bonding interaction with P185, causing a conformational change in a nonproductive binding of NADH and a significant loss of activity.

  18. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVII. Immunomodulating activities of carboxymethylated derivatives of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans extracted from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Kiho, T; Usui, S; Sakushima, M; Ukai, S

    1996-01-01

    Immunomodulating activities of three carboxymethylated derivatives (AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM) of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans from Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria were evaluated with murine peritoneal macrophages playing an important role in tumor immunity. The ratio of macrophages in peritoneal exudate cells increased more than 50% after the administration of three carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans. These carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans exhibited higher potentiating activities for macrophages than carboxymethylated linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (CMPS) in the potency of reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium, products of nitric oxide and the soluble cytotoxic factor, the amount of glucose consumption, and the activation of acid phosphatase. AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM were found to induce the tumor regressing factor in mouse serum, although the ability of the induction of this factor was weaker than that of CMPS. The reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activation of three carboxymethylated alpha-D-glucans was similar to that of the carboxymethylated beta-D-glucan. AG-AL-CMS and AG-AL-CMI, but not AM-APP-CM, were suggested to possess a higher-order structure, resulting from the formation of a fluorescent complex with aniline blue.

  19. Substrate specificity of THCA-CoA oxidases from rat liver light mitochondrial fractions on dehydrogenation of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid CoA thioester.

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, S; Goto, T; Mano, N; Goto, J

    1998-11-01

    The substrate specificity of rat liver peroxisomal 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-CoA (THCA-CoA) oxidases, which catalyze the dehydrogenation of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) CoA thioester, having an asymmetric center at C-25, to form (24E)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) CoA thioester, was studied. The stable isotope labeled substrates, [3,7,12-18O3]-(25R)- and (25S)-THCA CoA thioesters were synthesized by an exchange reaction of carbonyl oxygens on a steroid nucleus of 3,7,12-trioxo-5 beta-cholestanoic acid, followed by metal hydride reduction and condensation reaction with CoA. After incubation of a mixture of unlabeled (25R)- and 18O-labeled (25S)-THCA CoA thioester, or vice versa, with hepatic peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidases, biotransformed delta 24-THCA was determined by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The delta 24-THCA was derived only from (25S)-THCA CoA thioester, indicating that the 25S epimer of THCA is a preferential substrate on dehydrogenation by THCA-CoA oxidases.

  20. A new, major C27 biliary bile acid in the red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens):25R-1beta, 3alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Kakiyama, Genta; Muto, Akina; Iida, Takashi; Mushiake, Kumiko; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Oliveira, Cleida A; Hofmann, Alan F

    2009-04-01

    The chemical structures of the three major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the Red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens), an early evolving, ground-living bird related to ratites, were determined. Bile acids were isolated by preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two of the compounds were identified as the taurine N-acylamidates of 25R-3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid (constituting 22% of biliary bile acids) and 25R-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid (constituting 51%). The remaining compound, constituting 21% of biliary bile acids, was an unknown C27 bile acid. Its structure was elucidated by LC/ESI-MS/MS and NMR and shown to be the taurine conjugate of 25R-1beta, 3alpha, 7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid, a C27 trihydroxy bile acid not previously reported. Although C27 bile acids with a 1beta-hydroxyl group have been identified as trace bile acids in the alligator, this is the first report of a major biliary C27 bile acid possessing a 1beta-hydroxyl group.

  1. The metabolism of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydorxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid in two siblings with cholestasis due to intrahepatic bile duct anomalies. An apparent inborn error of cholic acid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R F; Isenberg, J N; Williams, G C; Hachey, D; Szczepanik, P; Klein, P D; Sharp, H L

    1975-01-01

    Studies were carried out in a family in which two children with cholestasis due to intrahepatic bile duct anomalies were shown to have increased amounts of the cholic acid precursor, 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydorxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid (THCA). The metabolism of THCA was studied in one of these patients after an intravenous injection of (3H)THCA, and the cause of the increased amounts of THCA in this condition was found to be due to a metabolic defect in the conversion of this compound into cholic acid. A small amount of (3H)cholic acid was also identified after (3H)THCA administration, confirming that this metabolic defect was incomplete. Varanic acid (3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha, 24xi-tetrahydorxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid), a metabolite of THCA, could not be identified in either of these patients. By assuming that this compound would be conjugated and excreted if the metabolic block occurred after the formation of varanic acid, the defect in these patients appears to be due to a deficiency of a 24-hydroxylating enzyme system required to convert THCA into varanic acid. This condition appears to be transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion, because the two affected patients were of opposite sex, and neither a normal sibling nor the two parents have increased amount of THCA in their bile. Images PMID:1159074

  2. Configuration at C-25 in 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25,26-pentol excreted by patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: circular dichroism and 13C-NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Dayal, B; Salen, G; Toome, V; Tint, G S

    1986-12-01

    The configuration at C-25 in 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha,25,26-pentol isolated from the bile and feces of patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomtosis (CTX) was determined from the lanthanide-induced circular dichroism (CD) Cotton effects and 13C-NMR measurements. Under anhydrous conditions, CD spectra of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha,25,26-pentol in the presence of Eu(fod)3 exhibited a large induced negative Cotton effect at 320 nm. On the basis of the empirical rule (primary-tertiary-alpha-diols) in which R compounds have positive Cotton effects and S compounds have negative Cotton effects at 320 nm, it was concluded that 25,26-pentol has the 1,2,glycol structure with C-25 having the S-configuration. This assignment was based upon comparison with model compounds, 25(R and S),26-dihydroxy cholesterols and 25(R and S),26-dihydroxy cholecalciferols whose single-crystal X-ray structure and 13C-NMR studies have been performed. It is suggested that these data may be helpful to clarify the stereospecificity of the hydroxylation of the terminal methyl group of the cholesterol side chain in CTX.

  3. Stereospecific dehydrogenation of (25R)- and (25S)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acids by acyl-CoA oxidase in rat liver light mitochondrial fraction.

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, S; Watanabe, H; Goto, T; Mano, N; Goto, J; Nambara, T

    1995-08-01

    From a stereochemical point of view, the dehydrogenation mechanism of the biotransformation of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) into (24E)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) has been studied with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/negative ion chemical ionization (NICI)-mass spectrometry. After incubation of (24R,25R)- or (24S,25S)-[24,25-2H2]THCA, synthesized from (24E)-delta 24-THCA by a deuterated diimide reduction, with a rat liver light mitochondrial fraction, 5 beta-cholestanoic acids were extracted and derivatized into a pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester-dimethylethylsilyl (DMES) ether. Subsequent resolution into THCA and delta 24-THCA was attained by GC on a cross-linked 5% phenylmethyl silicone fused-silica capillary column monitored with a corresponding characteristic carboxylate anion [M-PFB]- in the NICI mode. The stereospecific elimination of a pro-R hydrogen at C-24 in both (25R)- and (25S)-THCA indicated syn-elimination for the former, whereas anti-elimination for the latter was observed.

  4. Determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol in truffle fermentation broth by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector/electron impact mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2008-07-15

    A novel method using solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (FID)/electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS) was developed for the determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol (androstenol), a steroidal compound belonging to the group of musk odorous 16-androstenes, in truffle fermentation broth. Comparison studies between FID and EIMS indicated two detectors gave similar quantitative results. The highest androstenol concentration of 123.5 ng/mL was detected in Tuber indicum fermentation broth, while no androstenol was found in Tuber aestivum fermentation broth. For the first time, this work confirmed the existence of androstenol in the truffle fermentation broth, which suggested truffle fermentation is a promising alternative for androstenol production on a large scale.

  5. Human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20/LARC/Exodus/SCYA20 is transcriptionally upregulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha via a non-standard NF-kappaB site.

    PubMed

    Harant, H; Eldershaw, S A; Lindley, I J

    2001-12-14

    The 5'-flanking sequences of the human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/CCL20 gene were cloned and transfected into G-361 human melanoma cells in a luciferase reporter construct. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) treatment stimulated luciferase expression, and promoter truncations demonstrated that TNF-alpha inducibility is conferred by a region between nt -111 and -77, which contains a non-standard nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding site. The requirement for NF-kappaB was demonstrated as follows: (i) mutations in this NF-kappaB site abrogated TNF-alpha responsiveness; (ii) TNF-alpha activated a construct containing two copies of the CCL20 NF-kappaB binding site; (iii) overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 activated the CCL20 promoter; (iv) NF-kappaB from nuclear extracts of TNF-alpha-stimulated cells bound specifically to this NF-kappaB site.

  6. 3{alpha}-6{alpha}-Dihydroxy-7{alpha}-fluoro-5{beta}-cholanoate (UPF-680), physicochemical and physiological properties of a new fluorinated bile acid that prevents 17{alpha}-ethynyl-estradiol-induced cholestasis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clerici, Carlo . E-mail: clerici@unipg.it; Castellani, Danilo; Asciutti, Stefania; Pellicciari, Roberto; Setchell, Kenneth D.R. |; O'Connell, Nancy C. |; Sadeghpour, Bahman; Camaioni, Emidio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Renga, Barbara; Nardi, Elisabetta; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Clementi, Mattia; Giuliano, Vittorio; Baldoni, Monia; Orlandi, Stefano; Mazzocchi, Alessandro; Morelli, Antonio; Morelli, Olivia

    2006-07-15

    3{alpha}-6{alpha}-Dihydroxy-7{alpha}-fluoro-5{beta}-cholanoate (UPF-680), the 7{alpha}-fluorine analog of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), was synthesized to improve bioavailability and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Acute rat biliary fistula and chronic cholestasis induced by 17{alpha}-ethynyl-estradiol (17EE) models were used to study and compare the effects of UPF-680 (dose range 0.6-6.0 {mu}mol/kg min) with UDCA on bile flow, biliary bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3} {sup -}), lipid output, biliary bile acid composition, hepatic enzymes and organic anion pumps. In acute infusion, UPF-680 increased bile flow in a dose-related manner, by up to 40.9%. Biliary HCO{sub 3} {sup -} output was similarly increased. Changes were observed in phospholipid secretion only at the highest doses. Treatment with UDCA and UPF-680 reversed chronic cholestasis induced by 17EE; in this model, UDCA had no effect on bile flow in contrast to UPF-680, which significantly increased bile flow. With acute administration of UPF-680, the biliary bile acid pool became enriched with unconjugated and conjugated UPF-680 (71.7%) at the expense of endogenous cholic acid and muricholic isomers. With chronic administration of UPF-680 or UDCA, the main biliary bile acids were tauro conjugates, but modification of biliary bile acid pool was greater with UPF-680. UPF-680 increased the mRNA for cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and cytochrome P450 8B (CYP8B). Both UDCA and UPF-680 increased the mRNA for Na{sup +} taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NCTP). In conclusion, UPF-680 prevented 17EE-induced cholestasis and enriched the biliary bile acid pool with less detergent and cytotoxic bile acids. This novel fluorinated bile acid may have potential in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease.

  7. DPI-3290 [(+)-3-((alpha-R)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide]. I. A mixed opioid agonist with potent antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Gengo, Peter J; Pettit, Hugh O; O'Neill, Scott J; Wei, Ke; McNutt, Robert; Bishop, Michael J; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2003-12-01

    Compound (+)-3-((alpha-R)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide (DPI-3290), is one of a series of novel centrally acting agents with potent antinociceptive activity that binds specifically and with high affinity to opioid receptors. In saturation equilibrium binding studies performed at 25 degrees C using membranes from rat brain or guinea pig cerebellum, the Ki values measured for DPI-3290 at delta-, mu-, and kappa-opioid receptors were 0.18 +/- 0.02, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.62 +/- 0.09 nM, respectively. In vas deferens isolated from laboratory mice, DPI-3290 decreased electrically induced tension development in a concentration-dependent manner with corresponding IC50 values of 1.0 +/- 0.3, 6.2 +/- 2.0, and 25.0 +/- 3.3 nM at delta-, mu-, and kappa-receptors, respectively. The activity of DPI-3290 in isolated vas deferens tissue was approximately 20,000, 175.8, and 1500 times more efficacious than morphine, and 492, 2.5, and 35 times more efficacious than fentanyl at delta-, mu-, and kappa-receptors, respectively. In ileal strips isolated from guinea pigs, DPI-3290 inhibited tension development with a corresponding IC50 value of 3.4 +/- 1.6 nM at mu-opioid receptors and 6.7 +/- 1.6 nM at kappa-opioid receptors. Intravenous administration of 0.05 +/- 0.007 mg/kg DPI-3290 produced a 50% antinociceptive response in rats. The antinociceptive properties of DPI-3290 were blocked by naloxone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.). Compared with morphine, this study demonstrated that DPI-3290 is more potent and elicited a similar magnitude of antinociceptive activity in the rat, actions mediated by its mixed opioid receptor agonist activity. The marked antinociceptive activity of DPI-3290 will likely provide a means for relieving severe pain in patients that require analgesic treatment.

  8. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine: precursors of the [22,23-(3)H] labelled tracers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Adachi, Yuuki; Kakiyama, Genta; Shimada, Miki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Iida, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine were synthesized from cholic acid. The key reactions employed are: 1) degradation of the side chain in intermediary C(24) 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxylated bile acid to the corresponding C(22) 23,24-dinor-aldehyde, followed by Wittig reaction with methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate and 2) N-acylamidation of the unconjugated tetrahydroxy-Delta(22)-5beta-cholenoic acid with glycine (or taurine) in the presence of diethylphosphorocyanide and triethylamine as coupling reagents.

  9. Five different profiles of dihydropyridines in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes (Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)), Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I))) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taiji; Nukada, Toshihide; Namiki, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Yoriko; Hatsuno, Kento; Ueno, Yasunari; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2009-06-24

    1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) antagonists have recently been shown to block T-type Ca(2+) channels, which may render favorable actions on cardiovascular systems. However, this evaluation remains to be done systematically for each T-type Ca(2+) channel subtype except for the Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)) subtype. To address this issue at the molecular level, blocking effects of 14 kinds of DHPs (amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine), which are clinically used for treatments of hypertension, on 3 subtypes of T-type Ca(2+) channels [Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I)), and Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G))] were investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. These 3 kinds (alpha(1H), alpha(1I) and alpha(1G)) of T-type channels were blocked by amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine and efonidipine significantly blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1G), but not alpha(1I) channels, while nilvadipine and nimodipine apparently blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1I), but not alpha(1G) channels. Moreover, aranidipine blocked only alpha(1H) channels. By contrast, cilnidipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine had little effects on these subtypes of T-type channels. The result indicates that the blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels by derivatives of DHP Ca(2+) antagonist was selective for the channel subtype. Therefore, these selectivities of DHPs in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes would provide useful pharmacological and clinical information on the mode of action of the drugs including side-effects and adverse effects.

  10. DPI-3290 [(+)-3-((alpha-R)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-Allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide]. II. A mixed opioid agonist with potent antinociceptive activity and limited effects on respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Gengo, Peter J; Pettit, Hugh O; O'Neill, Scott J; Su, Ying Fu; McNutt, Robert; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2003-12-01

    Allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazines have been of interest as analgesic agents for the management of moderate-to-severe pain. In this study, we compared the antinociceptive properties and respiratory depressant activity of one such agent, (+)-3-((alpha-R)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide (DPI-3290), with those of established narcotic analgesics, morphine and fentanyl. Intravenous administration of DPI-3290 in conscious laboratory rats increased antinociception in a dose-dependent manner with a corresponding ED(50) value of 0.05 +/- 0.0072 mg/kg. Simultaneous measurement of arterial blood gas in animals treated with DPI-3290 demonstrated dose-dependent increases in pCO2 with an ED(50) value of 0.91 +/- 0.22 mg/kg. In comparison, morphine and fentanyl increased antinociception in rats with ED(50) values of 2.01 +/- 0.0005 and 0.0034 +/- 0.00024 mg/kg, respectively, and the ED(50) value for morphine-induced changes in pCO2 was 4.23 +/- 0.72 mg/kg, whereas the ED(50) value for fentanyl-induced changes in pCO2 was 0.0127 +/- 0.0035 mg/kg. A separate series of experiments were designed to examine the effects of DPI-3290 on mu-opioid receptor induced antinociception and hypercapnia. Intravenous bolus doses of DPI-3290 that ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/kg had no effect on antinociception mediated by alfentanil (2 microg/kg/min i.v.) but reduced hypercapnia by approximately 50%. Results from these studies demonstrate the equivalent antinociceptive efficacy of DPI-3290, morphine, and fentanyl but dramatic differences in the hypercapnia that antinociceptive doses of these drugs produce. When measured simultaneously, DPI-3290 had an 18.2-fold difference in the ratio comparing the ED(50) value for antinociception with the ED(50) value for changes in pCO2; this ratio was 2.1 for morphine and 3.7 for fentanyl. Furthermore, DPI-3290 reduced the alfentanil-mediated hypercapnia without any effect on antinociception

  11. Functional bread with n-3 alpha linolenic acid from whole chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Luna Pizarro, Patricia; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Coelho, Alessandra Silva; Sammán, Norma Cristina; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2015-07-01

    This work proposed to study the effects of the addition of whole chia flour (WCF) on the technological, nutritional and sensory qualities of bread. Different WCF contents (0 and 20 %) and vital gluten (VG) (0 and 4 %) were added to bread according to a 2(2) central composite rotational design. WCF decreased the specific volume, lightness and hue angle of the bread loaves, but did not affect the chroma values. WCF and VG contributed to maintenance of the moisture content of the loaves during the storage period. The increased firmness found with the addition of high levels of WCF (more than 10 %) was countered by larger amounts of VG (more than 2 %). The optimum loaf (10 % WCF and 2 % VG) showed 26 % more lipids, 19 % more protein and 11 % more ash than the standard loaf (0 % WCF and 0 % VG). A better lipid profile was also found (higher omega-3 fatty acid content and a better omega-6/omega-3 ratio). Both breads were positively rated in the sensory profile analysis.

  12. Nonlocal {alpha}{alpha} potential for {sup 12}C as a 3{alpha} system

    SciTech Connect

    Orabi, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2008-04-29

    Cluster-cluster local potentials reproducing the phase shifts of binary systems are usually adopted to describe few cluster sytems for their simplicity, but it turns out that the nonlocal nature of these composite clusters is something that we cannot discard.

  13. [Temperature effect correction for Chang'E-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liu, Ya-Qing; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover of China's Lunar Exploration Project. The present paper introduces briefly the components of APXS, how it works and its working environment on the lunar surface. The environmental temperature effect has been studied with simulations and experiments, and the results show that the temperature of the APXS sensor will be varying during the measuring on the lunar surface. And another experiment reveals that the energy resolution becomes worse if the sensor's temperature is varying. In this paper, a correction method based on Pearson's chi-squared test is presented. The method can improve the energy resolution when the sensor's temperature is varying. We have tested the method with the spectra acquired by APXS in the temperature varying period of Temperature Cycling Test, and the results show that the method is efficient and reliable.

  14. [Near infrared distance sensing method for Chang'e-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gao, Min; Liu, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Fei; Dong, Yi-Fan; Guo, Dong-Ya

    2013-05-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover, the scientific objective of which is in-situ observation and off-line analysis of lunar regolith and rock. Distance measurement is one of the important functions for APXS to perform effective detection on the moon. The present paper will first give a brief introduction to APXS, and then analyze the specific requirements and constraints to realize distance measurement, at last present a new near infrared distance sensing algorithm by using the inflection point of response curve. The theoretical analysis and the experiment results verify the feasibility of this algorithm. Although the theoretical analysis shows that this method is not sensitive to the operating temperature and reflectance of the lunar surface, the solar infrared radiant intensity may make photosensor saturation. The solutions are reducing the gain of device and avoiding direct exposure to sun light.

  15. A quantum mechanical study of TiCl3 alpha, beta and gamma crystal phases: geometry, electronic structure and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sementa, L; D'Amore, M; Barone, V; Busico, V; Causa', M

    2009-12-21

    The electronic structure of different magnetic states of alpha, beta and gamma modifications of TiCl(3) has been computed employing the density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions and localized Gaussian basis sets. The analysis of the density of the electronic states (DOS) and of the spin density makes it possible to classify these halides as Mott-Hubbard insulators, where the band gap appears a result of large on-site Coulomb interaction. For each crystalline phase, the relative stability of different magnetic states has been analyzed in terms of exchange mechanisms. The electronic population data along with the spin density maps support the assumption of a d(1) Titanium ion in a distorted octahedral crystal field, notwithstanding the not fully ionic character of TiCl(3) modifications. Dispersion forces are particularly important for this material: a classical correction (of the type f(R)/R(6)) has been added to the DFT energies and gradients, providing a good agreement with structural data.

  16. Developmental expression of Ca(v)1.3 (alpha1d) calcium channels in the mouse inner ear.

    PubMed

    Hafidi, A; Dulon, D

    2004-06-21

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for neurotransmission at the level of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). These channels open when mechanical stimulation depolarises the hair cell membrane and the resulting calcium influx triggers neurotransmitter release. Voltage-gated calcium channels expressed in hair cells are known to be of the L-type with a predominance of the Ca(v)1.3 subunit. The present study describes the developmental expression of the Ca(v)1.3 protein in the cochlea and the vestibular system using immunohistochemical technique. In the adult organ of Corti (OC), Ca(v)1.3 was localized in both sensory and non-sensory cells with a more intense expression in IHCs and Deiters cells when compared to OHCs. In both hair cell types, immunoreactivity was observed in the apical pole, basolateral membrane and at the basal pole (synaptic zone). Similar results were obtained in the vestibular organs. During development, Ca(v)1.3 immunoreactivity was observed in the cochlea as early as embryonic day 15, with expression increasing at birth. At these early stages of cochlear development, Ca(v)1.3 was expressed in all cell types surrounding the scala media. In the OC, the labeling was observed in IHCs, OHCs and supporting cells. The Ca(v)1.3 expression reached an adult-like pattern by the end of the second postnatal week. The present findings suggested that, in addition to their implication in hair cells synaptic transmission, Ca(v)1.3 calcium channels also play an important role in vesicle recycling and transport, as suggested by their extrasynaptic location at the apical pole of the hair cells. The Ca(v)1.3 channels in Deiters cells could participate in active calcium-induced changes in micromechanics of these supporting cells. An early expression during development suggested that these calcium channels are in addition important in the development of the cochlear and vestibular sensory epithelium.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the interleukin-3 alpha receptor bound to the Fab fragment of antibody CSL362.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Sophie E; Hercus, Timothy R; Nero, Tracy L; Dhagat, Urmi; Owczarek, Catherine M; Hardy, Matthew P; Fabri, Louis J; Scotney, Pierre D; Nash, Andrew D; Wilson, Nicholas J; Lopez, Angel F; Parker, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a member of the beta common family of cytokines that regulate multiple functions of myeloid cells. The IL-3 receptor-specific alpha subunit (IL3Rα) is overexpressed on stem cells/progenitor cells of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, where elevated receptor expression correlates clinically with a reduced patient survival rate. The monoclonal antibody (MAb) CSL362 is a humanized MAb derived from the murine MAb 7G3, originally identified for its ability to specifically recognize the human IL-3 receptor and for blocking the signalling of IL-3 in myeloid and endothelial cells. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CSL362 antagonism, a preliminary structure of human IL3Rα in complex with the MAb CSL362 has been determined.

  18. Crystallographic Analysis of Murine Constitutive Androstane Receptor Ligand-Binding Domain Complexed with 5[alpha]-androst-16-en-3[alpha]-ol

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, J.; Shan, L.; Fan, M.; Brunzelle, J.S.; Forman, B.M.; Fernandez, E.J.

    2010-03-08

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In contrast to classical nuclear receptors, which possess small-molecule ligand-inducible activity, CAR exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity in the apparent absence of ligand. CAR is among the most important transcription factors; it coordinately regulates the expression of microsomal cytochrome P450 genes and other drug-metabolizing enzymes. The murine CAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) was coexpressed with the steroid receptor coactivator protein (SRC-1) receptor-interacting domain (RID) in Escherichia coli. The mCAR LBD subunit was purified away from SRC-1 by affinity, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, crystallized with androstenol and the structure of the complex determined by molecular replacement.

  19. Direct capture in nuclear astrophysics: The cases of Oxygen-17(p,gamma)Fluorine-18 and Helium-3(alpha,gamma)Beryllium-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Antonios

    Direct radiative capture is a non-resonant one-step nuclear reaction mechanism that in principle does not involve the formation of a compound nucleus. In the absence of strong resonance inside the Gamow window, direct capture can be the dominant contribution to astrophysically important reaction rates. The present thesis studies two such reactions, 17O(p,gamma) 18F and 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be. 17O(p,gamma)18F influences hydrogen-burning nucleosynthesis in several stellar sites, such as red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars and classical novae. In the relevant temperature range for these environments (T9 = 0.01- 0.4), the main contributions to the rate of this reaction are the direct capture process, two low lying narrow resonances (ElabR = 70 and 193 keV) and the low energy tails of two broad resonances (ElabR = 587 and 714 keV). Previous measurements and calculations give contradictory results for the direct capture contribution which in turn increases the uncertainty of the reaction rate. In addition, very few published cross section data exist for the high energy region that might affect the interpretation of the direct capture and the broad resonances contributions in the lower energy range. In this work we present a measurement of the reaction at a wide proton energy range (Elab = 360 - 1625 keV) and at several angles (θ lab = 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°). 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be is important for the neutrino production in the sun's core and the production of 7Li during the big bang nucleosynthesis. Due to the low level density of 7Be, the reaction mechanism is almost entirely non-resonant at the relevant energies. Recent experiments have improved the uncertainty of the reaction but some discrepancies still exist. In the present work, a relatively wide energy window was measured, ECM = 0.300 -- 1.450 MeV, by detecting the prompt gamma-rays from the reaction. The use of a compact helium jet gas target ensured high gamma-ray detection efficiency. The results are compared with literature.

  20. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  1. Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3Alpha Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    infection. Introduction. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses which exhibit tropism for cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Commonly...retinoblastoma protein correlates with the transforming capacity of the E7 oncoproteins of the human papillomaviruses . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:4442-6

  2. Structural characterization (1->2)-beta-xylose-(1->3)-alpha-arabinose-containing oligosaccharide products of extracted switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) xylan treatment with alpha-arabinofuranosidase and beta-endo-xylanase.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) is a potential dedicated biomass crop for use in biocatalytic conversion systems to biofuels. Nearly 30% of switchgrass cell wall material is xylan. The complete depolymerization of xylan is desirable both as an additional carbon source for microbial fermentation a...

  3. Molecular cloning and preliminary expression analysis of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) CC chemokine cDNAs by use of suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Endo, Mariko; Haruta, Chiaki; Nakai, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2005-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was carried out by using cDNAs of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. The Trsc-SCYA107, MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 clones contained an open reading frame encoding 97, 99 and 97 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acids showed that the banded dogfish MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 sequences shared 42.3% and 40.0% identity with human SCYA20, respectively, while the Trsc-SCYA107 sequence shared 50.6, 44.2 and 42.0% identity with the catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) Scca-SCYA107, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CK4A and CK4B, respectively. The genomic sequences of banded dogfish Trsc-SCYA107, MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 contain four exons and three introns, and MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 shared the same intron/exon organization with that of human. The MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-unstimulated banded dogfish were expressed in gill, kidney and liver, while Trsc-SCYA107 mRNA was detected in various tissues except for brain. However, the constitutive expression of MIP3alpha2 gene was much lower than the Trsc-SCYA107 and MIP3alpha1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of the Trsc-SCYA107 expression in tissues of LPS-stimulated fish showed enhanced expression at 24 h poststimulation in the gill, heart, leydig, spleen and testes, while the expression of MIP3alpha1 and MIP3alpha2 was not influenced by LPS-stimulation in vivo. Furthermore, a relative increase in the expression of the Trsc-SCYA107 and MIP3alpha2 genes in PWBCs was observed at 1-12 h poststimulation with PMA and LPS, with maximal expression observed at 3 h, while MIP3alpha1 expression was observed at 3-12 h poststimulation only with PMA.

  4. Mass spectral determination of the configuration of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di-Capua, S.; Jang, H. G.; Barasch, D.; Halperin, G.; Deutsch, J.

    1997-11-01

    The stereochemistry of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol was determined by mass spectral measurements of the extent of water elimination from the molecular ion under electron impact conditions. The [M - H2O][middle dot]+/[M][middle dot]+ ratio of the 3[beta]-OH isomer was found to be three to four times higher than that of the 3[alpha]-OH isomer. The 3[alpha]-OH isomer produced a crystalline 3[alpha]-benzyloxy derivative; its configuration and stereochemistry of the steroidal rings were determined by X-ray crystallography. The 3[alpha]-OH isomer was obtained by reduction of the corresponding carbonyl group with NaBH4. The 3[beta]-OH isomer was synthesized by Walden inversion of the 3[alpha]-OH isomer. The 3[beta] configuration of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol was also supported by its ability to bind digitonin.

  5. Differential induction of HNF-3 transcription factors during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A; Budhiraja, S; Reichel, R R

    1997-08-01

    We have investigated the regulation of transcription factors HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta during the retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of mouse P19 cells. Retinoic acid treatment converts P19 stem cells into neurons and astrocytes and we have clearly shown that gene expression of both HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta is activated during this process. HNF-3alpha transcription was detected 2 h after addition of retinoic acid and took place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. This suggests that HNF-3alpha is a primary target for retinoic acid action. HNF-3alpha induction displays a biphasic profile and HNF-3alpha mRNA reaches maximal levels at 2 and 6 days postdifferentiation. Additional experiments strongly suggest that the second peak is due to HNF-3alpha induction in postmitotic neurons. P19 stem cells, on the other hand, do not contain any detectable HNF-3alpha mRNA. According to our studies, the retinoic acid-mediated induction of HNF-3alpha occurs at the level of transcriptional initiation and is conferred by distal promoter sequences. In comparison to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta induction is a subsequent event and detectable levels of HNF-3beta mRNA materialize approximately 1 day after addition of retinoic acid to P19 stem cells. Time course studies firmly demonstrate that HNF-3beta mRNA peaks at about 2 days postdifferentiation and then declines to virtually unreadable levels. This temporal pattern is consistent with HNF-3beta being a secondary target for retinoic acid. In analogy to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta activation also takes place at the level of transcriptional initiation. Recent studies implicate HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta in early mammalian neurogenesis. The detection of HNF-3alpha/beta activation during P19 cell differentiation provides us with a convenient cell culture system to elucidate the induction mechanism and the precise role of both transcriptional regulators in the formation of neuronal cells.

  6. Alternative splicing switches the divalent cation selectivity of TRPM3 channels.

    PubMed

    Oberwinkler, Johannes; Lis, Annette; Giehl, Klaus M; Flockerzi, Veit; Philipp, Stephan E

    2005-06-10

    TRPM3 is a poorly understood member of the large family of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Here we describe five novel splice variants of TRPM3, TRPM3alpha1-5. These variants are characterized by a previously unknown amino terminus of 61 residues. The differences between the five variants arise through splice events at three different sites. One of these splice sites might be located in the pore region of the channel as indicated by sequence alignment with other, better-characterized TRP channels. We selected two splice variants, TRPM3alpha1 and TRPM3alpha2, that differ only in this presumed pore region and analyzed their biophysical characteristics after heterologous expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. TRPM3alpha1 as well as TRPM3alpha2 induced a novel, outwardly rectifying cationic conductance that was tightly regulated by intracellular Mg(2+). However, these two variants are highly different in their ionic selectivity. Whereas TRPM3alpha1-encoded channels are poorly permeable for divalent cations, TRPM3alpha2-encoded channels are well permeated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Additionally, we found that currents through TRPM3alpha2 are blocked by extracellular monovalent cations, whereas currents through TRPM3alpha1 are not. These differences unambiguously show that TRPM3 proteins constitute a pore-forming channel subunit and localize the position of the ion-conducting pore within the TRPM3 protein. Although the ionic selectivity of ion channels has traditionally been regarded as rather constant for a given channel-encoding gene, our results show that alternative splicing can be a mechanism to produce channels with very different selectivity profiles.

  7. Flavonoids from Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum.

    PubMed

    Fico, G; Braca, A; De Tommasi, N; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-06-01

    Three flavonol glycosides quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR spectral techniques.

  8. Microbial transformation of the diterpene 7-epi-foliol by Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Bressa, Carlo; González, Pedro; Guillermo, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    The incubation of 3alpha,7alpha,18-trihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-ene (7-epi-foliol) with the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi gave 3alpha,7alpha,18-trihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-18-al as the sole product. The biotransformation of other 7alpha- or 7beta-hydroxy derivatives had led to the oxidation of C-19, which is a main step in the biosynthesis of gibberellins and kaurenolides. Now, the presence of the 3alpha-hydroxyl impedes that oxidation, which is directed to the adjacent C-18 hydroxymethyl forming the corresponding aldehyde.

  9. Synthesis and GABA(A) receptor activity of 2,19-sulfamoyl analogues of allopregnanolone.

    PubMed

    Durán, Fernando J; Edelsztein, Valeria C; Ghini, Alberto A; Rey, Mariana; Coirini, Héctor; Dauban, Philippe; Dodd, Robert H; Burton, Gerardo

    2009-09-15

    The synthesis of new analogues of allopregnanolone with a bridged sulfamidate ring over the beta-face of ring A has been achieved from easily available precursors, using an intramolecular aziridination strategy. The methodology also allows the synthesis of 3alpha-substituted analogues such as the 3alpha-fluoro derivative. GABA(A) receptor activity of the synthetic analogues was evaluated by assaying their effect on the binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam and [(3)H]muscimol. The 3alpha-hydroxy-2,19-sulfamoyl analogue and its N-benzyl derivative were more active than allopregnanolone for stimulating binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam. For the binding of [(3)H]muscimol, both synthetic analogues and allopregnanolone stimulated binding to a similar extent, with the N-benzyl derivative exhibiting a higher EC(50). The 3alpha-fluoro derivative was inactive in both assays.

  10. Effects of neurosteroids on epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Patricia; Tapia, Ricardo; Rogawski, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone (5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one; 5alpha,3alpha-P) and its 5beta-epimer pregnanolone (5beta,3alpha-P), and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) were examined for effects on spontaneous epileptiform discharges induced by 100 microM picrotoxin (PTX) and 55 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampal slice. At a concentration of 10 microM, 5alpha,3alpha-P partially reduced PTX-induced bursting and at 30 and 90 microM completely suppressed bursting. In contrast, 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P failed to alter the discharge frequency. 5alpha,3alpha-P depressed 4-AP-induced bursting with similar potency as in the PTX model; 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P was also partially effective. In the 4-AP model, 5alpha,3alpha-P inhibited both the more frequent predominantly positive-going potentials as well as the less frequent negative-going potentials that may be generated by synchronous GABAergic interneuron firing. PS enhanced the PTX bursting frequency and, in the 4-AP model, increased the frequency of negative potentials but did not alter the frequency of positive potentials. By itself, PS did not induce bursting. The effects of the steroids in the in vitro seizure models largely correspond with their activities on GABA(A) receptors; suppression of discharges may occur as a result of direct activation of these receptors rather than modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic responses. PTX and 4-AP-induced bursting in the hippocampal slice are useful models for directly assessing neurosteroid effects on seizure susceptibility under conditions that eliminate the factor of brain bioavailability.

  11. Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-08-13

    Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail.

  12. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of six saponins from Sapindus trifoliatus.

    PubMed

    Grover, Rajesh K; Roy, Abhijeet D; Roy, Raja; Joshi, S K; Srivastava, Vandita; Arora, Sudershan K

    2005-12-01

    Complete 1H and 13C spectral assignments are reported for six saponins from the pericarp of Sapindus trifoliatus (Hindi name: Reetha) collected from Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, India, using only 1D and 2D NMR methods. The structures of the compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-ara-binopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylop-yranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinop-yranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopy-ranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopy-ranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-diacetyl-alpha-L-arabinop-yranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinop-yranoside, hederagenin 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and he-deragenin 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. It is concluded that saponins of this complexity approach the limit of structural complexity, which can be solved by NMR alone, precisely and quickly.

  13. 21beta-Hydroxy-oleanane-type triterpenes from Hippocratea excelsa.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Castillo, David; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2008-02-01

    Stem bark of Hippocratea excelsa afforded six pentacyclic triterpenes, five oleanane and one ursane types. They were identified as 11beta,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene-3-one (2), 3alpha,11alpha,21beta-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene (3), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-diene (5), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (6) and 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-urs-12-ene, isolated as its diacetate derivative (7), as well as 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (1) previously isolated from the root bark. The known alpha- and beta-amyrin, oleanoic and ursolic acids, trans-polyisoprene, and the ubiquitous beta-sitosterol were also isolated. Structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The antigiardial activity of compounds 2-5 was not significant.

  14. A theoretical analysis of the coordination modes of CuII with penicillins: activation of the beta-lactam C-N bond.

    PubMed

    Campomanes, Pablo; Menéndez, M Isabel; López, Ramón; Sordo, Tomás L

    2005-02-01

    The interaction of CuII with 6-formylamino-3alpha-carboxypenam and 6-acetylamino-3alpha-carboxypenam was investigated by means of DFT calculations with the UB3LYP functional. Nine different modes of complexation between CuII and 6-formylamino-3alpha-carboxypenam were located. When two water molecules directly bonded to CuII are included in the calculations on 6-acetylamino-3alpha-carboxypenam as penicillin model, only six CuII(H2O)2-6-acetylamino-3alpha-carboxypenam complexes (1S-6S) are found. In solution the four most stable complexes obtained from our calculations, 6S, 1S, 2S, and 3S, exhibit CuII in square-planar coordination with at least one bond to the carboxylate group, in agreement with experimental evidence. Complexes 6S, 1S, and 3S were previously suggested by available experimental evidence. In three of the most stable complexes (6S, 2S, and 3S) the beta-lactam C-N bond is remarkably activated and displays C-N bond lengths similar to those found in some tetrahedral intermediates located for the hydrolysis of 2-azetidinones. This suggests that these kinds of complexes belong to the reaction coordinate for the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics in the presence of CuII.

  15. New steroidal lactones and homomonoterpenic glucoside from fruits of Malva sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Akhlaq; Ali, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of defatted fruits of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of six new steroidal lactones and a homomonoterpenic glucoside along with beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of new phytoconstituents have been elucidated as cholest-5-en-3a-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol A), cholest-9(11)-en-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol B), cholest-4,6,22-trien-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol C), 2-methyl-6-methylene-n-decan-2-olyl- 3beta-D-glucopyranoside (malvanoyl glucoside), cholest-7-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin A), cholest-9(11)-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin B) and cholest-5-en-8(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin C).The structures of all these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  16. Triple-alpha reaction rate studied with the Faddeev three-body formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2012-11-12

    The triple-alpha (3{alpha}) reaction, {sup 4}He+{sup 4}He+{sup 4}He{yields}{sup 12}C+{gamma}, which plays a significant role in the stellar evolution scenarios, is studied in terms of a three-alpha (3-{alpha}) model. The reaction rate of the process is calculated via an inverse process, 3-{alpha} photodisintegration of a {sup 12}C nucleus. Both of 3-{alpha} bound and-continuum states are calculated by a Faddeev method with accommodating the long range Coulomb interaction. With being adjusted to the empirical E2-strength for {sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}){yields}{sup 12}C(2{sub 1}{sup +}) transition, results of the 3{alpha} reaction rate <{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}> at higher temperature (T > 10{sup 8} K), where the reaction proceeds mainly through the {sup 8}Be and {sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}) resonant states, almost agree with those of the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE). On the other hand, calculated values of <{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}> are about 10{sup 3} times larger than the NACRE rate at a low temperature (T= 10{sup 7} K), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent CDCC results.

  17. Virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma associated with idiopathic-acquired generalized anhidrosis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Pinar; Luquette, Mark; Haymon, Marie Louise; Valerie, Evans; Morales, Jaime; Vargas, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence. Virilization, alone or in combination with signs of overproduction of other adrenal hormones, is the most common clinical presentation. Here we report an unusual case of an African-American female adolescent presenting with idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis, dysregulation of body temperature, absence of adult body odor and dry skin in the face of a virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma. Virilization signs regressed soon after removal of the tumor, but normalization of the 3alpha-androstenediol glucuronide (3alpha-AG) took longer compared to other measurable androgens; accompanied by anhidrosis. The association of remitting anhidrosis with normalized levels of 3alpha-AG suggests it might be a possible mechanism for anhidrosis. High 3alpha-AG levels might implicate the increased peripheral conversion of weak pro-androgens with different biochemical structure. We recommend obtaining 3alpha-AG beside other androgens in virilized patients with atypical dermatological symptoms in the face of hyperandrogenism.

  18. Estrogenic actions of norethisterone and its A-ring reduced metabolites. Induction of in vitro uterine sensitivity to serotonin.

    PubMed

    Oropeza, M V; Campos, M G; Lemus, A E; Garciá, G; Pérez-Palacios, G; Ponce-Monter, H

    1994-01-01

    The estrogen-like effects of norethisterone (NET) seem to be mediated by the interaction of 3 beta 5 alpha- and 3 alpha 5 alpha-tetrahydronorethisterone (3 beta 5 alpha- and 3 alpha 5 alpha-NET, respectively) with the estrogen receptor. Considering that the in vitro uterine contractile response to serotonin (5-HT) is specifically dependent on estrogen, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether NET and its A-ring reduced metabolites administered in vivo to ovariectomized rats induce uterine sensitivity to 5-HT in vitro. The administration of 3 beta NET in vivo, which is the NET metabolite with the highest affinity for the estrogen receptor, induced a maximal contractile response to serotonin similar to that of 17 beta-estradiol treatment. The other metabolites induced less uterine activity. According to the effective dose 50, the order of estrogenic potency was 17 beta-estradiol > 3 beta 5 alpha NET > 3 alpha 5 alpha NET > NET > 5 alpha NET. The estrogenic effect of 3 beta 5 alpha- and 3 alpha 5 alpha NET may be exerted through their interaction with the estrogen receptor, whereas NET and 5 alpha NET, which do not bind to the estrogen receptor and display a minor estrogenic activity, require prior bioconversion to 3 beta 5 alpha NET and perhaps to 3 alpha 5 alpha NET. The A-ring reduced metabolites of NET, mainly the 3 beta 5 alpha NET, may be exerting estrogenic responses and modulating uterine activity when administered in vivo.

  19. Structure of a glucosyl phosphate-containing O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O42.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Bartodziejska, Beata; Shashkov, Alexander S; Wykrota, Marianna; Knirel, Yuriy A; Rozalski, Antoni

    2007-12-28

    An O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O42 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the polysaccharide having a linear pentasaccharide phosphate repeating unit was established: -->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc4Ac-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-1-P-(O-->4)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc4Ac-(1-->3))-alpha-D-GlcpNAc6Ac-(1--> where the degree of O-acetylation is approximately 80% on GlcNAc and approximately 40% on each of the FucNAc residues. A weak serological cross-reaction of anti-P. vulgaris O42 serum with the lipopolysaccharide of P. vulgaris O39 was observed and accounted for by the sharing of a disaccharide fragment of the O-polysaccharides.

  20. Differential inhibition of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by gestodene action on human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, B R; Oh, H S; Kim, D H

    1997-11-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A is known to be involved in the formation of both aflatoxin B1-exo-8,9-epoxide (exo-epoxidation) and aflatoxin Q1 (3 alpha-hydroxylation). Gestodene, a known inactivator of P450 3A4, inhibited the formation of AFB1 metabolites in a variety of ways depending on the incubation condition. Preincubation of gestodene with human liver microsomes prior to the addition of AFB1 inhibited both exo-epoxidation and 3 alpha-hydroxylation whereas simultaneous incubation of gestodene with AFB1 only inhibited 3 alpha-hydroxylation. These results suggest that two independent substrate binding sites exist in P450 3A4, and AFB1 binds to both of the binding sites. Gestodene selectively binds to one of the binding sites leading to the formation of AFQ1, whereas it does not affect the formation of exo-epoxide via the other binding site.

  1. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Diospyros kaki (persimmon) and their inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Lee, Chul Ho; Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Won Keun

    2008-10-01

    Phytochemical study on a methanol-soluble extract of the leaves of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) resulted in the isolation of two new ursane-type triterpenoids, 3alpha,19alpha-dihydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-24,28-dioic acid (1) and 3alpha,19alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-24,28-dioic acid (2), together with 12 known ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenoids (3-14). Triterpenoids with a 3beta-hydroxy group were found to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1+/-0.2 to 18.8+/-1.3 microM, whereas those with a 3alpha-hydroxy moiety were not active.

  2. Factors affecting the pheromone composition of voided boar saliva.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D

    1987-11-01

    The pheromone binding protein 'pheromaxein' which binds the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids in the saliva of the male pig (boar), was degraded and lost its binding activity in saliva incubated in air for 72 h at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C. However, pheromaxein and its binding activity were retained in saliva incubated for 168 h at 4 degrees C. When the 3H-labelled pheromones 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol (3 alpha-androstenol), 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one (5 alpha-androstenone) and 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 beta-ol (3 beta-androstenol) were incubated with boar saliva for 168 h at 21 degrees C, 3 alpha-androstenol was primarily converted to 5 alpha-androstenone and 5 alpha-androstenone to 3 beta-androstenol; 3 beta-androstenol was unchanged. Evidence was obtained for microorganisms being responsible for these steroid transformations.

  3. Acetylated triterpene saponins from the Thai medicinal plant, Sapindus emarginatus.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, T; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2001-09-01

    From the pericarps of Sapindus emarginatus (Sapindaceae), three new acetylated triterpene saponins were isolated together with hederagenin and five known triterpene saponins, as well as one known sweet acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside, mukurozioside IIb. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, 23-O-acetyl-hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic data.

  4. Insulin receptor substrate-2 phosphorylation is necessary for protein kinase C zeta activation by insulin in L6hIR cells.

    PubMed

    Oriente, F; Formisano, P; Miele, C; Fiory, F; Maitan, M A; Vigliotta, G; Trencia, A; Santopietro, S; Caruso, M; Van Obberghen, E; Beguinot, F

    2001-10-05

    We have investigated glycogen synthase (GS) activation in L6hIR cells expressing a peptide corresponding to the kinase regulatory loop binding domain of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) (KRLB). In several clones of these cells (B2, F4), insulin-dependent binding of the KRLB to insulin receptors was accompanied by a block of IRS-2, but not IRS-1, phosphorylation, and insulin receptor binding. GS activation by insulin was also inhibited by >70% in these cells (p < 0.001). The impairment of GS activation was paralleled by a similarly sized inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3 alpha) and GSK3 beta inactivation by insulin with no change in protein phosphatase 1 activity. PDK1 (a phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate-dependent kinase) and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) activation by insulin showed no difference in B2, F4, and in control L6hIR cells. At variance, insulin did not activate PKC zeta in B2 and F4 cells. In L6hIR, inhibition of PKC zeta activity by either a PKC zeta antisense or a dominant negative mutant also reduced by 75% insulin inactivation of GSK3 alpha and -beta (p < 0.001) and insulin stimulation of GS (p < 0.002), similar to Akt/PKB inhibition. In L6hIR, insulin induced protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) co-precipitation with GSK3 alpha and beta. PKC zeta also phosphorylated GSK3 alpha and -beta. Alone, these events did not significantly affect GSK3 alpha and -beta activities. Inhibition of PKC zeta activity, however, reduced Akt/PKB phosphorylation of the key serine sites on GSK3 alpha and -beta by >80% (p < 0.001) and prevented full GSK3 inactivation by insulin. Thus, IRS-2, not IRS-1, signals insulin activation of GS in the L6hIR skeletal muscle cells. In these cells, insulin inhibition of GSK3 alpha and -beta requires dual phosphorylation by both Akt/PKB and PKC zeta.

  5. Coumarins and a naphthyl labdanoate diarabinoside from the fruits of Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed; Dayal, Rameshwar; Javed, Kalim

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the methanolic extract of the fruits of Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) led to the identification of three coumarins and a naphthyl labdanoate diarabinoside characterized as 5-hydroxy-6-isopranyl coumarin (1), 5,6-furanocoumarin (2), 7-methoxy-5,6-furanocoumarin (3), and labdanyl-3alpha-ol-18-(3'"-methoxy-2"'-naphthyl-oate)-3alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(2'-->1")-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract and 4 showed nephroprotective activity against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

  6. Black Officer Accession and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    Important Important Member 3.ALPHA LAMBDA DELTA 4 5 6 - Not Moderately Very Not A *Important Important Important Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 4. KAPPA DELTA...with the name of the society and then proceed as you did for questions 1 through 5.4 1. ALPHA KAPPA MU Not Moderately Very Not aI Important Important...3. ALPHA LAMDA DELTA Not Moderately Very Not a Important Important Important Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 4. KAPPA DELTA PI Not Moderately Very Not a

  7. Synthesis of oligosaccharides corresponding to structures found in capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans--II.

    PubMed

    Garegg, P J; Olsson, L; Oscarson, S

    1996-11-01

    Formula 1 depicts a generalized structure of the capsular polysaccharides of four serotypes of the opportunistic microorganism Cryptococcus neoformans, which appears as one of the major infections in the late stages of development of AIDS. Syntheses are now described of two tetrasaccharides with corresponding structures. These are methyl O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and methyl O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid-(1-->2)]-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside.

  8. Hasty effect on the metabolism of glycyrrhizin by Eubacterium sp. GLH with Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 and Clostridium innocuum ES24-06 of human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akao, T

    2000-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. GLH with Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 and Clostridium innocuum ES24-06 possessing enzymes involved in the metabolism of glycyrrhizin (GL) was cultured in GAM medium with and without 1.0 mM GL or 1.0 mM glycyrrhetic acid (GA). GL (1.0 mM) enhanced 3alpha-hydroxyglycyrrhetinate (3alpha-hydroxyGA) dehydrogenase activity, GA (1.0 mm) suppressed 3alpha-hydroxyGA dehydrogenase activity, GL beta-D-glucuronidase activity and the mixed bacterial growth, and GL and GA showed almost no change in a lower level of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity during 5 d of culture. GL (1.0 mM) and GA (1.0 mM) were metabolized to a small amount of GA and a negligible amount of 3-oxo-glycyrrhetic acid (3-oxo-GA) and 3alpha-hydroxyGA, and to a negligible amount of 3-oxo-GA, respectively, by these mixed bacteria. These amounts coincided with those of metabolites produced from 1.0 mM GL and 1.0 mM GA added to these mixed bacteria after 24 h culture. Whole bacteria and sonicated bacteria derived from the collection of these mixed bacteria reached a maximal stage and metabolized GL to a relatively large amount of GA and 3-oxo-GA, and a negligible amount of 3alpha-hydroxyGA and GA to a small amount of 3-oxo-GA and 3alpha-hydroxyGA within 180 min. GL beta-D-glucuronidase with 3beta-HSD and 3alpha-hydroxyGA dehydrogenase partially purified from each bacterium was converted GL to 3alpha-hydroxyGA, producing metabolites of about 60% after 10 min of incubation. These mixed bacteria possessed high enzyme activities could produce the metabolites of GL in under one hour under conditions.

  9. Cross metathesis for the synthesis of novel C-sialosides.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Sebastian; Thiem, Joachim

    2008-07-21

    Cross metathesis of both anomers of C-allyl sialoside (3alpha/3beta) with styrene catalyzed by the second generation Grubbs or Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts gave the corresponding aryl derivatives (4alpha/4beta) in virtually quantitative yields. The products were hydrogenated to model compounds 5alpha/5beta. Similarly, reaction of the alpha-anomer 3alpha with galactose derivative 8 gave the olefin-linked disaccharide mimetic 9. Following hydrogenation and deprotection, the ethylene-bridged Neu5Acalpha(2-->6)Gal analogue 11 could be obtained.

  10. [Biological activity tests of chemical constituents from two Brazilian Labiatae plants].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takahiko; Doe, Matsumi; Morimoto, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kumiko; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2007-02-01

    We studied the bioactivities of constituents from two tropical medicinal plants, Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata. These plants found in Brazil belong to the Labiatae family. Four known compounds obtained from these herbs were identified as 3alpha, 24-dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, aurantiamide acetate, and aurantiamide benzoate by spectroscopic means. 3alpha, 24-Dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid has potent inhibitory activity against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Porphyromomas gingivalis. Aurantiamide benzoate exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase. It was clarified that herbs Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata are effective against bronchitis and gout.

  11. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Montanoa tomentosa ssp. microcephala.

    PubMed

    Braca, A; Cioffi, G; Morelli, I; Venturella, F; Pizza, C; De Tommasi, N

    2001-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones: 8alpha-(4'-acetoxymethacryloyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alpha-olide (1) and 8alpha-(2'E)-(2'-acetoxymethyl-2'-butenoyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alphaolide (2), together with the known zoapatanolide A were isolated from the aerial parts of Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. in La Llave et Lex ssp. microcephala (Sch. Bip. In K. Koch) V.A. Funk (Asteraceae). The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and EIMS analysis.

  12. Release of free and conjugated forms of the putative pheromonal steroid 11-oxo-etiocholanolone by reproductively mature male round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Katare, Yogesh Kumar; Scott, Alexander P; Laframboise, Alyson J; Li, Weiming; Alyasha'e, Zena; Caputo, Christopher B; Loeb, Stephen J; Zielinski, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814), an invasive fish species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, have shown that this species has the ability to both synthesize and smell steroids that have a 5 beta-reduced and 3 alpha-hydroxyl (5 beta,3 alpha) configuration. An enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) for 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione (11-O-ETIO) has been used to show a substantial rise in the rate of release of immunoreactive compounds into the water when males are injected with salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue. Similar increases were noted for 11-ketotestosterone and 17,20 beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Partitioning of the extracts between diethyl ether and water showed the presence of both free and conjugated immunoreactive 11-O-ETIO. Only conjugated immunoreactivity was found in urine (implying that free steroid is released via the gills). The identity of the conjugates was probed by using HPLC, EIA, and mass spectrometry and removal of sulfate and glucosiduronate groups. Immunoreactivity in the conjugated fraction was found to be due mainly to 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-sulfate. However, the evidence was also strong for the presence in water extracts of substantial amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-glucosiduronate (which could be detected only by EIA after removal of the glucosiduronate group with beta-glucuronidase). There were also small amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-sulfate and 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-glucosiduronate. These studies give some idea of the types, amounts, and ratios of 11-O-ETIO derivatives that are released by reproductive N. melanostomus and will aid further research into the putative pheromonal roles of 5 beta,3 alpha-reduced androgens in this species.

  13. Transport of resistance-inducing sterols in phloem sap of barley.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, A T; Dugassa-Gobena, D; Vidal, S; Seifert, K

    2000-01-01

    After root application of [7alpha-3H]-7beta-hydroxysitosterol and [3alpha,6beta-3H2]-6alpha-hydroxylathosterol these sterols could be detected in the leaves and phloem sap feeding aphids. These results imply that the phloem sap is a sterol transport system in barley plants.

  14. 76 FR 22741 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Alpha Index Options April 18, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... NASDAQ OMX Alpha Indexes \\SM\\ (``Alpha Indexes'').\\3\\ \\3\\ Alpha Indexes measure relative total returns of... the Alpha Pair (the ``Benchmark Component''). Alpha Index Options contracts will be exercised...

  15. Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits and galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Ming-Der; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liao, Sin-Chung; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Hsu, Li-Chuan; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2008-05-01

    Six saponins, sapinmusaponin K (1) [hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin L (2) [hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabino-pyranoside], sapinmusaponin M (3) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin N (4) [hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside], sapinmusaponin O (5) [3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], and sapinmusaponin P (6) [3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], along with seven known saponins (7-13), were isolated from fruits and the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and acid hydrolysis. Biological evaluation indicated that saponins 1-4 and 7-13 showed moderate cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines.

  16. On the Extraction of Components and the Applicability of the Factor Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Harris, Chester W.

    A reanalysis of Shaycroft's matrix of intercorrelations of 10 test variables plus 4 random variables is discussed. Three different procedures were used in the reanalysis: (1) Image Component Analysis, (2) Uniqueness Rescaling Factor Analysis, and (3) Alpha Factor Analysis. The results of these analyses are presented in tables. It is concluded from…

  17. Simplified quantitative determination of total fecal bile acids.

    PubMed

    de Wael, J; Raaymakers, C E; Endeman, H J

    1977-09-01

    To determine total fecal bile acids, these are extracted with diethyl ether after boiling with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanediol. After evaporating the ether and dissolving the residue in methanol, the bile acids are directly determined with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Values for 9 normals are given.

  18. Comparative analysis of fibrillar and basement membrane collagen expression in embryos of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H R; Reiter, R S; D'Alessio, M; Di Liberto, M; Ramirez, F; Exposito, J Y; Gambino, R; Solursh, M

    1997-06-01

    The time of appearance and location of three distinct collagen gene transcripts termed 1 alpha, 2 alpha, and 3 alpha, were monitored in the developing S. purpuratus embryo by in situ hybridization. The 1 alpha and 2 alpha transcripts of fibrillar collagens were detected simultaneously in the primary (PMC) and secondary (SMC) mesenchyme cells of the late gastrula stage and subsequently expressed in the spicules and gut associated cells of the pluteus stage. The 3 alpha transcripts of the basement membrane collagen appeared earlier than 1 alpha and 2 alpha, and were first detected in the presumptive PMC at the vegetal plate of the late blastula stage. The PMC exhibited high expression of 3 alpha at the mesenchyme blastula stage, but during gastrulation the level of expression was reduced differentially among the PMC. In the late gastrula and pluteus stages, both PMC and SMC expressed 3 alpha mRNA, and thus at these stages all three collagen genes displayed an identical expression pattern by coincidence. This study thus provides the first survey of onset and localization of multiple collagen transcripts in a single sea urchin species.

  19. Interactions of five D-mannose-specific lectins with a series of synthetic branched trisaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J; Oscarson, S

    1991-06-25

    The interaction of a series of synthetic, branched trisaccharides with five D-mannose-specific lectins was studied by precipitation-inhibition assay. The branched methyl alpha-D-mannotrioside, alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1----6)]-alpha-D-Man pOMe, the best inhibitor of the Con A-Dextran interaction, was 42 times more potent than alpha-D-ManpOMe, and 3-6 times more potent than the two trisaccharides substituted with D-glucosyl groups, and 8-15 times those with D-galactosyl groups. Surprisingly, methyl O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1----3)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was bound to Con A 8-fold more avidly than methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. However, the related pea lectin (PSA) was singularly different from Con A in its carbohydrate-binding activity, showing no significantly enhanced binding to any of the sugars examined. The trisacchrides containing terminal, nonreducing, (1----3)-linked alpha-D-mannopyranosyl groups, i.e., alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Glep-(1----6)]alpha-D-Manp OMe, alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)]-alpha-D-Galp-(1----6)]-alpha-D-ManpOMe++ +, and alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1----6)]-alpha-D-Man pOMe, were the best inhibitors of the snowdrop lectin (GNA)-D-mannan precipitation system. On the other hand, all branched trisaccharides exhibited very similar inhibitory potencies toward the daffodil lectin (NPA)-D-mannan interaction, whereas alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Galp-(1----6)]-alpha-D-ManpOMe++ + and alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1----6)]-alpha-D-Man pOMe were somewhat better inhibitors than the other branched trisaccharides of the amaryllis lectin (HHA)-D-mannan precipitation reaction. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Androgen metabolism and regulation of rat ventral prostate growth and acid phosphatase during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J; Bird, C E; Clark, A F

    1988-01-01

    Androgen metabolism and the regulation of rat ventral prostate cell proliferation and secretory function were examined during sexual maturation. Changes in acid phosphatase (AP) characteristics were measured as a marker of androgen-dependent prostatic secretory function. In immature (21-day-old) rats, total AP activity per cell was low (14.2 +/- 1.3 mol p-nitrophenol phosphate hydrolysed/h per mg DNA); it increased threefold as the weight, protein and DNA contents of the prostate increased to adult (65-day) levels. This corresponded with significant (P less than 0.001) increases in the staining intensities of three of the four bands of secretory AP on isoelectric focusing gels. The extent of inhibition of AP by tartrate decreased at the same time. Secretory AP is known to be relatively tartrate-resistant. The changes in AP activity occurred after prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) levels increased from 4.6 +/- 0.7 pmol/mg DNA (21 days) to reach a peak of 17.6 +/- 2.3 pmol/mg DNA at 58 days. Prostatic 5 alpha-DHT concentrations were always higher than testosterone levels. Prostatic 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-Adiol) levels were lower than 5 alpha-DHT levels except on day 58 when levels peaked dramatically at 26.2 +/- 5.5 pmol/mg DNA. Changes in prostatic 5 alpha-DHT and 3 alpha-Adiol levels corresponded with changes in 5 alpha-reductase and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3 alpha-HSOR) activities. The oxidative reaction of 3 alpha-HSOR was approximately fourfold higher than the reductive reaction, indicating a preference for the formation of 5 alpha-DHT. The plasma levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-DHT and 3 alpha-Adiol cannot account for their respective prostatic levels, indicating the importance of the steroid-metabolizing enzymes in regulating intracellular androgen levels. Changes in the AP characteristics could be correlated with the androgen status of the prostate.

  1. THE IMPACT OF HELIUM-BURNING REACTION RATES ON MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander; Austin, Sam M. E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu

    2013-05-20

    We study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O and 3{alpha} reaction rates, denoted R{sub {alpha},12} and R{sub 3{alpha}}, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A = 16-40) and the s-only isotopes along the weak s-process path ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 76}Se, {sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 86}Sr, and {sup 87}Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R{sub 3{alpha}} and R{sub {alpha},12} of {+-}25%; the s-only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R{sub 3{alpha}} than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R{sub 3{alpha}}(R{sub {alpha},12}) is approximately {+-}10%({+-}25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  2. The N-end rule pathway catalyzes a major fraction of the protein degradation in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, V.; Lecker, S. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, overall protein degradation involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system. One property of a protein that leads to rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation is the presence of a basic, acidic, or bulky hydrophobic residue at its N terminus. However, in normal cells, substrates for this N-end rule pathway, which involves ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) E214k and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) E3alpha, have remained unclear. Surprisingly, in soluble extracts of rabbit muscle, we found that competitive inhibitors of E3alpha markedly inhibited the 125I-ubiquitin conjugation and ATP-dependent degradation of endogenous proteins. These inhibitors appear to selectively inhibit E3alpha, since they blocked degradation of 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, but did not affect the degradation of proteins whose ubiquitination involved other E3s. The addition of several E2s or E3alpha to the muscle extracts stimulated overall proteolysis and ubiquitination, but only the stimulation by E3alpha or E214k was sensitive to these inhibitors. A similar general inhibition of ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins was observed with a dominant negative inhibitor of E214k. Certain substrates of the N-end rule pathway are degraded after their tRNA-dependent arginylation. We found that adding RNase A to muscle extracts reduced the ATP-dependent proteolysis of endogenous proteins, and supplying tRNA partially restored this process. Finally, although in muscle extracts the N-end rule pathway catalyzes most ubiquitin conjugation, it makes only a minor contribution to overall protein ubiquitination in HeLa cell extracts.

  3. Human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) and rat hepatoma cells are defective in important enzyme activities in the oxidation of the C27 steroid side chain in bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Farrants, A K; Nilsson, A; Pedersen, J I

    1993-12-01

    We have examined the ability of HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells and 7800 C1 Morris rat hepatoma cells to convert 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) and 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (DHCA) to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively. Cell extracts from both these cell lines could neither form cholic acid from THCA nor from the activated form, THCA-CoA. This suggests that both cell lines are defective in two enzyme activities involved in the pathway, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent enzymes are active in the conversion to bile acids, because the product of the THCA-CoA oxidase, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoyl-coenzyme A (delta 24-THCA-CoA) or delta 24-THCA in the presence of THCA-CoA ligase, are converted to cholic acid by both cell lines. HepG2 cells were able to slowly form chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid from 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, respectively, in 24- and 96-h incubations. The rate of cholic acid formation was lower than the rate for chenodeoxycholic acid and there was a clear accumulation of THCA. 7800 C1 Morris cells had no ability to form cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid after 96 h incubation. We conclude that these two cell lines have defects in two enzyme activities involved in the peroxisomal oxidation in bile acid formation, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase.

  4. Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, S. H.; Solomon, V.; Price, S. R.; Kwon, Y. T.; Mitch, W. E.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

  5. Antiviral sulfated steroids from the ophiuroid Ophioplocus januarii.

    PubMed

    Roccatagliata, A J; Maier, M S; Seldes, A M; Pujol, C A; Damonte, E B

    1996-09-01

    One new and three known sulfated steroidal polyols have been isolated from the ophiuroid Ophioplocus januarii, collected at San Antonio Oeste, Río Negro, Argentina. The four compounds possess 4 alpha,11 beta-dihydroxy-3 alpha,21-disulfoxy substituents and the A/B cis ring junction but differ in the side chain. The new compound has been characterized as (22E)-5 beta-24-norcholest-22-ene-3 alpha,4 alpha,11 beta,21-tetrol 3,21-disulfate (4). The structures of the four compounds were determined from spectral data and comparison with those of related steroidal polyols. The four compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect on the replication of one DNA and three RNA viruses. Compounds 2 and 4 were active against respiratory syncytial and polio viruses, and compound 3 inhibited Junin virus, responsible for Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

  6. Structure of the acidic O-specific polysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris O39 containing 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-non-2-ulosonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, A N; Perepelov, A V; Bartodziejska, B; Shashkov, A S; Senchenkova, S N; Wykrota, M; Knirel, Y A; Rozalski, A

    2001-07-12

    The O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O39 was found to contain a new acidic component of Proteus lipopolysaccharides, 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-non-2-ulosonic acid (di-N-acetylpseudaminic acid, Pse5Ac7Ac). The following structure of the polysaccharide was determined by NMR spectroscopy, including 2D 1H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, and 1H,(13)C HMQC experiments, along with selective cleavage of the polysaccharide by solvolysis with anhydrous trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid: -->8)-beta-Psep5Ac7Ac-(2-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1--> The structure established is unique among the O-specific polysaccharides, which is in accordance with classification of the strain studied into a separate Proteus serogroup.

  7. Essential oil from fruit of Peucedanum tauricum Bieb.

    PubMed

    Bartnik, Magdalena; Głowniak, Kazimierz; Mardarowicz, Marek

    2002-01-01

    Essential oil from fruit of Peucedanum tauricum Bieb, was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated. The content of oil determined by distillation with water and m-xylene was 2.2% of dry mass. Gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection and flame ionisation detection (FID) showed that the oil contains 28 compounds (above 99% of sesquiterpenes), of which 9 were identified as beta-elemene (0.6%), beta-caryophyllene (0.3%), alpha-guaiene (0.2%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), gamma-gurjunene (5.6%), beta-selinene (2.3%), alpha-selinene (2.2%), gamma-cadinene (0.3%). Predominating sesquiterpenoids (RI 1529--35.9%, RI 1526--27.2%, RI 1537--7.1%) were not identified, and their mass spectra were similar to mass spectra of selinene derivatives.

  8. Structures of acetylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, rarasaponins IV, V, and VI, and anti-hyperlipidemic constituents from the pericarps of Sapindus rarak.

    PubMed

    Asao, Yasunobu; Morikawa, Toshio; Xie, Yuanyuan; Okamoto, Masaki; Hamao, Makoto; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yuan, Dan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-02-01

    The methanolic extract and its saponin fraction (methanol-eluted fraction) of the pericarps of Sapindus rarak DC. were found to suppress plasma triglyceride elevation in olive oil-treated mice. From the active fraction, three new acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, rarasaponins IV (1), V (2), and VI (3), were isolated. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The principle saponin constituents, hederagenin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4) and hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-di-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (5), showed inhibitory effects on plasma triglyceride elevation at a dose of 200 mg/kg, per os.

  9. Mercapto steroids in protection against mercury and lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Blickenstaff, R T; Cox, B; Foster, E; Roberts, L; Steinrauf, L K

    1980-05-01

    When thiocholesterol is administered as liposomes, it provides significant protection against methylmercuric chloride in mice when given in three intraperitoneal injections, 0.5 hr before and 2 and 8 hr after the methylmercuric chloride. Thiositosterol, 5 alpha-cholestane-2 beta, 3 alpha-dithiol, and 5 beta-cholane-3 beta, 24-dithiol also are active, but 3 alpha-mercapto-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 6 beta-mercapto-5 alpha-cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha-diol, 3 beta-mercapto-5 beta-cholanic acid, and adamantanethiol are ineffective under these conditions. Adamantanethiol is somewhat effective when administered in soybean oil. Cholestanyl amine was treated with acetylthiosuccinic anhydride to give the half amide; cleavage with hydroxylamine liberated the thiol group. This product is active against both methylmercuric chloride and lead nitrate.

  10. Novel epimerization of steroidal allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Ikegami, S; Tamaoki, B

    1979-04-01

    Epimerization of 4-pregnene-3 beta,20 alpha-diol into 4-pregnene-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol was achieved under the mild condition of an acidic medium at room temperature. This reaction was favorable for synthesis of 4-pregnene-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol in better yield, after chemical reduction of 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one with metal hydrides, which resulted in predominant production of 4-pregnene-3 beta,20 alpha-diol. The by-product which was formed more by raising the temperature was identified as 3,5-pregnadien-20 alpha-ol. This method was also applicable for epimerization of other delta 4-3 beta-hydroxysteroids.

  11. Chemical composition of the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata Hance.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Ahmad, A S; Nafady, A M; Mansour, A I

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), in addition to 16 newly reported compounds: alpha-amyrin acetate (1), beta-amyrone (2), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), alpha-amyrin (4), ceryl alcohol (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (8), ursolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucosoide (10), protocatechuic acid (11), betulinic acid (12), quercetin (14), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15), kampferol-3-O-beta-neohesperidoside (16) and rutin (17) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata (Hance) cultivated in Egypt. Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR), as well as comparison with authentic samples.

  12. Microbial transformations of testosterone to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone by two species of Penicillium: P. chrysogenum and P. crustosum.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, M S; Gutiérrez, E B; García, G A; Avalos, A H; Hernández, M A

    1999-06-01

    Two species of Penicillium--P. chrysogenum and P. crustosum--were cultured in presence of [3H]testosterone as a substrate. Both species were shown to reduce the 4,5-double bond in testosterone to give dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The steroids produced were 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, DHT, 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstan-17-one, 3alpha-hydroy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and 5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione. These products implicate the presence of the 5alpha-reductase, with maximal activity at pH 6 and 8, in both species of Penicillium. The presence of DHT in the growth medium and not in the mycelium suggests that DHT is excreted into the medium.

  13. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  14. A new phenolic fatty acid ester with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity from Jacaranda filicifolia.

    PubMed

    Ali, R M; Houghton, P J

    1999-06-01

    The dichloromethane extract of the stem of jacaranda filicifolia Don. showed inhibitory activity in vitro against soybean 5-lipoxygenase. Systematic fractionation to isolate the compounds responsible resulted in the isolation of three active compounds, 2 alpha, 3 alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, beta-sitosterol, and one of which was new which was characterised as 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl 1-dodecyloctadecanoate. This type of compound has not previously been reported to inhibit lipoxygenase.

  15. In vivo and vitro studies on formation of bile acids in patients with Zellweger syndrome. Evidence that peroxisomes are of importance in the normal biosynthesis of both cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Kase, B F; Pedersen, J I; Strandvik, B; Björkhem, I

    1985-01-01

    The last step in bile acid formation involves conversion of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) into cholic acid and 3 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (DHCA) into chenodeoxycholic acid. The peroxisomal fraction of rat and human liver has the highest capacity to catalyze these reactions. Infants with Zellweger syndrome lack liver peroxisomes, and accumulate 5 beta-cholestanoic acids in bile and serum. We recently showed that such an infant had reduced capacity to convert a cholic acid precursor, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol into cholic acid. 7 alpha-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is a common precursor for both cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Intravenous administration of [3H]7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to an infant with Zellweger syndrome led to a rapid incorporation of 3H into biliary THCA but only 10% of 3H was incorporated into cholic acid after 48 h. The incorporation of 3H into DHCA was only 25% of that into THCA and the incorporation into chenodeoxycholic acid approximately 50% of that in cholic acid. The conversion of intravenously administered [3H]THCA into cholic acid in another infant with Zellweger syndrome was only 7%. There was a slow conversion of THCA into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-C29-dicarboxylic acid. The pool size of both cholic- and chenodeoxycholic acid was markedly reduced. Preparations of liver from two patients with Zellweger syndrome had no capacity to catalyze conversion of THCA into cholic acid. There was, however, a small conversion of DHCA into chenodeoxycholic acid and into THCA. It is concluded that liver peroxisomes are important both for the conversion of THCA into cholic acid and DHCA into chenodeoxycholic acid. PMID:4077985

  16. A new 28-noroleanane triterpenoid from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Ayub, Anjum; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2010-08-01

    A new 28-norolean-12,17-diene triterpene lantigdienone (1) oxidised at C-11 and C-22 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with two known compounds, camarinin (2) and camangeloyl acid (3). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[beta,betadimethylacryloyloxy]-11-oxo-28-norolean-12,17-diene, with the help of spectral studies.

  17. A new secotrinervitane diterpene isolated from soldiers of the Madagascan termite species, Nasutitermes canaliculatus.

    PubMed

    Rabemanantsoa, A; Ranarivelo, Y; Andriantsiferana, M; Tillequin, F; Silverton, J V; Garraffo, H M; Spande, T F; Yeh, H J; Daly, J W

    1996-09-01

    Reported herein is the X-ray crystallographic structure of a novel 10-oxygenated secotrinervitane diterpene, 3 alpha, 10 alpha-diacetoxy-7,16-secotrinervita-7,11,15(17)-triene (4), from soldiers of the endemic Madagascan termite Nasutitermes canaliculatus, which was compared with an energy-minimized structure obtained by computer molecular modeling. We also report 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS data for this new diterpene.

  18. [Chemical constituents of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn seed and their physiological activities].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Aki; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Abe, Tomo; Kazama, Shunsuke; Tanizawa, Hisayuki; Nomura, Masato

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of phenylpropanoid compound extracts from nutmeg (Myristica fragragrans Houttuyn) seed was determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, superoxide disumutase assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, and radical-scavenging effect assay with electron-spin resonance. High antioxidant activity was found in monoterpenoid extracts including terpinene-4-ol (3), alpha-terpineol (4), and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (12). Compound, 12 expressed particularly high antioxidant activity.

  19. The inner ear of dogs with X-linked nephritis provides clues to the pathogenesis of hearing loss in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S J; Mount, R; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Ninomiya, Y; Harrison, R; Jefferson, B; Jacobs, R; Thorner, P S

    2001-09-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder of type IV collagen with progressive nephropathy, ocular abnormalities, and high-tone sensorineural deafness. In X-linked Alport syndrome, mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the alpha5 chain of type IV collagen lead to loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network and increased susceptibility of the glomerular basement membrane to long-term damage. The molecular defects that underlie the otopathology in this disease remain poorly understood. We used a canine model of X-linked Alport syndrome to determine the expression of type IV collagen alpha-chains in the inner ear. By 1 month in normal adult dogs, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5 chains were co-expressed in a thin continuous line extending along the basilar membrane and the internal and external sulci, with the strongest expression along the lateral aspect of the spiral ligament in the basal turn of the cochlea. Affected dogs showed complete absence of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network. The lateral aspect of the spiral ligament is populated by tension fibroblasts that express alpha-smooth muscle actin and nonmuscle myosin and are postulated to generate radial tension on the basilar membrane via the extracellular matrix for reception of high frequency sound. We propose that in Alport syndrome, the loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network eventually weakens the interaction of these cells with their extracellular matrix, resulting in reduced tension on the basilar membrane and the inability to respond to high frequency sounds.

  20. Brain testosterone metabolism in thyroidectomized and thyroxine-treated chickens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Lucini, V; Harvey, S

    1984-10-01

    The metabolism of testosterone to reduced derivatives was studied in the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized, sham-operated, and thyroxine (T4)-injected immature cockerels. The levels of plasma thyroid hormones were markedly reduced (P less than 0.001) in thyroidectomized cockerels whereas thyroidectomized or sham-operated birds injected daily with 100 micrograms/kg thyroxine had significantly elevated (P less than 0.001) levels in comparison with sham-operated control birds. Each tissue was found to produce significant amounts of 5 beta-androstane-17 beta-ol-3-one (5 beta-DHT), 5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-3 alpha-diol), and androstenedione. Irrespective of thyroid state 5 beta-DHT and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol were produced to the greatest extent by the hyperstriatum dorsale whereas androstenedione was maximally produced in the pituitary gland. In comparison with the hyperstriatum dorsale and the hypothalamus only small quantities of 5 beta-DHT were produced in the pituitary gland. In the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized birds both 5 beta-DHT (P less than 0.05) and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol (P less than 0.1) were formed to a greater extent than in sham-operated birds. This effect was reversed by administration of T4 to the operated birds which reduced the levels to those measured in the sham-operated controls. Similarly, injection of T4 into sham-operated birds decreased (P less than 0.05) the production of 5 beta-DHT in the hypothalamus while in the pituitary gland injection of T4 into thyroidectomized birds reduced the production of androstenedione (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that in the cockerel thyroid hormone is likely to play a role in the metabolism of testosterone. The physiological significance of 5 beta-reductase activity in the neuroendocrine tissues is discussed.

  1. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon).

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojun; Murphy, Brian T; Hammond, Gerald B; Vinson, Joe A; Neto, Catherine C

    2002-10-09

    Polyphenolic compounds in cranberries have been investigated to determine their role in protection against cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Extracts of whole fruit were assayed for radical-scavenging activity and tumor growth inhibition using seven tumor cell lines. Selective inhibition of K562 and HT-29 cells was observed from a methanolic extract in the range of 16-125 microg/mL. Radical-scavenging activity was greatest in an extract composed primarily of flavonol glycosides. Seven flavonol glycosides were isolated and purified from whole fruit for further evaluation; the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-galactoside was also purified for comparison with the flavonoids. Three flavonol monoglycosides were newly identified by (13)C NMR as myricetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, and 3-methoxyquercetin 3-beta-galactoside (isorhamnetin); the other four isolated were the previously identified myricetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, and quercetin 3-alpha-rhamnopyranoside. These compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. Most of the flavonol glycosides showed antioxidant activity comparable or superior to that of vitamin E; cyanidin 3-galactoside showed activity superior to that of the flavonoids as well as vitamin E or Trolox in both antioxidant assays.

  2. Distinct CDR3 Conformations in TCRs Determine the Level of Cross-Reactivity for Diverse Antigens, But Not the Docking Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.L.; Colf, L.A.; Stone, J.D.; Garcia, K.C.; Kranz, D.M.

    2009-05-18

    T cells are known to cross-react with diverse peptide MHC Ags through their {alpha}{beta} TCR. To explore the basis of such cross-reactivity, we examined the 2C TCR that recognizes two structurally distinct ligands, SIY-K{sup b} and alloantigen QL9-L{sup d}. In this study we characterized the cross-reactivity of several high-affinity 2C TCR variants that contained mutations only in the CDR3{alpha} loop. Two of the TCR lost their ability to cross-react with the reciprocal ligand (SIY-K{sup b}), whereas another TCR (m67) maintained reactivity with both ligands. Crystal structures of four of the TCRs in complex with QL9-L{sup d} showed that CDR1, CDR2, and CDR3{beta} conformations and docking orientations were remarkably similar. Although the CDR3{alpha} loop of TCR m67 conferred a 2000-fold higher affinity for SIY-K{sup b}, the TCR maintained the same docking angle on QL9-L{sup d} as the 2C TCR. Thus, CDR3{alpha} dictated the affinity and level of cross-reactivity, yet it did so without affecting the conserved docking orientation.

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis and crystal structure of alpha'-AlD3 and alpha-AlD3.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Hendrik W; Istad-Lem, Andreas; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2006-12-28

    AlD3 AlD3 was synthesized by ball milling of 3LiAlD4 + AlCl3. Planetary ball milling at room temperature resulted in a mixture of AlD3 (alpha and alpha') and Al in addition to LiCl, whereas cryomilling at 77 K resulted in only AlD3 and LiCl. The AlD3 obtained was a mixture of about 2/3alpha and 1/3alpha'. Alpha' was determined by powder neutron diffraction to take the beta-AlF3 structure with space group Cmcm and a = 6.470(3), b = 11.117(5), and c = 6.562(2) A. It is built up of corner-sharing AlD6 octahedra in an open structure with hexagonal holes of radius 3.9 A. Alpha' slowly decomposes during storage at 40 degrees C. Alpha-AlD3 is also described by a corner-sharing AlD6 network but in a more dense ReO3-type arrangement. Both AlD3 modifications have slightly shorter Al-D distances compared to Na3AlD6, Na2LiAlD6, and K2NaAlH6.

  4. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  5. Analgesic strategies aimed at stimulating the endogenous production of allopregnanolone

    PubMed Central

    Poisbeau, Pierrick; Keller, Anne Florence; Aouad, Maya; Kamoun, Nisrine; Groyer, Ghislaine; Schumacher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are remarkable analgesics in various pain states. This is the case for allopregnanolone (AP), one of the most potent endogenous positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptor function. From the pioneering work of Hans Selye, who described the sedative properties of steroids, synthetic compounds resembling the progesterone metabolite AP have been developed. If some of them have been used as anesthetics, it seems difficult to propose them as a therapeutic option for pain since they display several adverse side effects such as sedation, amnesia and functional tolerance. An alternative strategy, chosen by few laboratories around the world, is aimed at stimulating the local production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids in order to limit these well-known side effects. This pharmacological approach has the advantage of targeting specific structures, fully equipped with the necessary biosynthetic enzymatic machinery, where neurosteroids already act as endogenous pain modulators. The various pharmacological trials which attempted to treat pain symptoms by stimulating the production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are reviewed here, as well as novel neurotransmitter systems possibly regulating their endogenous production. PMID:24987335

  6. Similarity of "core" structures in two different glycans of tyrosine-linked eubacterial S-layer glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Messner, P; Christian, R; Neuninger, C; Schulz, G

    1995-01-01

    Previously, the repeating-unit structure of the S-layer glycoprotein from the eubacterium Bacillus alvei CCM 2051 has been determined to be [-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-]-beta-D-ManpNAc- (1-->]n (E. Altman, J.-R. Brisson, P. Messner, and U. B. Sleytr, Biochem. Cell Biol. 69:72-78, 1991). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic reexamination of this glycan reveals that the O-antigen-like domain of the polysaccharide is [see text] connected with the S-layer polypeptide through the "core" structure -->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-R hap-(1-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->O)-Tyr. Except for the substitution in position 4 of the nonreducing rhamnose with the modified glyceric acid phosphate residue GroA-2-->OPO2-->4-beta-D-ManpNAc-(1-->, this core is identical to the core of the tyrosine-linked glycan from the S-layer glycoprotein of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus L111-69 (K. Bock, J. Schuster-Kolbe, E. Altman, G. Allmaier, B. Stahl, R. Christian, U. B. Sleytr, and P. Messner, J. Biol. Chem. 269:7137-7144, 1994). PMID:7721708

  7. Longitudinal profiling of urinary steroids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: diet change may result in carbon isotopic variations.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Kamber, Matthias; Barbati, Giulia; Robinson, Neil; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-02-02

    Longitudinal profiling of urinary steroids was investigated by using a gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) method. The carbon isotope ratio of three urinary testosterone (T) metabolites: androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5beta-androstanediol) together with 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol (androstenol) and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol (5beta-pregnanediol) were measured in urine samples collected from three top-level athletes over 2 years. Throughout the study, the subjects were living in Switzerland and were residing every year for a month or two in an African country. (13)C-enrichment larger than 2.5 per thousand was observed for one subject after a 2-month stay in Africa. Our findings reveal that (13)C-enrichment caused by a diet change might be reduced if the stay in Africa was shorter or if the urine sample was not collected within the days after return to Switzerland. The steroids of interest in each sample did not show significant isotopic fractionation that could lead to false positive results in anti-doping testing. In contrast to the results obtained with the carbon isotopic ratio, profiling of urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratios was found to be unaffected by a diet change.

  8. Urinary marker of oral pregnenolone administration.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2005-03-01

    Pregnenolone (PREG) can potentially be abused by athletes to maintain an equilibration of the steroidal environment after sex steroids administrations. Five men volunteers orally ingested 50 mg PREG to determine optimal urinary markers for detection of this steroid. Our findings show that ingestion of PREG has no significant effects on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) and testosterone/luteinizing hormone (T/LH) ratios, whereas variable changes on the carbon isotopic values of three T metabolites: androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5beta-androstanediol) together with 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol (androstenol) and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol (pregnanediol) have been observed. The difference between the carbon isotopic values (delta13C-values) of androstenol and pregnanediol is potentially the most reliable marker of exogenous PREG administration in males. For all subjects, the differences differ by 3.0 per thousand or more over a period of about 10 h and for both of them the detection window for positivity is extended over 40 h.

  9. ATP-dependent transport of bile acid intermediates across rat liver peroxisomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Une, Mizuho; Iguchi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Tomoko; Tomita, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2003-08-01

    The bile acid intermediate 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) is converted to cholic acid exclusively in peroxisomes by the oxidative cleavage of the side chain. To investigate the mechanism by which the biosynthetic intermediates of bile acids are transported into peroxisomes, we incubated THCA or its CoA ester (THC-CoA) with isolated intact rat liver peroxisomes and analyzed their oxidation products, cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid. The oxidation of both THCA and THC-CoA was dependent on incubation time and peroxisomal proteins, and was stimulated by ATP. THC-CoA was efficiently oxidized to cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid as compared with THCA, suggesting that THC-CoA is the preferred substrate for transport into peroxisomes. The oxidation of THC-CoA was significantly inhibited by sodium azide, verapamile, and N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of ATP on the oxidation was not replaced by GTP or AMP. In addition, the ATP-dependent oxidation of THC-CoA was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of peroxisomes with proteinase K when peroxisomal matrix proteins were not degraded. These results suggest that an ATP-dependent transport system for THC-CoA exists on peroxisomal membranes.

  10. Human C3 and C5: subunit structure and modifications by trypsin and C42-C423.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, U R; Mandle, R J; McConnell-Mapes, J A

    1975-02-01

    The subunit composition of human C3 and C5 was analyzed. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the fully reduced and dissociated proteins disclosed a similar structure, consisting of one alpha and beta subunit, linked together by one or more disulfide bonds. The approximate molecular weights for the alpha and beta subunits of C3 as well as C5 were 140,000 and 80,000 respectively. C42 caused cleavage solely of C3alpha, whereas trypsin affected both C3alpha as well as C3beta. A characteristic subunit modification by both enzmes indicated that C3alpha constitutes the source of C3a. C423 as well as trypsin exclusively affect C5alpha. C5a therefore appears to originate from the C5alpha subunit. The mode of primary cleavage by C423 and trypsin differs, giving rise to different forms of C5b. The questions is raised if multiple forms of C5a also exist. It appeared from our studies that certain forms of C5b may retain portions of the alpha subunit, which could potentially release some biologically active split products following secondary cleavage by the appropriate enzyme.

  11. Metabolism of methyltestosterone in the greyhound.

    PubMed

    Biddle, S T B; O'Donnell, A; Houghton, E; Creaser, C

    2009-03-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and selective derivatisation techniques have been used to identify urinary metabolites of methyltestosterone following oral administration to the greyhound. Several metabolites were identified including reduced, mono-, di- and trihydroxylated steroids. The major metabolites observed were 17alpha-methyl-5beta-androstane-3alpha-17beta-diol, 17alpha-methyl-5beta-androstane-3alpha,16alpha,17beta-triol, and a further compound tentatively identified as 17alpha-methyl-5z-androstane-6z,17beta-triol. The most abundant of these was the 17alpha-methyl-5beta-androstane-3alpha,16alpha,17beta-triol. This metabolite was identified by comparison with a reference standard synthesised using a Grignard procedure and characterised using trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetonide-TMS derivatisation techniques. There did not appear to be any evidence for 16beta-hydroxylation as a phase I metabolic transformation in the greyhound. However, significant quantities of 16alpha-hydroxy metabolites were detected. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis procedures indicated that the major metabolites identified were excreted as glucuronic acid conjugates. Metabolic transformations observed in the greyhound have been compared with those of other mammalian species and are discussed here.

  12. Negative regulation of opioid receptor-G protein-Ca2+ channel pathway by the nootropic nefiracetam.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Mitsunobu; Furukawa, Taiji; Ogihara, Yoshiyasu; Watabe, Shigeo; Shiotani, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Yasuro; Nishimura, Masao; Nukada, Toshihide

    2004-10-01

    It has recently been reported that nefiracetam, a nootropic agent, is capable of attenuating the development of morphine dependence and tolerance in mice. The mechanism of this antimorphine action is not clear. The present study was designed to address this issue using Xenopus oocytes expressing delta-opioid receptors, G proteins (G(i3alpha) or G(o1alpha)), and N-type (alpha1B) Ca2+ channels. Membrane currents through Ca2+ channels were recorded from the oocytes under voltage-clamp conditions. The Ca2+ channel currents were reduced reversibly by 40-60% in the presence of 1 microM leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk). The Leu-Enk-induced current inhibition was recovered promptly by nefiracetam (1 microM), while control currents in the absence of Leu-Enk were not influenced by nefiracetam. A binding assay revealed that 3H-nefiracetam preferentially bound to the membrane fraction of oocytes expressing G(i3alpha). When delta-opioid receptors were coexpressed, the binding was significantly increased. However, an additional expression of alpha1B Ca2+ channels decreased the binding. The results suggest that nefiracetam preferentially binds to G(i3alpha) associated with delta-opioid receptors, thereby inhibiting the association of G proteins with Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, nefiracetam negatively regulates the inhibitory pathway of opioid receptor-G protein-Ca2+ channel.

  13. Complete structure of the tyrosine-linked saccharide moiety from the surface layer glycoprotein of Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum S102-70.

    PubMed Central

    Christian, R; Schulz, G; Schuster-Kolbe, J; Allmaier, G; Schmid, E R; Sleytr, U B; Messner, P

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we have extended and completed a previous investigation (P. Messner, R. Christian, J. Kolbe, G. Schulz, and U. B. Sleytr, J. Bacteriol. 174:2236-2240, 1992) in which we demonstrated for the first time in prokaryotic organisms the presence of a novel O-glycosidic linkage via tyrosine. The surface layer glycoprotein of the eubacterium Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum S102-70 is arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with center-to-center spacings of approximately 16.3 nm. Molecular weight determination by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated surface layer glycoprotein showed values for the monomeric subunits of 94,000 and 87,500, respectively. Glycopeptide fractions obtained after exhaustive pronase digestion of purified, intact glycoprotein were isolated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies, together with chemical analyses and plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry, were used to elucidate the structure of the hexasaccharide moiety linked by the novel O-glycosidic linkage to tyrosine. The combined evidence suggests the following structure: beta-D-Galf-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp- (1-->2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1--3)-alpha-L- Rhap-(1-->3)-beta- D-Glcp-(1-->4)-L-Tyr. Images PMID:8444787

  14. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar; Lang, Florian

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} regulates T lymphocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3{alpha},{beta} (gsk3{sup KI}) release less IL-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice express less CD62L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD8{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3{alpha},{beta}. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3{alpha},{beta} inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3{sup KI}). T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3{sup WT}). As a result, in gsk3{sup KI} CD4{sup +} cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3{sup WT} CD4{sup +} cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8{sup +} T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  15. Metabolism of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 4-hydroxytestosterone: Mass spectrometric identification of urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Maxie; Parr, Maria K; Opfermann, Georg; Thevis, Mario; Schlörer, Nils; Marner, Franz-Josef; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-03-01

    4-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione is a second generation, irreversible aromatase inhibitor and commonly used as anti breast cancer medication for postmenopausal women. 4-Hydroxytestosterone is advertised as anabolic steroid and does not have any therapeutic indication. Both substances are prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and, due to a considerable increase of structurally related steroids with anabolic effects offered via the internet, the metabolism of two representative candidates was investigated. Excretion studies were conducted with oral applications of 100mg of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione or 200mg of 4-hydroxytestosterone to healthy male volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed for metabolic products using conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches, and the identification of urinary metabolites was based on reference substances, which were synthesized and structurally characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Identified phase-I as well as phase-II metabolites were identical for both substances. Regarding phase-I metabolism 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (1) and its reduction products 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-4,17-dione (2) and 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstane-4,17-dione (3) were detected. Further reductive conversion led to all possible isomers of 3xi,4xi-dihydroxy-5xi-androstan-17-one (4, 6-11) except 3alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-androstan-17-one (5). Out of the 17beta-hydroxylated analogs 4-hydroxytestosterone (18), 3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstan-4-one (19), 3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5beta-androstan-4-one (20), 5alpha-androstane-3beta,4beta,17beta-triol (21), 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,4beta,17beta-triol (26) and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,4alpha,17beta-triol (28) were identified in the post administration urine specimens. Furthermore 4-hydroxyandrosta-4,6-diene-3,17-dione (29) and 4-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (30) were determined as

  16. Defective peroxisomal cleavage of the C27-steroid side chain in the cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger.

    PubMed Central

    Kase, B F; Björkhem, I; Hågå, P; Pedersen, J I

    1985-01-01

    Based on in vitro work with rat liver, we recently suggested that the peroxisomal fraction is most important for the oxidation of 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) into cholic acid. The cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger is a fatal recessive autosomal disorder, the most characteristic histological feature of which is a virtual absence of peroxisomes in liver and kidneys. This disease offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the relative importance of peroxisomes in bile acid biosynthesis. A child with Zellweger syndrome was studied in the present work. In accordance with previous work, there was a considerable accumulation of THCA, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (24-OH-THCA), 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-27-carboxymethyl-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid (C29-dicarboxylic acid), and 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid in serum. In addition, a tetrahydroxylated 5 beta-cholestanoic acid with all the hydroxyl groups in the steroid nucleus was found. 3H-Labeled 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol was administered intravenously together with 14C-labeled cholic acid. There was a rapid incorporation of 3H in THCA and a slow incorporation into cholic acid. The specific radioactivity of 3H in THCA was about one magnitude higher than that in cholic acid. The conversion was evaluated by following the increasing ratio between 3H and 14C in biliary cholic acid. The rate of incorporation of 3H in cholic acid was considerably less than previously reported in experiments with healthy subjects, and the maximal conversion of the triol into cholic acid was only 15-20%. About the same rate of conversion was found after oral administration of 3H-THCA. Both in the experiment with 3H-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol and with 3H-THCA, there was an efficient incorporation of 3H in the above unidentified tetrahydroxylated 5 beta-cholestanoic acid. There was

  17. The oestrogenic effects of gestodene, a potent contraceptive progestin, are mediated by its A-ring reduced metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lemus, A E; Zaga, V; Santillán, R; García, G A; Grillasca, I; Damián-Matsumura, P; Jackson, K J; Cooney, A J; Larrea, F; Pérez-Palacios, G

    2000-06-01

    Gestodene (17 alpha-ethynyl-13 beta-ethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-4, 15-gonadien-3-one) is the most potent synthetic progestin currently available and it is widely used as a fertility regulating agent in a number of contraceptive formulations because of its high effectiveness, safety and acceptability. The observation that contraceptive synthetic progestins exert hormone-like effects other than their progestational activities, prompted us to investigate whether gestodene (GSD) administration may induce oestrogenic effects, even though the GSD molecule does not interact with intracellular oestrogen receptors (ER). To assess whether GSD may exert oestrogenic effects through some of its neutral metabolites, a series of experimental studies were undertaken using GSD and three of its A-ring reduced metabolites. Receptor binding studies by displacement analysis confirmed that indeed GSD does not bind to the ER, whereas its 3 beta,5 alpha-tetrahydro reduced derivative (3 beta GSD) interacts with a relative high affinity with the ER. The 3 alpha,5 alpha GSD isomer (3 alpha GSD) also binds to the ER, though to a lesser extent. The ability of the A-ring reduced GSD derivatives to induce oestrogenic actions was evaluated by the use of two different molecular bioassays: (a) transactivation of a yeast system co-transfected with the human ER alpha (hER alpha) gene and oestrogen responsive elements fused to the beta-galactosidase reporter vector and (b) transactivation of the hER alpha-mediated transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene in a HeLa cells expression system. The oestrogenic potency of 3 beta GSD was also assessed by its capability to induce oestrogen-dependent progestin receptors (PR) in the anterior pituitary of castrated female rats. The results demonstrated that 3 beta GSD and 3 alpha GSD were able to activate, in a dose-dependent manner, the hER alpha-mediated transcription of both the beta-galactosidase and the CAT reporter genes in the

  18. The first biantennary bacterial secondary cell wall polymer and its influence on S-layer glycoprotein assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Steindl, Christian; Schäffer, Christina; Wugeditsch, Thomas; Graninger, Michael; Matecko, Irena; Müller, Norbert; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The cell surface of Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 is covered with a square surface (S)-layer glycoprotein lattice. This S-layer glycoprotein, which was extracted with aqueous buffers after a freeze-thaw cycle of the bacterial cells, is the only completely water-soluble S-layer glycoprotein to be reported to date. The purified S-layer glycoprotein preparation had an overall carbohydrate content of 19%. Detailed chemical investigations indicated that the S-layer O-glycans of previously established structure accounted for 13% of total glycosylation. The remainder could be attributed to a peptidoglycan-associated secondary cell wall polymer. Structure analysis was performed using purified secondary cell wall polymer-peptidoglycan complexes. NMR spectroscopy revealed the first biantennary secondary cell wall polymer from the domain Bacteria, with the structure alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->4)-beta-L-Gal p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)]-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-beta-L-Man p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Glc p NAc-(1-->O)-PO(2)(-)-O-PO(2)(-)-(O-->6)-MurNAc- (where MurNAc is N -acetylmuramic acid). The neutral polysaccharide is linked via a pyrophosphate bond to the C-6 atom of every fourth N -acetylmuramic acid residue, in average, of the A1gamma-type peptidoglycan. In vivo, the biantennary polymer anchored the S-layer glycoprotein very effectively to the cell wall, probably due to the doubling of motifs for a proposed lectin-like binding between the polymer and the N-terminus of the S-layer protein. When the cellular support was removed during S-layer glycoprotein isolation, the co-purified polymer mediated the solubility of the S

  19. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  20. Metabolism of C26 bile alcohols in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    SciTech Connect

    Noma, Y.; Kihira, K.; Kuramoto, T.; Hoshita, T.

    1988-03-01

    Metabolism of C26 bile alcohols in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was studied. (24-14C)-24-Dehydro-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol (3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-27-nor-5 beta-cholestan-24-one) was chemically synthesized from (24-14C)cholic acid and incubated with bullfrog liver homogenate fortified with NADPH. 24-Dehydro-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol was shown to be converted into both 26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol and 24-epi-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol ((24S)- and (24R)-27-nor-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24-tetrols) in addition to 5 beta-ranol ((24R)-27-nor-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,26-pentol), which is the major bile alcohol of the bullfrog. (24-3H)-26-Deoxy-5 beta-ranol and (24-3H)-24-epi-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol were prepared from 24-dehydro-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol by reduction with sodium (3H) borohydride and administered respectively to two each of four bullfrogs by intraperitoneal injection. After 24 h, labeled 5 beta-ranol was isolated from the bile of the bullfrogs that received (24-3H)-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol. In contrast little if any radioactivity could be detected in 5 beta-ranol or its 24-epimer after administration of (24-3H)-24-epi-26-deoxy-5 beta-ranol.

  1. [Measurement of the transport activities of bile salt export pump using chemiluminescence detection method].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kana; Murai, Tsuyoshi; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Hui, Shu-Ping; Kurosawa, Takao

    2010-05-01

    Monovalent bile acids, such as taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile acids, are excreted into bile by bile salt export pumps (BSEP, ABCB11). Human BSEP (hBSEP) is physiologically important because it was identified as the gene responsible for the genetic disease: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2). The evaluation of the inhibitory effect of hBSEP transport activity provides significant information for predicting toxic potential in the early phase of drug development. The role and function of hBSEP have been investigated by the examination of the ATP-dependent transport of radioactive isotopically (RI)-labeled bile acid such as a tritium labeled taurocholic acid, in membrane vesicles obtained from hBSEP-expressing cells. The chemiluminescence detection method using 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) had been developed for a simple analysis of bile acids in human biological fluids. This method is extremely sensitive and it may be applicable for the measurements of bile acid transport activities by hBSEP vesicles without using RI-labeled bile acid. The present paper deals with an application of the chemiluminescence detection method using 3alpha-HSD with enzyme cycling method to the measurement of ATP-dependent transport activities of taurocholic acid (T-CA) in membrane vesicles obtained from hBSEP-expressing Sf9 cells. Calibration curves for T-CA was linear over the range from 10 to 400 pmol/ml. The values of the kinetic parameters for hBSEP vesicles obtained by the chemiluminescence detection method were comparable with the values of that obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. This assay method was highly useful for the measurements of bile acid transport activities.

  2. Oxidoreduction of different hydroxyl groups in bile acids during their enterohepatic circulation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkhem, I.L.; Liljeqvist, L.; Nilsell, K.; Einarsson, K.

    1986-02-01

    The extent of oxidoreduction of the 3 alpha-, 7 alpha- and 12 alpha-hydroxyl groups in bile acids during the enterohepatic circulation in man was studied with the use of (3 beta-/sup 3/H)-labeled deoxycholic acid and cholic acid, (7 beta-/sup 3/H)-labeled cholic acid, and (12 beta-/sup 3/H)-labeled deoxycholic acid and cholic acid. Each (/sup 3/H)-labeled bile acid was given per os to healthy volunteers, together with the corresponding (24-/sup 14/C)-labeled bile acid. The rate of oxidoreduction was calculated from the decrease in the ratio between /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C in the respective bile acid isolated from duodenal contents collected at different time intervals after administration of the labeled bile acids. The mean fractional conversion rate was found to be 0.29 day-1 for the 3 alpha-hydroxyl group in deoxycholic acid (n = 2), 0.18 day-1 for the 12 alpha-hydroxyl group in deoxycholic acid (n = 6), 0.09 day-1 for the 3 alpha-hydroxyl group in cholic acid (n = 3), 0.05 day-1 for the 7 alpha-hydroxyl group in cholic acid (n = 2), and 0.03 day-1 for the 12 alpha-hydroxyl group in cholic acid (n = 2). The extent of oxidoreduction of the 12 alpha-hydroxyl group in (12 beta-/sup 3/H)-labeled deoxycholic acid given to two patients operated with subtotal colectomy and ileostomy was markedly reduced (less than 20% of normal).

  3. Definition of the surface antigens of Mycobacterium malmoense and use in studying the etiology of a form of mycobacteriosis.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M; Tsang, A Y; McClatchy, J K; Stewart, C; Jardine, I; Brennan, P J

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense is the latest of a roster of atypical mycobacteria implicated in pulmonary infections. Yet it lacks recognizable phenotypic features to allow its ready identification. Some 23 clinical isolates of M. malmoense were examined for homologous seroagglutination reactions and characteristic surface antigens. One group showed concordant agglutination interreactions and an identical spectrum of glycolipids and are regarded as M. malmoense sensu stricto. The glycolipids are of the newly found, trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharide class. De-O-acylation followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography revealed one major and several minor oligosaccharides. Partial acidic cleavage to release glycosidically linked trehalose, alpha-mannosidase digestion to demonstrate the presence of a non-reducing-end mannobiose, perdeuteriomethylation, partial acid hydrolysis, reduction, and O ethylation, combined with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and electron impact and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry revealed the structure of the major oligosaccharide as alpha-D-Manp-(1----3) -alpha-D-Manp-(1----[2-alpha-L-Rhap-(1--]4--3)-alpha-L-Rh ap- (1----3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1----1)-alpha-D-Glcp, in which two of the 2-alpha-L-Rhap residues are O methylated at C-3. (Man, mannose; Rha, rhamnose; Glc, glucose; p, pyranosyl). The structures of the minor oligosaccharides were also determined; they differ at the distal nonreducing end. The dominant oligosaccharide was acylated by octanoate, 2-methyleicosanoate, and 2,4-dimethylpentacosanoate to yield the major species-specific surface antigen of M. malmoense, which we regard as the most characteristic feature of the pathogen. Images PMID:3597323

  4. Anti-inflammatory ergostanes from the basidiomata of Antrodia salmonea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chien-Chang; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Don, Ming-Jaw; Hou, Yu-Chang; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Shiou; Wang, Wen-Yen; Ko, Han-Chieh; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2007-09-01

    Three new anti-oxidative ergostanes, methyl antcinate L (1), antcin M (2), and methyl antcinate K (3), together with nine additional known compounds, 3-ketodehydrosulphurenic acid, sulphurenic acid, dehydrosulphurenic acid, 3beta,15alpha-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid, zhankuic acid A, zhankuic acid B, zhankuic acid C, antcin C, and antcin K were isolated from the basidiomata of Antrodia salmonea, a newly identified species of Antrodia (Polyporaceae) in Taiwan. These three new compounds were identified as methyl 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-4alpha-methylergosta-8,24(29)-dien-11-on-26-oate (1), 3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-4alpha-methylergosta-8,24(29)-dien-11-on-26-oic acid (2), and methyl 3alpha,4beta,7beta-trihydroxy-4alpha-methylergosta-8,24(29)-dien-11-on-26-oate (3) by spectroscopic analysis. We studied their antioxidative potential on the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) in neutrophils and microglial cells, respectively. Compounds 1-3 displayed potent antioxidative activity with IC50 values of around 2.0-8.8 microM that was partially due to inhibition (6-67%) of NADPH oxidase activity but not through direct radical-scavenging properties. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited NO production with IC50 values of around 1.7-16.5 microM and were more potent than a non-specific NOS inhibitor. We conclude that these three new compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in activated inflammatory cells.

  5. Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions.

    PubMed

    Ruppeiner, George

    2005-07-01

    A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy gamma r(-alpha) . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit alpha-->infinity corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (alpha>3) and repulsive (gamma>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given alpha>3 , gamma>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b (rho T(-3/alpha) ) , where rho is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for rho T(-3/alpha) , related to gamma via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 3<alpha<3.7913 , the solution goes from the low to the expected high density limit smoothly; (6) for alpha>3.7913 a phase transition is required to go between these regimes; (7) for any alpha>3 we may include a first-order phase transition, which is expected from computer simulations; and (8) if alpha-->infinity, the density approaches a finite value as the pressure increases to infinity, with the pressure diverging logarithmically in the density difference.

  6. Is the 5 alpha-reductase of the hypothalamus and of the anterior pituitary neurally regulated? Effects of hypothalamic deafferentations and of centrally acting drugs.

    PubMed

    Celotti, F; Negri-Cesi, P; Limonta, P; Melcangi, C

    1983-07-01

    The following experiments have been performed in order to verify whether the conversion of testosterone into its 5 alpha-reduced metabolites, 5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-ol-3-one (DHT), 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol), in the hypothalamus and in the anterior pituitary is controlled by neural stimuli. Long-term castrated male rats have been submitted to anterior and total deafferentations of the hypothalamus and to the administration of the following centrally acting drugs: reserpine, p-chlorophenylalanine pCPA and atropine sulphate. The possible involvement of the central opioid system has also been investigated utilizing morphine and naloxone. Neither hypothalamic deafferentations, nor the treatment with reserpine, pCPA, atropine, morphine or naloxone produce any significant modification in the metabolism of testosterone in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic deafferentations and treatments with reserpine, morphine and naloxone are also ineffective in changing the pattern of testosterone metabolism in the anterior pituitary. On the contrary, atropine and pCPA seem to affect the conversion of testosterone in the gland, both drugs producing an increased formation of DHT and 3 alpha-diol but not of 3 beta-diol. It is concluded that the 5 alpha-reductase-3-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase system of the hypothalamus does not appear to be controlled either neurally by inputs coming from other brain structures, or by variations of the neurotransmitter content in the hypothalamus itself. Serotonin and acetylcholine seem to participate in the control of testosterone metabolism at pituitary level, even if it is not clear whether their action takes place directly on the gland, or is mediated through some hypothalamic factor(s). Moreover, it does not appear that brain opioids are involved in the control of the enzymatic complex under consideration either in the hypothalamus or in the anterior pituitary.

  7. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled 17-hydroxyprogesterone suitable as an internal standard for isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, K.; Yamaga, N.; Kohara, H.

    1988-03-01

    A synthesis is reported of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, labeled with four atoms of deuterium at ring C and suitable for use as an internal standard for isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Base-catalyzed equilibration of methyl 3 alpha-acetoxy-12-oxo-cholanate (III) with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O, followed by reduction of the 12-oxo group by the modified Wolff-Kisher method using (/sup 2/H)diethylene glycol and (/sup 2/H)hydrazine hydrate afforded (11,11,12,12,23,23(-2)H)lithocholic acid (V). The Meystre-Miescher degradation of the side chain of V yielded 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnan-20-one (X). Oxidation of the 3,20-enol-diacetate of X with perbenzoic acid followed by saponification afforded 3 alpha,17-dihydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnan-20-one (XI). Oxidation of XI with N-bromoacetamide yielded 17-hydroxy-5 beta-(11,11,12,12(-2)H)pregnane-3,20-dione (XII). Bromination of XII followed by dehydrobromination yielded 17-hydroxy-(11,11,12,12(-2)H) progesterone (XIV), consisting of 0.3% /sup 2/H0-, 1.1% /sup 2/H/sub 1/-, 8.6% /sup 2/H/sub 2/-, 37.1% /sup 2/H/sub 3/-, 52.1% /sup 2/H/sub 4/-, and 0.8% /sup 2/H/sub 5/-species.

  8. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    Metabolites of (/sup 3/H)progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with (3H)progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of (3H)progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy.

  9. Potential anticancer agents. IV. Constituents of Jacaranda caucana Pittier (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Ogura, M; Cordell, G A; Farnsworth, R

    1977-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract of Jacaranda caucana Pittier (Bignoniaceae) showed in vivo antitumor activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia system. Fractionation, accompanied by monitoring for biological activity, afforded a novel phytoquinoid derivative jacaranone, which exhibited both in vivo antitumor and in vitro cytotoxic activity. beta-Sitosterol, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and a new triterpene acid, jacarandic acid, were also isolated. The structure elucidation of jacarandic acid is described.

  10. Structural variation of glycolipids from Meiothermus taiwanensis ATCC BAA-400 under different growth temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Liang; Yang, Feng-Ling; Huang, Zih-You; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Zou, Wei; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2010-10-07

    A major glycolipid, alpha-Galf(1-3)-alpha-Galp(1-6)-beta-GlcpNAcyl(1-2)-alpha-Glcp(1-1)-2-acylalkyldiol, is obtained from Meiothermus taiwanensis. This novel glycolipid is found only when the bacterium grows above 62 degrees C, which is significantly different from those from the same bacteria incubated at 55 degrees C. Terminal galactofuranoside and 1,2-alkyldiol lipids replaced galactopyranoside and glycerol lipids, respectively, under increased growth temperature. This variation is likely necessary for bacteria for keeping the stable outer membrane and surviving under extreme environments.

  11. [Effect of a new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids on brain metabolism in post-ischemic period].

    PubMed

    Makarova, L M; Prikhod'ko, M A; Pogorelyĭ, V E; Skachilova, S Ia; Mirzoian, R S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprotective properties of the new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids, ethyl -(3-alpha,16-alpha)-eburnamenin-14-carbopxylate of 2-aminopentadionic acid (LHT 1-02) were studied on a model of acute brain ischemia in cats. LHT 1-02 has proved to be more effective than the reference drugs vinpocetin and glycine in preventing the reperfusive damage, which was manifested by decreased postischemic hyperglycemia, activated utilization of oxygen in the brain, and suppressed postischemic metabolic lactate acidosis. Thus, the results of this comparative study show expediency of further investigations of LHT 1 - 02 as a potential neuroprotective drug.

  12. New evidence that both T-type calcium channels and GABAA channels are responsible for the potent peripheral analgesic effects of 5alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Pathirathna, Sriyani; Brimelow, Barbara C; Jagodic, Miljen M; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Jiang, Xin; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven; Covey, Douglas F; Todorovic, Slobodan M; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2005-04-01

    Neurosteroids are potent blockers of neuronal low-voltage activated (T-type) Ca(2+) channels and potentiators of GABA(A) ligand-gated channels, but their effects in peripheral pain pathways have not been studied previously. To investigate potential analgesic effects and the ion channels involved, we tested the ability of locally injected 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids to modulate peripheral thermal nociception to radiant heat in adult rats in vivo and to modulate GABA(A) and T-type Ca(2+) channels in vitro. The steroid anesthetic alphaxalone (ALPX), the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3alpha5alphaP), and a related compound ((3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile, (ACN)), induced potent, dose-dependent, enantioselective anti-nociception in vivo and modulation of both T-type Ca(2+) currents and GABA(A)-mediated currents in vitro. Analgesic effects of ALPX were incompletely antagonized by co-injections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. The neurosteroid analogue ((3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxy-13,24-cyclo-18,21-dinorchol-22-en-24-ol (CDNC24), a compound with GABAergic but not T-type activity, was not analgesic. However, (3beta,5alpha,17beta)-17-hydroxyestrane-3-carbonitrile (ECN)), which has effects on T-type channels but not on GABA(A) receptors, also induced potent enantioselective peripheral anti-nociception. ECN increased pain thresholds less than ALPX, 3alpha5alphaP and ACN. However, when an ineffective dose of CDNC24 was combined with ECN, anti-nociceptive activity was greatly enhanced, and this effect was bicuculline-sensitive. These results strongly suggest that GABA(A) channels do not contribute to baseline pain transmission, but they can enhance anti-nociception mediated by blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels. In conclusion, we demonstrate that potent peripheral analgesia induced by 5alpha-reduced neurosteroid is mediated in part by effects on T-type Ca(2+) channels. Our results also reveal a role of GABA-gated ion channels

  13. Differential expression of beta 1 integrins in nonneoplastic smooth and striated muscle cells and in tumors derived from these cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mechtersheimer, G.; Barth, T.; Quentmeier, A.; Möller, P.

    1994-01-01

    Integrins are a superfamily of transmembrane alpha beta heterodimers that play an important role in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions by acting as receptors for extracellular matrix proteins and for cell adhesion molecules. Using monoclonal antibodies against beta 1, alpha 1 to alpha 6, and alpha v subunits, the in situ distribution pattern of beta 1 integrins was examined immunohistochemically in nonneoplastic smooth and striated muscle cells and in their tumors. Nonneoplastic smooth muscle cells were beta 1+, alpha 1+, alpha 3+, alpha v+ and, in diverse localizations, also alpha 5+ or even alpha 6+. The expression of the beta 1 chain was conserved in all leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. The distribution pattern of the alpha subunits by contrast underwent several changes during malignant transformation of smooth muscle cells. These alterations consisted in a neoexpression of alpha 2, alpha 4, and alpha 6 as well as in an abnormal abrogation of alpha 1 and alpha 3 in some leiomyosarcomas. Except for the absence of alpha 5 in the majority of epithelioid leiomyosarcomas, expression of the alpha 5 and alpha v subunits was mainly conserved. In addition, tumors with epithelioid differentiation differed from typical cases by the absence of alpha 1 and the simultaneous presence of alpha 4. Adult striated muscle cells were beta 1+ but alpha 1- to alpha 6- and alpha v-, whereas fetal striated muscle cells were not only beta 1+ but also alpha 3+/-, alpha 4+/-, alpha 5+ and alpha 6+. In all rhabdomyosarcomas the expression of beta 1 was retained. Furthermore, the majority of cases showed the expression of one or more alpha subunits most of which, ie, alpha 4, alpha 5, and alpha 6, were also found in fetal striated muscle cells. In conclusion, beta 1 integrins exhibited a differential expression pattern along the two lines of myogenic differentiation. This integrin profile underwent characteristic changes during malignant transformation. Nevertheless, the compiled

  14. Analysis of states in {sup 13}C populated in {sup 9}Be + {sup 4}He resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Curtis, N.; Kokalova, Tz.; Wheldon, C.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Grassi, L.; Jelavic Malenica, D.; Koncul, M.; Mijatovic, T.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Szilner, S.; Tokic, V.; Milin, M.

    2011-09-15

    Measurements of {sup 9}Be + {alpha} resonant scattering have been performed using the thick-target approach with a {sup 4}He gas volume and a large-area silicon strip detector. {sup 9}Be beam energies in the range 12 to 21.4 MeV were used to measure the {sup 13}C excitation energy spectrum between 13.2 and 16.2 MeV. An R-matrix analysis has been performed to characterize the spins and widths of {sup 13}C resonances, some of which have been proposed to be associated with a 3{alpha}+n molecular band.

  15. Molecular mechanism of antioxidant synergism of tocotrienols and carotenoids in palm oil.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Maria T; Becker, Eleonora Miquel; Skibsted, Leif H

    2006-05-03

    During repeated deep-fat frying of potato slices at 163 degrees C in yellow or red palm olein of comparable fatty acid profiles, the oxidative stability (peroxide value and anisidine value) of the palm oleins was similar, and in yellow palm olein, the rate of antioxidant depletion decreased in the order gamma-T3 > alpha-T3 > delta-T3 (T3, tocotrienol). In red palm olein, which had a total tocopherol/tocotrienol content of 1260 vs 940 ppm in yellow palm olein and a corresponding longer induction period in the Rancimat stability test at 120 degrees C, only depletion of gamma-T3 was significant among the phenols during frying and slower as compared to that in yellow palm olein. The carotenes in the red palm olein were depleted linearly with the number of fryings, apparently yielding an overall protection of the phenols. In antioxidant-depleted palm olein and in phospholipid liposomes with added increasing concentrations of phenols, gamma-T3 was found to be a better antioxidant than alpha-T3. alpha-T3 and alpha-T (T, tocopherol) had a similar antioxidant effect in antioxidant-depleted palm olein in the Rancimat stability test, while in the liposomes the ordering as determined by induction period for the formation of conjugated dienes was gamma-T3 > alpha-T3 > alpha-T. The addition of 100-1000 ppm beta-carotene to antioxidant-depleted palm olein or liposomes (lycopene also tested) did not provide any protection against oxidation. In the liposomes, synergistic interactions were observed between beta-carotene or lycopene and alpha-T, alpha-T3, or gamma-T3 for carotene/phenol ratios of 1:10 and 1:2 but not for 1:1. In chloroform, carotenes were regenerated by tocopherols/tocotrienols from carotene radicals generated by laser flash photolysis as shown by transient absorption spectroscopy, suggesting that carotenes rather than phenols are the primary substrate for lipid-derived radicals in red palm olein, in effect depleting carotenes prior to phenols during frying

  16. Crosstalk between normal and tumoral brain cells. Effect on sex steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, R C; Cavarretta, I; Magnaghi, V; Ballabio, M; Martini, L; Motta, M

    1998-02-01

    The present article shows for the first time that two cell lines derived respectively from a rat glioma (C6 cell line) and from a human astrocytoma (1321N1 cell line) are able to convert testosterone and progesterone into their corresponding 5 alpha-reduced metabolites dihydrotestosterone and dihydroprogesterone. Moreover, both cell lines are also able to convert these metabolites further into their corresponding 3 alpha-OH derivatives, 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 7 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) and tetrahydroprogesterone. On the basis of these observations, the possibility that secretory products of normal and tumoral brain cells might be able to influence steroid metabolism occurring in the two glial cell lines previously mentioned as well as in fetal rat neurons and in neonatal rat type 1 astrocytes has been considered. To this purpose, cultures of the different cellular types have been exposed to the conditioned medium in which the other cells were grown. The results obtained indicate that: 1. Neurons are able to stimulate, in a statistically significant fashion, the formation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3 alpha-diol, and tetrahydraprogesterone (THP) in C6 cells. 2. Type 1 astrocytes, on the contrary, are unable to modify steroid metabolism in C6 cells. 3. C6 cell product(s) decrease(s) the formation of DHP in type 1 astrocytes, without modifying that of DHT. 4. C6 cells do not influence the metabolism of testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) in neurons. In conclusion, the present observations show that the conditioned medium of normal neurons is able to increase the metabolism of testosterone and progesterone occurring in a tumoral glial cell line, and that the conditioned media of the two tumoral cell lines analyzed are able to decrease the conversion of P into DHP occurring in normal type 1 astrocytes. The surprising result that these conditioned media do not alter the formation of DHT is discussed. Work is presently in progress to identify the principle

  17. Lamb shift in the muonic helium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.

    2007-07-15

    The Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic helium ion ({mu}-{sub 2}{sup 4}He){sup +} is calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. Special attention is given to corrections of the electron vacuum polarization, the nuclear structure, and recoil effects. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift 1381.72 meV can be considered as a reliable estimate for the comparison with experimental data.

  18. Lamb shift in the muonic deuterium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Krutov, A. A.; Martynenko, A. P.

    2011-11-15

    We present an investigation of the Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic deuterium ({mu}D) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear-structure, and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift at 202.4139 meV can be considered a reliable estimate for comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  19. Attenuation of mild hyperandrogenic activity in postpubertal acne by a triphasic oral contraceptive containing low doses of ethynyl estradiol and d,l-norgestrel.

    PubMed

    Lemay, A; Dewailly, S D; Grenier, R; Huard, J

    1990-07-01

    The effect of a low dose triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) was evaluated during a 6-month treatment period in 41 patients (mean age, 25.4 +/- 0.7 yr) who had grade I-IV postpubertal acne and normal menses. The OC contained three dose levels of ethynyl estradiol and dl-norgestrel. Acne lesions were assessed, and serum androgen levels were measured during a control cycle and between days 17-21 of treatment cycles 1, 2, 3, and 6. Four patients dropped out after 3 months of treatment. Acne was significantly improved after the first OC cycle. After six cycles, the number of comedones had decreased by 79.6 +/- 3.2% (range, 50-100%) in 69.4% of the patients. Mean baseline levels of testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were in the upper third of the normal range, with elevated individual values in 18.9%, 36.5%, and 26.8% of the women, respectively. Mean baseline levels of androstenedione, free testosterone (T), and 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3 alpha-diol-G) were above the normal range, with elevated individual values in 51.2%, 75.0%, and 85.4% of the patients, respectively. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were below the normal range in 26.8% of the cases. At the end of the first OC cycle, there was a significant (P less than 0.01) decrease in all androgen precursors and a 2-fold increase in SHBG. Androstenedione and free T decreased into the normal range during OC intake. Serum 3 alpha-diol-G levels remained elevated, but had decreased by 34.5% at cycle 6 (P less than 0.05). These results show that the triphasic OC has significantly improved acne in postpubertal women for whom acne was the main manifestation of mild hyperandrogenic activity. The improvement in acne corresponded to a decrease in adrenal/ovarian androgens and free T, which led to a decreased metabolism to 3 alpha-diol-G, presumably by the sebaceous glands. The increase in SHBG is considered an estrogenic effect, and the triphasic formulation containing

  20. Characterization of flavonols in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) powder.

    PubMed

    Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Rosen, Robert T; Guido, Jane E; Russell, David J; Mills, Kent A; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2004-01-28

    Flavonoids were extracted from cranberry powder with acetone and ethyl acetate and subsequently fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The fraction eluted with a 60% methanol solution was composed primarily of phenolic constituents with maximum absorbance at 340 nm. A high-performance liquid chromatography procedure was developed, which resolved 22 distinct peaks with UV/vis and mass spectra corresponding to flavonol glycoside conjugates. Six new constituents not previously reported in cranberry or in cranberry products were determined through NMR spectroscopy to be myricetin-3-beta-xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-beta-glucoside, quercetin-3-alpha-arabinopyranoside, 3'-methoxyquercetin-3-alpha-xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6' '-p-coumaroyl)-beta-galactoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-benzoyl)-beta-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-(6' '-p-coumaroyl)-beta-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-benzoyl)-beta-galactoside represent a new class of cranberry flavonol compounds with three conjugated components consisting of a flavonol, sugar, and carboxylic acid (benzoic or hydroxycinnamic acids). This is also the first report identifying quercetin-3-arabinoside in both furanose and pyranose forms in cranberry. Elucidation of specific flavonol glycosides in cranberry is significant since the specificity of the sugar moiety may play a role in the bioavailability of the flavonol glycosides in vivo.

  1. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  2. Disparate Degrees of Hypervariable Loop Flexibility Control T-Cell Receptor Cross-Reactivity, Specificity, and Binding Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Daniel R.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Baker, Brian M.

    2012-06-19

    {alpha}{beta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize multiple antigenic peptides bound and presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules. TCR cross-reactivity has been attributed in part to the flexibility of TCR complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops, yet there have been limited direct studies of loop dynamics to determine the extent of its role. Here we studied the flexibility of the binding loops of the {alpha}{beta} TCR A6 using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational methods. A significant role for flexibility in binding and cross-reactivity was indicated only for the CDR3{alpha} and CDR3{beta} hypervariable loops. Examination of the energy landscapes of these two loops indicated that CDR3{beta} possesses a broad, smooth energy landscape, leading to rapid sampling in the free TCR of a range of conformations compatible with different ligands. The landscape for CDR3{alpha} is more rugged, resulting in more limited conformational sampling that leads to specificity for a reduced set of peptides as well as the major histocompatibility complex protein. In addition to informing on the mechanisms of cross-reactivity and specificity, the energy landscapes of the two loops indicate a complex mechanism for TCR binding, incorporating elements of both conformational selection and induced fit in a manner that blends features of popular models for TCR recognition.

  3. Exercise regulates Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activities in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kei; Arnolds, David E W; Ekberg, Ingvar; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-06-25

    Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, eight healthy human subjects performed 30min of cycling exercise at 75% of maximum workload (submaximal) followed by 6 bouts of 60s at 125% maximum workload (maximal). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken at rest (basal), and within 15s following cessation of the submaximal and maximal exercise bouts. Exercise at both submaximal and maximal intensities significantly increased Akt activity (40% and 110%, respectively). Increases in Akt activity were accompanied by increases in Akt Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, decreased GSK3alpha activity ( approximately 30% at both intensities), and increased phosphorylation of GSK3alpha Ser(21). Exercise at both intensities also decreased beta-catenin Ser(33/37)Thr(41) phosphorylation (50-60% at both intensities). These results demonstrate that Akt, GSK3, and beta-catenin signaling are regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, and as such identify them as possible molecular mediators of exercise's effect on metabolic and transcriptional processes in skeletal muscle.

  4. Effect of supplemental dietary zinc on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver from post-absorptive mice.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Tarr, Tyson N; Barnes, Brian R; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Young, Andrew J

    2007-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that functions in cellular signaling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the initiation of protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether Zn could stimulate protein phosphorylation in the mTOR pathway in vivo. Mice (C57BL/6J, n = 30) were fed Zn marginal diets (ZM, 5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, followed by fasting (F) and/or refeeding with ZM or Zn supplemental (300 mg/kg, ZS) diets for 3 or 6 h. Plasma insulin was greater (P < 0.05) in refed animals as compared to F animals. Protein phosphorylation was detected using multiplex analysis and Western blotting. Multiplex analysis indicated greater (P < 0.05) p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 alpha/beta) phosphorylation in livers from 6-h refed ZS animals as compared to F animals. Western blots indicated increased (P < 0.05) Akt (Ser 473) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle from animals refed ZS diets for 3 and 6 h as compared to F animals. The ZS diet affected phosphorylation of GSK-3 (alpha/beta) in liver, as 3-h ZS refed animals had greater (P < 0.01) phosphorylation than F animals. These findings indicate that Zn may contribute to the initiation of protein synthesis as a signaling molecule in vivo.

  5. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed.

  6. Structural design of new alicyclic acrylate polymers with androstane moiety for 193-nm resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoai, Toshiaki; Sato, Kenichiro; Kodama, Kunihiko; Kawabe, Yasumasa; Nakao, Hajime; Yagihara, Morio

    1999-06-01

    Synthesis of new alicyclic (meth)acrylate polymers containing androstane moieties, especially cholic acid derivatives, and their characteristics were investigated for 193nm single layer resists. Among the derivatives, a work of adhesion, Ohnishi and ring parameters were used as measures for the adhesion and the dry-etching resistance in this study. In the synthesis of the polymers, the use of 3- (beta) -methacryloyoxy-deoxycholic acid, which is the inverse configuration against the original 3-(alpha) -structure, was effective as a monomer, because the steric hindrance at 3- (alpha) -position degraded its polymerization ability. The polymers partially protected by acid labile groups showed a satisfactory adhesion, which was probably due to the hydrophilic hydroxyl group at the 12-position and the carboxyl group linked at the 17-position, and a good dry- etching resistance. On the lithographic imaging with these polymers, the reduction of the side reaction on the acid decomposition and also the control of the flexibility on the polymers largely affected their performance. THe adjustment of the Tg values of the polymers by the co-polymerization and the change of the polymer backbone from the methacrylate to acrylate structure performed well on imaging under 193nm exposure.

  7. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Lantana camara and their nematicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Ramzan, Musarrat

    2008-09-01

    Two new olean-12-ene triterpenoids, camarolic acid (1) and lantrigloylic acid (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with ten known triterpenes, namely, camaric acid, lantanolic acid, lantanilic acid, pomolic acid, camarinic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid. The new compounds have been characterized as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-{[(S)-3-hydroxy-2-methylidenebutanoyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[(3-methylbut-2-enoyl)oxy]olea-9(11),12-dien-28-oic acid (2) through spectroscopic studies and a chemical transformation. Seven of the constituents, namely pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid, were tested for nematicidal activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, and lantoic acid showed 100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h, while camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid exhibited 100% mortality at this concentration after 48 h. These results are comparable to those obtained with the conventional nematicide furadan (100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h).

  8. Biosynthesis of androgens and pheromonal steroids in neonatal porcine testicular preparations.

    PubMed

    Kwan, T K; Orengo, C; Gower, D B

    1985-04-22

    The biosynthesis of testosterone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione and some 16-androstenes has been studied in homogenates or subcellular fractions of testes from 3-week-old Landrace piglets. Pregnenolone was converted into 5,16-androstadien-3 beta-ol, 4,16-androstadien-3-one, 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha- and 3 beta-ols, but the quantities were some 50 times less than those formed in the mature boar testis. Androgens were also formed in the microsomal fractions but the quantities of 4-androstene-3,17-dione (from side-chain cleavage of 17-hydroxyprogesterone) and of testosterone (from reduction of 4-androstene-3,17-dione) were 50-70 times lower than in the adult animal. The kinetic parameters and cofactor preference of the 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were determined in the cytosolic, microsomal and mitochondrial fractions of neonatal porcine testes.

  9. The structure of the O-antigen in the endotoxin of the emerging food pathogen Cronobacter (Enterobacter) muytjensii strain 3270.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Leann L; Pagotto, Franco; Farber, Jeffrey M; Perry, Malcolm B

    2009-03-31

    Strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Cronobacter (formerly known as Enterobacter) sakazakii have been identified as emerging opportunistic pathogens that can cause enterocolitis, bacteraemia, meningitis, and brain abscess, and they have been particularly associated with meningitis in neonates where infant milk formulae have been epidemiologically linked to the disease. A study of the lipopolysaccharides produced by clinical isolates using chemical, 2D 1H and 13C NMR, and MS methods revealed that the O-polysaccharide produced by Cronobacter muytjensii strain 3270, isolated from powdered infant formula from Denmark, was a linear unbranched polymer of a repeating pentasaccharide unit composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose (d-GalNAc), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose (d-GlcNAc), 3-acetamido-3-deoxy-d-quinovose (d-Qui3NAc), l-rhamnose (l-Rha), and d-glucuronic acid (d-GlcA) in equimolar ratio, and has the structure -->3)-alpha-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Quip3NAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->6)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1--> The specific structural characteristics of the O-polysaccharides of C. muytjensii may be of value in the identification and tracking of the bacterial pathogen.

  10. Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Shinobu, Cristiane S; Silva, Luiz F A; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ferreira, Izabel C P

    2007-12-01

    Extracts from the dried pericarp of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were investigated for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans and C. non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single clinical isolated of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate of C. parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH extract and one fraction showed strong activity against all isolates tested. Further column-chromatography on silica gel separation of this fraction afforded two pure triterpene acetylated saponins: 3-O-(4-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin (1) and 3-O-(3,4-di-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabynopyranosyl-hederagenin (2). The structures of the compounds were based on spectral data ((1)H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS), and on with literature. The saponins isolated showed strong activity against C. parapsilosis.

  11. Efficacy of various natural and synthetic androgens to induce ductal branching morphogenesis in the developing anterior rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Foster, B A; Cunha, G R

    1999-01-01

    The studies presented herein quantitated ductal branching morphogenesis in the anterior prostate (AP) of the newborn rat. Four parameters were measured: epithelial area, epithelial perimeter, node number, and form factor. Nine natural and synthetic androgens were tested for their effectiveness in inducing postnatal prostatic development using 808 newborn rat APs in 68 dose-response experiments. Based on these studies it was shown that testosterone (T) was slightly more effective than dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in supporting ductal branching morphogenesis in the developing rat AP. Furthermore, the activity of T could not be accounted for simply by conversion of T to DHT. Synthetic androgens, 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone and methyltrienolone (R1881), which cannot be 5alpha-reduced to DHT, also induced extensive ductal branching and elicited responses less than those to T and not statistically different from those to DHT. This suggests that although DHT is sufficient for prostatic development, it is not necessary for postnatal ductal branching morphogenesis and growth of the prostate. 5Alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol was particularly potent in inducing ductal branching, eliciting a response greater than or comparable to those of T and DHT. Androsterone, androstanedione, 5alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol and 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol induced ductal branching, but to a lesser extent than either T or DHT. These studies challenge the assumption that DHT is essential for prostatic development, specifically during ductal branching morphogenesis of the neonatal rat prostate.

  12. Partial characterization of the steroidsulfatases in Peptococcus niger H4.

    PubMed Central

    Van Eldere, J; Parmentier, G; Asselberghs, S; Eyssen, H

    1991-01-01

    The strictly anaerobic intestinal Peptococcus niger H4 synthesizes three different steroidsulfatase enzymes: a constitutive arylsulfatase and two inducible alkylsteroidsulfatases. The arylsulfatase desulfates estrogen-3-sulfates and phenylsulfates. The two alkylsteroidsulfatases desulfate, respectively, 3 alpha-sulfates and 3 beta-sulfates of delta 5, 5 alpha, and 5 beta androstanes, pregnanes, and bile acids. Cholesterol-3 beta-sulfate was not desulfated by the alkylsteroidsulfatases nor were steroids or bile acids that were sulfated in positions other than the 3 position. The alkylsteroidsulfatases were induced by their substrates; bile acid sulfates, however, were poor inducers of the 3 beta-sulfatase and did not induce the 3 alpha-sulfatase activity. In intact bacterial cells, taurine and sulfite suppressed the induction of the alkylsteroidsulfatases and inhibited the activity of the arylsulfatase and alkylsteroidsulfatases. In cell homogenates, the arylsulfatase and alkylsteroidsulfatases activities were inhibited by sulfite and sulfate but not by taurine. Our results support the hypothesis that the main function of the steroidsulfatases in P. niger H4 is to provide the bacteria with sulfur for dissimilatory purposes. PMID:2036022

  13. The tumor microenvironment: possible role of integrins and the extracellular matrix in tumor biological behavior of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and testicular seminomas.

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, A.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Szabo, B. G.; Timens, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the distribution of integrin subunits and extracellular matrix proteins in normal testis, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), and primary and metastatic seminomas. Compared to normal testis in ITGCN, Sertoli cells showed increased expression of alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 integrin subunits. Malignant intratubular germ cells stained for alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 integrin subunits. Progression of ITGCN to invasive seminoma was associated with loss of alpha 3 integrin subunit expression by tumor cells. Consequent to this loss, it can be speculated that the strong expression on ITGCN may be related to the noninvasive character of the lesion as is also known from other noninvasive tumors. All tumors showed a strong expression of alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin subunits. The alpha 5 integrin subunit was weakly expressed in primary seminomas in all stages. No differences were observed in integrin expression between primary and metastatic tumors. The distribution of extracellular matrix proteins was heterogeneous and revealed clear architectural differences between seminomas that may reflect different stages of tumor stroma formation. To our knowledge, the results presented in this study provide the first information on the possible role of tumor-extracellular matrix interactions in the biological behavior of ITGCN and testicular seminomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8178927

  14. Characterization of integrin receptors in normal and neoplastic human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, W.; Baur, I.; Schuppan, D.; Roggendorf, W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the immunohistochemical expression of integrin alpha and beta chains in the normal and neoplastic human brain. Normal astrocytes expressed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 chains in some areas facing major interstitial tissues, but they were consistently negative for the other integrins examined (alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha V, alpha L, alpha M, alpha X, beta 2, beta 3). Neoplastic astrocytes in vivo and in vitro showed increased expression of alpha 3 and beta 1, and some also of alpha 5, alpha V, beta 3, and beta 4. Neoexpression of alpha 4 and reduced levels of beta 4 were detected in glioblastoma vascular proliferations compared with normal endothelial cells. Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, and meningioma cells showed the same integrin pattern as their normal counterparts. Adhesion assays using the astrocytoma cell lines U-138 MG and U-373 MG revealed strong attachment to collagen types I to VI and undulin, which was inhibited by antibodies to beta 1, but not by those to alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and alpha V. We conclude that astrocytomas show increased levels or neoexpression of various integrins and strong attachment to various extracellular matrix components, which appears to be almost exclusively mediated by beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 1 PMID:8317546

  15. The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is the best animal model for the study of steroid glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Bélanger, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Intense research efforts performed during the past decade clearly established the major role of glucuronidation and uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for steroid metabolism in humans. However, a clear understanding of the physiological importance of this metabolic process requires in vivo studies. Numerous evidences ascertain that simians are the most appropriate animal models for such studies. Indeed human and monkey have a similar pattern of steroidogenesis, unlike common laboratory mammals such as rat or mouse. Furthermore, human and monkey are unique in having high levels of circulating androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3alpha-diol glucuronide (3alpha-Diol-G). In addition, characterization of eight monkey UGT proteins demonstrated the similarity of their conjugation activity toward steroid hormones. Like human ones, monkey enzymes are expressed in steroid target tissues, where they preferentially glucuronidate androgen and estrogen metabolites. In monkey tissues, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that UGT2B proteins are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in ovary and kidney, where they control androgens and aldosterone inactivation. These results identify the cynomolgus monkey as an appropriate animal model for the determination of cellular localization of UGT enzymes in steroid target tissues and for the identification of endogenous or exogenous stimuli affecting steroid glucuronidation.

  16. Sexually dimorphic effects of postnatal allopregnanolone on the development of anxiety behavior after early deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Kajunski, Elizabeth W

    2004-07-01

    Stress early in life exerts persistent detrimental effects on brain development. In this experiment, a rodent model of child neglect, early deprivation (ED), was used to investigate the role of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone [AlloP; 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP)] in the development of anxiety behavior. Subjects were either undisturbed controls or ED: separated individually for 6 h per day from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 6. Control and ED subjects were also either noninjected, vehicle-injected or injected with 5 mg/kg AlloP prior to the isolation. At PN 7, responses to 2.5 or 5 microg icv injections of AlloP were determined for separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Tolerance to the USV-reducing effect of daily AlloP was seen in control but not ED pups, and daily AlloP reversed the expected ED suppression of USVs. As adults, controls treated with postnatal AlloP were less anxious than all other groups on the elevated plus maze. ED counteracted this effect. Male controls showed a reversal of the typical sex difference. There were no effects on open-field activity. These results suggest that the neonatal brain is responsive to alterations in AlloP levels, and that neuroactive progesterone metabolites may play a role in mediating the development of stress-related sex differences.

  17. Urinary metabolomics in Fxr-null mice reveals activated adaptive metabolic pathways upon bile acid challenge.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joo-Youn; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Kang, Dong Wook; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Luecke, Hans; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in synthesis, metabolism, and transport of bile acids and thus plays a major role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. In this study, metabolomic responses were investigated in urine of wild-type and Fxr-null mice fed cholic acid, an FXR ligand, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Multivariate data analysis between wild-type and Fxr-null mice on a cholic acid diet revealed that the most increased ions were metabolites of p-cresol (4-methylphenol), corticosterone, and cholic acid in Fxr-null mice. The structural identities of the above metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis and by comparing retention time (RT) and/or tandem mass fragmentation patterns of the urinary metabolites with the authentic standards. Tauro-3alpha,6,7alpha,12alpha-tetrol (3alpha,6,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyltaurine), one of the most increased metabolites in Fxr-null mice on a CA diet, is a marker for efficient hydroxylation of toxic bile acids possibly through induction of Cyp3a11. A cholestatic model induced by lithocholic acid revealed that enhanced expression of Cyp3a11 is the major defense mechanism to detoxify cholestatic bile acids in Fxr-null mice. These results will be useful for identification of biomarkers for cholestasis and for determination of adaptive molecular mechanisms in cholestasis.

  18. Structure of the O-polysaccharide and serological studies of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri 60 classified into a new Proteus serogroup O70.

    PubMed

    Zych, Krystyna; Perepelov, Andrei; Baranowska, Agata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2005-03-01

    An alkali-treated lipopolysaccharide of Proteus penneri strain 60 was studied by chemical analyses and 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and the following structure of the linear pentasaccharide-phosphate repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: 6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-FucpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-Quip4NAc-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-1-P-(O--> Rabbit polyclonal O-antiserum against P. penneri 60 reacted with both core and O-polysaccharide moieties of the homologous LPS. Based on the unique O-polysaccharide structure and serological data, we propose to classify P. penneri 60 into a new, separate Proteus serogroup O70. A weak cross-reactivity of P. penneri 60 O-antiserum with the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O8, O15 and O19 was observed and discussed in view of the chemical structures of the O-polysaccharides.

  19. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O15 containing a novel regioisomer of N-acetylmuramic acid, 2-acetamido-4-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Rozalski, Antoni; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2002-11-29

    An acidic O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O15 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, and H-detected 1H,(13)C HMQC experiments. The polysaccharide was found to contain an ether of GlcNAc with lactic acid, and the following structure of the repeating unit was established:-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc4(R-Lac)6Ac-(1-->2)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1-->3)-alpha-L-6dTalp2Ac-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->where L-6dTal and D-GlcNAc4(R-Lac) are 6-deoxy-L-talose and 2-acetamido-4-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-D-glucose, respectively. The latter sugar, which to our knowledge has not been hitherto found in nature, was isolated from the polysaccharide by solvolysis with anhydrous triflic acid and identified by comparison with the authentic synthetic compound. Serological studies with the Smith-degraded polysaccharide showed an importance of 2-substituted GlcA for manifesting of the immunospecificity of P. vulgaris O15.

  20. Location of acyl groups of trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharides of mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Camphausen, R T; McNeil, M; Jardine, I; Brennan, P J

    1987-01-01

    A variant of a Mycobacterium sp. originating in a patient with Crohn's disease, but not necessarily implicated in the disease, provided a simple version of a newer class of species-specific surface glycolipids, the trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharides. A combination of high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, methylation, ethylation, and absolute configurational analysis established the structure of the oligosaccharide unit as beta-D-Glcp(1----3)-alpha-L-Rhap(1----3)-alpha-D-Glcp(1----1)-alph a-D-Glcp (where Glc is glucose, Rha is rhamnose, and p is pyranosyl), and gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry allowed identification of the fatty acyl esters as primarily 2,4-dimethyltetradecanoate. The relative simplicity of the glycolipid combined with the application of a mild methylation procedure and californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry allowed recognition of three such acyl residues on the 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxyl positions of the terminal glucosyl residue of the trehalose unit. Thus, the glycolipid is decidedly amphipathic yet is clearly not membranous. This observation leads to speculation about the role of these novel lipooligosaccharides in contributing to the outer segment of the hydrophobic barrier of the cell wall of certain mycobacteria. Images PMID:3680168

  1. Biochemical determinants in Gender identity.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W; Chapman, P H

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report cognate studies which suggest that the nature of the peripheral metabolism of testosterone may impart gender direction to thought construction and motive. In patients with the complete testicular feminizing syndrome [4], the XO/XY syndrome [4], female trans-sexualism [4] and testicular agenesis [5] HCG-tests of 3 days duration were performed, and plasma and urinary testosterone, urinary excretion of 5 alpha-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 alpha-diol), 5 beta-androstane, 3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-diol) and epiandrosterone before and after stimulation were measured. In addition steroid transformation was examined by incubation studies with human fetal brain tissue. The results of the latter method presented here are in agreement with published work. It seems clear therefore that the peripheral levels of androgens, oestrogens and their metabolites combine with cerebral steroid transformation, metabolism and possible also synthesis in order to establish gender identity. Exploration of the role of peripheral hormones as stimulators of both gender identity and gender function has dictated the need for a new approach to therapy for gender abnormalities in psyche and soma.

  2. Acne and hirsutism in polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical, endocrine-metabolic and ultrasonographic differences.

    PubMed

    Falsetti, L; Gambera, A; Andrico, S; Sartori, E

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the absence or presence of acne or hirsutism in 248 women with polycystic ovary syndrome was associated with different clinical, endocrine, metabolic and ultrasonographic factors. Patients were divided into three groups: 96 (38.7%) without any androgenic symptoms; 94 (37.9%) with only hirsutism; and 58 (23.4%) with only acne. The cycle alterations (oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea) and the echographic ovarian morphology (polycystic or multifollicular ovaries) showed no significant differences between the three groups. Hirsutism was associated with a greater incidence of obesity and insulin resistance, with an increase of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, ovarian and adrenal androgens, 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and low luteinizing hormone, sex hormone binding globulins and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels. Acne was associated only with the lowest 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide levels. Therefore, two different pathogenetic mechanisms may play a role in the onset of acne and hirsutism.

  3. Progesterone metabolism in the pineal, brain stem, thalamus and corpus callosum of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, I; Karavolas, H J; Goy, R W

    1977-04-15

    Specific brain regions, namely, thalamus, tectum, tegmentum, cerebellum, medulla and pineal, from five proestrous rats were incubated for 30 min with [3H]progesterone. After reverse isotopic dilution analysis, the following metabolites were identified in all incubations by purification to constant specific activity, derivative formation and/or gas liquid chromatography trapping: [3H]5alpha-pregnane-3, 20-dione (10-20% of the starting substrate except pineal -- 0.7%), [3H]3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (1.6-3.8% except for pineal -- 0.5%) and [3H]20alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (0.05-0.11%). Preliminary results from the corpus collosum incubation indicated the presence of the same metabolites. Although some apparent constant specific activities were obtained for 20alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-3-one and 5beta-pregnane-3, 20-dione, the low levels of 3H associated with these steroids did not permit a definitive identification. The results indicate the presence of at least delta1-steroid 5alpha-reductase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities with progesterone as substrate in the brain regions examined.

  4. Bile acids. 38. Conversion of 5 -cholestane-3 ,7 -diol to allo bile acids by the rat.

    PubMed

    Noll, B W; Doisy, E A; Elliott, W H

    1973-07-01

    5alpha-[4-(14)C, 3alpha-(3)H]Cholestane-3beta,7alpha-diol was prepared from individual samples of 5alpha-[3alpha-(3)H]cholestane-3beta,7alpha-diol and 5alpha-[4-(14)C]cholestane-3beta,7alpha-diol, each derived from 3beta-acetoxycholest-5-en-7-one. Bile was collected for 11 days from adult male rats, with cannulated bile ducts, that had received intraperitoneally 0.90-0.92 mg of the doubly labeled diol. Bile from the first 10 hr, containing 63% of the administered (14)C and 6% of the (3)H, was hydrolyzed, and the bile acids were separated by acetic acid partition chromatography. Allochenodeoxycholic and allocholic acids contained at least 20.6% and 48.6%, respectively, of the (14)C retained in the biliary acids. Small amounts of (14)C (2.5% and 1.9%, respectively) were present in the 3beta isomers of these acids, but the tritium content totaled more than half of that found in the bile acid fraction. No evidence was obtained for presence of the extensive quantities of the allomuricholates.

  5. Expression of 10 GABA(A) receptor subunit messenger RNAs in the motor-related thalamic nuclei and basal ganglia of Macaca mulatta studied with in situ hybridization histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kultas-Ilinsky, K; Leontiev, V; Whiting, P J

    1998-07-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry technique with [35S]UTP-labelled riboprobes was used to study the expression pattern of 10 GABA(A) receptor subunit messenger RNAs in the basal ganglia and motor thalamic nuclei of rhesus monkey. Human transcripts were used for the synthesis of alpha2, alpha4, beta2, beta3, gamma1 and delta subunit messenger RNA probes. Rat complementary DNAs were used for generating alpha1, alpha3, beta1 and gamma2 subunit messenger RNA probes. Nigral, pallidal and cerebellar afferent territories in the ventral tier thalamic nuclei all expressed alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, beta1, beta2, beta3, delta and gamma2 subunit messenger RNAs but at different levels. Each intralaminar nucleus displayed its own unique expression pattern. In the thalamus, gamma1 subunit messenger RNA was detected only in the parafascicular nucleus. Comparison of the expression patterns with the known organization of GABA(A) connections in thalamic nuclei suggests that (i) the composition of the receptor associated with reticulothalamic synapses, except for those in the intralaminar nuclei, may be alpha1alpha4beta2delta, (ii) receptors of various other subunit compositions may operate in the local GABAergic circuits, and (iii) the composition of receptors at nigro- and pallidothalamic synapses may differ, with those at nigrothalamic probably containing beta1 and gamma2 subunits. In the medial and lateral parts of the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticularis, the alpha1, beta2 and gamma2 messenger RNAs were co-expressed at a high level suggesting that this subunit composition was associated with all GABAergic synapses in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways. Various other subunit messenger RNAs were also expressed but at a lower level. In the substantia nigra pars compacta the most highly expressed messenger RNAs were alpha3, alpha4 and beta3; all other subunit messenger RNAs studied, except for gamma1, alpha1 and

  6. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of flavonol glycosides from different Aconitum species.

    PubMed

    Braca, Alessandra; Fico, Gelsomina; Morelli, Ivano; De Simone, Francesco; Tomè, Franca; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2003-05-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation by 1,1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test of polar extracts of some Italian Aconitum species (A. napellus subsp. tauricum, A. napellus subsp. neomontanum, A. paniculatum, A. vulparia) led to the isolation of 13 flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (4), quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside (9), quercetin 3-O-beta-(2"-acetyl)galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside (10), quercetin 3,7-di-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (11), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (12) and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (13). Their antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring free radical scavenging activity by DPPH test and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid assay. The results showed that 5 is the most active compound in the DPPH free-radical scavenging test (IC(50) 1.9 microM) while in the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid assay compound 1 has the highest inhibitory ratio after 1h (58.9%). Some structure-activity relationships on the AA were obtained.

  7. Differential pattern of integrin receptor expression in differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Maschuw, K; Hassan, I; Reckzeh, B; Wunderlich, A; Lingelbach, S; Zielke, A

    2005-09-01

    Adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial step for the development of metastatic disease and is mediated by specific integrin receptor molecules (IRM). The pattern of metastatic spread differs substantially among the various histotypes of thyroid cancer (TC). However, IRM have only occasionally been characterized in TC until now. IRM expression was investigated in 10 differentiated (FTC133, 236, 238, HTC, HTC TSHr, XTC, PTC4.0/4.2, TPC1, Kat5) and two anaplastic TC cell lines (ATC, C643, Hth74), primary cultures of normal thyroid tissue (Thy1,3), and thyroid cancer specimens (TCS). Expression of 16 IRM (beta1-4, beta7, alpha1-6, alphaV, alphaIIb, alphaL, alphaM, alphaX) and of four IRM heterodimers (alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta5), was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining. Thyroid tumor cell adhesion to ECM proteins and their IRM expression in response to thyrotropin (TSH) was assessed. Follicular TC cell lines presented high levels of integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3 and low levels of alpha1, whereas papillary lines expressed a heterogenous pattern of IRM, dominated by alpha5 and beta1. ATC mainly displayed integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, beta1 and low levels of alpha1, alpha4 and alphaV. Integrin heterodimers correlated with monomer expression. Evaluation of TCS largely confirmed these results with few exceptions, namely alpha4, alpha6, and beta3. The ability of TC cell lines to adhere to purified ECM proteins correlated with IRM expression. TSH induced TC cell adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion, despite an unchanged array of IRM expression or level of a particular IRM. Thyroid carcinoma cell lines of different histogenetic background display profoundly different patterns of IRM expression that appear to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. In vitro adhesion to ECM proteins and IRM expression concur. Finally, TSH-stimulated adhesion of

  8. Bioequivalence studies of tibolone in premenopausal women and effects on expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzyme AKR1C (aldo-keto reductase) family caused by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keon W; Kim, Yoon G

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of a test formulation of tibolone with the marketed reference formulation in 24 young healthy female volunteers. Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone for menopausal women. Volunteers were treated with the 2 formulations of tibolone (total dose of active ingredient 2.5 mg) according to a 2 x 2 crossover design with a 1-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxytibolone, which are major metabolites of tibolone, were assayed in timed samples over a 24-hour period with a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The reference and test formulations gave a mean 3alpha-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 5.0 and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively, and a mean 3beta-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 16.4 and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. The mean AUC(t) of 3alpha-hydroxytibolone was 24.7 and 24.3 ng h/mL, whereas the mean AUC(t) of 3beta-hydroxytibolone was 57.6 and 54.8 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The authors did not find significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the 2 formulations, but metabolite formation was different from reports in postmenopausal women. The authors therefore measured the effects of estradiol on the expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzymes, from the aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) family, using HepG2 cell (human hepatoma cells) and MCF-7 cell (human breast cancer cells). Estradiol increased mRNA levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C3 and protein levels of total AKR1C in HepG2 cells. Estradiol selectively enhanced levels of AKR1C2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Thus, changes in the major metabolites of tibolone might result from changes in AKR1C family expression by patient estrogen status.

  9. Steroid-binding proteins in rabbit plasma: Separation of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) from corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), preliminary characterization of TeBG, and changes in TeBG concentration during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Danzo, B J; Eller, B C

    1975-05-01

    Two distinct steroid-binding proteins are present in rabbit plasma. One of the proteins (TeBG) binds [3-H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha DHT) and [3-H]testosterone. The affinity of this binding protein for 5 alpha DHT was 3-4 times greater than for testosterone. Binding of [3-H]5 alphaDHT could be inhibited by unlabeled 5 alpha DHT, testosterone, 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol), and 17 alpha-methyl- B-testosterone (skf) 7690). The relative affinity of the competitors was: 5 alpha DHT greater than 3 alpha-diol greater than testosterone greater than SKF 7690. The antiandrogens, cyproterone (1,2 alpha-methylene-6-chloro-pregn-4,6-diene-17 alpla-ol-3,20 dione), cyproterone-17-acetate, and 6 alpha-bromo-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-4-oxa-5 alpha-androstan-3-ine (BOMT) were ineffective in competing for [3-H5d alpha DHT binding sites, as were 4-androstene-3, 17-dione, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone, and cortisol. The formation of the [3-H]5 alpha DHT-TeBG complex was extremely rapid; the binding reaction was essentially completed in 15 s. The complex dissociated rapidly in the presence of charcoal. The dissociation rate constant (Kdiss) was 0.157 min- minus 1 and the dissociation half-time t-1/2) was 4.5 min. In the presence of charcoal and unlabeled 5 alpha DHT the Kdiss was 0.268 min- minus 1 and the t=1/2 was 2.6 min. The sedimentation coefficient of TeBG was congruent to 4.6 S and its molecular weight, estimated by gel filtration on a calibrated Sephadex G-200 column, was congruent to 75,000. The concentration of TeBG in male rabbit plasma decreased with sexual maturation and was approximately three times higher in adult females than in adult males. The other protein (CBG) bound both [3-H]cortisol and [3-H]progesterone. Binding of these compounds could be inhibited by unlabeled cortisol and progesterone, but not by unlabeled 5 alpha DHT, testosterone, or E2. CBG had a sedimentation of congruent to 3.9 S and an apparent molecular

  10. Human liver class I alcohol dehydrogenase gammagamma isozyme: the sole cytosolic 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of iso bile acids.

    PubMed

    Marschall, H U; Oppermann, U C; Svensson, S; Nordling, E; Persson, B; Höög, J O; Jörnvall, H

    2000-04-01

    3beta-Hydroxy (iso) bile acids are formed during enterohepatic circulation from 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids and constitute normal compounds in plasma but are virtually absent in bile. Isoursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA) is a major metabolite of UDCA. In a recent study it was found that after administration of isoUDCA, UDCA became the major acid in bile. Thus, epimerization of the 3beta-hydroxy to a 3alpha-hydroxy group, catalyzed by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) and 3-oxo-reductases must occur. The present study aims to characterize the human liver bile acid 3beta-HSD. Human liver cytosol and recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) betabeta and gammagamma isozymes were subjected to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. Activity staining with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) as cofactors and various iso bile acids as substrates was used to screen for 3beta-HSD activity. Reaction products were identified and quantified by gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Computer-assisted substrate docking of isoUDCA to the active site of a 3-dimensional model of human class I gammagamma ADH was performed. ADH gammagamma isozyme was identified as the iso bile acid 3beta-HSD present in human liver cytosol, with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Values for k(cat)/K(m) were in the rank order isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA), isochenodeoxycholic acid (isoCDCA), isoUDCA, and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) (0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0. 05 min(-1) x micromol/L(-1), respectively). IsoUDCA fits as substrate to the 3-dimensional model of the active-site of ADH gammagamma. ADH gammagamma isozyme was defined as the only bile acid 3beta-HSD in human liver cytosol. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are candidates for the binding and transport of 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids. We assume that ADH gammagamma isozyme is involved in cytosolic bile acid binding and transport processes as well.

  11. Formation of C21 bile acids from plant sterols in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Boberg, K.M.; Lund, E.; Olund, J.; Bjoerkhem, I. )

    1990-05-15

    Formation of bile acids from sitosterol in bile-fistulated female Wistar rats was studied with use of 4-14C-labeled sitosterol and sitosterol labeled with 3H in specific positions. The major part (about 75%) of the 14C radioactivity recovered as bile acids in bile after intravenous administration of (4-14C)sitosterol was found to be considerably more polar than cholic acid, and only trace amounts of radioactivity had chromatographic properties similar to those of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. It was shown that polar metabolites were formed by intermediate oxidation of the 3 beta-hydroxyl group (loss of 3H from 3 alpha-3H-labeled sitosterol) and that the most polar fraction did not contain a hydroxyl group at C7 (retention of 3H in 7 alpha,7 beta-3H2-labeled sitosterol). Furthermore, the polar metabolites had lost at least the terminal 6 or 7 carbon atoms of the side chain (loss of 3H from 22,23-3H2- and 24,28-3H2-labeled sitosterol). Experiments with 3H-labeled 7 alpha-hydroxysitosterol and 4-14C-labeled 26-hydroxysitosterol showed that none of these compounds was an efficient precursor to the polar metabolites. By analysis of purified most polar products of (4-14C) sitosterol by radio-gas chromatography and the same products of 7 alpha,7 beta-(2H2)sitosterol by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, two major metabolites could be identified as C21 bile acids. One metabolite had three hydroxyl groups (3 alpha, 15, and unknown), and one had two hydroxyl groups (3 alpha, 15) and one keto group. Considerably less C21 bile acids were formed from (4-14C)sitosterol in male than in female Wistar rats. The C21 bile acids formed in male rats did not contain a 15-hydroxyl group. Conversion of a (4-14C)sitosterol into C21 bile acids did also occur in adrenalectomized and ovariectomized rats, indicating that endocrine tissues are not involved.

  12. Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann-Siantar, C.L.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1999-02-09

    The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media. 57 figs.

  13. Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, William P.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L.; Rathkopf, James A.

    1999-01-01

    The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media.

  14. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  15. In vitro metabolism of androstenedione and identification of endogenous steroids in Helix aspersa

    SciTech Connect

    Le Guellec, D.; Thiard, M.C.; Remy-Martin, J.P.; Deray, A.; Gomot, L.; Adessi, G.L.

    1987-06-01

    In vitro metabolism of androstenedione in gonads of juvenile and adult Helix aspersa has been investigated. The conversion of (/sup 3/H)androstenedione into testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, and estriol was demonstrated. In juvenile animals testosterone (59.8%) is the major metabolite whereas in adult animals androsterone (18.8%) is. The following endogenous steroids have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adult gonads: androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, 3 alpha-androstanediol, estrone, estradiol-17 beta, and estriol. The levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone have been measured by RIAs in gonads and hemolymph. Their levels vary with the physiological stage: the gonadal and circulating levels of testosterone decrease with the sexual maturation whereas the 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone increases. These differences observed in metabolism and in level of steroids between the juvenile and the adult snails allow us to suppose that these steroids have a biological role.

  16. Quantum Dot-Induced Phase Stabilization of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 Perovskite for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Marshall, Ashley R.; Sanehira, Erin M.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Moore, David T.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Chakrabarti, Tamoghna; Luther, Joseph M.

    2016-10-07

    We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (..alpha..-CsPbI3) -- the variant with desirable band gap -- is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

  17. Proteomic analysis of ethanol-induced embryotoxicity in cultured post-implantation rat embryos.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makoto; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Irie, Tomohiko; Miyajima, Atsuko; Doi, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Protein expression changes were examined in day 10.5 rat embryos cultured for 24 hr in the presence of ethanol by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Exposure to ethanol resulted in quantitative changes in many embryonic protein spots (16 decreased and 28 increased) at in vitro embryotoxic concentrations (130 and 195 mM); most changes occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. For these protein spots, 17 proteins were identified, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, alpha-fetoprotein, phosphorylated cofilin-1, and serum albumin. From the gene ontology classification and pathway mapping of the identified proteins, it was found that ethanol affected several biological processes involving oxidative stress and retinoid metabolism.

  18. AKR1C2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011

  19. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  20. Effects of (22S,23S)-Homobrassinolide and Related Compounds on Membrane Potential and Transport of Egeria Leaf Cells.

    PubMed

    Dahse, I; Sack, H; Bernstein, M; Petzold, U; Müller, E; Vorbrodt, H M; Adam, G

    1990-07-01

    (22S,23S)-Homobrassinolide was tested for its effect on the electric cell potential, proton extrusion, ferricyanide reduction, and amino acid and sucrose uptake of leaves of Egeria densa Planchon. In the light, (22S,23S)-homobrassinolide and its derivative, 2alpha-3alpha-dihydroxy-5alpha-stigmast-22-en-6-one, were similar to each other and similar to fusicoccin in causing hyperpolarization and proton extrusion, whereas stigmasterol was less effective. In darkness, the three sterols showed comparable effects. (22S,23S)-Homobrassinolide slightly stimulated ferricyanide reduction and promoted uptake of sucrose and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. The results are compatible with a stimulation of an electrogenic proton pump mechanism at the plasmalemma by (22S,23S)-homobrassinolide.

  1. A new ferulic acid ester and other constituents from Tamarix nilotica leaves.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Sameh Fekry; Ali, Sajjad Ahmed; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Tamarix nilotica (Tamaricaceae) has led to isolation of methyl ferulate 3-O-sulphate (1) for the first time from natural sources. In addition, coniferyl alcohol 4-O-sulphate (2), kaempferol 4'-methyl ether (3), tamarixetin (4) and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucupyranuronide (5) were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the extract. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, 3alpha-(3'',4''-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamoyloxy)-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-oic acid (6) was isolated from the n-hexane soluble fraction of the extract. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including 2 dimensional NMR. Compounds 3, 4 and 6 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 35.2, 37.0 and 21.2 muM, respectively.

  2. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  3. Magnetic structures of actinide materials by pulsed neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, A.C.; Goldstone, J.A.; Huber, J.G.; Giorgi, A.L.; Conant, J.W.; Severing, A.; Cort, B.; Robinson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We describe some attempts to observe magnetic structure in various actinide (5f-electron) materials. Our experimental technique is neutron powder diffraction as practiced at a spallation (pulsed) neutron source. We will discuss our investigations of {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu, {alpha}-UD{sub 3} and {beta}-UD{sub 3}. {beta}-UD{sub 3} is a simple ferromagnet: surprisingly, the moments on the two non-equivalent uranium atoms are the same within experimental error. {alpha}-UD{sub 3}, {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu are non-magnetic, within the limits of our observations. Our work with pulsed neutron diffraction shows that it is a useful technique for research on magnetic materials.

  4. Polysaccharides in Fungi. XXXIV. A polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria and the antitumor activity of its carboxymethylated product.

    PubMed

    Kiho, T; Yoshida, I; Katsuragawa, M; Sakushima, M; Usui, S; Ukai, S

    1994-11-01

    A water-insoluble, alkali-soluble, glucan (AM-APP), [alpha]D +160 degrees in 0.4 M NaOH, was isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria. The results of chemical and spectroscopic investigations indicate that AM-APP is a linear (1 --> 3)-alpha-D-glucan with a molecular weigh estimated by gel chromatography of about 42000. Its carboxymethylated product (AM-APP-CM) showed potent antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in mice, although the native polysaccharide (AM-APP) had little effect. The distribution of carboxymethyl groups in the molecule was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The degree of substitution of carboxymethyl groups was 0.95 and the substituents were located at O-2, at O-4, at O-6, at O-2 and O-6, and at O-4 and O-6 on glucose.

  5. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value.

  6. Bile salts of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae.

    PubMed

    Kihira, K; Akashi, Y; Kuroki, S; Yanagisawa, J; Nakayama, F; Hoshita, T

    1984-12-01

    Bile salts of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, Smith, have been analyzed and shown to have three bile alcohols, latimerol, 5 alpha-cyprinol, and 5 alpha-cholestane-3 beta, 7 alpha,-12 alpha,25,26-pentol, two C24 bile acids, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, one C26 bile acid, probably 3 beta, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-27-nor-5 alpha-cholestan-26-oic acid, and two C27 bile acids, 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestan-26-oic acid and 3 beta,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestan-26-oic acid as determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  7. Triumphalone, a diketone from the volatile oil of the leaves of Melaleuca triumphalis, and its spontaneous conversion into isotriumphalone.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Joseph J; Craig, Donald C; Goldsack, Robert J; Fookes, Christopher J R; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2006-09-01

    The major component (35-65%) of the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of Melaleuca triumphalis has been identified as (rel)-1beta-pentyl-1alpha,6alpha-dihydroxy-3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclohexa-2,4-dione (trivial name triumphalone). Relative stereochemistry was established by nuclear Overhauser experiments and X-ray studies on the 2-(3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) derivative. The remainder of the oil was composed of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and alcohols. On prolonged standing the presence of a rearrangement product of triumphalone was observed which was characterized as (rel)-1beta-pentyl-1alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-4,4,6,6-tetramethylcyclohexa-2,5-dione (trivial name isotriumphalone), presumably arising from an acid catalyzed shift of the pentyl group from C-1 to C-2.

  8. Sexual dimorphism involving steroidal pheromones and their binding protein in the submaxillary salivary gland of the Göttingen miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D

    1984-02-01

    Submaxillary glands of mature Göttingen miniature pigs were examined for the presence of a sexual dimorphism. Gland weights, serous cell hypertrophy and total protein in the glands were much greater in male than female pigs. High concentrations of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids were present in the glands of males and exceeded 2 mmol/g in some animals; this was primarily due to 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol. The high concentration of 16-androstene steroids in boar glands was correlated with the presence of large amounts of binding protein for these steroids in the glands; smaller amounts of the binding protein were detected in female glands. These findings are similar to those found in domestic pigs, but the degree of sexual dimorphism assessed from these findings is more extreme in the miniature pig.

  9. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-10

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology.

  10. SDR-type human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases involved in steroid hormone activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lukacik, Petra; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo

    2007-02-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of hydroxyl and oxo-functions at distinct positions of steroid hormones. This reversible reaction constitutes an important pre-receptor control mechanism for nuclear receptor ligands of the androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid classes, since the conversion "switches" between receptor ligands and their inactive metabolites. The major reversible activities found in mammals acting on steroid hormones comprise 3alpha-, 11beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and for each group several distinct isozymes have been described. The enzymes differ in their expression pattern, nucleotide cofactor preference, steroid substrate specificity and subcellular localization, and thus constitute a complex system ensuring cell-specific adaptation and regulation of steroid hormone levels. Several isoforms constitute promising drug targets, of particular importance in cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration and immunity.

  11. Saponins from three species of Mimusops.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, C; Massiot, G; Becchi, M; Misra, G; Nigam, S K

    1996-02-01

    Six saponins were isolated from the seed kernel of Mimusops elengi, M. hexandra and M. manilkara. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. Three of them are new compounds: 3-O-(beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl) 28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3) beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->4) [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)] alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2) alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl) protobassic acid, 3-O-(beta-D-glucuronopyranosly) 28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3) beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->4) alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2) alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl) 16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid and 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3) beta-D-glucopyranosyl) 28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3) beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->4) alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2) alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl) protobassic acid.

  12. Three-body model of light nuclei with microscopic nonlocal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Theeten, M.; Baye, D.; Matsumura, H.; Orabi, M.; Descouvemont, P.; Fujiwara, Y.; Suzuki, Y.

    2007-11-15

    A three-body cluster model involving microscopic nonlocal interactions is developed and compared with a fully microscopic cluster model. The energy-independent nonlocal interactions are obtained from a renormalization of the energy-dependent kernels of the resonating-group method. Such interactions are derived for the {alpha}{alpha} and {alpha}n systems. The role and importance of nonlocality are discussed. These interactions are employed in three-body studies of the {alpha}nn,{alpha}{alpha}n, and 3{alpha} descriptions of the {sup 6}He, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 12}C nuclei. A comparison with fully microscopic calculations provides a measure of the importance of three-cluster exchanges in those states. The differences between both cluster-model calculations are in general small, except in the densities at short distances.

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a new triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata leaves.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mona A; Mammoud, Madeha R; Hayen, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    A new triterpene saponin, named as 23-hydroxy-3alpha-[O-alpha-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1"-->4')-O-alpha-L-4C1-arabinopyranosyl-oxy]olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1"'-->4")-O-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl-(1"-->6"')-O-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl ester (9), was isolated from the leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn. In addition, six flavonoid compounds along with two cinnamic acid derivatives were isolated and identified based on their chromatographic properties, and chemical and spectral data (ESI-high resolution-MSn, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC). Compound 9 was found to be nontoxic (LD50) and to have significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. It also showed a slight antischistosomal activity.

  14. Efficacy of methods for determining ovulation in a natural family planning program.

    PubMed

    Guida, M; Tommaselli, G A; Palomba, S; Pellicano, M; Moccia, G; Di Carlo, C; Nappi, C

    1999-11-01

    This methodological study aims to evaluate the efficacy of methods used for determining ovulation in a natural family planning in comparison with pelvic ultrasonography. Prospective analysis of ovulation detection methods was conducted with 40 women. Ovulation-detection methods employed in the study include transvaginal ultrasonography, daily morning urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) determinations, determination of salivary beta-glucuronidase activity, salivary ferning test, determination of cervical mucus levels and characteristics, and measurement of rectal or oral basal body temperature. Results revealed a 100% correlation between urinary LH level and ovulation diagnosis obtained from ultrasonographic examination. Other ovulation-detection methods contain the following correlation results: mucus sensations and characteristics, 48.3%; alpha-glucuronidase, 27.7%; and salivary ferning test, 36.8%. These findings draw the researchers to conclude that self-determination of LH levels could be an excellent method in ovulation determination.

  15. Alpha Resonances in {sup 13}C Excited by the {sup 9}Be ({sup 6}Li,d) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Miyake, H.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, G. M.

    2010-05-21

    The {sup 9}Be({sup 6}Li,d){sup 13}C reaction was used to investigate alpha resonant states in {sup 13}C up to 13 MeV of excitation. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The resolution of 50 keV allowed for the separation of the resonant contributions to the known 7/2{sup -} at 10.753 MeV and (5/2{sup -}) at 10.818 MeV {sup 13}C states. The alpha resonance seen at the (3alpha+n) threshold was not previously reported. The experimental angular distributions are presented in comparison with DWBA predictions.

  16. The chemical composition of R Coronae Borealis and XX Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, P. L.; Lambert, D. L.

    1982-10-01

    The R Coronae Borealis stars R CrB and XX Cam are examined using extensive high-resolution Reticon data. Effective temperatures, values of log g, microturbulent velocities, and C/He values are determined, along with elemental abundances and abundance ratios for a wide range of species, including the light and heavy s-process elements. Helium- and carbon-rich models are employed, as is an appropriate model atmosphere code. The evolutionary history of R CrB stars is discussed in detail. It is concluded that both CNO cycle and 3-alpha processed material must have been mixed into the observable layers. The He core and He shell flashes are suggested as possible triggers for the mixing and for the extensive mass loss required to expose the heavily processed layers.

  17. Formation of a highly stable complex between BN 50730 [tetrahydro-4,7,8,10 methyl-1(chloro-2 phenyl)-6 (methoxy-4 phenyl-carbamoyl)-9 pyrido [4',3'-4,5] thieno [3,2-f] triazolo-1,2,4 [4,3-a] diazepine-1,4] and the platelet-activating factor receptor in rabbit platelet membranes.

    PubMed

    Silva, C L; Cruz, H N; Violante, F A; Cordeiro, R S; Martins, M A; Noël, F

    1996-01-26

    BN 50730 [tetrahydro-4,7,8,10 methyl-1(chloro-2 phenyl)-6 (methoxy-4 phenyl-carbamoyl)-9 pyrido [4',3'-4,5] thieno [3,2-f] triazolo-1,2,4 [4,3-alpha] diazepine-1,4], a novel platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist with a hetrazepine structure, decreased the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of [3H]PAF in rabbit platelet membranes without altering its dissociation constant. Platelet aggregation induced by 1 microM PAF was prevented by preincubation with 1 microM BN 50730. The washing of the platelets preincubated with BN 50730 failed to revert its inhibitory effects. We conclude that BN 50730 acts as a non-competitive antagonist of the PAF receptor, due to the formation of a highly stable drug-receptor complex.

  18. A highly regular fraction of a fucoidan from the brown seaweed Fucus distichus L.

    PubMed

    Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Ustuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Shashkov, Alexander S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2004-02-25

    A fucoidan fraction consisting of L-fucose, sulfate, and acetate in a molar proportion of 1:1.21:0.08 was isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus distichus collected from the Barents Sea. The 13C NMR spectrum of the fraction was typical of regular polysaccharides containing disaccharide repeating units. According to 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectra, the fucoidan molecules are built up of alternating 3-linked alpha-L-fucopyranose 2,4-disulfate and 4-linked alpha-L-fucopyranose 2-sulfate residues: -->3)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2,4-di-SO3-)-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2SO3-)-(1-->. The regular structure may be only slightly masked by random acetylation and undersulfation of several disaccharide repeating units.

  19. Genes expressed in the brain define three distinct neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nef, P; Oneyser, C; Alliod, C; Couturier, S; Ballivet, M

    1988-01-01

    Four genes encode the related protein subunits that assemble to form the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) at the motor endplate of vertebrates. We have isolated from the chicken genome four additional members of the same gene family whose protein products, termed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4 and n alpha (non-alpha) probably define three distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes. The neuronal nAChR genes have identical structures consisting of six protein-coding exons and specify proteins that are best aligned with the chicken endplate alpha subunit, whose gene we have also characterized. mRNA transcripts encoding alpha 4 and n alpha are abundant in embryonic and in adult avian brain, whereas alpha 2 and alpha 3 transcripts are much scarcer. The same set of neuronal genes probably exists in all vertebrates since their counterparts have also been identified in the rat genome. Images PMID:3267226

  20. Acylperoxylated and seco-mexicanolides from stems of Khaya anthotheca.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Izabel C Piloto; Cortez, Diógenes A Garcia; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fo, Edson Rodrigues; Vieira, Paulo C; Fernandes, João B

    2005-03-01

    The stems of Khaya anthotheca yielded two new limonoids, which were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 1alpha,8alpha-oxido-3beta-acetoxy-2alpha-acylperoxy-1alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-[3.3.1(10,2)]-bicyclomeliac-7,19-olide (3) and 3-acetoxy-8,14-dien-8,30-seco-khayalactone (4). Methyl 1alpha,2beta,3alpha,6,8alpha,14beta-hexahydroxy-[4.2.1(10,30).1(1,4)]-tricyclomeliac-7-oate, scopoletin, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated. The limonoids were of little value to clarify the basis of the nonresistance against Hypsipyla grandella.

  1. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  2. A stereochemical examination of the equine metabolism of 17alpha-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2007-01-09

    An investigation was conducted into the stereochemistry of the equine urinary metabolites of 17alpha-methyltestosterone observed after oral administration. Standards of the complete range of C3/C5/C16 stereoisomeric 17alpha-methylandrostane-3,17beta-diols, 17alpha-methylandrostane-3,16,17beta-triols and 17alpha-hydroxymethylandrostane-3,17beta-diols were purchased or synthesised, and were used to unequivocally identify the absolute structures of the metabolites. Phase I metabolism was found to involve combinations of Delta(4)-3-ketone reduction with both 5alpha,3beta- and 5beta,3alpha-stereochemistry, hydroxylation at C16 with both 16alpha- and 16beta-stereochemistry and hydroxylation of the 17alpha-methyl substituent. Phase II metabolism involved mainly sulfation with a lesser degree of beta-glucuronidation.

  3. Radical-scavenging activities of new hydroxylated ursane triterpenes from cv. Annurca apples.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

    2005-07-01

    Two new ursolic acid triterpene derivatives, compounds 2 and 3, have been isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit, a high-quality apple variety widely cultivated in southern Italy, together with the known 2-oxopomolic acid (1). The new compounds were identified by means of different spectroscopic techniques as 3-epi-2-oxopomolic acid (= (3alpha)-3,19-dihydroxy-2-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid; 2) and (1alpha)-1-hydroxy-3-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 were tested for their radical-scavenging activities with the aid of a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (Fig. 2). All three constituents showed activities similar to that of the reference antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  4. Purification and characterization of a 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Styczynski, B.; Green, M.; Coffman, B.; Puig, J.; Tephly, T. )

    1991-03-11

    A phenobarbital-inducible rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (4-HBP UDPGT) which catalyzes the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxybiphenyl has been purified to homogeneity. The apparent subunit molecular weight of this protein is 52,500 as determined by SDS-PAGE. 4-HBP UDPGT was shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, p-nitrophenol and 4-methylumbelliferone, but did not react with morphine, testosteron or chloramphenicol. Upon treatment with Endoglycosidase H, the 4-HBP UDPGT underwent about a 2,000 dalton decrease in subunit molecular weight, suggesting that this protein in N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis has revealed immunorecognition of 4-HBP UDPGT by antibodies raised in rabbit against rat 3{alpha}- and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid UDPGTs. Additionally, the authors have obtained the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-HBP UDPGT. These data provide evidence which suggests that this protein is different from another UDPGT previously shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, testosterone and chloramphenicol.

  5. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-01

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers’ health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology. PMID:28071699

  6. Is there A Role for Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Fetal Programming of Health?

    PubMed Central

    Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia I.

    2016-01-01

    The role of ω3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and its effect on the prevention of disease and programming of health in offspring, is largely unknown. Compared to ALA, ω3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids have been more widely researched due to their direct implication in fetal neural development. In this literature search we found that ALA, the essential ω3 fatty acid and metabolic precursor of DHA and EPA has been, paradoxically, almost unexplored. In light of new and evolving findings, this review proposes that ALA may have an intrinsic role, beyond the role as metabolic parent of DHA and EPA, during fetal development as a regulator of gene programming for the prevention of metabolic disease and promotion of health in offspring. PMID:27023621

  7. Isolation and characterization of Exodus-2, a novel C-C chemokine with a unique 37-amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Hromas, R; Kim, C H; Klemsz, M; Krathwohl, M; Fife, K; Cooper, S; Schnizlein-Bick, C; Broxmeyer, H E

    1997-09-15

    Chemokines are a group of small, homologous proteins that regulate leukocyte migration, hemopoiesis, and HIV-1 absorption. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel murine and human C-C chemokine termed Exodus-2 for its similarity to Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, and its chemotactic ability. This novel chemokine has a unique 36 or 37 (murine and human, respectively) amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension not seen in any other chemokine family member. Purified recombinant Exodus-2 was found to have two activities classically associated with chemokines: inhibiting hemopoiesis and stimulating chemotaxis. However, Exodus-2 also had unusual characteristics for C-C chemokines. It selectively stimulated the chemotaxis of T-lymphocytes and was preferentially expressed in lymph node tissue. The combination of these characteristics may be a functional correlate for the unique carboxyl-terminal structure of Exodus-2.

  8. Anionic polymers of the cell wall of Brevibacterium linens VKM Ac-2159.

    PubMed

    Potekhina, N V; Shashkov, A S; Streshinskaya, G M; Senchenkova, S N; Evtushenko, L I

    2005-09-01

    Unsubstituted 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) and two sugar-1-phosphate polymers were identified in the cell wall of Brevibacterium linens VKM Ac-2159 by NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. A monomer of one of the sugar-1-phosphate polymers has the branched repeating unit of the following structure: -4)-[beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)]-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-P-. The repeating unit of another sugar-1-phosphate polymer has a linear structure consisting of alternating beta- and alpha-N-acetylglucosamine residues: -4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->6)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-P-. Some part of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl residues bear O-ester-bound succinic acid residues at C-3. The identified sugar-1-phosphate polymers have not been described earlier in cell walls of other bacteria.

  9. Performance Prediction of the Mk II Navy 44 Sail Training Craft with respect to Tank Testing, Velocity Prediction Programs, and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-05

    8217) end end Maple 6 Analysis Below is the script used to develop lift and drag for any yaw angle and rudder angle. > restart; > L:=(AH5, AH3 ...alpha1*AH5+alpha2)* AH3 ^2+(beta1*AH5+beta2)* AH3 +(gamma1*AH5+gam ma2); := L → ( ),AH5 AH3 + + + ( ) + α1 AH5 α2 AH32 ( ) + β1 AH5 β2 AH3 γ1 AH5 γ2...3 AG3 3 AG2 4 AG4 24 β1 4 AG5 AG6 AG7 = β1 − + − + + − 1 8 AG3 1 8 AG2 1 6 AG4 1 6 AG5 1 24 AG6 1 24 AG7 > L(AH5, AH3

  10. Cell-wall composition and structure of yeast cells and conjugation tubes of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Reid, I D; Bartnicki-Garcia, S

    1976-09-01

    Cell walls prepared from vegetative yeast cells and from hormone-induced conjugation tubes of the basidiomycete Tremella mesenterica had similar compositions. Evidence was found for 1,3-alpha-glucan (yeast 38%, tube 25%), 1,3-beta-1,6-beta-glucan (yeast 33%, tube 48%) and chitin (both less than 3%) in the walls. The walls also contained xylose (5 to 7%), mannose (6%), glucuronic acid (approx. 2%), and traces of galactose. Protein amounted to less than 2% of the wall weight. The cell capsule was very insoluble and could not be removed from the cell wall. The conjugation hormone did not appear to exert its effect on cell shape by causing gross changes in wall composition.

  11. Structure of the human gene and two rat cDNAs encoding the alpha chain of GTP-binding regulatory protein Go: two different mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, T; Toyama, R; Itoh, H; Kozasa, T; Matsuoka, M; Kaziro, Y

    1991-01-01

    Go is a specific class ("other") of signal-transducing heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) that is expressed in high levels in mammalian brain. We have cloned two different rat cDNAs encoding the alpha subunit of Go (Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2) and a human Go alpha chromosomal gene. The human Go alpha gene spans more than 100 kilobases and contains 11 exons, including one noncoding exon in the 3' flanking region. The 5' flanking region is highly G + C-rich and contains five G.C boxes (Sp1 binding sites) but no TATA box. Exons 7 and 8 coding for amino acid residues 242-354 of Go alpha protein are duplicated (referred to as exons 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B). It was found that exons 7A and 8A code for Go alpha-1, and 7B and 8B code for Go alpha-2. This indicates that two different Go alpha mRNAs may be generated by alternative splicing of a single Go alpha gene. The splice sites of the Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2 genes are completely identical with those encoding human inhibitory G protein alpha subunits Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha [Itoh, H., Toyama, R., Kozasa, T., Tsukamoto, T., Matsuoka, M. & Kaziro, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6656-6664] and also transducin G protein alpha subunit Gt1 alpha [Raport, C. J., Dere, B. & Hurley, J. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7122-7128]. Sequence homology and conservation of the exon-intron organization indicate that the genes coding for Go alpha, Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Gt1 alpha, and probably Gi1 alpha may be evolved from a common progenitor. Like Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2 is expressed mainly in brain. Images PMID:1901650

  12. Purification and properties of a new testosterone 17beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) from guinea-pig liver.

    PubMed

    Kaguera, E; Toki, S

    1977-06-01

    As a result of studies of guinea-pig live testosterone 17beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.64), a new testosterone 17beta-dehydrogenase was discovered. The new enzyme was purified to a single homogeneous protein from the 105 000 g-supernatant fraction of guinea-pig liver by (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation and two gel-filtration stages, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. It was characterized by many properties. The enzyme has almost the same properties as the classical testosterone 17beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.64), with respect to cofactor requirement, pH optima for dehydrogenation, effect of phosphate ion on the NAD+-dependent reaction and molecular weight, but characteristic differences were observed in substrate-specificity between the two dehydrogenases. With various androstane derivatives, the configuration of the A/B-ring junction was closely connected with enzyme activity. 5alpha-Androstanes, such as 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol and 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one, and 5beta-congeners, such as 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, 5beta-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol and 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androstan-3-one, served as substrates for both the EC 1.1.1.64 enzyme and the new enzyme. The EC 1.1.1.64 enzyme oxidized testosterone more rapidly than did the new enzyme. These comparisons were based on the relative activities, apparent Km values and apparent Vmax values.

  13. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    PubMed

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  14. Anatomical Substrate and Scalp EEG Markers are Correlated in Subjects with Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Davide V; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is a syndromic diagnosis, encompassing various stage of severity and different anatomo-physiological substrates. The hippocampus is one of the first and most affected brain regions affected by both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major risk factor for developing dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated different relationship between the anatomical substrate and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) markers. Indeed, modifications of EEG rhythmicity is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy, whereas changes in EEG activity are directly proportional to the load of subcortical CVD. The computation of the EEG spectral power and the analysis of the functional coupling of brain areas, through linear coherence, are two of the most known processing methods in EEG research. Two specific EEG markers, theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 frequency ratio have been reliable associated to the atrophy of amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Moreover, theta/gamma ratio has been related to MCI conversion in dementia and alpha3/alpha2 ratio has been specifically related to MCI conversion in AD. The functional coupling of brain areas is also modulated by hippocampal atrophy. In the MCI subjects, hippocampal atrophy is linked to an increase of interhemispheric coherence seen on frontal and temporal regions whereas subcortical CVD is linked to a decrease of coherence in fronto-parietal regions. In the present study the most significant results of recent studies on correlation between scalp EEG, cognitive decline, and anatomical substrate have been reviewed, with particular attention to the relationships between EEG changes and hippocampal atrophy. The following review is not intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature. Rather it identifies and discusses selected studies that are designed to find the specific correlation between scalp EEG markers and anatomo-pathological substrate

  15. Paraquat exposure reduces nicotinic receptor-evoked dopamine release in monkey striatum.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Kathryn T; Parameswaran, Neeraja; Johnston, Louisa C; McIntosh, J Michael; Di Monte, Donato A; Quik, Maryka

    2008-10-01

    Paraquat, an herbicide widely used in the agricultural industry, has been associated with lung, liver, and kidney toxicity in humans. In addition, it is linked to an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. For this reason, we had previously investigated the effects of paraquat in mice and showed that it influenced striatal nicotinic receptor (nAChR) expression but not nAChR-mediated dopaminergic function. Because nonhuman primates are evolutionarily closer to humans and may better model the effects of pesticide exposure in man, we examined the effects of paraquat on striatal nAChR function and expression in monkeys. Monkeys were administered saline or paraquat once weekly for 6 weeks, after which nAChR levels and receptor-evoked [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA) release were measured in the striatum. The functional studies showed that paraquat exposure attenuated dopamine (DA) release evoked by alpha3/alpha6beta2(*) (nAChR that is composed of the alpha3 or alpha6 subunits, and beta2; the asterisk indicates the possible presence of additional subunits) nAChRs, a subtype present only on striatal dopaminergic terminals, with no decline in release mediated by alpha4beta2(*) (nAChR containing alpha4 and beta2 subunits, but not alpha3 or alpha6) nAChRs, present on both DA terminals and striatal neurons. Paraquat treatment decreased alpha4beta2(*) but not alpha3/alpha6beta2(*) nAChR expression. The differential effects of paraquat on nAChR expression and receptor-evoked [(3)H]DA release emphasize the importance of evaluating changes in functional measures. The finding that paraquat treatment has a negative impact on striatal nAChR-mediated dopaminergic activity in monkeys but not mice indicates the need for determining the effects of pesticides in higher species.

  16. Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

  17. Determining structure and function of steroid dehydrogenase enzymes by sequence analysis, homology modeling, and rational mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Duax, William L; Thomas, James; Pletnev, Vladimir; Addlagatta, Anthony; Huether, Robert; Habegger, Lukas; Weeks, Charles M

    2005-12-01

    The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 6,000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, approximately 300 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of approximately 40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are steroid dehydrogenases involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and polycystic kidney disease, it is important to characterize the other members of the family for which the biological functions are currently unknown and to determine their three-dimensional structure and mechanism of action. Although the SCOR family appears to have only a single fully conserved residue, it was possible, using bioinformatics methods, to determine characteristic fingerprints composed of 30-40 residues that are conserved at the 70% or greater level in SCOR subgroups. These fingerprints permit reliable prediction of several important structure-function features including cofactor preference, catalytic residues, and substrate specificity. Human type 1 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3beta-HSDI) has 30% sequence identity with a human UDP galactose 4-epimerase (UDPGE), a SCOR family enzyme for which an X-ray structure has been reported. Both UDPGE and 3-HSDI appear to trace their origins back to bacterial 3alpha,20beta-HSD. Combining three-dimensional structural information and sequence data on the 3alpha,20beta-HSD, UDPGE, and 3beta-HSDI subfamilies with mutational analysis, we were able to identify the residues critical to the dehydrogenase function of 3-HSDI. We also identified the residues most probably responsible for the isomerase activity of 3beta-HSDI. We test our predictions by specific mutations based on sequence analysis and our structure-based model.

  18. HIV-1 efficient entry in inner foreskin is mediated by elevated CCL5/RANTES that recruits T cells and fuels conjugate formation with Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhicheng; Barry de Longchamps, Nicolas; Schmitt, Alain; Zerbib, Marc; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Bomsel, Morgane; Ganor, Yonatan

    2011-06-01

    Male circumcision reduces acquisition of HIV-1 by 60%. Hence, the foreskin is an HIV-1 entry portal during sexual transmission. We recently reported that efficient HIV-1 transmission occurs following 1 h of polarized exposure of the inner, but not outer, foreskin to HIV-1-infected cells, but not to cell-free virus. At this early time point, Langerhans cells (LCs) and T-cells within the inner foreskin epidermis are the first cells targeted by the virus. To gain in-depth insight into the molecular mechanisms governing inner foreskin HIV-1 entry, foreskin explants were inoculated with HIV-1-infeceted cells for 4 h. The chemokine/cytokine milieu secreted by the foreskin tissue, and resulting modifications in density and spatial distribution of T-cells and LCs, were then investigated. Our studies show that in the inner foreskin, inoculation with HIV-1-infected cells induces increased CCL5/RANTES (1.63-fold) and decreased CCL20/MIP-3-alpha (0.62-fold) secretion. Elevated CCL5/RANTES mediates recruitment of T-cells from the dermis into the epidermis, which is blocked by a neutralizing CCL5/RANTES Ab. In parallel, HIV-1-infected cells mediate a bi-phasic modification in the spatial distribution of epidermal LCs: attraction to the apical surface at 1 h, followed by migration back towards the basement membrane later on at 4 h, in correlation with reduced CCL20/MIP-3-alpha at this time point. T-cell recruitment fuels the continuous formation of LC-T-cell conjugates, permitting the transfer of HIV-1 captured by LCs. Together, these results reveal that HIV-1 induces a dynamic process of immune cells relocation in the inner foreskin that is associated with specific chemokines secretion, which favors efficient HIV-1 entry at this site.

  19. In vivo and in vitro hyperbaric studies in mice suggest novel sites of action for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Davies, D L; Bolger, M B; Brinton, R D; Finn, D A; Alkana, R L

    1999-02-01

    The present study uses increased atmospheric pressure as an ethanol antagonist to test the hypothesis that allosteric coupling pathways in the GABA(A) receptor complex represent initial sites of action for ethanol. This was accomplished using behavioral and in vitro measures to determine the effects of pressure on ethanol and other GABAergic drugs in C57BL/6 and LS mice. Behaviorally, exposure to 12 times normal atmospheric pressure (ATA) of a helium-oxygen gas mixture (heliox) antagonized loss of righting reflex (LORR) induced by the allosteric modulators ethanol and pentobarbital, but did not antagonize LORR induced by the direct GABA agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-pyridin-3-ol (THIP). Similarly, exposure to 12 ATA heliox antagonized the anticonvulsant effects verses isoniazid of ethanol, diazepam and pentobarbital. Biochemically, exposure to 12 ATA heliox antagonized potentiation of GABA-activated 36Cl-uptake by ethanol, flunitrazepam and pentobarbital in LS mouse brain preparations, but did not alter GABA-activated 36Cl- uptake per se. In contrast to its antagonist effect versus other allosteric modulators, pressure did not antagonize these behavioral or in vitro effects induced by the neuroactive steroid, 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-P). These findings add to evidence that pressure directly and selectively antagonizes drug effects mediated through allosteric coupling pathways. The results fit predictions, and thus support the hypothesis that allosteric coupling pathways in GABA(A) receptors represent initial sites of action for ethanol. Collectively, the results suggest that there may be common physicochemical and underlying structural characteristics that define ethanol sensitive regions of receptor proteins and/or their associated membranes that can be identified by pressure within (e.g., GABA(A)) and possibly across (e.g., GABA(A), NMDA, 5HT3) receptors.

  20. Inhibition of 3(17)beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni by steroidal A ring fused pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Levy, M A; Holt, D A; Brandt, M; Metcalf, B W

    1987-04-21

    Several 2,3- and 3,4-steroidal fused pyrazoles have been investigated as potential inhibitors of NAD(P)H-dependent steroid oxidoreductases. These compounds are proven to be potent, specific inhibitors for 3(17) beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni with Ki values of 6-100 nM. In contrast, the activities of 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Streptomyces hydrogenans, steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat prostate, and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat liver were unaffected by micromolar concentrations of these compounds. Product and dead-end inhibition studies indicate an ordered association to the beta-dehydrogenase with the cofactor binding prior to substrate or inhibitor. From the results of double inhibition experiments, it is proposed that inhibition occurs through formation of an enzyme-NAD+-inhibitor ternate. On the basis of pH profiles of Vm/Km, Vm, and 1/Ki and of absorbance difference spectra, a hypothetical mechanism of inhibition by the steroidal pyrazoles, drawn by analogy from the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase by alkylpyrazoles [Theorell, H., & Yonetani, T. (1963) Biochem. Z. 338, 537-553; Andersson, P., Kvassman, J. K., Lindström, A., Oldén, B., & Pettersson, G. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 113, 549-554], is reconsidered. The pH studies and enzyme modification experiments by diethyl pyrocarbonate suggest the involvement of histidine in binding of the inhibitor. A modified proposal for the structure of the enzyme-NAD+-steroidal pyrazole complex is proposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Isolation and identification of androstanediol glucuronide from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rao, P N; Burdett, J E; Moore, P H; Horton, R

    1987-11-01

    [3H]Dihydrotestosterone (50 microCi) was infused into normal men and women for 8 h. It was previously shown that this was sufficient time for this material to reach a steady state. Venous plasma was obtained at 6 and 8 h, pooled, and the unconjugated steroids removed by ether extraction. The remaining plasma was adjusted to pH 4.9 and the steroid conjugate was extracted first with ethyl acetate and then with an ether-ethanol mixture. The extracts were combined and taken to dryness. Steroid sulfates were solvolyzed using dioxane, and the mixture partitioned between ether and 1% NaOH. The aqueous phase was acidified and added to an XAD-2 column, washed with water, and the glucuronide fraction eluted with methanol. The solvent was concentrated and the methanol extract was passed through a C18 Sep-Pak, filtered through an Acrodisc CR and then subjected to gradient high performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] (Nova-Pak C18, KH2PO4, pH 3, and methanol). The fractions containing steroid glucuronides were collected and esterified with diazomethane and then acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine. The glucuronide triacetyl methyl ester (GAME) derivatives were then run in a second HPLC system (3 Lichrosorb 5 mu columns, 4 mm x 25 cm) using a gradient of ethanol-heptane and heptane. We clearly established that this system separates 3 alpha-diol GAME conjugated at the 17 and 3 positions (44 vs 50 min) with authentic samples previously synthesized in our laboratory. We concluded that the pooled plasma contained only the 17-GAME conjugate. No significant activity of the 3-glucuronide was detected. The natural compound in circulation, therefore, is 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.

  2. Sex, drugs and sports: prostaglandins, epitestosterone and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bryan K

    2007-01-01

    Amateau and McCarthy's findings published in Nature Neuroscience (June 2004) are noteworthy for suggesting a role for prostaglandins in sexual development. However, evidence suggests that in manipulating PGE2, they unknowingly implicated 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [E.C. 1.1.1.50], 3(or 17)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [E.C. 1.1.1.209] and their respective products, androsterone (ADT) and epitestosterone (EpiT), in the developmental masculinization of sex behavior. EpiT is generally regarded as a hormonally inactive 17alpha-epimer of testosterone (T). In rats, the kidney is the primary site of EpiT formation, whereas in humans it originates from the gonads, with only a small contribution secreted by the adrenals. Because the ratio of T to EpiT is nearly constant, it is presently used for assessing steroid abuse in competitive sports, where the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) considers a T/EpiT ratio >4 evidence of T doping. Despite its central role in the detection of illict anabolic steroid use, our knowledge of factors effecting EpiT production is poor. Clues in the literature, however, reveal that prostaglandin-mediated processes, such as LHRH release, may influence its production. Antimycotics, NSAIDs, and opioid analgesics used in sports medicine are all known to effect prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Primary PGs are potent inhibitors of ADT oxidation, while indomethacin, a prostaglandin blocker, powerfully inhibits 3alpha-HSD reduction and ADT oxidation. This is significant because ADT inhibits the oxidation of EpiT, and may modulate its antiandrogenic and neuroprotective effects. It is hypothesized that the T/EpiT ratio is increased by COX-2 inhibitors and opiod analgesics, and decreased by antimycotics that do not impair testosterone biosynthesis. Given the devastating personal and career consequences that may result from false positive drug tests, substantive research on the effects of PGE2 manipulations on EpiT is warranted.

  3. Formation of ursodeoxycholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid by a 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating Eubacterium aerofaciens strain cocultured with 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-elaborating organisms.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, I A; Rochon, Y P; Hutchison, D M; Holdeman, L V

    1982-01-01

    A gram-positive, anaerobic, chain-forming, rod-shaped anaerobe (isolate G20-7) was isolated from normal human feces. This organism was identified by cellular morphology as well as fermentative and biochemical data as Eubacterium aerofaciens. When isolate G20-7 was grown in the presence of Bacteroides fragilis or Escherichia coli (or another 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase producer) and chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid produced. Time course curves revealed that 3 alpha-hydroxy-7-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid produced by B. fragilis or E. coli or introduced into the medium as a pure substance was reduced by G20-7 specifically to ursodeoxycholic acid. The addition of glycine- and taurine-conjugated primary bile acids (chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids) and other bile acids to binary cultures of B. fragilis and G20-7 revealed that (i) both conjugates were hydrolyzed to give free bile acids, (ii) ursocholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic acid) was produced when conjugated (or free) cholic acid was the substrate, and (iii) the epimerization reaction was at least partially reversible. Corroborating these observations, an NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (reacting specifically with 7 beta-OH-groups) was demonstrated in cell-free preparations of isolate G20-7; production of the enzyme was optimal at between 12 and 18 h of growth. This enzyme, when measured in the oxidative direction, was active with ursodeoxycholic acid, ursocholic acid, and the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (but not with chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, or cholic acids) and displayed an optimal pH range of 9.8 to 10.2 Images PMID:6758698

  4. Flavonol pentaglycosides of Cordyla (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Swartzieae): distribution and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Nigel C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Lewis, Gwilym P

    2008-09-01

    A survey of foliar flavonoids in the swartzioid legume genus Cordyla s.l. revealed that three species, C. haraka, C. pinnata and C. richardii, were rich in flavonol pentaglycosides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods as the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosides of quercetin and kaempferol (cordylasins A and B, respectively). These compounds were not found in the remaining species, C. africana, C. densiflora, C. madagascariensis (two subspecies) and C. somalensis, which exhibited different profiles of flavonoid glycosides. The distribution of flavonol pentaglycosides in Cordyla s.l. does not support a recent proposal to place both C. haraka and C. madagascariensis in the genus Dupuya [Kirkbride, J.H., 2005. Dupuya, a new genus of Malagasy legumes (Fabaceae). Novon 15, 305-314]. The generic relationship between Cordyla s.l. and Mildbraediodendron is also reassessed on the basis of chemical characters, as the O-linked tetrasaccharide that characterises cordylasins A and B is the same as that found in mildbraedin (kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside), the main foliar flavonoid of Mildbraediodendron excelsum. Mildbraedin itself was found to be a minor constituent of leaflet extracts of C. haraka, C. pinnata and C. richardii, and a major constituent of C. somalensis.

  5. Magnetic polyoxometalates: anisotropic exchange interactions in the moiety of [(NaOH2)Co3(H2O)(P2W15O56)2]17-.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Giménez-Saiz, Carlos; Güdel, Hans-Ulrich; Sieber, Andreas; Bircher, Roland; Mutka, Hannu

    2005-05-16

    The magnetic exchange interactions in a C0(3)(11) moiety encapsulated in Na(17) [(NaOH(2))Co(3)(H(2)O)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)] (NaCo(3)) were studied by a combination of magnetic measurements (magnetic susceptibility and low-temperature magnetization), with a detailed Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) investigation. The novel structure of the salt was determined by X-ray crystallography. The ferromagnetic Co(3)O(14) triangular cluster core consists of three octahedrally oxo-coordinated Co(II) ions sharing edges. According to the single-ion anisotropy and spin-orbit coupling usually assumed for octahedral Co(II) ions, the appropiate exchange Hamiltonian to describe the ground-state properties of the isosceles triangular Co(3) spin cluster is anisotropic and is expressed as H = - 2sigma(alpha)(=)(x,y,z)(J(alpha)(12)S(1alpha)S(2alpha) + J(alpha)(23)S(2alpha)S(3alpha) + J(alpha)(13)S(1alpha)S(3alpha)), where J(alpha) are the components of the exchange interactions between the Co(II) ions. To reproduce the INS data, nonparallel anisotropic exchange tensors needed to be introduced, which were directly connected to the molecular symmetry of the complex. The following range of parameters (value +/- 0.5 cm(-1)) was found to reproduce all experimental information while taking magnetostructural relations into account: J(x)(12) = J(y)(13) = 8.6 cm(-1); J(y)(12) = J(x)(13) = 1.4 cm(-1); J(z)(12) = J(z)(13) = 10.0 cm(-1); J(x)(23) = J(y)(23) = 6.5 cm(-1) and = 3.4 cm(-1).

  6. Applicability of the dopamine and rate hypotheses in explaining the differences in behavioral pharmacology of the chloro-benztropine analogs: studies conducted using intracerebral microdialysis and population pharmacodynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmed A; Newman, Amy Hauck; Eddington, Natalie D

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies indicated that the chloro-benztropine analogs differed significantly in their cocaine-like activity, which was not expected based on the similarity in their in vitro binding affinity and functional potency at the dopamine transporter (DAT). The present study was designed to extend the understanding of the involvement of both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors in mediating the behavioral differences among these analogs. The pharmacokinetics of 3'-chloro-3alpha-(diphenylmethoxy)tropane (3'-Cl BZT), the analog showing a cocaine-like behavioral profile in rodents, was compared with previously reported pharmacokinetic characteristics of cocaine and 4',4''-dichloro-3alpha-(diphenylmethoxy)tropane (4',4''-diCl BZT), an analog totally devoid of cocaine-like actions. Microdialysis studies in rats were conducted to determine whether 3'-Cl and 4',4''-diCl BZT differed significantly in their effect on nucleus accumbens extracellular dopamine levels, with cocaine serving as a reference. A mechanistic model based on DAT association/dissociation kinetics was used to describe the time delay between the plasma concentrations of the chloro-analogs and their dopaminergic effects. 3'-Cl BZT had plasma elimination half-life of 1.9 h versus 0.5 and 21.1 h for cocaine and 4',4''-diCl BZT, respectively. 4',4''-diCl BZT increased the DA levels at a slower rate and to a significantly lower extent relative to 3'-Cl BZT that were, in turn, lower than cocaine. The duration of dopamine elevation was as follows: 4',4''-diCl BZT > 3'-Cl BZT > cocaine. The model indicated faster association and dissociation with DAT for 3'-Cl BZT relative to 4',4''-diCl BZT. The present results indicate that behavioral differences among the chloro-analogs may be explainable based on both the dopamine and rate hypotheses of drug abuse.

  7. Time-dependent aldosterone metabolism in toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Brem, A.S.; Pacholski, M.; Morris, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) metabolism was examined in the toad bladder. Bladders were incubated with (/sup 3/H)aldosterone (10(-7) M) for 5 h, 1 h, or 10 min. Tissues were analyzed for metabolites using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In separate experiments, Na+ transport was assessed by the short-circuit current (SCC) technique. Following a 5-h tissue incubation, about 25% of the (/sup 3/H)-aldosterone was converted into metabolites including a polar monosulfate metabolite, 20 beta-dihydroaldo (20 beta-DHAldo), small quantities of 5 beta-reduced products, and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced Aldo products including 5 alpha-DHAldo, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroaldo (3 alpha,5 alpha-THAldo), and 3 beta,5 alpha-THAldo. Tissues metabolized approximately 10% of the labeled hormone into the same compounds by 1 h. Measurable quantities of these metabolites were also synthesized by bladders exposed to Aldo for only 10 min and then incubated in buffer for an additional 50 min without Aldo. Bladders pretreated with the spironolactone, K+-canrenoate (3.5 X 10(-4) M), and stimulated with Aldo (10(-7) M) generated a peak SCC 44 +/- 6% of that observed in matched pairs stimulated with Aldo (P less than 0.001; n = 6). K+-canrenoate also markedly diminished (/sup 3/H)aldosterone metabolism at both 5 and 1 h. Thus, metabolic transformation of Aldo begins prior to hormone-induced increases in Na+ transport. Both the generation of certain metabolites (e.g., 5 alpha-reductase pathway products) and the increase in Na+ transport can be selectively inhibited by K+-canrenoate.

  8. Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J; Southern, Peter J; Reilly, Cavan S; Peterson, Marnie L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G; Nephew, Karla R; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Carlis, John V; Haase, Ashley T

    2009-04-23

    Although there has been great progress in treating human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model point to opportunities at the earliest stages of infection in which a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3alpha (also known as CCL20), plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5(+ )cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruits CD4(+) T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate-a widely used antimicrobial compound with inhibitory activity against the production of MIP-3alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines-can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo it can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This new approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for the development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission.

  9. Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment affects brain GABA(A) receptor-gated chloride ion transport.

    PubMed

    Bitran, D; Hilvers, R J; Frye, C A; Erskine, M S

    1996-01-01

    Previous research in this laboratory has shown that chronic treatment of adult male rats with an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) produced anxiolytic behavior and increased the functional response of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors. The experiments reported here were aimed at further characterizing the effect of chronic AAS exposure on cerebral cortical GABA(A) receptors. Adult male rats were injected with dianabol (1,4-androstadien-17alpha-methyl-17beta-ol-3-one; 10 mg/kg/day, SC) for 4 weeks. A significant decrease in ventral prostate gland weight was found after 2 weeks of dianabol, and returned to control levels 3 and 10 days after steroid discontinuation. Testicular weights decreased throughout the treatment period but reached statistical significance only during the withdrawal period. Serum 3alpha-androstanediol level was marginally increased afer 2 weeks of dianabol injection, and was significantly decreased at 3 and 10 days after withdrawal. GABA-stimulated 36chloride (Cl-) influx in cortical synaptoneurosomes was increased in animals treated with dianabol for 2 and 4 weeks, and remained elevated 3 days after dianabol withdrawal, returning to control levels at withdrawal day 10. The increase in receptor efficacy was associated with a transient increase in receptor sensitivity (inverse of EC50), apparent after 2 weeks of AAS treatment and at withdrawal day 3. In a follow-up experiment, metabolites of dianabol were tested for the in vitro efficacy in potentiating GABA-stimulated Cl- transport. Only 3alpha-androstanedial and androsterone were found to have potent stimulatory effects. The 3beta-reduced metabolites were inactive, as were metabolites that contained a methyl group at the 17alpha position. These results point to significant facilitative effects of dianabol treatment on brain GABA(A) receptors via the metabolic formation of neuroactive steroids.

  10. Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of neurosteroids to treat epilepsy has been an area of active research. The effect of testosterone on brain excitability and seizure threshold has been mixed; the estradiol metabolite of testosterone increases brain excitability, while the reduced metabolite of testosterone, 3alpha-androstanediol, decreases brain excitability, likely through an action at the gamma-amino butyric acid A receptor. Therefore, the metabolites of testosterone produce opposite effects on brain excitability in seizure models. Aromatase is the enzyme for the conversion of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors could decrease brain excitability by decreasing local estradiol levels and therefore, could be beneficial for the treatment of epilepsy. Aromatase inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration-approved and have a long history of safe use in menopausal women with breast cancer. This review presents the results of using anastrazole in an open-label, add-on manner in a small group of men with epilepsy in order to improve seizures. The results suggested some effect on reduction of seizures and no side effects. Testosterone levels did increase, but not to above the normal range. Letrozole used in a single case was also beneficial for seizures. It was concluded that aromatase inhibitors may be a useful adjunct to the treatment of epilepsy, but habituation to the treatment may be limiting. Many men with epilepsy have low testosterone, and aromatase inhibition may be helpful in restoring levels to normal. Modulation of reproductive hormones by aromatase inhibition as well as enhancement of the 3alpha-androstanediol pathway may be an avenue of epilepsy treatment that would not produce sedative side effects, which is often a limiting factor with standard antiseizure medications. A further interesting result is that elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteal stimulating hormone levels were associated with seizure reduction, suggesting that they may be a

  11. Detection and characterization of a new metabolite of 17alpha-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen; Lootens, Leen; Van Thuyne, Wim; Parr, Maria K; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix; Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-11-01

    The misuse of the anabolic steroid methyltestosterone is currently routinely monitored in doping control laboratories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of two of its metabolites: 17alpha-methyl-5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol and 17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol. Because of the absence of any easy ionizable moiety, these metabolites are poorly detectable using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). In this study, the metabolism of methyltestosterone has been reinvestigated by the use of a precursor ion scan method in LC-ESI-MS/MS. Two metabolites have been detected using this method. Both compounds have been confirmed in postadministration urine samples of an urokinase plasminogen activator-severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA-SCID) mouse with humanized liver and were characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS using both quadrupole and time of flight analyzers. From the detailed study of the fragmentation, these metabolites were proposed to be epimethyltestosterone and a dehydrogenated compound. Epimethyltestosterone has previously been described as a minor metabolite, whereas the occurrence of the oxidized metabolite has not been reported. Comparison with the synthesized reference revealed that the structure of the dehydrogenated metabolite is 6-ene-epimethyltestosterone. A selected reaction monitoring method including three transitions for each metabolite has been developed and applied to samples from an excretion study and to samples declared positive after GC-MS analysis. 6-Ene-epimethyltestosterone was found in all samples, showing its applicability in the detection of methyltestosterone misuse.

  12. Pyroxene structures, cathodoluminescence and the thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Shaoxiong; Schneider, Diann; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; DeHart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to explore the thermal history of enstatite chondrites, we examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 15 EH chondrites and 21 EL chondrites, including all available petrographic types, both textural types 3-6 and mineralogical types alpha-delta. The CL properties of EL3(alpha) and EH3(alpha) chondrites are similar. Enstatite grains high in Mn and other transition metals display red CL, while enstatite with low concentrations of these elements show blue CL. A few enstatite grains with greater than 5 wt% FeO display no CL. In contrast, the luminescent properties of the metamorphosed EH chondrites are very different from those of metamorphosed EL chondrites. While the enstatites in metamorphosed EH chondrites display predominantly blue CL, the enstatites in metamorphosed EL chondrites display a distinctive magenta CL with blue and red peaks of approximately equal intensity in their spectra. The TL sensitivities of the enstatite chondrites correlate with the intensity of the blue CL and, unlike other meteorite classes, are not simply related to metamorphism. The different luminescent properties of metamorphosed EH and EL chondrites cannot readily be attributed to compositional differences. But x-ray diffraction data suggests that the enstatite in EH5(gamma),(delta) chondrites is predominantly disordered orthopyroxene, while enstatite in EL6(beta) chondrites is predominantly ordered orthopyroxene. The difference in thermal history of metamorphosed EL and EH chondrites is so marked that the use of single 'petrographic' types is misleading, and separate textural and mineralogical types are preferable. Our data confirm earlier suggestions that metamorphosed EH chondrites underwent relatively rapid cooling, and the metamorphosed EL chondrites cooled more slowly and experienced prolonged heating in the orthopyroxene field.

  13. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  14. Acceptor products of alternansucrase with gentiobiose. Production of novel oligosaccharides for food and feed and elimination of bitterness.

    PubMed

    Côté, Gregory L

    2009-01-26

    In the presence of suitable acceptor molecules, dextransucrase makes a homologous series of oligosaccharides in which the isomers differ by a single glucosyl unit, whereas alternansucrase synthesizes one trisaccharide, two tetrasaccharides, etc. Previously, we showed that alternansucrase only forms certain isomers of DP>4 from maltose in measurable amounts, and that these oligosaccharides belong to the oligoalternan series rather than the oligodextran series. We now demonstrate that the acceptor products from gentiobiose, also formed in good yields (nearly 90% in unoptimized reactions), follow a pattern similar to those formed from maltose. The initial product is a single trisaccharide, alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-d-Glc. Two tetrasaccharides were formed in approximately equal quantities: alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-d-Glc and alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-d-Glc. Just one pentasaccharide was isolated from the reaction mixture, alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-d-Glcp-(1-->6)-d-Glc. Our hypothesis that the enzyme is incapable of forming two consecutive alpha-(1-->3) linkages, and does not form products with more than two consecutive alpha-(1-->6) linkages, apparently applies to other acceptors as well as to maltose. The glucosylation of gentiobiose reduces or eliminates its bitter taste.

  15. Hierarchical phosphorylation at N-terminal transformation-sensitive sites in c-Myc protein is regulated by mitogens and in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lutterbach, B; Hann, S R

    1994-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the c-Myc protein has been reported to be critical for both the transactivation and biological functions of the c-Myc proteins. Through detailed phosphopeptide mapping analyses, we demonstrate that there is a cluster of four regulated and complex phosphorylation events on the N-terminal domain of Myc proteins, including Thr-58, Ser-62, and Ser-71. An apparent enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation occurs on v-Myc proteins having a mutation at Thr-58 which has previously been correlated with increased transforming ability. In contrast, phosphorylation of Thr-58 in cells is dependent on a prior phosphorylation of Ser-62. Hierarchical phosphorylation of c-Myc is also observed in vitro with a specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha, unlike the promiscuous phosphorylation observed with other glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and 3 beta preparations. Although both p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cdc2 kinase specifically phosphorylate Ser-62 in vitro and cellular phosphorylation of Thr-58/Ser-62 is stimulated by mitogens, other in vivo experiments do not support a role for these kinases in the phosphorylation of Myc proteins. Unexpectedly, both the Thr-58 and Ser-62 phosphorylation events, but not other N-terminal phosphorylation events, can occur in the cytoplasm, suggesting that translocation of the c-Myc proteins to the nucleus is not required for phosphorylation at these sites. In addition, there appears to be an unusual block to the phosphorylation of Ser-62 during mitosis. Finally, although the enhanced transforming properties of Myc proteins correlates with the loss of phosphorylation at Thr-58 and an enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation, these phosphorylation events do not alter the ability of c-Myc to transactivate through the CACGTG Myc/Max binding site. Images PMID:8035827

  16. Glycosidic specificity of fucosyltransferases present in rat epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Raychoudhury, S S; Millette, C F

    1995-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated multiple fucosyltransferase (FT) activity in rat spermatogenic cells. To complement these findings, here we identify and partially characterize the glycosidic linkage specificity of FTs present in spermatozoa from caput and cauda epididymides. Analysis of the acceptor substrate specificity of the FTs by thin-layer chromatography indicated that both caput and cauda sperm expressed alpha(1-2)-, alpha(1-3)-, alpha(1-4)-FTs as demonstrated by fucose incorporation into phenyl-beta-D-galactoside, 2'-fucosyllactose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose-I, respectively. Spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis exhibited significant decreases in the levels of alpha(1-2)-, alpha(1-3)-, alpha(1-4)-FTs, and of total soluble FTs in comparison to spermatozoa from the caput epididymidis. The relative ratio of alpha(1-3)-FT to total FT activity appeared to be significantly higher than those of alpha(1-2)- or alpha(1-4)-FTs, in spermatozoa both from caput and cauda epididymides. Using different types of low molecular weight acceptors and the selective inhibition of the FT by N- ethylmaleimide, we have demonstrated that at least alpha(1-2)-FT is different from alpha(1-3)- or alpha(1-4)-FTs. Kinetic studies also showed that alpha(1-2)-FT is different from alpha(1-3)- or alpha(1-4)-FTs as demonstrated by apparent Km and Vmax values. Moreover, alpha(1-3)- and alpha(1-4)-FT activities in cauda sperm were found to be highly sensitive to Mn2+ but showed differential responses to divalent cations. In contrast, both alpha(1-3)- and alpha(1-4)-FTs seemed to be relatively less sensitive to Mg2+. Thus, these results not only demonstrate the presence of multiple FTs in rat epididymal sperm but also differentiate individual FTs with regard to their kinetic properties and sensitivity to both inhibitor and divalent cations.

  17. a Combined Molecular Dynamics and NMR Spectroscopic Protocol for the Conformational Analysis of Oligosaccharides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Vikram

    A combined experimental and theoretical protocol for the conformational analysis of oligosaccharides is presented. Three disaccharides, methyl alpha - scD-mannopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-alpha- scD-mannopyranoside, methyl beta- scD-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta- scD-glucopyranoside, and propyl beta- scD-2-acetamido -2-deoxy glucopyranosyl-(1 to 3)- alpha- scL-rhamnopyranoside, are used to evaluate a protocol for conformational analysis that makes use of molecular dynamics calculations with the CHARMM force field. Dynamics trajectories computed in vacuo and in water are used to calculate time-averaged NMR parameters such as spin-lattice relaxation times (T_1 ), Nuclear Overhauser Enhancements (NOE), and heteronuclear spin-spin coupling constants (^3J _{rm CH}). The calculated NMR parameters are then compared to experimental values and used to evaluate the computational procedure. The energetically accessible conformations are effectively sampled by the simulations. The method has been extended to the conformational analysis of higher-order oligosaccharides corresponding to the cell-wall polysaccharide of the Streptococcus Group A, and the Shigella flexneri Y O-antigen. The Streptococcus Group A cell-wall polysaccharide is comprised of a backbone of rhamnopyranosyl units connected by alternating alpha- scL-(1 to 3) and alpha- scL -(1 to 2) linkages, to which are attached N-acetyl-beta- scD-glucosamine ( beta- scD-GlcpNAc) residues at the 3 positions of the rhamnose backbone.rm A&rm B^'qquad A^'& rm Bqquad Acr[{-alpha}{-}L{-}Rha {it p}{-}(1to2){-alpha }{-}L{-}Rha{it p} {-}(1to3){-alpha}{ -}L{-}Rha{it p}-(1to2) -alpha-L-Rha{it p}{-}(1 to3){-alpha}{-}L{- }Rha{it p}{-}cr&uparrow(1 to3)&uparrow(1to3)crbeta {-}D{-}&rm Glc{it p }NAcqquadbeta{-}D{-}& rm Glc{it p}NAccr&rm C ^'&rm C] A branched trisaccharide (A^' -(C)B), a tetrasaccharide (A^' -(C)B-A), a pentasaccharide (C^' -B^'-A ^'-(C)B), and two hexasaccharides (C^'-B^ '-A^' -(C)B-A) and (A-(C^')B ^'-A^' -(C)B), have been chosen

  18. Binary technetium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Erik Vaughan

    In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: alpha/beta-TcCl3, alpha/beta-TcCl 2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5, TcCl4, TcBr 4, TcBr3, TcI3, alpha/beta-TcCl3 and alpha/beta-TcCl2) making the binary halide system of Tc comparable to those of its neighboring elements. Technetium binary halides were synthesized using three methods: reactions of the elements in sealed tubes, reactions of flowing HX(g) (X = Cl, Br, and I) with Tc2(O2CCH3)4Cl2, and thermal decompositions of TcX4 (X = Cl, Br) and alpha-TcCl 3 in sealed tubes under vacuum. Binary Tc halides can be found in various dimensionalities such as molecular solids (TcF6), extended chains (TcF5, TcCl4, alpha/beta-TcCl2, TcBr 3, TcI3), infinite layers (beta-TcCl3), and bidimensional networks of clusters (alpha-TcCl3); eight structure-types with varying degrees of metal-metal interactions are now known. The coordination chemistry of Tc binary halides can resemble that of the adjacent elements: molybdenum and ruthenium (beta-TcCl3, TcBr3, TcI 3), rhenium (TcF5, alpha-TcCl3), platinum (TcCl 4, TcBr4), or can be unique (alpha-TcCl2 and beta-TcCl 2) in respect to other known transition metal binary halides. Technetium binary halides display a range of interesting physical properties that are manifested from their electronic and structural configurations. The thermochemistry of binary Tc halides is extensive. These compounds can selectively volatilize, decompose, disproportionate, or convert to other phases. Ultimately, binary Tc halides may find application in the nuclear fuel

  19. Optical studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Obaid, A L; Nelson, M E; Lindstrom, J; Salzberg, B M

    2005-08-01

    Nicotinic transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is extensive, but the role of individual nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the functional connectivity of its plexuses has been elusive. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against neuronal alpha3-, alpha4-, alpha3/alpha5-, beta2-, beta4- and alpha7-subunits, combined with radioimmunoassays and immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that guinea-pig enteric ganglia contain all of these nAChR-subunits with the exception of alpha4, and so, differ from mammalian brain. This information alone, however, is insufficient to establish the functional role of the identified nAChR-subtypes within the enteric networks and, ultimately, their specific contributions to gastrointestinal physiology. We have used voltage-sensitive dyes and a high-speed CCD camera, in conjunction with specific antagonists to various nAChRs, to elucidate some of the distinct contributions of the individual subtypes to the behaviour of enteric networks. In the guinea-pig, the submucous plexus has the extraordinary advantage that it is virtually two-dimensional, permitting optical recording, with single cell resolution, of the electrical activity of all of its neurones. In this plexus, the block of alpha3beta2-, alpha3beta4- and/or alpha7-nAChRs always results in a decrease in the magnitude of the synaptic response. However, the magnitude of the fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (epsps) evoked by electrical stimulation of a neighbouring ganglion varies from cell to cell, reflecting the differential expression of subunits already observed using mAbs, as well as the strengths of the activated synaptic inputs. At the same time, we observe that submucous neurones have a substantial mecamylamine (Mec)-insensitive (non-nicotinic) component to their fast epsps, which may point to the presence of purinergic or serotonergic fast epsps in this system. In the myenteric plexus, on the other hand, the antagonist-induced changes in the

  20. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  1. Espin cytoskeletal proteins in the sensory cells of rodent taste buds.

    PubMed

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Freeman, David; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R

    2005-09-01

    Espins are multifunctional actin-bundling proteins that are highly enriched in the microvilli of certain chemosensory and mechanosensory cells, where they are believed to regulate the integrity and/or dimensions of the parallel-actin-bundle cytoskeletal scaffold. We have determined that, in rats and mice, affinity purified espin antibody intensely labels the lingual and palatal taste buds of the oral cavity and taste buds in the pharyngo-laryngeal region. Intense immunolabeling was observed in the apical, microvillar region of taste buds, while the level of cytoplasmic labeling in taste bud cells was considerably lower. Taste buds contain tightly packed collections of sensory cells (light, or type II plus type III) and supporting cells (dark, or type I), which can be distinguished by microscopic features and cell type-specific markers. On the basis of results obtained using an antigen-retrieval method in conjunction with double immunofluorescence for espin and sensory taste cell-specific markers, we propose that espins are expressed predominantly in the sensory cells of taste buds. In confocal images of rat circumvallate taste buds, we counted 21.5 +/- 0.3 espin-positive cells/taste bud, in agreement with a previous report showing 20.7 +/- 1.3 light cells/taste bud when counted at the ultrastructural level. The espin antibody labeled spindle-shaped cells with round nuclei and showed 100% colocalization with cell-specific markers recognizing all type II [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III (IP(3)R(3))(,) alpha-gustducin, protein-specific gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)] and a subpopulation of type III (IP(3)R(3), PGP9.5) taste cells. On average, 72%, 50%, and 32% of the espin-positive taste cells were labeled with antibodies to IP(3)R(3), alpha-gustducin, and PGP9.5, respectively. Upon sectional analysis, the taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae commonly revealed a multi-tiered, espin-positive apical cytoskeletal apparatus. One espin-positive zone, a

  2. NMDA potentiation by visible light in the presence of a fluorescent neurosteroid analogue.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, Lawrence N; Shu, Hong-Jin; Wang, Cunde; Aizenman, Elias; Covey, Douglas F; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven

    2009-06-15

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are widely studied because of their importance in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxic cell death. Here we report a novel method of potentiating NMDA receptors with fluorescence excited by blue (480 nm) light. In the presence of 300 nM of a (7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl) amino (NBD)-tagged neuroactive steroid carrier C2-NBD-(3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (C2-NBD 3alpha5alphaP), responses of cultured hippocampal neurons to 10 microM NMDA were potentiated to 219.2 +/- 9.2% of the baseline response (100%) by a 30 s exposure to 480 nm light. The potentiation decayed back to baseline with a time constant of 80.6 s. Responses to 1 microM and 100 microM NMDA were potentiated to 147.9 +/- 9.6% and 174.1 +/- 15.6% of baseline, respectively, suggesting that visible-light potentiation is relatively insensitive to NMDA concentration. Peak autaptic NMDA responses were potentiated to 178.9 +/- 22.4% of baseline. Similar potentiation was seen with 10 microM NBD-lysine, suggesting that visible-light potentiation is not a steroid effect. Potentiation was also seen with a steroid analogue in which the NBD was replaced with fluorescein, suggesting that NBD is not the only fluorophore capable of supporting visible-light potentiation. UV light and redox potentiation of NMDA receptors largely occluded subsequent blue light potentiation (127.7 +/- 7.4% and 120.2 +/- 6.2% of baseline, respectively). The NR1a(C744A,C798A) mutant that is insensitive to redox and UV potentiation was also largely unaffected by visible-light potentiation (135.0 +/- 10.0% of baseline). Finally, we found that the singlet oxygen scavenger furfuryl alcohol decreased visible-light potentiation. Collectively, these data suggest that visible-light potentiation of NMDA receptors by fluorescence excitation shares mechanisms with UV and redox potentiation and may involve singlet oxygen production.

  3. Millisecond autothermal catalytic reforming of carbohydrates for synthetic fuels by reactive flash volatilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauenhauer, Paul Jakob

    Carbohydrates including glucose, cellulose, starch and polyols including glycerol, ethylene glycol and methanol produced in large quantities from biomass are considered as a carbon-based feedstock for high temperature catalytic reforming by catalytic partial oxidation. Autothermal catalytic partial oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol with Rh and Pt-based catalysts with ceria on alumina foam supports at residence times less than ten milliseconds produced equilibrium selectivity to synthesis gas. The addition of steam at S/C>4 produced selectivity to H2 higher than 80% with little or no selectivity to minor products. In a new process referred to as 'reactive flash volatilization,' catalytic partial oxidation was combined with pyrolysis of biomass by directly impinging particles of cellulose, starch, polyethylene, soy oil, or Aspen (Populous Tremuloides) on an operating Rh-based reforming catalyst at 700-800°C. Solid particles endothermically pyrolyzed to volatile organic compounds which mixed with air and reformed on the catalyst exothermically generating heat to drive the overall process. Particles of ˜250 mum microcrystalline cellulose processed at the conditions of C/O=1.0 on a RhCe/gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al 2O3 at a residence time of ˜70 milliseconds produced a gaseous effluent stream selecting for 50% H2 and 50% CO with no observable side products other than H2O and CO2, and <1% CH4. To obtain a more optimal synthesis gas stream, the reforming of ˜400 mum microcrystalline particles was examined over a fixed bed of RhCe/gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al2O 3 spheres by varying the feed ratio of N2/O2, the temperature of the feed gas, the total particle feed rate, and the addition of steam permitting cellulose conversion with ˜75% fuel efficiency. Cellulose, sucrose, and glycerol particle conversion was examined with high-speed photography (1000 frames/second) revealing the formation of a liquid intermediate from cellulose permitting extremely high heat flux (

  4. Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong-Hyun; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

    2008-11-10

    Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons are a diverse population of cells widely scattered in the hippocampus, where they regulate hippocampal circuit activity. The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, and functional studies have suggested the presence of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. Single-cell polymerase chain reaction analysis had confirmed that several nAChR subunit mRNAs are co-expressed with glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the marker for GABAergic interneurons. In this anatomical study, we systematically investigated the co-expression of GAD67 with different nAChR subunits by using double in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled GAD67 probe and (35)S-labeled probes for nAChR subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, and beta4). The results revealed that most GAD67-positive interneurons expressed beta2, and 67 % also expressed alpha7 mRNA. In contrast, mRNA expression of other subunits was limited; only 13 % of GAD67-positive neurons co-expressed alpha4, and less than 10% expressed transcripts for alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, or beta4. Most GAD67/alpha2 co-expression was located in CA1/CA3 stratum oriens, and GAD67/alpha5 co-expression was predominantly detected in CA1/CA3 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare and the dentate gyrus. Expression of alpha6 and beta3 mRNAs was rarely detected in the hippocampus, and mRNAs were not co-expressed with GAD67. These findings suggest that the majority of nicotinic responses in GABAergic interneurons should be mediated by a homomeric alpha7 or heteromeric alpha7*-containing nAChRs. Other possible combinations such as alpha2beta2*, alpha4beta2*, or alpha5beta2* heteromeric nAChRs could contribute to functional nicotinic response in subsets of GABAergic interneurons but overall would have a minor role.

  5. Wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation of phenol with FeAC (iron-embedded activated carbon) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Chen, Shih-Hsiung; Huang, Cheng-Hsien; Hung, Mu-Ya; Chang, Jing-Song; Lai, Cheng-Lee

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aims at exploring the catalytic oxidation activity of iron-embedded activated carbon (FeAC) and the application for the degradation of phenol in the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO). FeAC catalysts were prepared by pre-impregnating iron in coconut shell with various iron loadings in the range of 27.5 to 46.5% before they were activated. The FeAC catalysts were characterised by measuring their surface area, pore distribution, functional groups on the surface, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The effects of iron loading strongly inhibited the pore development of the catalyst but benefited the oxidation activity in WHPCO. It was found that the complete conversion of phenol was observed with all FeAC catalysts in oxidation. High level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement can be achieved within the first 30 minutes of oxidation. The iron embedded in the activated carbon showed good performance in the degradation and mineralisation of phenol during the oxidation due to the active sites as iron oxides formed on the surface of the activated carbon. It was found that the embedding irons were presented in gamma-Fe(2)O(3), alpha-Fe(2)O(3), and alpha-FeCOOH forms on the activated carbon. The aging tests on FeAC catalysts showed less activity loss, and less iron leaching was found after four oxidation runs.

  6. Overview of the magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, M.B.; Goetz, W.; Bertelsen, P.; Binau, C.S.; Folkmann, F.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Hjollum, J.I.; Hviid, S.F.; Jensen, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Leer, K.; Madsen, D.E.; Merrison, J.; Olsen, M.; Arneson, H.M.; Bell, J.F.; Gellert, Ralf; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, M.J.; Klingelhofer, G.; McCartney, E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Proton, J.B.; Rodionov, D.; Sims, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Wdowiak, T.; Yen, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers have accumulated airborne dust on different types of permanent magnets. Images of these magnets document the dynamics of dust capture and removal over time. The strongly magnetic subset of airborne dust appears dark brown to black in Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images, while the weakly magnetic one is bright red. Images returned by the Microscopic Imager reveal the formation of magnetic chains diagnostic of magnetite-rich grains with substantial magnetization (>8 Am2 kg-1). On the basis of M??ssbauer spectra the dust contains magnetite, olivine, pyroxene, and nanophase oxides in varying proportions, depending on wind regime and landing site. The dust contains a larger amount of ferric iron (Fe3+/Fe tot ??? 0.6) than rocks in the Gusev plains (???0.1-0.2) or average Gusev soil (???0.3). Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer data of the dust show that some of the iron in magnetite is substituted by titanium and chromium. The good correlation of the amount of calcium and sulfur in the dust may be caused by the presence of a calcium sulfate related phase. The overall mineralogical composition points to a basaltic origin of the airborne dust, although some alteration has taken place as indicated by the large degree of oxidation. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Valproic acid, a molecular lead to multiple regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Kostrouchová, M; Kostrouch, Z; Kostrouchová, M

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid (2-propyl pentanoic acid) is a drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Although very rare, side effects such as spina bifida and other defects of neural tube closure indicate that valproic acid interferes with developmental regulatory pathways. Recently obtained data show that valproic acid affects cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and immunogenicity of cultured cancer cells and tumours. Focused studies uncovered the potential of valproic acid to interfere with multiple regulatory mechanisms including histone deacetylases, GSK3 alpha and beta, Akt, the ERK pathway, the phosphoinositol pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, GABA, and the OXPHOS system. Valproic acid is emerging as a potential anticancer drug and may also serve as a molecular lead that can help design drugs with more specific and more potent effects on the one side and drugs with wide additive but weaker effects on the other. Valproic acid is thus a powerful molecular tool for better understanding and therapeutic targeting of pathways that regulate the behaviour of cancer cells.

  8. Yeast manno-protein biosynthesis: solubilization and selective assay of four mannosyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, T; Ballou, C E

    1975-01-01

    Using appropriate yeast strains and exogenous acceptors, we have devised specific assays for four mannosyltransferase activities involved in biosynthesis of the carbohydrate outer chain of yeast mannoproteins. The assays utilize GDP-[14C]mannose as the donor and unlabeled oligosaccharides as the acceptors, the products being neutral radioactive oligosaccharides one mannose unit larger than the acceptors. The multiglycosyltransferase system from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was solubilized in Triton X-100 and urea and purified 100-fold. Free mannose is an acceptor for the alpha1 leads to 2-mannosyltransferase, the major product being alpha[14C]Man leads to 2Man. The alpha1 leads to 6-mannooligosaccharides serve as acceptors for both the alpha1 leads to 2- and alpha1 leads to 6-transferases, but the tetrasaccharide alphaMan leads to 3alphsMan leads to 2alphaMan is a specific acceptor for the latter enzyme and yields (see article). When reduced, this same tetrasaccharide serves as the acceptor for an alpha1 leads to 3-mannosyltransferase from Saccharomyces chevalieri, yielding a pentasaccharide with two terminal 1 leads to 3 linkages. Assay of the alpha1 leads to 3-transferase in S. cerevisiae utilizes reduced alpha1 leads to 2-mannotriose as the acceptor, the product being alpha[14C]Man leads to 3alphaMan leads to 2alphaMan leads to 2Mannitol. The multienzyme system works in concert to make "mannan" in a cell-free in vitro system. Images PMID:1105568

  9. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  10. AM1 study of the electronic structure of some androgens 5{beta}-reduced

    SciTech Connect

    Kubli-Garfias, C.; Vazquez, R.; Vega-Velazquez, C. |

    1996-12-31

    Among the possible derivatives of testosterone are known the metabolites reduced at position 5. From this, two conformations are feasible; trans and cis resulting in 5{alpha} and 5{beta}-configured compounds. In this work four of the most important 5{beta}-reduced androgens were studied, namely: 5{beta}-androstanedione (5{beta}- androstane-3,17-dione (1)), 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-5{beta} androstan-3- one; (2)), etiocholanol-one (3{alpha}-hyroxy-5{beta}-androstan-17-one (3)) and epietiocholanolone (3{beta}-hydroxy-5{beta}-androstan-17-one; (4)). Initially geometries were optimized with molecular mechanics (MM2), and refined by the Austin Model 1 method (AM1). Thus, the following electronic structure properties were calculated: heat of formation ({Delta}Hf), dipole moment, and frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO). Although HOMO and LUMO were somewhat similar in energies, they were located differently into the molecular frame. Thus, HOMO was located at 17C-carbonyl group in structures 1,3 and 4 and at the carbonyl at C3 in 2; The LUMO was placed in the carbonyl at C3 in 1 and 2, whereas in 3 and 4 was placed at C17. It is concluded that these location of valence orbitals might facilitate the action of enzymes yielding androstanediols, explaining the last step in the metabolism of androgens.

  11. Effect of enzyme preparation from the marine mollusk Littorina kurila on fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus distichus.

    PubMed

    Bilan, M I; Kusaykin, M I; Grachev, A A; Tsvetkova, E A; Zvyagintseva, T N; Nifantiev, N E; Usov, A I

    2005-12-01

    A fucoidanase preparation from the marine mollusk Littorina kurila cleaved some glycosidic bonds in fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus distichus, but neither fucose nor lower oligosaccharides were produced. The main product isolated from the incubation mixture was a polysaccharide built up of disaccharide repeating units -->3)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2,4-di-SO3(-))-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2SO3(-))-(1-->, the structure coinciding with the idealized formula proposed for the initial substance. A polymer fraction with the same carbohydrate chain but sulfated only at positions 2 and nonstoichiometrically acetylated at positions 3 and 4 of fucose residues was isolated as a minor component. It is suggested that the native polysaccharide should contain small amounts of non-sulfated and non-acetylated fucose residues, and only their glycosidic bonds are cleaved by the enzyme. The enzymatic hydrolysis showed that irregular regions of the native polysaccharide containing acetylated and partially sulfated repeating units were assembled in blocks.

  12. Particle acceleration in rotating and shearing jets from AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, F. M.; Mannheim, K.

    2002-12-01

    We model the acceleration of energetic particles due to shear and centrifugal effects in rotating astrophysical jets. The appropriate equation describing the diffusive transport of energetic particles in a collisionless, rotating background flow is derived and analytical steady state solutions are discussed. In particular, by considering velocity profiles from rigid, over flat to Keplerian rotation, the effects of centrifugal and shear acceleration of particles scattered by magnetic inhomogeneities are distinguished. In the case where shear acceleration dominates, it is confirmed that power law particle momentum solutions f(p) ~ p-(3+alpha ) exist, if the mean scattering time tauc ~ palpha is an increasing function of momentum. We show that for a more complex interplay between shear and centrifugal acceleration, the recovered power law momentum spectra might be significantly steeper but flatten with increasing azimuthal velocity due to the increasing centrifugal effects. The possible relevance of shear and centrifugal acceleration for the observed extended emission in AGN is demonstrated for the case of the jet in the quasar 3C273.

  13. L-Tetrahydropalamatine: A Potential New Medication for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jia Bei, Wang; John R., Mantsch

    2013-01-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active constituent of herbal preparations containing plant species of the genera Stephania and Corydalis and has been approved and used in China for a number of clinical indications under the drug name Rotundine. The pharmacological profile of l-THP, which includes antagonism of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and actions at dopamine D3, alpha adrenergic and serotonin receptors, suggests that it may have utility for treating cocaine addiction. In this review, we provide an overview of the pharmacological properties of l-THP and the evidence supporting its development as an anti-addiction medication. The results of preclinical work demonstrating that l-THP attenuates cocaine’s reinforcing/rewarding effects and reinstatement in rat models of cocaine relapse are summarized, and the outcomes of studies demonstrating efficacy in human addicts are described. Finally, an overview of the safety profile of l-THP is provided and challenges associated with FDA approval of l-THP are discussed. PMID:22300097

  14. Calystegine B4, a novel trehalase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kato, A; Kizu, H; Matsui, K; Watson, A A; Nash, R J

    1996-10-31

    GLC-MS analysis has been developed for screening plants of the family Solanaceae for new calystegines. GLC-MS analyses of the extract of Scopolia japonica showed the presence of a new tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid in addition to the known calystegines A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, and C1. We gave this new alkaloid the trivial name calystegine B4. The structure of calystegine B4 was determined as 1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha, 4 alpha-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane from a variety of NMR spectral data. Calystegines B1, B2, and C1 are potent competitive inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) M for almond beta-glucosidase, while calystegine B4 inhibited this enzyme in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 7.3 microM. Calystegine B2 is also a potent inhibitor of green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, whereas calystegine B4 exhibited no significant activity for this enzyme. Among rat intestinal glycosidases, only trehalase was potently inhibited by calystegine B4, with an IC50 value of 9.8 microM. Furthermore, calystegine B4 potently inhibited pig kidney trehalase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 1.2 microM, but it was almost inactive against yeast and fungal trehalases.

  15. Inhibition of GSK3 by lithium, from single molecules to signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Freland, Laure; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    For more than 60 years, the mood stabilizer lithium has been used alone or in combination for the treatment of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses. Despite this long history, the molecular mechanisms trough which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among several targets, lithium has been shown to directly inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and beta (GSK3α and GSK3β). However in vivo, lithium also inhibits GSK3 by regulating other mechanisms like the formation of a signaling complex comprised of beta-arrestin 2 (βArr2) and Akt. Here, we provide an overview of in vivo evidence supporting a role for inhibition of GSK3 in some behavioral effects of lithium. We also explore how regulation of GSK3 by lithium within a signaling network involving several molecular targets and cell surface receptors [e.g., G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)] may provide cues to its relative pharmacological selectivity and its effects on disease mechanisms. A better understanding of these intricate actions of lithium at a systems level may allow the rational development of better mood stabilizer drugs with enhanced selectivity, efficacy, and lesser side effects. PMID:22363263

  16. GSK3A Is Redundant with GSK3B in Modulating Drug Resistance and Chemotherapy-Induced Necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Grassilli, Emanuela; Ianzano, Leonarda; Bonomo, Sara; Missaglia, Carola; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Giovannoni, Roberto; Masiero, Laura; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 alpha (GSK3A) and beta (GSK3B) isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, are 98% identical within their kinase domain and perform similar functions in several settings; however, they are not completely redundant and, depending on the cell type and differentiative status, they also play unique roles. We recently identified a role for GSK3B in drug resistance by demonstrating that its inhibition enables necroptosis in response to chemotherapy in p53-null drug-resistant colon carcinoma cells. We report here that, similarly to GSK3B, also GSK3A silencing/inhibition does not affect cell proliferation or cell cycle but only abolishes growth after treatment with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In particular, blocking GSK3A impairs DNA repair upon exposure to DNA-damaging drugs. As a consequence, p53-null cells overcome their inability to undergo apoptosis and mount a necroptotic response, characterized by absence of caspase activation and RIP1-independent, PARP-dependent AIF nuclear re-localization. We therefore conclude that GSK3A is redundant with GSK3B in regulating drug-resistance and chemotherapy-induced necroptosis and suggest that inhibition of only one isoform, or rather partial inhibition of overall cellular GSK3 activity, is enough to re-sensitize drug-resistant cells to chemotherapy. PMID:24984063

  17. Laminins 2 (alpha2beta1gamma1, Lm-211) and 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1, Lm-411) are synthesized and secreted by tooth pulp fibroblasts and differentially promote neurite outgrowth from trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Fried, Kaj; Sime, Wondossen; Lillesaar, Christina; Virtanen, Ismo; Tryggvasson, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2005-07-15

    The tooth pulp innervation originates from the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and represents an illustrative example of tissue targeting by sensory nerves. Pulpal fibroblasts strongly promote neurite outgrowth from TG neurons in vitro. In the present study, we have investigated the possible participation of laminins (LNs), potent neuritogenic extracellular matrix components. Immunohistochemistry of human tooth pulp demonstrated expression of LN alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, beta1 and gamma1, and laminin-binding integrin alpha3, alpha6, beta1 and beta4 chains in nerves. Though faintly stained for laminins in situ, pulpal fibroblasts reacted, once cultured and permeabilized, with antibodies to LN alpha2, alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 chains by flow cytometry. The cells also expressed the corresponding mRNAs and were able to assemble and secrete LN-2 (alpha2beta1gamma1, Lm-211) and LN-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1, Lm-411). LN-8 displayed a chondroitin sulphate (CS) modification in its alpha4 chain. In functional assays, mouse LN-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1, Lm-111) and recombinant human (rh) LN-8, but not native or rhLN-2, strongly promoted neurite outgrowth from TG neurons, mimicking the effect of cultured pulp fibroblast. Altogether, the results indicate that LN-2 and LN-8 are synthesized by tooth pulp fibroblasts and differentially promote neurite outgrowth from TG neurons. LN-8 may contribute to sensory innervation of teeth and other tissues during development and/or regeneration.

  18. NASA Tech Briefs, April 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes; Tactile Robotic Topographical Mapping Without Force or Contact Sensors; Thin-Film Magnetic-Field-Response Fluid-Level Sensor for Non-Viscous Fluids; Progress in Development of Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors; Simulating Operation of a Complex Sensor Network; Using Transponders on the Moon to Increase Accuracy of GPS; Controller for Driving a Piezoelectric Actuator at Resonance; Coaxial Electric Heaters; Dual-Input AND Gate From Single-Channel Thin-Film FET; High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory; Fabrication of Gate-Electrode Integrated Carbon-Nanotube Bundle Field Emitters; Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass; Photochemically Synthesized Polyimides; Optimized Carbonate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes; Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments; Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators; Miniature, Lightweight, One-Time-Opening Valve; Supplier Management System; Improved CLARAty Functional-Layer/Decision-Layer Interface; JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit; Remote-Sensing Time Series Analysis, a Vegetation Monitoring Tool; PyPele Rewritten To Use MPI; Data Assimilation Cycling for Weather Analysis; Hydrocyclone/Filter for Concentrating Biomarkers from Soil; Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons; and Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering.

  19. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Salmonella group E1 core trisaccharide using a recombinant beta-(1-->4)-mannosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Thorson, J S

    1999-06-30

    The chemical synthesis of the bacterial O-antigen from Salmonella serogroup E1, 3-O-(4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-alpha-D-galactos e, presents a particular challenge because it contains a beta-(1-->4) mannosidic linkage to L-rhamnose. We report a chemoenzymatic synthesis of this crucial antigenic material which culminates in the enzymatic formation of the critical beta-mannosyl connection catalyzed by Salmonella GDP-alpha-D-Man:alpha Rha1-->3 alpha Gal-PP-Und beta-(1-->4)-mannosyltransferase (ManT beta 4). In comparison with previous synthetic routes, this method is advantageous since it utilizes intermediates, available in significant yield, which can be readily derivatized from the reducing end to present flexibility for analog construction, while the enzymatic construction of the Man1-->4Rha glycosidic bond is both rapid and occurs in high yield. Furthermore, the reported spectroscopic and enzymatic structural characterization of the trisaccharide product furnishes the first indisputable functional link between wbaO and ManT beta 4 and clearly sets the stage for the future mechanistic study and exploitation of this fascinating glycocatalyst.

  20. New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1992-05-22

    Two new mannose-binding lectins were isolated from garlic (Allium sativum, ASA) and ramsons (Allium ursinum, AUA) bulbs, of the family Alliaceae, by affinity chromatography on immobilized mannose. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of these two lectins was studied by quantitative precipitation and hapten-inhibition assay. ASA reacted strongly with a synthetic linear (1----3)-alpha-D-mannan and S. cerevisiae mannan, weakly with a synthetic (1----6)-alpha-D-mannan, and failed to precipitate with galactomannans from T. gropengiesseri and T. lactis-condensi, a linear mannopentaose, and murine IgM. On the other hand, AUA gave a strong reaction of precipitation with murine IgM, and good reactions with S. cerevisiae mannan and both synthetic linear mannans, suggesting that the two lectins have somewhat different binding specificities for alpha-D-mannosyl units. Of the saccharides tested as inhibitors of precipitation, those with alpha-(1----3)-linked mannosyl units were the best inhibitors of ASA, the alpha-(1----2)-, alpha-(1----4)-, and alpha-(1----6)-linked mannobioses and biosides having less than one eighth the affinity of the alpha-(1----3)-linked compounds. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of ASA exhibits 79% homology with that of AUA, and moderately high homology (53%) with that of snowdrop bulb lectin, also an alpha-D-mannosyl-binding lectin.

  1. Structure of the O-polysaccharide and serological cross-reactivity of the Providencia stuartii O33 lipopolysaccharide containing 4-(N-acetyl-D-aspart-4-yl)amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Kocharova, Nina A; Zatonsky, George V; Blaszczyk, Aleksandra; Bystrova, Olga V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A; Rozalski, Antoni

    2004-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide of Providencia stuartii O33 was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide and the following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: -->6)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-Quip4N(Ac-D-Asp)-(1-->, where d-Qui4N(Ac-D-Asp) is 4-(N-acetyl-D-aspart-4-yl)amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. Structural studies were performed using sugar and methylation analyses and NMR spectroscopy, including conventional 2D 1H, 1H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY and 1H, 13C HSQC experiments as well as COSY and NOESY experiments in an H2O-D2O mixture to reveal correlations for NH protons. The O-polysaccharide of P. stuartii O33 shares an alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-Quip4N(Ac-D-Asp) epitope with that of Proteus mirabilis O38, which seems to be responsible for a marked serological cross-reactivity of anti-P. stuartii O33 serum with the lipopolysaccharide of the latter bacterium. P. stuartii O33 is serologically related also to P. stuartii O4, whose O-polysaccharide contains a lateral beta-D-Qui4N(Ac-L-Asp) residue.

  2. Compact prisms for polarisation splitting of fibre laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, B L; Yagodkin, D I

    2005-11-30

    Simple compact monoprisms for spatial splitting of polarised laser beams with relatively small diameters (no more than 1 mm) are considered. Prisms can be made of optically inactive CaCO{sub 3}, {alpha}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} ({alpha}-BBO), LiIO{sub 3}, LiNbO{sub 3}, YVO{sub 4}, and TiO{sub 2} crystals known in polarisation optics. The exact solution of the Snell equation for the extraordinary wave reflected from a surface arbitrarily tilted to its wave vector is obtained. The analysis of variants of the solution allows the fabrication of prisms with any deviation angles of the extraordinary wave by preserving the propagation direction of the ordinary wave. Three variants of prisms are considered: with minimised dimensions, with the Brewster output of the extraordinary beam, and with the deviation of the extraordinary wave by 90{sup 0}. Calcite prisms with the deviation angles for the extraordinary beam {approx}19{sup 0} and 90{sup 0} are tested experimentally. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Arnica longifolia, Aster hesperius, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Crockett, Sara L; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Wedge, David E

    2007-10-17

    Essential oils from three different Asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: Arnica longifolia carvacrol 37.3%, alpha-bisabolol 8.2%; Aster hesperius hexadecanoic acid 29.6%, carvacrol 15.2%; and Chrysothamnus nauseosus var. nauseosus beta-phellandrene 22.8% and beta-pinene 19.8%. Essential oils were also evaluated for their antimalarial and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, and antifungal activities against plant pathogens. No antimalarial and antimicrobial activities against human pathogens were observed. Direct bioautography demonstrated antifungal activity of the essential oils obtained from three Asteraceae taxa and two pure compounds, carvacrol and beta-bisabolol, to the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Subsequent evaluation of antifungal compounds using a 96-well micro-dilution broth assay indicated that alpha-bisabolol showed weak growth inhibition of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea after 72 h.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local environment around tungsten and molybdenum ions in tungsten-phosphate and molybdenum-phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Purans, J.

    1997-02-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to study the local environment around tungsten and molybdenum ions in BaO-P2O5-WO3 and CaO-P2O5-MoO3 glasses having different composition of WO3 and MoO3 oxides. The W L1,3 and Mo K edges x-ray absorption spectra were measured in transmission mode at room temperature using the synchrotron radiation emitted by the ADONE and LURE DCI storage rings, respectively. The analysis of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in glasses was performed in comparison with the results for a number of crystalline WO3, CaWO4, Na0.66WO3 alpha- MoO3, beta-MoO3 and amorphous a-WO3, a-MoO3 compounds. The results of the EXAFS modeling by two different methods [(1) multi-shell best-fit procedure within harmonic approximation and (2) model-independent radial distribution function approach] allowed us to extract detailed structural information on the first coordination shell of metal (W or Mo) ions. Using the obtained data together with the information given by XRD, EPR and optical spectroscopies, we propose the model of incorporation of W and Mo ions within the glass network.

  5. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O4 containing a new component of bacterial polysaccharides, 4,6-dideoxy-4.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, A V; Babicka, D; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S; Moll, H; Rozalski, A; Zähringer, U; Knirel, Y A

    2001-03-22

    A high-molecular-mass O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O4 lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC. The polysaccharide was studied by chemical methods along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C HMQC, and 1H,13C HMBC experiments. Solvolysis of the polysaccharide with trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid resulted in a GlcpA-(1 --> 3)-GlcNAc disaccharide and a novel amino sugar derivative, 4,6-dideoxy-4-[N-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyryl]-L-alanyl]amino-D-glucose [Qui4N(HbAla)]. On the basis of the data obtained, the following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide was established: --> 4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-Quip4N(HbAla)-(1 --> 3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -->. This structure is unique among the O-specific polysaccharides, which is in accordance with classification of the strain studied in a separate Proteus serogroup.

  6. Achromatopsia as a potential candidate for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-Jing; Alexander, John; Lei, Bo; Deng, Wentao; Zhang, Keqing; Li, Qiuhong; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2010-01-01

    Achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive retinal disease involving loss of cone function that afflicts approximately 1 in 30,000 individuals. Patients with achromatopsia usually have visual acuities lower than 20/200 because of the central vision loss, photophobia, complete color blindness and reduced cone-mediated electroretinographic (ERG) amplitudes. Mutations in three genes have been found to be the primary causes of achromatopsia, including CNGB3 (beta subunit of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel), CNGA3 (alpha subunit of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel), and GNAT2 (cone specific alpha subunit of transducin). Naturally occurring mouse models with mutations in Cnga3 (cpfl5 mice) and Gnat2 (cpfl3 mice) were discovered at The Jackson Laboratory. A natural occurring canine model with CNGB3 mutations has also been found. These animal models have many of the central phenotypic features of the corresponding human diseases. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy, we and others show that cone function can be restored in all three models. These data suggest that human achromatopsia may be a good candidate for corrective gene therapy.

  7. Role of Triton X-100 in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays capable of diagnosing genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Chong, Richard; Rho, Jee-Eun R; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Park, Paul S; Rho, Tae-Ho D; Park, Jee Y; Park, Lucienne; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2013-11-15

    The use of Triton X surfactants in developing 1,1'-oxalylimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (ODI CEIs) with extended linear response range for the quantification of unconjugated estriol (uE3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is reported for the first time. The wider linear dynamic range in ODI CLEIA results from Triton X series (e.g., Triton X-100, -114, -405, -705) acting as an inhibitor in the interaction between Amplex Red (hydrophobic substrate) and horseradish peroxidase (hydrophilic enzyme) to produce resorufin (hydrophobic fluorescent dye). Triton X-100 acts as the appropriate inhibitor in ODI CLEIA. The maximum concentrations of AFP and hCG quantified with sandwich ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 were 8 times higher than when analyzed with the same system in the absence of Triton X-100. In addition, the lowest concentration of uE3 determined using competitive ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 was 20 times lower than that measured with competitive ODI CLEIA in the absence of Triton X-100. These results indicate that rapid quantification of AFP, uE3, and hCG using cost effective and highly sensitive ODI CLEIAs in the presence of Triton X-100 can be applied as an accurate, precise, and reproducible method to diagnose genetic disorders (e.g., trisomy 18 and trisomy 21) in fetuses.

  8. Cytotoxicity of cardenolides and cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Zhu; Qing, Chen; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2009-04-01

    A new cardenolide, 12beta,14beta-dihydroxy-3beta,19-epoxy-3alpha-methoxy-5alpha-card-20(22)-enolide (6), and a new doubly linked cardenolide glycoside, 12beta-hydroxycalotropin (13), together with eleven known compounds, coroglaucigenin (1), 12beta-hydroxycoroglaucigenin (2), calotropagenin (3), desglucouzarin (4), 6'-O-feruloyl-desglucouzarin (5), calotropin (7), uscharidin (8), asclepin (9), 16alpha-hydroxyasclepin (10), 16alpha-acetoxycalotropin (11), and 16alpha-acetoxyasclepin (12), were isolated from the aerial part of ornamental milkweed, Asclepias curassavica and chemically elucidated through spectral analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and Raji cell lines. The results showed that asclepin (9) had the strongest cytotoxic activity with an IC(50) value of 0.02 microM against the two cancer cell lines and the new compound 13 had significant cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 0.69 and 1.46 microM, respectively.

  9. Multiple forms of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100.

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, S G; Savage, D C

    1992-01-01

    Four isozymes of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) have been purified from the cytosol of cells of Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100. The four proteins were designated BSH A, B, C, and D. They eluted from anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography columns at 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, and 0.25 M NaCl, respectively. They are catalytically similar, except that the Vmax of BSH D is about 10-fold lower than those of the other three isozymes. All four proteins consist of one or two polypeptides. The peptides have molecular weights of 42,000 and 38,000 and are designated alpha and beta, respectively. The approximate native molecular weights of BSH A, B, C, and D are 115,000, 105,000, 95,000, and 80,000, respectively. The native proteins are probably trimers; the four isozymes are the array of possible subunit combinations alpha 3, alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 1 beta 2, and beta 3 for A, B, C, and D, respectively. The two subunits are antigenically distinct. Polyclonal antibodies raised against BSH A (all alpha peptide) react in Western blots (immunoblots) only with proteins containing the alpha peptide; such antibodies raised against BSH D (all beta peptide) react only with proteins containing the beta peptide. The amino acid compositions of the two peptides differ. This is the first report of a bacterium that makes four BSH isozymes. Images PMID:1429446

  10. Structural and functional analysis of the two haemoglobins of the antarctic seabird Catharacta maccormicki characterization of an additional phosphate binding site by molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, M; Riccio, A; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    2000-10-01

    The amino-acid sequence and the oxygen-binding properties of the two haemoglobins of the Antarctic seabird south polar skua have been investigated. The two haemoglobins showed peculiar functional features, which were probably acquired to meet special needs in relation to the extreme environmental conditions. Both haemoglobins showed a weak alkaline Bohr effect which, during prolonged flight, may protect against sudden and uncontrolled stripping of oxygen in response to acidosis. We suggest that a weak Bohr effect in birds may reflect adaptation to extreme life conditions. The values of heat of oxygenation suggest different functional roles of the two haemoglobins. The experimental evidence suggests that both haemoglobins may bind phosphate at two distinct binding sites. In fact, analysis of the molecular models revealed that an additional phosphate binding site, formed by residues NA1alpha, G6alpha and HC3alpha, is located between the two alpha chains. This additional site may act as an entry/leaving site, thus increasing the probability of capturing phosphate and transferring it to the main binding site located between the two beta chains by means of a site-site migratory mechanism, thereby favouring the release of oxygen. It is suggested that most haemoglobins possess an additional phosphate binding site, having such a role in oxygen transport.

  11. Polymorphism of Alprazolam (Xanax): a review of its crystalline phases and identification, crystallographic characterization, and crystal structure of a new polymorph (form III).

    PubMed

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Van den Mooter, Guy; Blaton, Norbert

    2007-05-01

    A new polymorphic form of Alprazolam (Xanax), 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-alpha][1,4]benzodiazepine, C(17)H(13)ClN(4), has been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), single crystal X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This polymorphic form (form III) was obtained during DSC experiments after the exothermic recrystallization of the melt of form I. The crystal unit cell dimensions for form III were determined from diffractometer methods. The monoclinic unit cell found for this polymorph using XRPD after indexing the powder diffractogram was confirmed by the cell parameters obtained from single crystal X-ray diffractometry on a crystal isolated from the DSC pans. The single crystal unit cell parameters are: a = 28.929(9), b = 13.844(8), c = 7.361(3) angstroms, beta = 92.82(3) degrees , V = 2944(2) angstroms(3), Z = 8, space group P2(1) (No.4), Dx = 1.393 Mg/m(3). The structure obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction was used as initial model for Rietveld refinement on the powder diffraction data of form III. The temperature phase transformations of alprazolam were also studied using high temperature XRPD. A review of the different phases available in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) database for this drug is described bringing some clarification and corrections.

  12. Mechanisms of stem cell osteogenic differentiation on TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqiang; Qian, Chao; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Weng, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 nanotubes could stimulate osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between nanotubes and stem cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the response of bone marrow stromal cells to nanotubes of different diameters using microarray-based bioinformatics approach. Gene ontology (GO) and GO enrichment network analysis indicated that larger TiO2 nanotubes were more potent than smaller nanotubes in inducing the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and inhibiting that of genes responsible for cell adhesion. The analysis of the signaling network containing significantly affected genes suggested that Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPases ATP1A2 (alpha 2 polypeptide) and ATP1A3 (alpha 3 polypeptide), and MAP3K11 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11) were important for inducing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells without additional osteogenic stimuli. The upregulation of the ATP1A2 and MAP3K11 genes confirmed by real-time PCR indicates that the response of bone marrow stromal cells to nanotube cues may be mediated by the pathways previously implicated in transducing mechanical stress signals. Our results revealed some molecular mechanisms by which TiO2 nanotubes may direct osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.

  13. Bioconversion of red seaweed galactans: a focus on bacterial agarases and carrageenases.

    PubMed

    Michel, Gurvan; Nyval-Collen, Pi; Barbeyron, Tristan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Helbert, William

    2006-06-01

    Agars and carrageenans are 1,3-alpha-1,4-beta-galactans from the cell walls of red algae, substituted by zero (agarose), one (kappa-), two (iota-), or three (lambda-carrageenan) sulfate groups per disaccharidic monomer. Agars, kappa-, and iota-carrageenans auto-associate into crystalline fibers and are well known for their gelling properties, used in a variety of laboratory and industrial applications. These sulfated galactans constitute a crucial carbon source for a number of marine bacteria. These microorganisms secrete glycoside hydrolases specific for these polyanionic, insoluble polysaccharides, agarases and carrageenases. This article reviews the microorganisms involved in the degradation of agars and carrageenans, in their environmental and taxonomic diversity. We also present an overview on the biochemistry of the different families of galactanases. The structure-function relationships of the family GH16 beta-agarases and kappa-caraggeenases and of the family GH82 iota-carrageenases are discussed in more details. In particular, we examine how the active site topologies of these glycoside hydrolases influence their mode of action in heterogeneous phase. Finally, we discuss the next challenges in the basic and applied field of the galactans of red algae and of their related degrading microorganisms.

  14. Epigenetic Guardian: A Review of the DNA Methyltransferase DNMT3A in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and Clonal Haematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudry, Sabah F.

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a haematological malignancy characterized by clonal stem cell proliferation and aberrant block in differentiation. Dysfunction of epigenetic modifiers contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of AML. One frequently mutated gene involved in epigenetic modification is DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase-3-alpha), a DNA methyltransferase that alters gene expression by de novo methylation of cytosine bases at CpG dinucleotides. Approximately 22% of AML and 36% of cytogenetically normal AML cases carry DNMT3A mutations and around 60% of these mutations affect the R882 codon. These mutations have been associated with poor prognosis and adverse survival outcomes for AML patients. Advances in whole-exome sequencing techniques have recently identified a large number of DNMT3A mutations present in clonal cells in normal elderly individuals with no features of haematological malignancy. Categorically distinct from other preleukaemic conditions, this disorder has been termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Further insight into the mutational landscape of CHIP may illustrate the consequence of particular mutations found in DNMT3A and identify specific “founder” mutations responsible for clonal expansion that may contribute to leukaemogenesis. This review will focus on current research and understanding of DNMT3A mutations in both AML and CHIP. PMID:28286768

  15. Sequence-Based Appraisal of the Genes Encoding Neck and Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Conglutinin in Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Sasmita; Sidappa, Chandra Mohan; Saini, Mohini; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K.; Gupta, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants. PMID:25028649

  16. A highly tilted binding mode by a self-reactive T cell receptor results in altered engagement of peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Heroux, A.; Schubert, D. A.; Anders, A.-K.; Bonsor, D. A.; Thomas, C. P.; Sundberg, E. J.; Pyrdol, J.; Wucherpfennig, K. W.

    2011-01-17

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  17. A Highly Tilted Binding Mode by a Self-Reactive T Cell Receptor Results in Altered Engagement of Peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    D Sethi; D Schubert; A Anders; A Heroux; D Bonsor; C Thomas; E Sundberg; J Pyrdol; K Wucherpfennig

    2011-12-31

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  18. In vitro metabolism of gestodene in target organs: formation of A-ring reduced derivatives with oestrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Lemus, A E; Santillán, R; Damián-Matsumura, P; García, G A; Grillasca, I; Pérez-Palacios, G

    2001-04-13

    Gestodene (13beta-ethyl-17alpha-ethynyl-17beta-hydroxy-4,5-gonadien-3-one), the most potent progestin ever synthesized, stimulates breast cancer cell growth through an oestrogen receptor-mediated mechanism, and its use in hormonal contraception has been associated with side effects attributable to oestrogenic actions. These observations have remained controversial, since gestodene does not bind to the oestrogen receptor or exert oestrogen-like activities. Recently, we have demonstrated that non-phenolic gestodene derivatives interact with oestrogen receptors and induce oestrogenic effects in cell expression systems. To assess whether gestodene is biotransformed to metabolites with intrinsic oestrogenic potency, [3H]- and [14C]-labelled gestodene were incubated in vitro with rat anterior pituitary, hypothalamus and ventral prostate homogenates under different experimental conditions. The most remarkable finding was the isolation and identification of 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydrogestodene and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrogestodene as metabolic conversion products of gestodene, presumably with 5alpha-dihydrogestodene as intermediate. The overall results seem to indicate that the weak oestrogenic effects attributable to gestodene could be mediated by its tetrahydro metabolites.

  19. The antimicrobial protein REG3A regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation after skin injury.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuping; Li, Dongqing; Li, Changwei; Muehleisen, Beda; Radek, Katherine A; Park, Hyun Jeong; Jiang, Ziwei; Li, Zhiheng; Lei, Hu; Quan, Yanchun; Zhang, Tian; Wu, Yelin; Kotol, Paul; Morizane, Shin; Hata, Tissa R; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Tang, Ce; Gallo, Richard L

    2012-07-27

    Epithelial keratinocyte proliferation is an essential element of wound repair, and abnormal epithelial proliferation is an intrinsic element in the skin disorder psoriasis. The factors that trigger epithelial proliferation in these inflammatory processes are incompletely understood. Here we have shown that regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REG3A) is highly expressed in keratinocytes during psoriasis and wound repair and in imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin lesions. The expression of REG3A by keratinocytes is induced by interleukin-17 (IL-17) via activation of keratinocyte-encoded IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and feeds back on keratinocytes to inhibit terminal differentiation and increase cell proliferation by binding to exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3) followed by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase AKT. These findings reveal that REG3A, a secreted intestinal antimicrobial protein, can promote skin keratinocyte proliferation and can be induced by IL-17. This observation suggests that REG3A may mediate the epidermal hyperproliferation observed in normal wound repair and in psoriasis.

  20. IL-27 Facilitates Skin Wound Healing through Induction of Epidermal Proliferation and Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Suwanpradid, Jutamas; Sanchez-Lagunes, Roberto; Choi, Hae Woong; Hoang, Peter; Wang, Donghai; Abraham, Soman N; MacLeod, Amanda S

    2017-01-26

    Skin wound repair requires a coordinated program of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation as well as resistance to invading microbes. However, the factors that trigger epithelial cell proliferation in this inflammatory process are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-27 is rapidly and transiently produced by CD301b(+) cells in the skin following injury. The functional role of IL-27 and CD301b(+) cells is demonstrated by the finding that CD301b-depleted mice exhibit delayed wound closure in vivo which could be rescued by topical IL-27 treatment. Furthermore, genetic ablation of IL-27 receptor (Il27Ra(-/-)) attenuates wound healing, suggesting an essential role for IL-27 signaling in skin regeneration in vivo. Mechanistically, IL-27 feeds back on keratinocytes to stimulate cell proliferation and re-epithelialization in the skin, whereas IL-27 leads to suppression of keratinocyte terminal differentiation. Finally, we identify that IL-27 potently increases expression of the anti-viral oligoadenylate synthase 2 (OAS2), however does not affect expression of anti-bacterial human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) or regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REGIIIa). Together, our data suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-27 in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and anti-viral host defense during the normal wound healing response.

  1. Epigenetic modifications of interleukin-6 in synovial fibroblasts from osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Zhou, Song; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Yan; Li, Huiwu; Wang, You; Zhu, Zhenan; Tang, Jian; Yan, Mengning

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the synovial joint. The synovial membrane is responsible for the inflammatory reaction leading to the secretion of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. Suppressing IL-6 over-expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) is a promising method to prevent OA development and progression, in which the prerequisite is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 over-expression in SF. Currently, there are few reports concerning epigenetic modifications in IL-6 in OA SF. In the present study, we attempted to investigate this phenomenon. SF over-expressing IL-6 was collected from OA patients. DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions in OA SF compared with normal SF. No differences in the status of H3K9 di-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation and H3K4 tri-methylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions between normal and OA SF. DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) overexpression and anacardic acid (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor) treatment increased DNA methylation and decreased histone acetylation in the IL-6 promoter, and IL-6 over-expression in OA SF was suppressed. These observations provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of OA and can be used to design new drugs and develop new therapeutic methods to treat OA. PMID:28262826

  2. Electrical characteristics of single-component ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and effects of air exposure on them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakanoue, Tomo; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Toshimitsu, Akio

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the electrical characteristics of single-component ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by controlling the device structure and preparation and the measurement conditions. Six organic semiconductor materials (copper-phthalocyanine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), alpha-sexithiophene, 4-4'-bis-styrylphenyl, 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, or a photopolymerized polydiacethylene derivative (PDA) were used as the active layer, and all were found to transport both holes and electrons. The PDA-based FETs had the highest hole and electron mobilities (0.12 and 0.025 cm2/V s, respectively). We also investigated the effect of air exposure on the OFETs. The hole mobility was barely affected by the exposure while the electron mobility was significantly affected. The threshold voltage for p-channel operation was shifted by the exposure while that for n-channel operation was not, indicating that the hole density in the active layer is increased by air exposure whereas the electron density is independent of air exposure. Furthermore, we prepared an Alq3-based p-channel OFET and investigated the effect of air exposure on it. While its operation was stable in vacuum, air exposure degraded its characteristics. These behaviors indicate that irreversible chemical reactions occur between cationic Alq3 species and oxygen or water molecules.

  3. Analysis of grain growth in a two-phase gamma titanium aluminide alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Seetharaman, V.; Semiatin, S.L.

    1997-04-01

    Microstructure evolution during annealing of a wrought near-gamma titanium aluminide alloy, Ti-45.5Al-2Nb-2Cr (at. pct), in the temperature range 1,200 C to 1,320 C was investigated. The mean grain size of the alpha phase as well as the volume fraction and size of the gamma particles were evaluated as a function of annealing temperature and time. Isothermal annealing at temperatures above the alpha transus, T{sub {alpha}} = 1,300 C, led to rapid grain growth of the alpha phase, the kinetics of which could be described by a simple power-law type expression with a grain growth exponent p = 2.3. Alpha grain growth was significantly retarded during annealing at subtransus temperatures (1,200 C {le} T {le} 1,300 C) by the pinning influence of gamma-phase particles. Limiting grain size values predicted by computer simulation models applicable for high-volume fractions of precipitates/particles were in good agreement with experimental findings. The kinetics of alpha grain growth in the presence of gamma particles were analyzed, and the results showed that a grain growth exponent of p {approx} 2.6 could satisfactorily account for the experimental results.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kap; Ho, Joseph X.; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary L.; Ji, Xinhua; Rueker, Florian; Carter, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  5. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  6. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  7. T lymphocyte subpopulations defined by two sets of monoclonal antibodies in chronic active hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, I H; Mackay, I R

    1982-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were enumerated in human peripheral blood using murine monoclonal antibodies with specificity for all peripheral blood T lymphocytes (OKT3, alpha-Leu 1) and for the helper subset (OKT4, alpha Leu 3a) and suppressor/cytotoxic subset (OKT8, alpha Leu 2a). Patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) (23) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (10), compared with healthy subjects (20), had a lower mean T lymphocyte count. Patients with CAH had normal numbers of suppressor/cytotoxic (TSC) cells, but fewer helper (TH) cells than healthy subjects (0 . 96 +/- 0 . 11 X 10(9)/1 versus 1 . 45 +/- 0 . 15 X 10(9)/1), and those with SLE also had fewer TH cells (0 . 93 +/- 0 . 11 X 10(9)/1). Patients with CAH receiving azathioprine (n = 8) had significantly fewer TSC cells, and a higher TH/TSC ratio (2 . 69 +/- 0 . 35) than those (n = 15) not on this therapy (1 . 85 +/- 0 . 15). When patients taking azathioprine were excluded, no correlation was found between disease activity and the TH/TSC ratio for either disease. PMID:6216997

  8. A comparison between pre- and posthibernation morphometry, hematology, and blood chemistry in viperid snakes.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Christopher J; Taylor, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Snakes from temperate climates are often made to hibernate in zoos to stimulate reproduction. Unfortunately, deaths have occurred during and after hibernation. This study evaluated the health status, pre- and posthibernation, of 31 adult viperid snakes. It included morphometric measurements, hematology, and blood chemistry. No differences were seen in body weights and weight to length ratios between pre- and posthibernation examinations, suggesting that the overall condition of the snakes did not change. No differences were seen in hematologic and blood chemistry parameters, except that bile acids (3alpha-hydroxybile acids) decreased, the implications of which are unknown. Three individuals had markedly high plasma uric acid levels posthibernation; of these, two individuals died from extensive visceral gout and one recovered with fluid therapy. Viperid snakes should be clinically healthy, well hydrated, and in good body condition when they are put into hibernation. They should be maintained in an environment with sufficient humidity and should have access to water. Blood samples should be collected on arousal for measuring plasma uric acid levels. Changes in morphometry, hematology, and blood chemistry appear to be abnormal and should be investigated thoroughly.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of Nepeta parnassica oils and isolated nepetalactones.

    PubMed

    Gkinis, Giorgos; Tzakou, Olga; Iliopoulou, Dimitra; Roussis, Vassilios

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils of Nepeta parnassica, collected at different developmental stages, were analyzed by means of GC/MS. From the fifty-five identified constituents in samples A and B, representing 94.8% and 98.7% of the oils respectively, 4a(alpha),7alpha,7alpha(beta)-nepetalactone (22.0%), 1,8-cineole (21.1%), alpha-pinene (9.5%) and 4a(alpha),7,beta,7alpha(beta)-nepetalactone (7.9%) were the major components of sample A (vegetative stage), whereas in sample B (flowering stage) the main contributors were 1,8-cineole (34.6%), 4a(alpha),7alpha,7a(alpha)-nepetalactone (17.3%), alpha-pinene (11.4%) and 4a(alpha),7alpha,7alpha(beta)-nepetalactone (8.9%). The oils were tested on human health important insects such as the Pogonomyrmex sp. ants and the Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes with promising results on insect repellency/toxicity.

  10. Electrostatic forces in two lysozymes: calculations and measurements of histidine pKa values.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Wada, A

    1992-08-01

    In order to examine the electrostatic forces in globular proteins, pKa values and their ionic strength dependence of His residues of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and human lysozyme (HUML) were measured, and they were compared with those calculated numerically. pKa values of His residues in HEWL, HUML, and short oligopeptides were determined from chemical shift changes of His side chains by 1H-nmr measurements. The associated changes in pKa values in HEWL and HUML were calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations numerically for macroscopic dielectric models. The calculated pKa changes and their ionic strength dependence agreed fairly well with the observed ones. The contribution from each residue of each alpha-helix dipole to the pKa values and their ionic strength dependence was analyzed using Green's reciprocity theorem. The results indicate that (1) the pKa of His residues are largely affected by surrounding ionized and polar groups; (2) the ionic strength dependence of the pKa values is determined by the overall charge distributions and their accessibilities to solvent; and (3) alpha-helix dipoles make a significant contribution to the pKa, when the His residue is close to the helix terminus and not fully exposed to the solvent.

  11. Anidulafungin (Eli Lilly & Co).

    PubMed

    Hawser, S

    1999-12-01

    The pentyloxyterphenyl side chain derivative of echinocandin B, anidulafungin, is a 1,3-alpha-glucan synthesis inhibitor undergoing phase II clinical trials by Versicor and Eli Lilly, in various formulations, for the potential treatment of fungal and protozoal infections. Eli Lilly has retained options to the oral formulation of the compound, but development, clinical registration and marketing rights were licensed to Versicor in June 1999. The primary target of this compound is Candida, but Eli Lilly also intends to develop the drug for Aspergillus infections. No activity has been shown against Cryptococcus. The oral activity of anidulafungin is compromised by a low bioavailability, a decreased absorption when taken with food, and gastrointestinal side effects at higher doses. The development of a phosphorylated prodrug, LY-307853, which is converted in the body to anidulafungin by tissue and serum phosphatases, was discontinued in favor of an oral formulation, which uses anidulafungin directly. In February 1999, Deutsche Bank predicted sales of $100 million in 2001, rising to $300 million in 2003.

  12. Human exposure to putative pheromones and changes in aspects of social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cowley, J J; Brooksbank, B W

    1991-10-01

    Student volunteers (38 of each sex) were exposed unknowingly overnight to the vapour of pheromonally active substances and compared with controls. The substances were either 5 alpha-16-androsten-3 alpha-ol (androstenol, occurring in human underarm sweat, and known to be pheromonally active in pig and man), or a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (occurring in human vaginal fluid, and known to be sexually attractive to the male rhesus monkey). The following morning, the subjects provided information about their social exchanges since rising, by recording on a standardized test diagram the number, depth, duration and direction of initiation, of all verbal exchanges with other individuals. Irrespective of treatment, males returned significantly higher scores than did females for all exchanges and also for some exchanges initiated by other males. Neither exposure to androstenol nor to the fatty acids had any significant effects on any of the scores of males interacting with either sex, nor on any scores of females with other females. However, exposure of females to androstenol, but not to the fatty acids, resulted in significantly higher scores of exchanges with males, in terms of all parameters for all exchanges. Findings are considered in relation to the origin and maintenance across species of pheromonal communication: evolutionary conservation is seen in terms of the utilization of substances that have provided the means of controlling the social milieu.

  13. Purification and characterization of pheromaxein, the porcine steroid-binding protein. A member of the secretoglobin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Austin, Corrine J; Emberson, Louise; Nicholls, Peter

    2004-07-01

    Low molecular mass proteins are implicated in chemical communication throughout mammalian species, being involved in both perception and delivery of pheromonal compounds. In boars, pheromones are secreted in saliva to cause oestrous sows to take up the mating stance. These pheromones are the 16-androstene steroids, 5alpha-androsten-3alpha-ol and 5alpha-androsten-3-one. The submaxillary glands of boars contain a low molecular mass protein, pheromaxein, which is capable of binding these 16-androstene pheromones. Pheromaxein was purified, cloned and characterized. It was found to be a nonglycosylated heterodimeric protein, belonging to the secretoglobin superfamily and the major 16-androstene-binding protein present in submaxillary salivary glands of the boar. One subunit, pheromaxein A, was found to be homologous to prostatein peptides, C1 and C2 and lipophilin A and B, whereas the other subunit, pheromaxein C, was homologous to prostatein peptide C3 and lipophilin C. Transcription of pheromaxein A was limited to the prostate and submaxillary salivary glands from both the boar and sow, whereas transcription of the other subunit, pheromaxein C, was more widespread. This is similar to the transcription distribution of lipophilin in humans. Many isoforms of pheromaxein were found to exist, with a molecular mass range of 17,415-18,159 Da; these are probably products of a multigene family. Post-translational modifications, to generate mature pheromaxein isoforms, probably include C-terminal cleavage of pheromaxein A, followed by additional modifications.

  14. Lipocalins of boar salivary glands binding odours and pheromones.

    PubMed

    Marchese, S; Pes, D; Scaloni, A; Carbone, V; Pelosi, P

    1998-03-15

    Large amounts of an odorant-binding protein have been isolated from submaxillary glands of mature male pig. This polypeptide molecule is sex-specific, being absent in females. On electrophoretic gels under denaturing conditions it migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular mass of around 20 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry revealed the presence of three main components, whose mass differences are not interpretable as result of any common post-translational modifications, indicating the presence of distinct polypeptide chains. N-terminal Edman degradation yielded a single sequence of 29 amino acids. It includes the lipocalin signature (-G-X-W-) and shows clear homology with a subclass of odorant-binding proteins present in mouse saliva, nasal mucus and urine. The purified protein still retained small ligands tightly bound; among them 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol, both known sex pheromones for the pig, were identified. The protein also binds 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, a good ligand for most odorant-binding proteins, with a dissociation constant of 5 microM.

  15. Durangite from the Black Range, New Mexico, and new data on durangite from Durango and Cornwall.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Oakman, M.R.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Durangite, associated with cassiterite, hematite, quartz, tridymite, cristobalite and clinopyroxene, occurs in small veinlets within flows, ash-flow tuffs and lithic tuffs in a tin mine near Boiler Peak, New Mexico. It is clear to semi-translucent, pale yellow-orange to medium orange-red with a vitreous lustre, pale yellow streak; H. 5-5.5%; irregular to conchoidal fracture and a good (110) cleavage; elongate along c with (110), (010), (021) and (111) the prominent forms; Dmeas 3.90, Dcalc 3.92 g/cm3; alpha medium yellow orange 1.634(3), beta pale yellow orange 1.663(3), gamma colourless 1.685(3); weak to moderate dispersion r < v. The structural formula is: (Na0.93Li0.07)SIGMA 1.00(Al0.89Fe0.07Mn0.06)SIGMA 1.02As0.99O4(F0.90(OH)0.07)SIGMA 0.97. Indexed XRD powder data are tabulated; a 6.574(1), b 8.505(2), c 7.019(1) A, beta 115.34o; space group C2/c; Z = 4. Additional X-ray and chemical data on durangite from Durango and Cornwall are also included.-L.T.T.

  16. Phytotoxic Eremophilanes from Ligularia macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Fronczek, Frank R; Osbrink, Weste L A; Mamonov, Leonid K; Vassilyev, Juriy I; Wedge, David E; Dayan, Franck E

    2007-12-26

    Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of the methylene chloride extract of the roots from Ligularia macrophylla was performed to identify both phytotoxic and antifungal compounds. Four phytotoxic eremophilanes (furanoeremophilan-14beta,6alpha-olide, 6beta-angeloyloxy-10beta-hydroxyfuranoeremophilane, eremophil-7(11)-ene-12,8alpha;14beta,6alpha-diolide, and 3alpha-angeloyloxybakkenolide A) and two antifungal fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) were isolated. The X-ray crystal structure determination of 6beta-angeloyloxy-10beta-hydroxyfuranoeremophilane is reported here for the first time. All four eremophilanes substantially inhibited growth of the monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) while demonstrating little activity against the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) at 1000 microM. In a dose-response screening of all compounds for growth inhibitory activity against Lemna paucicostata, 6beta-angeloyloxy-10beta-hydroxyfuranoeremophilane was the most active with an IC50 of 2.94+/-0.16 microM. This compound also caused the greatest reduction of photosynthetic electron flow; however, its mode of action remains to be determined. Evaluation of isolated compounds for activity against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is also reported. At a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt), 6beta-angeloyloxy-10beta-hydroxyfuranoeremophilane significantly reduced the consumption of filter paper by C. formosanus.

  17. Lupane triterpene glycosides from leave of Acanthopanax koreanum and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Ding, Yan; Hyun, Jae-Hee; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-09-01

    One new lupane-triterpene glycoside, acankoreoside I (1), and four known compounds, acankoreoside A (2), acankoreoside D (3), acankoreoside F (4), and acantrifoside A (5), were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax koreanum (Araliaceae). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The structure of new compound 1 was determined to be 3alpha,11alpha,30-trihydroxylup-23-al-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated with four cancer cell lines such as A-549 (lung), HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), MCF-7 (breast), and U-937 (leukemia). Compound 1 showed growth inhibitory effect in A-549, HL-60, and MCF-7 cell lines with the IC(50) values of 8.2 microM, 12.1 microM, and 28.6 microM, respectively, whereas it was less active in the U937 cell line (the IC(50) >100 microM).

  18. An Alpha Motif at Tas3C Terminus Mediates RITS Cis Spreading and Promotes Heterochromatic Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Motamedi, M; Yip, C; Wang, Z; Walz, T; Patel, D; Moazed, D

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the formation of heterochromatin at the fission yeast centromeres. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex, composed of heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the siRNA-binding protein Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and the Ago1/Chp1-interacting protein Tas3, provides a physical tether between the RNAi and heterochromatin assembly pathways. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a C-terminal Tas3 {alpha}-helical motif (TAM), which self-associates into a helical polymer and is required for cis spreading of RITS in centromeric DNA regions. Site-directed mutations of key residues within the hydrophobic monomer-monomer interface disrupt Tas3-TAM polymeric self-association in vitro and result in loss of gene silencing, spreading of RITS, and a dramatic reduction in centromeric siRNAs in vivo. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the chromodomain of Chp1 and siRNA-loaded Ago1, Tas3 self-association is required for RITS spreading and efficient heterochromatic gene silencing at centromeric repeat regions.

  19. A stapled BID BH3 helix directly binds and activates BAX.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Loren D; Pitter, Kenneth; Morash, Joel; Oh, Kyoung Joon; Barbuto, Scott; Fisher, Jill; Smith, Eric; Verdine, Gregory L; Korsmeyer, Stanley J

    2006-10-20

    BAX is a multidomain proapoptotic BCL-2 family protein that resides in the cytosol until activated by an incompletely understood trigger mechanism, which facilitates BAX translocation to mitochondria and downstream death events. Whether BAX is activated by direct contact with select BH3-only members of the BCL-2 family is highly debated. Here we detect and quantify a direct binding interaction between BAX and a hydrocarbon-stapled BID BH3 domain, which triggers the functional activation of BAX at nanomolar doses in vitro. Chemical reinforcement of BID BH3 alpha helicity was required to reveal the direct BID BH3-BAX association. We confirm the specificity of this BH3 interaction by characterizing a stapled BAD BH3 peptide that interacts with antiapoptotic BCL-X(L) but does not bind or activate BAX. We further demonstrate that membrane targeting of stapled BID BH3 optimizes its ability to activate BAX, supporting a model in which BID directly engages BAX to trigger mitochondrial apoptosis.

  20. Integrin alpha chains exhibit distinct temporal and spatial localization patterns in epithelial cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Michael B; Fratto, Victoria M; Lemosy, Ellen K

    2008-12-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that modulate cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Multiple integrin chains contribute to development and morphogenesis of a given tissue. Here, we analyze the expression of Drosophila integrin alpha chains in the ovarian follicular epithelium, a model for tissue morphogenesis and cell migration. We find expression throughout development of the beta chain, betaPS. Alpha chains, however, exhibit both spatial and temporal expression differences. alphaPS1 and alphaPS2 integrins are detected during early and mid-oogenesis on apical, lateral, and basal membranes with the betaPS chain, whereas alphaPS3-family integrins (alphaPS3, alphaPS4, alphaPS5) are expressed in anterior cells late in oogenesis. Surprisingly, we find that alphaPS3-family integrins are dispensable for dorsal appendage morphogenesis but play a role in the final length of the egg, suggesting redundant functions of integrins in a simple tissue. We also demonstrate roles for alphaPS3betaPS integrin in border cell migration and in stretch cells.

  1. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18–1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7–17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom’s MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:26717317

  2. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18-1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7-17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom's MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  3. SDR-O: an orphan short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase localized at mouse chromosome 10/human chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiguo; Song, Min-Sun; Napoli, Joseph L

    2002-07-10

    We report cloning a cDNA that encodes a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, SDR-O, conserved in mouse, human and rat. Human and mouse liver express SDR-O (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase-orphan) mRNA intensely. The mouse embryo expresses SDR-O mRNA as early as day seven. Human SDR-O localizes on chromosome 12; mouse SDR-O localizes on chromosome 10 with CRAD1, CRAD2 and RDH4. SDR-O shares highest amino acid similarity with rat RoDH1 and mouse RDH1 (69-70%), but does not have the retinol and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of either, nor is it active as a 17beta- or 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases catalyse the metabolism of ligands that bind with nuclear receptors: the occurrence of 'orphan' nuclear receptors may imply existence of 'orphan' SDR, suggesting that SDR-O may catalyse the metabolism of another class of nuclear receptor ligand. Alternatively, SDR-O may not have a catalytic function, but may regulate metabolism by binding substrates/products and/or by serving as a regulatory factor.

  4. Medium- and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene and protein families : the SDR superfamily: functional and structural diversity within a family of metabolic and regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, K L; Jörnvall, H; Persson, B; Oppermann, U

    2008-12-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a large family of NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases, sharing sequence motifs and displaying similar mechanisms. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactor, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. Sequence identities are low, and the most conserved feature is an alpha/beta folding pattern with a central beta sheet flanked by 2 - 3 alpha-helices from each side, thus a classical Rossmannfold motif for nucleotide binding. The conservation of this element and an active site, often with an Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys tetrad, provides a platform for enzymatic activities encompassing several EC classes, including oxidoreductases, epimerases and lyases. The common mechanism is an underlying hydride and proton transfer involving the nicotinamide and typically an active site tyrosine residue, whereas substrate specificity is determined by a variable C-terminal segment. Relationships exist with bacterial haloalcohol dehalogenases, which lack cofactor binding but have the active site architecture, emphasizing the versatility of the basic fold in also generating hydride transfer-independent lyases. The conserved fold and nucleotide binding emphasize the role of SDRs as scaffolds for an NAD(P)(H) redox sensor system, of importance to control metabolic routes, transcription and signalling.

  5. Nullifying drug-induced sensitization: behavioral and electrophysiological evaluations of dopaminergic and serotonergic ligands in methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    McDaid, J; Tedford, C E; Mackie, A R; Dallimore, J E; Mickiewicz, A L; Shen, F; Angle, J M; Napier, T C

    2007-01-05

    Repeated exposure to methamphetamine produces a persistent enhancement of the acute motor effects of the drug, commonly referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization involves monoaminergic projections to several forebrain nuclei. We recently revealed that the ventral pallidum (VP) may also be involved. In this study, we sought to establish if treatments with antagonists or partial agonists to monoaminergic receptors could "reverse" methamphetamine-induced behavioral and VP neuronal sensitization. Behavioral sensitization was obtained in rats with five once-daily s.c. injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine, an effect that persisted for at least 60 days. After the development of sensitization, 15 once-daily treatments of mirtazapine (a 5-HT(2/3), alpha(2) and H(1) antagonist), SKF38393 (D(1) partial agonist) or SCH23390 (dopamine D(1) antagonist) nullified indices of motor sensitization as assessed by measuring the motoric response to an acute methamphetamine challenge 30 days after the fifth repeated methamphetamine treatment. VP neurons recorded in vivo from methamphetamine-sensitized rats at the 30-day withdrawal time also showed a robust downward shift in the excitatory responses observed to an acute i.v. methamphetamine challenge in non-sensitized rats. This decreased excitatory effect was reversed by mirtazapine, but not by other antagonists that were tested. These data suggest a potential therapeutic benefit for mirtazapine in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction, and point to a possible role for the VP in the sensitization process to methamphetamine.

  6. Cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Reyes, A; Lan, N C

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a functional gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-activated Cl- channel has been isolated from an adult Drosophila head cDNA library. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the subunit functions efficiently, presumably as a homooligomeric complex and is activated by GABA or muscimol. GABA-evoked currents are highly sensitive to antagonism by picrotoxin but are insensitive to bicuculline, RU 5135, or zinc. Pentobarbitone greatly enhances GABA-evoked currents, whereas the neurosteroid 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one demonstrates a large reduction in both the potency and maximal effect when compared with its actions upon vertebrate GABA type A receptors. Although zinc-insensitive, the subunit is also insensitive to flunitrazepam. Hence, the GABA receptors formed by this subunit exhibit a unique pharmacology when compared with vertebrate GABA type A receptors or those composed of rho subunits. Because the receptor-channel complex functions as a homooligomer, this subunit may be of value in mutagenesis studies aiming to define drug-binding sites. Images PMID:8016117

  7. Regulation of activator protein-1 by 8-iso-prostaglandin E2 in a thromboxane A2 receptor-dependent and -independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.

    2003-05-01

    The thromboxane (TX) A{sub 2} receptor (TP) encompasses two alternatively spliced forms, termed the platelet/placental (TP-P) and endothelial (TP-E) type receptors. Experimental evidence suggests that TP activity may be modulated by novel ligands, termed the isoprostanes, that paradoxically act as TP agonists in smooth muscle and TP antagonists in platelet preparations. Here we have investigated whether prototypical isoprostanes 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F{sub 2{alpha}} and 8-iso-PGE{sub 2} regulate the activity of TP isoforms expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using activator protein-1 (AP-1)-luciferase activity as a reporter. AP-1-luciferase activity was increased by a TP agonist [9,11-dideoxy-9{alpha},11{alpha}-methanoepoxy PGF{sub 2{alpha}} (U46619)] in CHO cells transfected with the human TP-P and TP-E receptors, and this response was fully inhibited by TP antagonists [1S-[1{alpha},2{beta}(Z),3{alpha},5{alpha}

  8. Higher order Larmor radius corrections to guiding-centre equations and application to fast ion equilibrium distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanthaler, S.; Pfefferlé, D.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    An improved set of guiding-centre equations, expanded to one order higher in Larmor radius than usually written for guiding-centre codes, are derived for curvilinear flux coordinates and implemented into the orbit following code VENUS-LEVIS. Aside from greatly improving the correspondence between guiding-centre and full particle trajectories, the most important effect of the additional Larmor radius corrections is to modify the definition of the guiding-centre’s parallel velocity via the so-called Baños drift. The correct treatment of the guiding-centre push-forward with the Baños term leads to an anisotropic shift in the phase-space distribution of guiding-centres, consistent with the well-known magnetization term. The consequence of these higher order terms are quantified in three cases where energetic ions are usually followed with standard guiding-centre equations: (1) neutral beam injection in a MAST-like low aspect-ratio spherical equilibrium where the fast ion driven current is significantly larger with respect to previous calculations, (2) fast ion losses due to resonant magnetic perturbations where a lower lost fraction and a better confinement is confirmed, (3) alpha particles in the ripple field of the European DEMO where the effect is found to be marginal.

  9. Successful management of a pregnant woman with a TSH secreting pituitary adenoma with surgical and medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Chaiamnuay, Sumapa; Moster, Mark; Katz, M Richard; Kim, Young Nam

    2003-09-01

    We described a 39-yr-old asian female who was initially diagnosed with prolactinoma and presented with increase nervousness and weight loss. Laboratory evaluation revealed an inappropriately normal TSH level with elevated free T4, total T3, alpha-subunit and prolactin level. The alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was 4. MRI showed a macroadenoma extending to the suprasellar cistern. Treatment was begun with propylthiouracil and bromocriptine. After 5 months of therapy, she became pregnant. At 27 weeks of gestation, she developed headache and decreased visual acuity in her left eye. MRI showed a slightly increase in tumor size compressing the optic chaiasm. Transphenoid macroadenectomy was performed with immediate relief of the visual field abnormality. At 39 weeks gestation a baby with no malformations was delivered. This is the second case report of TSH secreting pituitary adenoma which was exarcerbated during pregnancy. In contrast to the first case, our case was managed with both surgical and medical approach. The judicious use of both medical and surgical therapy can result in a successful outcome to mother and fetus in a patient with TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.

  10. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  11. The influence of Tribenoside on expression and deposition of epidermal laminins in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Takaki, Shu; Matsuda, Yuji; Okabe, Koichi; Taniguchi, Masakazu; Oomachi, Kengo; Samejima, Teruyuki; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Tribenoside has been used clinically for hemorrhoidal disease associated with coagulation, inflammation, and wounds. However, the pharmacological mechanism of tribenoside activity has never been clear. In this study we examined whether tribenoside affected expression and deposition of laminins that are required for reconstruction of basement membranes (BMs) during wound healing in hemorrhoidal disease. HaCaT cells, which are derived from human epidermis, were treated in growth media supplemented with tribenoside. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific for laminin chains showed that HaCaT cells constitutively expressed laminin alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains. Tribenoside treatment of HaCaT cells did not induce expression of other laminin chains. We also quantified the expression of laminin chains in tribenoside-treated cells using real-time PCR. The expression level of laminin alpha3, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains was not affected. In contrast, the expression of laminin alpha5 in the tribenoside-treated cells was four times higher than that of control cells. Immunocytochemistry also showed that tribenoside accelerated the focal deposition of laminin-332 (alpha3, beta3, gamma2). These results suggest that tribenoside interacts with epidermal cells and regulates the expression and localization of laminins to help reconstruct BMs in wound healing of hemorrhoids.

  12. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  13. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-01-01

    The apical junctional complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin. PMID:20617560

  14. Alcohol absorption inhibitors from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis): structure-requirements of sesquiterpenes for the activity.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Shimoda, H; Uemura, T; Morikawa, T; Kawahara, Y; Matsuda, H

    2000-08-01

    Through a bioassay-guided separation using inhibitory activity on blood ethanol elevation in oral ethanol-loaded rat, various sesquiterpenes having an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety, costunolide (1), dehydrocostus lactone (2), zaluzanin D (3), reynosin (4), santamarine (5), 3alpha-acetoxyeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-+ ++olide (6) and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4,11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-olide (7), were isolated as the active principle from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel). In order to characterize the structure requirement for the activity, several reduction products (2a-2d) and amino acid adducts (2e, 2f) of the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety were synthesized from 2 and the inhibitory activities of these sesquiterpenes, together with alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (12) and its related compounds (13-16), were examined. These results indicated that the gamma-butyrolactone or gamma-butyrolactol moiety having alpha-methylene or alpha-methyl group was essential for the inhibitory activity on ethanol absorption. Since 1, 2 and 12 showed no significant effect on glucose absorption, these sesquiterpenes appeared to selectively inhibit ethanol absorption. In addition, the acute toxicities of 1 and 2 in a single oral administration were found to be lower than that of 12.

  15. CDP-choline (citicoline) attenuates brain damage in a rat model of birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, Michał; Makarewicz, Dorota; Stańczak-Mrozek, Kinga I; Grieb, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    To estimate protective potential of citicoline in a model of birth asphyxia, the drug was given to 7-day old rats subjected to permanent unilateral carotid artery occlusion and exposed for 65 min to a hypoxic gas mixture. Daily citicoline doses of 100 or 300 m/kg, or vehicle, were injected intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days beginning immediately after the end of the ischemic-hypoxic insult, and brain damage was assessed by gross zorphology score and weight deficit two weeks after the insult. Caspase-3, alpha-fodrin, Bcl-2, and Hsp70 levels were assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after the end of the hypoxic insult in another group of rat pups subjected to the same insult and given a single dose of 300 m/kg of citicoline or the vehicle. Citicoline markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and Hsp70 expression 24 h after the insult, and dose-dependently attenuated brain damage. In the context of the well-known excellent safety profile of citicoline, these data suggest that clinical evaluation of the efficacy of the drug in human birth asphyxia may be warranted.

  16. Progesterone biotransformation by plant cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Yagen, B; Gallili, G E; Mateles, R I

    1978-01-01

    Progesterone was converted to 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one, delta4-pregnene-20alpha-ol-3-one, delta4-pregnene-14alpha-ol-3,20-dione, delta4-pregnene-7beta,14alpha-diol-3,20-dione, and delta4-pregnene-6beta,11alpha-diol-3,20-dione by cell cultures of Lycopersicon esculentum. Cell cultures of Capsicum frutescens (green) metabolized progesterone to delta4-pregnene-20alpha-ol-3-one in very high yield, and Vinca rosea yielded delta4-pregnene-20beta-ol-3-one and delta4-pregnene-14alpha-ol-3,20-dione. A stereospecific reduction of the keto groups and a double bond and stereospecific introduction of hydroxyl groups at the 6, 11, and 14 positions have been observed. The mono- and dihydroxylated progesterones have not previously been reported as metabolic products of progesterone by plant cell systems and represent de novo hydroxylation of a nonglycosylated steroid. PMID:697360

  17. Reaction of Ta thin film with single crystalline (001) beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Kolawa, E.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Ruiz, R. P.; Baud, L.; Jaussaud, C.; Madar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between a sputtered-deposited Ta film (320 nm thick) and a single crystalline (001) beta-SiC substrate induced by vacuum annealing at temperatures of 600-1200 C for 1 h (30 min at 1100 C) is investigated by 3 MeV He(+2) backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopies. No significant reaction is observed at 800 C or at lower tempertures. At 900 C, the main product phases are Ta2C and carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3. A minor amount of unreacted Ta is also present. After annealing at 1000 C, all the tantalum has reacted; the reaction zone possesses a multilayered structure of beta-SiC/TaC/carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3/alpha-Ta5Si3/Ta2C. The diffusion path at 1000 C is plotted on the isothermal section of the Ta-Si-C phase diagram. At 1100 C, the reacted layer has an interface with the SiC substrate that is still quite flat but has a rough surface due to the formation of macroscopic voids within the reacted layer. The equilibrium products predicted by the phase diagram are TaC and TaSi2. This final state is reached by annealing at 1200 C for 1 h. At that point, the reacted layer has a latterally very uneven structure and morphology.

  18. Epigenetic modifications of interleukin-6 in synovial fibroblasts from osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Zhou, Song; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Yan; Li, Huiwu; Wang, You; Zhu, Zhenan; Tang, Jian; Yan, Mengning

    2017-03-06

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the synovial joint. The synovial membrane is responsible for the inflammatory reaction leading to the secretion of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. Suppressing IL-6 over-expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) is a promising method to prevent OA development and progression, in which the prerequisite is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 over-expression in SF. Currently, there are few reports concerning epigenetic modifications in IL-6 in OA SF. In the present study, we attempted to investigate this phenomenon. SF over-expressing IL-6 was collected from OA patients. DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions in OA SF compared with normal SF. No differences in the status of H3K9 di-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation and H3K4 tri-methylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions between normal and OA SF. DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) overexpression and anacardic acid (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor) treatment increased DNA methylation and decreased histone acetylation in the IL-6 promoter, and IL-6 over-expression in OA SF was suppressed. These observations provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of OA and can be used to design new drugs and develop new therapeutic methods to treat OA.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and pharmacodynamics of 2nd generation dopamine transporter selective benztropine analogs developed as potential substitute therapeutics for treatment of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq A; Newman, Amy H; Othman, Ahmed A; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-05-01

    A second generation of N-substituted 3alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropanes (GA 1-69, JHW 005 and JHW 013) binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and are highly selective toward DAT compared to muscarinic receptor binding (M1). The objective of this study was to characterize brain distribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics [extracellular brain dopamine (DA) levels] of three novel N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BZT analogs displayed a higher distribution (Vd = 8.69-34.3 vs. 0.9 L/kg) along with longer elimination (t l/2: 4.1-5.4 vs. 0.5 h) than previously reported for cocaine. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficients were 1.3-2.5 vs. 2.1 for cocaine. The effect of the BZT analogs on extracellular brain (DA) levels ranged from minimal effects (GA 1-69) to several fold elevation (approximately 850% of basal DA for JHW 013) at the highest dose evaluated. PK/PD analysis of exposure-response data resulted in lower IC50 values for the BZT analogs compared to cocaine indicating their higher potency to inhibit DA reuptake (0.1-0.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L). These BZT analogs possess significantly different PK and PD profiles as compared to cocaine suggesting that further evaluation as cocaine abuse therapeutics is warranted.

  20. Regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and integrin cell substratum adhesion receptors on epithelium during cutaneous human wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, I.; Murphy, G. F.; Yan, H. C.; Herlyn, M.; Albelda, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although changes in extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing have been well documented, little is known about the regulation of corresponding extracellular matrix adhesion receptors (integrins). To study this process in a human in vivo model, full thickness human skin grafts were transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficient mice and deep excisional wounds involving both the epidermal and dermal layers were then made. The changes in the expression of cell matrix proteins and epithelial integrins over time were analyzed with specific antibodies using immunohistochemistry. Wounding was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix proteins, namely, loss of laminin and type IV collagen in the region of the wound and expression of tenascin and fibronectin. Changes were also noted in the integrins on the migrating keratinocytes. There was marked up-regulation of the alpha v subunit and de novo expression of the fibronectin receptor (alpha 5 beta 1) during the stage of active migration (days 1 to 3 after wounding). In the later stages of wound healing, after epithelial integrity had been established, redistribution of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 4 collagen/laminin-binding integrin subunits to suprabasal epidermal layers was noted. Thus, during cutaneous wound healing, keratinocytes up-regulate fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding integrins and redistribute collagen/laminin-binding integrins. This study demonstrates that the human skin/severe combined immunodeficient chimera provides a useful model to study events during human wound repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694470

  1. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

  2. Darwin's evolution theory, brain oscillations, and complex brain function in a new "Cartesian view".

    PubMed

    Başar, Erol; Güntekin, Bahar

    2009-01-01

    Comparatively analyses of electrophysiological correlates across species during evolution, alpha activity during brain maturation, and alpha activity in complex cognitive processes are presented to illustrate a new multidimensional "Cartesian System" brain function. The main features are: (1) The growth of the alpha activity during evolution, increase of alpha during cognitive processes, and decrease of the alpha entropy during evolution provide an indicator for evolution of brain cognitive performance. (2) Human children younger than 3 years are unable to produce higher cognitive processes and do not show alpha activity till the age of 3 years. The mature brain can perform higher cognitive processes and demonstrates regular alpha activity. (3) Alpha activity also is significantly associated with highly complex cognitive processes, such as the recognition of facial expressions. The neural activity reflected by these brain oscillations can be considered as constituent "building blocks" for a great number of functions. An overarching statement on the alpha function is presented by extended analyzes with multiple dimensions that constitute a "Cartesian Hyperspace" as the basis for oscillatory function. Theoretical implications are considered.

  3. The Development of an Integrated Platform to Identify Breast Cancer Glycoproteome Changes in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhi; Hincapie, Marina; Haab, Brian B.; Hanash, Samir; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Kluck, Steven; Hogan, Jason M.; Kennedy, Jacob; Hancock, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation represents one of the major post translational modifications and can have significant effects on protein function. Moreover, changes in the carbohydrate structure are increasingly being recognized as an important modification associated with cancer etiology. In this report, we describe the development of a proteomics approach to identify breast cancer related changes in either concentration and/or the carbohydrate structures of glycoprotein(s) present in blood samples. Diseased and healthy serum samples were processed by an optimized sample preparation protocol using multiple lectin affinity chromatography (M-LAC) that partitions serum proteins based on glycan characteristics. Subsequently, three separate procedures, 1D SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing and an antibody microarray, were applied to identify potential candidate markers for future study. The combination of these three platforms is illustrated in this report with the analysis of control and cancer glycoproteomic fractions. Firstly, a molecular weight based separation of glycoproteins by 1D SDS-PAGE was performed, followed by protein, glycoprotein staining, lectin blotting and LC-MS analysis. To refine or confirm the list of interesting glycoproteins, isoelectric focusing (targeting sialic acid changes) and an antibody microarray (used to detect neutral glycan shifts) were selected as the orthogonal methods. As a result, several glycoproteins including alpha-1B-glycoprotein, complement C3, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transferrin were identified as potential candidates for further study. PMID:19782370

  4. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  5. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF).

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; Berkley, James A; Calder, Philip C; Jones, Kelsey D; Liu, Lei; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2015-05-15

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neurocognitive and immune development led two independent groups to evaluate RUTFs. Jones et al. (BMC Med 13:93, 2015), in a study in BMC Medicine, and Hsieh et al. (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015), in a study in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, reformulated RUTFs with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use expands.

  6. Neurosteroid metabolism in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Stoffel-Wagner, B

    2001-12-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge of the biosynthesis of neurosteroids in the human brain, the enzymes mediating these reactions, their localization and the putative effects of neurosteroids. Molecular biological and biochemical studies have now firmly established the presence of the steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450SCC), aromatase, 5alpha-reductase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in human brain. The functions attributed to specific neurosteroids include modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), nicotinic, muscarinic, serotonin (5-HT3), kainate, glycine and sigma receptors, neuroprotection and induction of neurite outgrowth, dendritic spines and synaptogenesis. The first clinical investigations in humans produced evidence for an involvement of neuroactive steroids in conditions such as fatigue during pregnancy, premenstrual syndrome, post partum depression, catamenial epilepsy, depressive disorders and dementia disorders. Better knowledge of the biochemical pathways of neurosteroidogenesis and their actions on the brain seems to open new perspectives in the understanding of the physiology of the human brain as well as in the pharmacological treatment of its disturbances.

  7. Biotransformation of norgestimate in women

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, K.B.; Hetyei, N.S.; Shaw, C.; Patrick, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of norgestimate (ORF-10131; /sup 14/C-d-13-ethyl-17-acetoxy-18,19-dinor-17 alpha-pregn-4-en-20- yn -3-oxime) was studied in humans. Compound labeled with carbon-14 in the 17 alpha-ethynyl group was administered to four female subjects. An average of 46.8 percent of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine and 36.8 percent in the feces over a two-week collection period. About 12 percent of the urinary radioactivity represented freely extractable metabolites and another 57 percent consisted of extractable material released by enzyme hydrolysis. The ethynylated metabolites of norgestimate were separated from endogenous compounds and non- ethynylated metabolites by silver- sulfoethyl cellulose column chromatography. Metabolites were subsequently isolated by high performance liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The identification of five urinary metabolites was accomplished by combined gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. These metabolites include norgestrel, 16 beta- hydroxynorgestrel, 2 alpha- hydroxynorgestrel, 3 alpha, 5 beta- tetrahydronorgestrel, and a fifth trihydroxylated metabolite of undetermined stereochemical configuration; 3,16-dihydroxy-5- tetrahydronorgestrel .

  8. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ohaki, Y; Misugi, K; Fukuda, J; Okudaira, M; Hirose, M

    1987-10-01

    Three cases of pancreatoblastoma in children were examined immunohistochemically and the results were compared with those of pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults. The pancreatoblastoma demonstrated positive reactions to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (67%: 2/3), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) (100%: 3/3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (67%: 2/3) and keratin (33%: 1/3), although CEA was only weakly positive in both cases. On the other hand, adult pancreatic duct carcinoma showed positive reactions as follows; AFP: 3% (1/29), AAT: 21% (6/29), CEA: 97% (28/29) and keratin: 93% (27/29). Also, endocrine substances including insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were all negative in the pancreatoblastomas. Two cases of pancreatoblastoma which were immunohistochemically positive for AFP also showed elevation of the serum AFP level clinically. The different expressive pattern of oncofetal antigens in pancreatoblastoma as compared with pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults may provide further supporting evidence for the embryonic nature of pancreatoblastoma, and suggests that such a pattern might be used as a tumor marker for pancreatoblastoma.

  9. Use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect doping with oral testosterone undecanoate: inter-individual variability of 13C/12C ratio.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Saudan, Christophe; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Strahm, Emmanuel; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bagutti, Carlo; Cauderay, Michel; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-05-01

    The metabolic effect of multiple oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) doses over 4 weeks was assessed in seven voluntary men. The protocol was designed to detect accumulation of the substance by choosing the appropriate spot urines collections time and to study the urinary clearance of the substance after weeks of treatment. Urines were analysed by a new GC/C/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) method to establish the delta(13)C-values of testosterone metabolites (androsterone and etiocholanolone) together with an endogenous reference compound (16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol). The significant differences in inter-individual metabolism following TU intake was illustrated by large variations in delta(13)C-values of both T metabolites (maximum Deltadelta(13)C-values = 5.5 per thousand), as well as by very stable longitudinal T/E profiles and carbon isotopic ratios in the first hours following administration. According to T/E ratios and delta(13)C-values, the washout period after 80 mg TU intake was less than 48 h for all subjects and no accumulation phenomenon was observed upon chronic oral administration.

  10. [Plasma concentrations and renal excretion of vincamine after oral administration in man (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Siegers, C P; Iven, H; Strubelt, O

    1977-01-01

    Plasma concentrations and renal excretion of 14,15-dihydro-14beta-hydroxy-(3alpha,16alpha)-eburnamenine-14-carbonic acid methylester (vincamine, Vincapront) were studied in 5 healthy volunteers following the oral intake of 30 or 60 mg vincamine, respectively. After the higher dose (60 mg vincamine), the treatment was continued by the daily intake of 3 X 20 mg vincamine for 5 days. Plasma vincamine levels were determined in the morning prior to the ingestion of the first 20-mg dose and in the evening 2 h after the intake of the third 20-mg dose. Our results prove that vincamine is rapidly liberated and absorbed from the tablet formulation used, the maximum plasma levels being reached 90 min after ingestion and amounting to a mean value of 139 ng/ml after 30 mg and to a mean of 252 ng/ml after 60 mg of vincamine. There was a biphasic elimination of vincamine after both doses indicating a process of distribution influencing also the elimination phase. In the 24-h urine, unchanged vincamine amounted to 5.8% of the applied dose after 30 mg and to 7.3% after 60 mg vincamine. Vincamine did not accumulate during the daily intake of 60 mg for 6 days. Side-effects were not observed in any volunteer during the period of observation.

  11. Hypertension increases contractile responses to hydrogen peroxide in resistance arteries through increased thromboxane A2, Ca2+, and superoxide anion levels.

    PubMed

    García-Redondo, Ana Belén; Briones, Ana María; Beltrán, Amada Elia; Alonso, María Jesús; Simonsen, Ulf; Salaices, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the response to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mesenteric resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recording and for simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), superoxide anion (O(2)(.)) production was evaluated by dihydroethidium fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) production was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay. H(2)O(2) (1-100 microM) induced biphasic responses characterized by a transient endothelium-dependent contraction followed by relaxation. Simultaneous measurements of tension and Ca(2+) showed a greater effect of H(2)O(2) in arteries from hypertensive than normotensive rats. The cyclooxygenase (cox) inhibitor, indomethacin [1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1-H-indole-3-acetic acid] (1 microM); the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-58560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole] (1 microM); the thromboxane (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor, furegrelate [5-(3-pyridinylmethyl)-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid, sodium salt] (10 microM); and the TXA(2)/prostaglandin H(2) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 ([1S-[1.alpha.,2.alpha.(Z),3.alpha.,4.alpha.

  12. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  13. Identification and chemical profiling of monacolins in red yeast rice using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Guo; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Hu, Zhi-Bi

    2004-09-03

    Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice) was one of the food supplements that had the ability of lowering the blood-lipid levels, and monacolins have been proved to be main active constituents. In total 14 monacolin compounds such as monacolin K (mevinolin), J, L, M, X, and their hydroxy acid form, as well as dehydromonacolin K, dihydromonacolin L, compactin, 3alpha-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L, etc. were identified in red yeast rice, using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry. A chemical fingerprint profiling method to display bioactive monacolins in red yeast rice was established and could be used for the quality control of the target material and its related products. Ten finish products labeled as red yeast rice from different manufacturers in marketing were traced using the chromatographic chemical profiling method, and the results show that only two of them were similar while the other eight were significantly different from the reference red yeast rice. All of these materials including raw material powder and finished products available were quantified and the contents of monacolins were calculated with reference of monacolin K (mevinolin) as the standard.

  14. Vinculin and cellular retinol-binding protein-1 are markers for quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human liver.

    PubMed

    Van Rossen, Elke; Vander Borght, Sara; van Grunsven, Leo Adrianus; Reynaert, Hendrik; Bruggeman, Veerle; Blomhoff, Rune; Roskams, Tania; Geerts, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have important roles in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. As response to chronic injury HSCs are activated and change from quiescent into myofibroblast-like cells. Several HSC-specific markers have been described in rat or mouse models. The aim of our work was to identify the best marker(s) for human HSCs. To this end we used the automated high throughput NexES IHC staining device (Ventana Medical Systems) to incubate sections under standardized conditions. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal and diseased human livers were studied. With immunohistochemistry we examined the expression of synemin, desmin, vimentin, vinculin, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2 (CRP2), and cytoglobin/stellate cell activation-associated protein (cygb/STAP). This is the first study in which a series of HSC markers is compared on serial FFPE human tissues. CRBP-1 clearly stains lobular HSCs without reacting with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and shows variable cholangiocyte positivity. Vinculin has a similar staining pattern as CRBP-1 but additionally stains SMCs, and (myo)fibroblasts. In conclusion, we therefore propose to use CRBP-1 and/or vinculin to stain HSCs in human liver tissues.

  15. Structural studies on the fucosamine-containing O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O19.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, E V; Kaca, W; Knirel, Y A; Rózalski, A; Kochetkov, N K

    1989-03-01

    The polysaccharide chain of Proteus vulgaris O19 lipopolysaccharide contains D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-L-fucosamine in the ratio 1:1:1:1. The structure of the polysaccharide was established by full acid hydrolysis and methylation analysis, as well as by non-destructive methods, i.e. the computer-assisted evaluation of the 13C-NMR spectrum and computer-assisted evaluation of the specific optical rotation by Klyne's rule. The polysaccharide is regular and built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: ----3)-alpha-L-FucNAcp-(1----3)-beta-D-GlcNAcp-(1----3)-alph a-D-Galp- (1----4)-alpha-D-GalNAcp-(1---- The O19-antiserum cross-reacts with lipopolysaccharide from P. vulgaris O42, the structure of which is still unknown. No cross-reactions were observed with O-polysaccharides Pseudomonas aeruginosa O7 and Salmonella arizonae O59 in spite of some structural similarities.

  16. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  17. Structure of an abequose-containing O-polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii O22 strain PCM 1555.

    PubMed

    Katzenellenbogen, Ewa; Kocharova, Nina A; Toukach, Philip V; Górska, Sabina; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Bogulska, Maria; Gamian, Andrzej; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2009-09-08

    The lipopolysaccharide of Citrobacter freundii O22 (strain PCM 1555) was degraded under mild acidic conditions and the O-polysaccharide released was isolated by gel chromatography. Sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional (1)H,(1)H ROESY and (1)H,(13)C HMBC experiments, showed that the repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide has the following structure: alpha-Abep 1 -->3 --> 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1--> where Abe is abequose (3,6-dideoxy-D-xylo-hexose). SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting revealed that the O-antigen of C. freundii O22 is serologically indistinguishable from those of Salmonella group B serovars (Typhimurium, Brandenburg, Sandiego, Paratyphi B) but not related to other abequose-containing O-antigens tested (Citrobacter werkmanii O38 and Salmonella Kentucky) or colitose (l enantiomer of abequose)-containing O-antigen of Escherichia coli O111.

  18. Probing transmembrane mechanical coupling and cytomechanics using magnetic twisting cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    We recently developed a magnetic twisting cytometry technique that allows us to apply controlled mechanical stresses to specific cell surface receptors using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads and to simultaneously measure the mechanical response in living cells. Using this technique, we have previously shown the following: (i) beta 1 integrin receptors mediate mechanical force transfer across the cell surface and to the cytoskeleton, whereas other transmembrane receptors (e.g., scavenger receptors) do not; (ii) cytoskeletal stiffness increases in direct proportion to the level of stress applied to integrins; and (iii) the slope of this linear stiffening response differs depending on the shape of the cell. We now show that different integrins (beta 1, alpha V beta 3, alpha V, alpha 5, alpha 2) and other transmembrane receptors (scavenger receptor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule) differ in their ability to mediate force transfer across the cell surface. In addition, the linear stiffening behavior previously observed in endothelial cells was found to be shared by other cell types. Finally, we demonstrate that dynamic changes in cell shape that occur during both cell spreading and retraction are accompanied by coordinate changes in cytoskeletal stiffness. Taken together, these results suggest that the magnetic twisting cytometry technique may be a powerful and versatile tool for studies analyzing the molecular basis of transmembrane mechanical coupling to the cytoskeleton as well as dynamic relations between changes in cytoskeletal structure and alterations in cell form and function.

  19. Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

  20. Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Platey grains of cubic Bi2O3, alpha-Bi2O3, and Bi2O(2.75), nanograins were associated with chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles W7029C1, W7029E5, and 2011C2 that were collected in the stratosphere at 17-19 km altitude. Similar Bi oxide nanograins were present in the upper stratosphere during May 1985. These grains are linked to the plumes of several major volcanic eruptions during the early 1980s that injected material into the stratosphere. The mass of sulfur from these eruptions is a proxy for the mass of stratospheric Bi from which we derive the particle number densities (p/cu m) for "average Bi2O3 nanograins" due to this volcanic activity and those necessary to contaminate the extraterrestrial chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles via collisional sticking. The match between both values supports the idea that Bi2O3 nanograins of volcanic origin could contaminate interplanetary dust particles in the Earth's stratosphere.

  1. Nonexpression of cartilage type II collagen in a case of Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eyre, D R; Upton, M P; Shapiro, F D; Wilkinson, R H; Vawter, G F

    1986-07-01

    A lethal short-limbed dwarfism was diagnosed at autopsy as the Langer-Saldino variant of achondrogenesis by radiological, histological, and gross pathological criteria. Cartilage was obtained for biochemical and ultrastructural analyses from the ends of long bones, from ribs and from a scapula of the newborn infant. At all sites, it had an abnormal gelatinous texture and translucent appearance. Biochemical analyses of the cartilages to identify pepsin-solubilized collagen alpha-chains and collagen-specific CNBr-peptides failed to detect type II collagen at any site where it would normally be the main constituent. Instead, type I was the predominant collagen present. However, three cartilage-specific minor collagen chains identified as 1 alpha, 2 alpha, and 3 alpha chains by their electrophoretic mobility were present at about 10% of the total collagen. Cartilage-specific proteoglycans also appeared to be abundant in the tissue judging by its high hexosamine content and high ratio of galactosamine to glucosamine. The findings indicate that a chondrocyte phenotype had differentiated but without the expression of type II collagen. In addition to the skeletal abnormalities, the severe pulmonary hypoplasia was also felt to be directly related to the underlying pathology in collagen expression. The term chondrogenesis imperfecta rather than achondrogenesis should be considered a more accurate description of this and related conditions.

  2. The development of an integrated platform to identify breast cancer glycoproteome changes in human serum.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi; Hincapie, Marina; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir; Pitteri, Sharon J; Kluck, Steven; Hogan, Jason M; Kennedy, Jacob; Hancock, William S

    2010-05-07

    Protein glycosylation represents one of the major post-translational modifications and can have significant effects on protein function. Moreover, changes in the carbohydrate structure are increasingly being recognized as an important modification associated with cancer etiology. In this report, we describe the development of a proteomics approach to identify breast cancer related changes in either concentration and/or the carbohydrate structures of glycoprotein(s) present in blood samples. Diseased and healthy serum samples were processed by an optimized sample preparation protocol using multiple lectin affinity chromatography (M-LAC) that partitions serum proteins based on glycan characteristics. Subsequently, three separate procedures, 1D SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing and an antibody microarray, were applied to identify potential candidate markers for future study. The combination of these three platforms is illustrated in this report with the analysis of control and cancer glycoproteomic fractions. Firstly, a molecular weight based separation of glycoproteins by 1D SDS-PAGE was performed, followed by protein, glycoprotein staining, lectin blotting and LC-MS analysis. To refine or confirm the list of interesting glycoproteins, isoelectric focusing (targeting sialic acid changes) and an antibody microarray (used to detect neutral glycan shifts) were selected as the orthogonal methods. As a result, several glycoproteins including alpha-1B-glycoprotein, complement C3, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transferrin were identified as potential candidates for further study.

  3. Major constituents of Boswellia carteri resin exhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sami I; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Mohamed, Amal A; El-Baz, Farouk K; Hegazy, Ahmad K; Kord, Maimona A; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-10-01

    Aromatic gum from Boswellia carteri (olibanum oleogum) has long been used in Egyptian traditional medicine. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme inhibitory assay guided purification of the extracts of this resin resulted in five bioactive compounds, 3alpha-O-acetyl-8,24-dien-tirucallic acid (1), verticilla-4(20),7,11-triene (2), cembrene A (3), incensole acetate (4), and incensole (5). The pure isolates were investigated for their inhibitory effects on COX-1 and -2 enzymes and human tumor cell lines Hep-G2, MCF-7 and RAW 264.7. Compounds 1-5 inhibited COX-2 enzyme by 39.0, 32.7, 60.0, 46.3, and 49.8%, respectively. Furthermore, compound 2 showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) at 9 microg/mL against Hep-G2 tumor cell line. This is the first report of COX-1 and -2 enzyme and tumor cell proliferation inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of aromatase inhibition by new A, D-ring modified steroids.

    PubMed

    Cepa, Margarida; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Tavares da Silva, Elisiário J; Roleira, Fernanda M F; Hong, Yanyan; Chen, Shiuan; Teixeira, Natércia A

    2008-09-01

    A recent approach for treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer focuses on the inhibition of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of estrogen biosynthesis. Some synthetic steroids, such as formestane and exemestane, resembling the natural enzyme substrate androstenedione, revealed to be potent and useful aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and were approved for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Recently, we found that five newly synthesized steroids with chemical features in the A- and D-rings considered important for drug-receptor interaction efficiently inhibit aromatase derived from human placental microsomes. In this work, these steroids showed a similar pattern of anti-aromatase activity in several aromatase-expressing cell lines. 5alpha-androst-3-en-17-one and 3alpha,4alpha-epoxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one were revealed to be the most potent inhibitors. These compounds induced a time-dependent inhibition of aromatase, showing to be irreversible AIs. The specific interactions of these compounds with aromatase active sites were further demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis studies and evaluated by computer-aided molecular modeling. Both compounds were able to suppress hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings are important for the elucidation of a structure-activity relationship on aromatase, which may help in the development of new AIs.

  5. Regulation of KChIP2 potassium channel beta subunit gene expression underlies the gradient of transient outward current in canine and human ventricle.

    PubMed

    Rosati, B; Pan, Z; Lypen, S; Wang, H S; Cohen, I; Dixon, J E; McKinnon, D

    2001-05-15

    Expression of four members of the KChIP family of potassium channel beta subunits was examined in canine heart. Only one member of the gene family, KChIP2, was expressed in heart. There was a steep gradient of KChIP2 mRNA expression across the canine ventricular free wall. KChIP2 mRNA was 25-fold more abundant in the epicardium than in the endocardium, and this gradient paralleled the gradient in transient outward current (Ito) expression. In contrast, Kv4.3 potassium channel alpha subunit mRNA was expressed at equal levels across the ventricular wall. There was no difference in the pharmacological sensitivity of epicardial and endocardial Ito channels to flecainide, suggesting that the current is produced by the same channel in the two tissues. A similar gradient of KChIP2 expression was found across the ventricular wall of human heart, but not rat heart. It is concluded that transcriptional regulation of the KChIP2 beta subunit gene, rather than the Kv4.3 [alpha] subunit gene, is the primary determinant regulating the transmural gradient of Ito expression in the ventricular free wall of canine and human heart.

  6. Association of HLA-DR3 with human immune response to Lol p I and Lol p II allergens in allergic subjects.

    PubMed

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1988-04-01

    Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.

  7. Parametric Evaluation of Thin, Transonic Circulation-Control Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, Robin; Anders, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel on a 6 percent-thick, elliptical circulation-control airfoil with upper-surface and lower-surface blowing capability. Results for elliptical Coanda trailing-edge geometries, biconvex Coanda trailing-edge geometries, and leading-edge geometries are reported. Results are presented at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.8, respectively. When considering one fixed trailing-edge geometry, for both the subsonic and transonic conditions it was found that the [3.0:1] ratio elliptical Coanda surface with the most rounded leading-edge [03] performed favorably and was determined to be the best compromise between comparable configurations that took advantage of the Coanda effect. This configuration generated a maximum. (Delta)C(sub 1) = 0.625 at a C(sub mu) = 0.06 at M = 0.3, alpha = 6deg. This same configuration generated a maximum (Delta)C(sub 1) = 0.275 at a C(sub mu) = 0.0085 at M = 0.8, alpha = 3deg.

  8. Maximum geometrical hindrance to diffusion in brain extracellular space surrounding uniformly spaced convex cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Nicholson, C

    2004-07-07

    Brain extracellular space (ECS) constitutes a porous medium in which diffusion is subject to hindrance, described by tortuosity, lambda = (D/D*)1/2, where D is the free diffusion coefficient and D* is the effective diffusion coefficient in brain. Experiments show that lambda is typically 1.6 in normal brain tissue although variations occur in specialized brain regions. In contrast, different theoretical models of cellular assemblies give ambiguous results: they either predict lambda-values similar to experimental data or indicate values of about 1.2. Here we constructed three different ECS geometries involving tens of thousands of cells and performed Monte Carlo simulation of 3-D diffusion. We conclude that the geometrical hindrance in the ECS surrounding uniformly spaced convex cells is independent of the cell shape and only depends on the volume fraction alpha (the ratio of the ECS volume to the whole tissue volume). This dependence can be described by the relation lambda = ((3-alpha)/2)1/2, indicating that the geometrical hindrance in such ECS cannot account for lambda > 1.225. Reasons for the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental tortuosity values are discussed.

  9. Soluble factor cross-talk between human bone marrow-derived hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells enhances in vitro CFU-F and CFU-O growth and reveals heterogeneity in the mesenchymal progenitor cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Baksh, Dolores; Davies, John E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2005-11-01

    The homeostatic adult bone marrow (BM) is a complex tissue wherein physical and biochemical interactions serve to maintain a balance between the hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments. To focus on soluble factor interactions occurring between mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells, a serum-free adhesion-independent culture system was developed that allows manipulation of the growth of both mesenchymal and hematopoietic human BM-derived progenitors and the balance between these compartments. Factorial experiments demonstrated a role for stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) in the concomitant growth of hematopoietic (CD45+) and nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells, as well as their derivatives. Kinetic tracking of IL-3alpha receptor (CD123) and SCF receptor (CD117) expression on a sorted CD45- cell population revealed the emergence of CD45-CD123+ cells capable of osteogenesis. Of the total fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-Fs) and osteoblast colony-forming units (CFU-O), approximately 24% of CFU-Fs and about 22% of CFU-Os were recovered from this population. Cell-sorting experiments demonstrated that the CD45+ cell population secreted soluble factors that positively affect the survival and proliferation of CFU-Fs and CFU-Os generated from the CD45- cells. Together, our results provide insight into the intercellular cytokine network between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells and provide a strategy to mutually culture both mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells in a defined scalable bioprocess.

  10. Human periodontal ligament cells facilitate leukocyte recruitment and are influenced in their immunomodulatory function by Th17 cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Konermann, A; Beyer, M; Deschner, J; Allam, J P; Novak, N; Winter, J; Jepsen, S; Jäger, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to examine the immunomodulatory impact of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on the nature and magnitude of the leukocyte infiltrate in periodontal inflammation, particularly with regard to Th17 cells. PDL cells were challenged with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-17A, and IFN-γ) and analyzed for the expression of cytokines involved in periodontal immunoinflammatory processes (IL-6, MIP-3 alpha, IL-23A, TGFß1, IDO, and CD274). In order to further investigate a direct involvement of PDL cells in leukocyte function, co-culture experiments were conducted. The expression of the immunomodulatory cytokines studied was significantly increased under pro-inflammatory conditions in PDL cells. Although PDL cells did not stimulate leukocyte proliferation or Th17 differentiation, these cells induced the recruitment of leukocytes. The results of our study suggest that PDL cells might be involved in chronic inflammatory mechanisms in periodontal tissues and thus in the transition to an adaptive immune response in periodontitis.

  11. Extended protection capabilities of an immature dendritic-cell targeting malaria sporozoite vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Zavala, Fidel; Gordy, James; Zhang, Hong; Markham, Richard B

    2017-03-22

    Mouse studies evaluating candidate malaria vaccines have typically examined protective efficacy over the relatively short time frames of several weeks after the final of multiple immunizations. The current study examines the protective ability in a mouse model system of a novel protein vaccine construct in which the adjuvant polyinosinic polycytidilic acid (poly(I:C)) is used in combination with a vaccine in which the immature dendritic cell targeting chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP3α), is fused to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Two vaccinations, three weeks apart, elicited extraordinarily high, MIP3α-dependent antibody responses. MIP3α was able to target the vaccine to the CCR6 receptor found predominantly on immature dendritic cells and significantly enhanced the cellular influx at the vaccination site. At three and 23 weeks after the final of two immunizations, mice were challenged by intravenous injection of 5×10(3) transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing P. falciparum CSP, a challenge dose approximately one order of magnitude greater than that which is encountered after mosquito bite in the clinical setting. A ninety-seven percent reduction in liver sporozoite load was observed at both time points, 23 weeks being the last time point tested.

  12. A serendipitous discovery of antifreeze protein-specific activity in C-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogs.

    PubMed

    Eniade, Adewale; Purushotham, Madhusudhan; Ben, Robert N; Wang, J B; Horwath, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Structurally diverse carbon-linked (C-linked) analogs of antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) have been prepared via linear or convergent solid phase synthesis. These analogs range in molecular weight from approx 1.5-4.1 KDa and do not possess the beta-D-galactose-1,3-alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate moiety or the L-threonine-L-alanine-L-alanine polypeptide backbone native to the AFGP wild-type. Despite these dramatic structural modifications, the 2.7-KDa and 4.1-KDa analogs possess antifreeze protein-specific activity as determined by recrystallization-inhibition (RI) and thermal hysteresis (TH) assays. These analogs are weaker than the wild-type in their activity, but nanoliter osmometry indicates that these compounds are binding to ice and affecting a localized freezing point depression. This is the first example of a C-linked AFGP analog that possesses TH and RI activity and suggests that the rational design and synthesis of chemically and biologically stable AFGP analogs is a feasible and worthwhile endeavor. Given the low degree of TH activity, these compounds may prove useful for the protection of cells during freezing and thawing cycles.

  13. Regulation of naïve fetal T-cell migration by the chemokines Exodus-2 and Exodus-3.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, K; Brahmi, Z; Hromas, R

    1999-08-03

    We and other workers have recently isolated three novel CC chemokines termed Exodus-1/LARC/Mip-3alpha, Exodus-2/6Ckine/SLC/TCA4, and Exodus-3/Mip-3beta/CKbeta11/ELC. These chemokines share an amino terminal Asp-Cys-Cys-Leu sequence, unique among all chemokines. They also selectively regulate migration of adult T cells. Indeed, there is evidence that Exodus-2 and -3 are critical for adult T-cell adhesion to high endothelial venules in lymph nodes, a rate-limiting step for T-cell trafficking through nodal tissue. Less is known of the factors controlling migration of naïve human fetal T cells. We tested whether these chemokines could regulate chemotaxis in cord blood T-cell populations, and compared that efficacy with normal peripheral blood adult T cells. The findings indicated that naive CD45RA+ cord blood T-cell migration is stimulated by Exodus-2 and -3, and CD4+ cord blood T cells are attracted preferentially by Exodus-2 or -3 as compared with CD8+. Exodus-2 and -3 are likely to be critical in regulating the flux of naive CD4 + fetal T-cell population of secondary lymphoid tissue.

  14. The exodus subfamily of CC chemokines inhibits the proliferation of chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hromas, R; Cripe, L; Hangoc, G; Cooper, S; Broxmeyer, H E

    2000-02-15

    Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue and play important roles in disease processes. Among the biologic activities of chemokines is inhibition of proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors. However, chemokines that inhibit normal progenitors rarely inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We and others recently cloned a subfamily of CC chemokines that share similar amino-terminal peptide sequences and a remarkable ability to chemoattract T cells. These chemokines, Exodus-1/LARC/MIP-3alpha, Exodus-2/SLC/6Ckine/TCA4, and Exodus-3/CKbeta11/MIP-3beta, were found to inhibit proliferation of normal human marrow progenitors. The study described here found that these chemokines also inhibited the proliferation of progenitors in every sample of marrow from patients with CML that was tested. This demonstration of consistent inhibition of CML progenitor proliferation makes the 3 Exodus chemokines unique among chemokines. (Blood. 2000;95:1506-1508)

  15. Stellar evolution of high mass based on the Ledoux criterion for convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical evolutionary sequences of models for stars of 15 and 30 solar masses were computed from the zero-age main sequence to the end of core helium burning. During the earliest stages of core helium depletion, the envelope rapidly expands into the red-supergiant configuration. At 15 solar mass, a blue loop on the H-R diagram ensues if the initial metals abundance, initial helium abundance, or C-12 + alpha particle reaction rate is sufficiently large, or if the 3-alpha reaction rate is sufficiently small. These quantities affect the opacity of the base of the outer convection zone, the mass of the core, and the thermal properties of the core. The blue loop occurs abruptly and fully developed when the critical value of any of these quantities is exceeded, and the effective temperature range and fraction of the lifetime of core helium burning during the slow phase of the blue loop vary surprisingly little. At 30 solar mass no blue loop occurs for any reasonable set of input parameters.

  16. Direct determination of anabolic steroids in pig urine by a new SPME-GC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Duan, Hongbin; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-05-15

    A new solid phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of four anabolic steroids such as 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one (HA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (AD) and methyltestosterone (MT) in pig urine. SPME was used to extract the four anabolic compounds directly without derivatization. The optimum SPME sampling conditions were based on the home-made carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW-DVB) fiber coating during extraction at 40 degrees C for 50 min with 0.18 g/mL NaCl solution and 750 rpm stirring speed. The linear ranges of the proposed method were in the range of 8-640 pg/mL for HA and DHT and 16-510 pg/mL for AD and MT, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were from 2 to 8 pg/mL for the four anabolic steroids. This SPME method provided very high enrichment factors for the four anabolic steroids, which were 1063-fold and 965-fold for HA and DHT at the concentration of 8 pg/mL and 207-fold and 451-fold for AD and MT at the concentration of 16 pg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 71.3 to 121%, and the RSDs were lower than 12.9%. The method was sensitive and reliable for determination of trace anabolic steroids in biological samples.

  17. What do we really know about the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoe, R. T.; Goldberg, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Studies of many different rodent models of muscle wasting have indicated that accelerated proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the principal cause of muscle atrophy induced by fasting, cancer cachexia, metabolic acidosis, denervation, disuse, diabetes, sepsis, burns, hyperthyroidism and excess glucocorticoids. However, our understanding about how muscle proteins are degraded, and how the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in muscle under these conditions, is still very limited. The identities of the important ubiquitin-protein ligases in skeletal muscle, and the ways in which they recognize substrates are still largely unknown. Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that one set of ubquitination enzymes, E2(14K) and E3(alpha), which are responsible for the 'N-end rule' system of ubiquitination, plays an important role in muscle, especially in catabolic states. However, their functional significance in degrading different muscle proteins is still unclear. This review focuses on the many gaps in our understanding of the functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in muscle atrophy, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the different experimental approaches used in such studies.

  18. Transport and metabolic effects of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Roon, R J

    1982-11-24

    alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is actively transported into yeast cells by the general amino acid transport system. The system exhibits a Km for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid of 270 microM, a Vmax of 24 nmol/min per mg cells (dry weight), and a pH optimum of 4.1-4.3. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is also transported by a minor system(s) with a Vmax of 1.7 nmol/min per mg cells. Transport occurs against a concentration gradient with the concentration ratio reaching over 1000:1 (in/out). The alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is not significantly metabolized or incorporated into protein after an 18 h incubation. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid inhibits cell growth when a poor nitrogen source such as proline is provided but not with good nitrogen sources such as NH+4. During nitrogen starvation alpha-aminoisobutyric acid strongly inhibits the synthesis of the nitrogen catabolite repression sensitive enzyme, asparaginase II. Studies with a mutant yeast strain (GDH-CR) suggest that alpha-aminoisobutyric acid inhibition of asparaginase II synthesis occurs because alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in nitrogen starved cells.

  19. In vitro metabolism of radioactive progesterone and testosterone by the gonads of the protandrous Rhabdosargus sarba at various sexual phases

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, W.S.; Chan, S.T.

    1985-08-01

    The in vitro steroidogenic capacity of the gonadal tissue in the protandrous Rhabdosargus sarba was studied. Testicular and ovarian tissues from various sexual phases were used either separately or combined. With progesterone as precursor, high yield of 5 beta-reduced metabolites, and no 11-ketotestosterone or 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found. The production of 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one and 5 beta-pregnane-3,20-dione was very high in incubations with testicular tissue from intersexes or males and was low in those with ovarian tissue only. The production of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was high in the female but was low in other sexual phases. With testosterone as precursor, 11-ketotestoterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were identified. 5 beta-Reductase activity was high in the male and relatively low in the female. 5 alpha-Reduced products, however, were absent. There was an increase in the production of androstenedione as the animal underwent sex reversal. The significance of this change in steroidogenesis in this protandrous fish is at present under investigation. Experimental results also indicated that in the intersexual gonad there may be interaction between the testicular component and the ovarian component in steroidgenesis.

  20. Complexation of vanadium(V) oxyanions with hexopyranose- and mannopyranoseuronic acid-containing polysaccharides: stereochemical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Cesar A; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M; Reicher, Fany; Iacomini, Marcello; Petkowicz, Carmem L O; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D; Gorin, Philip A J

    2004-03-15

    Carbohydrates containing galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units with vicinal cis-diols were treated with NaVO(3) in D(2)O, and complexation was determined by (51)V NMR spectroscopy. Me alpha-Galp, Me beta-Galp (3,4-cis-diols), and Me alpha-Manp (2,3-cis-diol) complexed, but Me beta-Manp barely did so. This low degree of complexation also occurred with a beta-mannan containing alternate (1-->3)- and (1-->4)-linkages and an alginate having beta-ManpA blocks. In contrast, branched alpha-mannans complexed readily, although the (51)V resonances for one with side chains terminated with alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1--> differed from another with only alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp-(1--> groups. The anomeric configuration of Me alpha-Galp and Me beta-Galp, each with 3,4-cis-diols remote from C-1, gave rise to three (51)V signals of complexes with similar shifts and proportions. The shifts of a galactomannan with terminal alpha-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-Manp- were the same as those with alpha-Galp-(1-->6)-beta-Manp- groups, but fewer complexes were formed with the former structure, probably due to greater steric crowding of the vanadate esters. Most of the complexes gave rise to a signal in the delta515 region, consistent with the dimeric trigonal-bipyramidal structure.

  1. The nature and origin of spontaneous noise in G protein-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Arrival of agonist is generally thought to initiate the signal transduction process in G protein-receptor coupled systems. However, the muscarinic atrial K+ (K+[ACh]) channel opens spontaneously in the absence of applied agonist, giving a noisy appearance to the current records. We investigated the nature and origin of the noise by measuring single channel currents in cell-attached or excised, inside- out membrane patches. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) produced identical single channel currents in a concentration- and Mg(2+)-dependent manner in the presence or absence of carbachol, but the requirements for GTP were greater in the absence of agonist. Hence the agonist-independent currents appeared to be produced by an endogenous G protein, Gk. This prediction was confirmed when an affinity-purified, sequence-specific Gi-3 alpha antibody or pertussis toxin (PTX) blocked the agonist- independent currents. Candidate endogenous agonists were ruled out by the lack of effect of their corresponding antagonists. Thus agonist- independent currents had the same nature as agonist-dependent K+[ACh] currents and seemed to originate in the same way. We have developed a hypothesis in which agonist-free, empty receptors prime Gk with GTP and Gk activates atrial K+ [ACh] channels producing basal currents or noise. Agonist-independent activation by G proteins of effectors including ion channels appears to be a common occurrence. PMID:1651979

  2. Predicted unfolding order of the 13 alpha-helices in the catalytic domain of glucoamylase from Aspergillus awamori var. X100 by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Wang, Wen-Chi

    2003-01-01

    The unfolding mechanism of the 13 alpha-helices in the catalytic domain of Aspergillus awamori var. X100 glucoamylase was investigated by 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with temperature jump technique. Rather than a simultaneous event, the unfolding of these 13 alpha-helices followed a random ordered mechanism as alpha8-->alpha1-->alpha11-->alpha7-->alpha10-->alpha3-->alpha12-->alpha13-->alpha4-->alpha5-->alpha9-->alpha6-->alpha2. No significant relationships were found between the unfolding order and the length and the hydrophobicity of the helix. alpha-Helix 8 located in the inner region of the catalytic domain was predicted to be the first helix to unfold, indicating that the destruction of the secondary structure motif was initiated from the inner region of the catalytic domain. The dynamic behavior of these alpha-helices induced by increased kinetic energy during the unfolding process is considered to be similar to the expansion and compression of a series of springs under the influence of mechanical stress.

  3. Headspace volatile composition of the flowers of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Della Porta, Giovanna; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2009-11-11

    The volatile constituents of the flowers of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island were analyzed by a headspace GC method. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 41 compounds. The main components were, among the monoterpenoids, terpinolene (23.3%), alpha-terpinene (19.1%) and linalool (18.4%), whereas, among the carbonylic compounds the major constituents were heptanal (2.0%), octanoic acid (2.4%) and hexanoic acid (1.7%). The presence of a nitrogen containing compound, indole (0.8%) and of a sulphur containing compound, dimethylsulphide (t), noteworthy. The compounds found in the flowers of C. europaea have been compared with data available in the literature as regard to their odor, presence in other sapromyiophilous taxa, possible role as semiochemicals, and presence in decaying organic matter. 89.3% of total constituents have been described in other sapromyiophilous taxa. Some of the compounds are present in several types of decaying organic matter (excrements, decomposing bodies, and spoiled fish, etc). Several volatiles found in C. europaea flowers are used as semiochemicals by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and other insects. Sixteen volatiles, accounting for 32.4% of the total constituents, are described as attractants of some Diptera families, with a biology linked to decaying organic matter. Our data thus confirm that C. europaea floral bouquet falls within the sapromyiophilous pollination syndrome.

  4. Dielectric properties of betaine phosphite and deuterated betaine phosphite films

    SciTech Connect

    Balashova, E. V. Krichevtsov, B. B.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Pankova, G. A.; Frederiks, I. D.; Lemanov, V. V.

    2011-01-15

    Polycrystalline films of betaine phosphite (BPI) and deuterated BPI have been grown by evaporation on LiNbO{sub 3}, {alpha}-SiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. These films consist of large single-crystal blocks in which the polar axis (b) lies in the substrate plane. The results of studying the dielectric properties of the films using interdigital electrodes, X-ray diffraction, and block images in a polarized-light microscope in reflection are reported. The film transition into the ferroelectric state at T = T{sub c} is accompanied by strong anomalies of the capacitance of the film/interdigital structure/substrate structure. The deuteration of BPI films leads to an increase in their temperature T{sub c}: from T{sub c} = 200 K for BPI-based structures to T{sub c} = 280 K for structures with a high degree of deuteration (d {approx} 90%).

  5. Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pd-D Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, Pamela A; Szpak, Stanislaw; Gordon, Frank E; Forsley, Lawrence P G

    2009-01-01

    Since the announcement by Fleischmann and Pons that the excess enthalpy generated in the negatively polarized Pd-D-D(2)O system was attributable to nuclear reactions occurring inside the Pd lattice, there have been reports of other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system. In particular, there have been reports of tritium and helium-4 production; emission of energetic particles, gamma or X-rays, and neutrons; as well as the transmutation of elements. In this communication, the results of Pd-D co-deposition experiments conducted with the cathode in close contact with CR-39, a solid-state nuclear etch detector, are reported. Among the solitary tracks due to individual energetic particles, triple tracks are observed. Microscopic examination of the bottom of the triple track pit shows that the three lobes of the track are splitting apart from a center point. The presence of three alpha-particle tracks outgoing from a single point is diagnostic of the (12)C(n,n')3alpha carbon breakup reaction and suggests that DT reactions that produce > or = 9.6 MeV neutrons are occurring inside the Pd lattice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of energetic (> or = 9.6 MeV) neutrons in the Pd-D system.

  6. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Uk; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-09-01

    Thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the Republic of Korea. The volatile compounds extracted by SPME from T. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The volatile compounds of T. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), alpha-thujene (2.7%), camphene (1.3%), carvacrol (1.2%), and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Among these candidates, thymol exhibited complete (100%) repellent activity against female Ae. albopictus, an effect that was confirmed through evaluating the electrophysiological response on the antenna of Ae. albopictus. The effectiveness of a binary 1:2 mixture of thymol and vanillin (0.05:0.1 microl per cm2) was found to be significantly more effective than thymol alone for a period of 120 min. In addition, thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol showed high larvicidal activity against on the third-stage larvae with LC50 values of 0.9 microl per 100 ml.

  7. Biochemical and genetic polymorphisms for carboxylesterase and acetylesterase in grape clones of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Orasmo, Gleice Ribeiro; Oliveira-Collet, Sandra A; Lapenta, Ana Sílvia; de Fátima P S Machado, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was employed to show the highest number of esterase loci and to detect alpha- and beta-esterase polymorphisms in leaf buds of Vitis vinifera cultivars. A total of 16 esterase isozymes were detected in leaf buds from 235 plants including Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil cultivars. Biochemical characterization of the grape esterases using ester substrates revealed alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases with inhibitor tests distinguishing both carboxylesterases (EST-2, EST-3, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7, EST-8, EST-9, EST-10, and EST-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (EST-4, EST-11, EST-12, EST-13, EST-14, EST-15 isozymes). No allele variation for alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases was detected; however, EST-3 alpha-carboxylesterase was absent in 61.7% of vines, and EST-4 alpha/beta-acetylesterase was absent in one vine of Rubi cv. Null EST-3 carboxylesterase phenotype (61.7%) cannot be explained in this article, but the high genetic polymorphism in four V. vinifera clones is a positive aspect for genetic selection and development of new clones with different characteristics.

  8. Kaurene diterpenes from Laetia thamnia inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Henry, Geneive E; Adams, Lynn S; Rosales, Jose C; Jacobs, Helen; Heber, David; Seeram, Navindra P

    2006-12-08

    Four ent-kaurene diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Laetia thamnia L.: ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1a), ent-3beta-hydroxykaur-16-ene (2), ent-kaur-16-en-3alpha,19-diol (3a), and ent-17-hydroxykaur-15-en-19-oic acid (4). The methyl ester (1b) of compound 1a and the acetate diester (3b) of compound 3a were prepared, and all compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human prostate (22Rv1, LNCaP), colon (HT29, HCT116, SW480, SW620), and breast (MCF-7) tumor cells at concentrations ranging from 6 to 50microg/mL. The kaurenes showed activity in all cell lines tested, with the prostate cells demonstrating the most sensitivity as follows: 22 Rv1 cells towards 1a (IC(50) 5.03microg/mL) and 1b (IC(50) 6.81microg/mL), and LNCaP towards 2 (IC(50) 12.83microg/mL) and 4 (IC(50) 17.63microg/mL).

  9. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  10. The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide of Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; Li, Jianjun; Sadovskaya, Irina; Jabbouri, Said; Helander, Ilkka M

    2004-06-22

    The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide from Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104 was analyzed using chemical degradations, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. The LPS contains two major structural variants, differing in the presence or absence of an octasaccharide fragment. The largest structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the LPS, that could be deduced from experimental results, consists of 20 monosaccharides arranged in a nonrepetitive sequence: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where R is H or 4-O-Me-alpha-L-Fuc-(1-2)-4-O-Me-beta-Hep-(1-3)-alpha-GlcNAc-(1-2)-beta-Man-(1-3)-beta-ManNAc-(1-4)-alpha-Gal-(1-4)-beta-Hep-(1-3)-beta-GalNAc-(1- where Hep is a residue of D-glycero-D-galacto-heptose; all monosaccharides have the D-configuration except for 4-O-Me-L-Fuc and L-Ara4N. This structure is architecturally similar to the oligosaccharide system reported previously in P. frisingensis VTT E-82164 LPS, but differs from the latter in composition and also in the size of the outer region.

  11. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  12. Dystonin/Bpag1 is a necessary endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope protein in sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kevin G.; Kothary, Rashmi

    2008-09-10

    Dystonin/Bpag1 proteins are cytoskeletal linkers whose loss of function in mice results in a hereditary sensory neuropathy with a progressive loss of limb coordination starting in the second week of life. These mice, named dystonia musculorum (dt), succumb to the disease and die of unknown causes prior to sexual maturity. Previous evidence indicated that cytoskeletal defects in the axon are a primary cause of dt neurodegeneration. However, more recent data suggests that other factors may be equally important contributors to the disease process. In the present study, we demonstrate perikaryal defects in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at stages preceding the onset of loss of limb coordination in dt mice. Abnormalities include alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein expression, indicative of an ER stress response. Dystonin in sensory neurons localized in association with the ER and nuclear envelope (NE). A fusion protein ofthe dystonin-a2 isoform, which harbors an N-terminal transmembrane domain, associated with and reorganized the ER in cell culture. This isoform also interacts with the NE protein nesprin-3{alpha}, but not nesprin-3{beta}. Defects in dt mice, as demonstrated here, may ultimately result in pathogenesis involving ER dysfunction and contribute significantly to the dt phenotype.

  13. Improved yields of cyclic nigerosylnigerose from starch by pretreatment with a thermostable branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Aga, Hajime; Okamoto, Iwao; Taniguchi, Mituki; Kawashima, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-04-01

    Cyclic nigerosylnigerose (CNN) is produced enzymatically from starch by the combined action of 6-alpha-glucosyltransferase and 3-alpha-isomaltosyltransferase. In our previous study, alpha-1,6-branching chains found in the structure of amylopectin and glycogen were shown to be favorable for CNN formation by the two enzymes. Therefore, we examined whether the introduction of alpha-1,6-branch points into starch using the action of branching enzyme (BE) could improve the yield of CNN from starch. Thermostable BE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91 was prepared as a purified recombinant protein. Pretreatment of amylose with BE considerably increased the CNN yield from 5% to 38%. When BE acted on tapioca starch, the CNN yield was elevated from 47% to 60%. Conversely, BE treatment of waxy corn starch containing very little amylose resulted in a negligible increase in CNN yield. In addition, BE exerted a beneficial effect when starch with a lower degree of hydrolysis was used as a substrate. The present results indicate that the addition of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages to starch using BE is an effective strategy to improve the yield of CNN from starch.

  14. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor

    SciTech Connect

    López-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Sibener, Leah V.; Kung, Jennifer E.; Gumperz, Jenny; Adams, Erin J.

    2014-10-02

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells use highly restricted {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) to probe the repertoire of lipids presented by CD1d molecules. Here, we describe our studies of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) presentation by human CD1d and its recognition by a native, LPC-specific iNKT TCR. Human CD1d presenting LPC adopts an altered conformation from that of CD1d presenting glycolipid antigens, with a shifted {alpha}1 helix resulting in an open A pocket. Binding of the iNKT TCR requires a 7-{angstrom} displacement of the LPC headgroup but stabilizes the CD1d-LPC complex in a closed conformation. The iNKT TCR CDR loop footprint on CD1d-LPC is anchored by the conserved positioning of the CDR3{alpha} loop, whereas the remaining CDR loops are shifted, due in part to amino-acid differences in the CDR3{beta} and J{beta} segment used by this iNKT TCR. These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells.

  15. Reinforcing effects of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Rachna S; Mark, Gregory P; Finn, Deborah A

    2002-07-01

    The GABA(A) receptor positive modulator allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one) is a potent neurosteroid with behavioral and biochemical characteristics similar to ethanol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines. This suggests that neurosteroids may provide an alternative class of sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic pharmacotherapies. However, there is evidence from animal models that neurosteroids may be susceptible to abuse by humans. Thus, the present study evaluated the reinforcing effects of orally administered allopregnanolone in rats. In the first experiment, male Long-Evans rats (n=9) were allowed to voluntarily consume a 50-microg/ml allopregnanolone (50A) solution or water in an unlimited-access two-bottle choice procedure for 10 days. Subsequently, the same animals were trained to lever-press to receive a 50A solution in daily 30-min operant sessions using a sucrose substitution procedure. In the two-bottle choice procedure, rats consumed significantly more allopregnanolone than water, suggesting that allopregnanolone was serving as a reinforcer. In the operant self-administration procedure, allopregnanolone did not maintain levels of responding that were different from water, suggesting that allopregnanolone did not function as a reinforcer in this procedure. These results suggest that orally administered allopregnanolone possesses reinforcing properties; however, additional studies are necessary to determine whether operant oral self-administration will be a viable index of allopregnanolone's reinforcing effects.

  16. Breast-milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L

    1981-07-01

    The inhibiting agent of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), inhibition of which is associated with breast milk jaundice syndrome in infants, was thought to be 3(alpha),20(beta)-pregnandiol. European researchers have begun in vitro investigations to discover the inhibiting substance, and all studies have confirmed it is a nonesterified fatty acid. The strong association between breast milk jaundice, elevated values of nonesterified fatty acids, and unstimulated lipase in UDPGT-inhibitory milk was confirmed by electrophoretic technique. The mechanisms responsible for production of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubeinemia in infants, however, is not understood. 2 theories have been offered: 1) that milk triglyceride digestion before the milk reaches the duodenum leads to early absorption of most of the liberated glycerol that might otherwise be used by intestinal epithelium to resynthesize triglycerides; or 2) inhibitory human milk may facilitate the enterohepatic recirculation of bilirubin (reabsorption of bilirubin from intestinal lumen). Breast-feeding per se does not result in an increased incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; it is rather those infants who receive insufficient amounts of breast milk who develop the condition.

  17. Vitamin E protected cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, Yumiko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yagasaki, Yuki; Kumamaru, Emi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Takahisa; Niki, Etsuo

    2006-05-01

    The role of vitamin E in the CNS has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that pre-treatment with vitamin E analogs including alphaT (alpha-tocopherol), alphaT3 (alpha -tocotrienol), gammaT, and gammaT3 for 24 h prevented the cultured cortical neurons from cell death in oxidative stress stimulated by H2O2, while Trolox, a cell-permeable analog of alphaT, did not. The preventive effect of alphaT was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, we found that alphaT exposure induced the activation of both the MAP kinase (MAPK) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathways and that the alphaT-dependent survival effect was blocked by the inhibitors, U0126 (an MAPK pathway inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K pathway inhibitor). Interestingly, the up-regulation of Bcl-2 (survival promoting molecule) was induced by alphaT application. The up-regulation of Bcl-2 did not occur in the presence of U0126 or LY294002, suggesting that alphaT-up-regulated Bcl-2 is mediated by these kinase pathways. These observations suggest that vitamin E analogs play an essential role in neuronal maintenance and survival in the CNS.

  18. Possible mechanisms of fragmentation of {sup 16}O nuclei with a momentum of 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon in track emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotikov, E. A.

    2013-06-15

    The angular distributions of doubly charged fragments of {sup 16}O nuclei having a momentum of 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon and interacting with track-emulsion nuclei were studied. The experimental angular distributions of doubly charged fragments of a {sup 16}O nucleus are not described by the statistical model of the fragmentation of nuclei. The possible channels of fragmentation of {sup 16}O nuclei may include {sup 16}O {yields} 2{sup 8}Be {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {sup 8}Be +{sup 8} Be* {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} 2{sup 8}Be* {yields} 4{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha}+{sup 12}C, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + 3{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + p{alpha}{sup 7}Li, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + 2{sup 6}Li, {sup 16}O {yields} {alpha} +{sup 12}C* {yields} {alpha} + pt2{alpha}, {sup 16}O {yields} Li + B, and {sup 16}O {yields} Li* + B*.

  19. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T. )

    1989-07-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140{degree}C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between {alpha}-lactalbumin or {beta}-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added {sup 14}C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70{degree}C for 45 s, less than 2% {beta}-lactoglobulin and less than .3% {alpha}-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95{degree}C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140{degree}C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems.

  20. Redox chemistry of the Keggin heteropolyoxotungstate anion in ionic liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, M.-H.; Dzielawa, J. A.; Dietz, M. L.; Antonio, M. R.; Chemistry

    2004-06-01

    The solid salts of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and the 1-n-pentyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, abbreviated [C{sub 2}mim]{sup +} and [C{sub 5}mim]{sup +}, respectively, of the Keggin heteropolyanion, {alpha}-[PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-}, were prepared. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements of both [C{sub n}mim]{sub 3}[{alpha}-PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] salts (for n=2 and 5) were performed in acetonitrile containing either tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate, abbreviated TBAPF{sub 6}, or the corresponding [C{sub n}mim]BF{sub 4} ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolytes. The results are compared with the corresponding data obtained in the neat [C{sub n}mim]BF{sub 4} ILs without addition of other electrolytes. The effects of countercation and supporting electrolyte on the voltammetry of the Keggin ion {alpha}-[PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} are interpreted as resulting from an amalgamation of isomerization, ion-association, and redox processes. The combination of the unique solvent/electrolyte properties of ILs with the well-known electrochemistry of molecular polyoxometalates (POMs) like the Keggin aanion leads to redox behavior that may have impact on the research and technology of catalytic and energy-storage phenomena.

  1. Neuroactive steroids have multiple actions to potentiate GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Akk, Gustav; Bracamontes, John R; Covey, Douglas F; Evers, Alex; Dao, Tim; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2004-07-01

    The effects of neuroactive steroids on the function of GABAA receptors were studied using cell-attached records of single channel activity recorded from HEK293 cells transfected with alpha1 beta2 gamma2L subunits. Activity was elicited with a half-maximal (50 microM) concentration of GABA. Two steroids were studied in detail: ACN ((3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile) and B285 ((3alpha,5beta,17beta)-3-hydroxy-18-norandrostane-17-carbonitrile). Four effects on channel activity were seen, two on open time distributions and two on closed times. When clusters of openings were elicited in the absence of steroid, the open time distribution contained three components. ACN produced concentration-dependent alterations in the open time distribution. The prevalence of the longest duration class of open times was increased from about 15% to about 40% (EC50 about 180 nM ACN), while the duration of the longest class increased from 7.4 ms to 27 ms (EC50 about 35 nM ACN). B285 also increased the prevalence of the longest duration open times (EC50 about 18 nM B285) but increased the duration only at concentrations close to 10 microM. The differences in the actions of these two steroids suggest that the effects on proportion and duration of the long duration open time component are produced by independent mechanisms and that there are separate recognition sites for the steroids which are associated with the two functional actions. The closed time distributions also showed three components in the absence of steroid. The rate of occurrence of the two brief duration closed time components decreased with increasing ACN, with an EC50 of about 50 nM ACN. In contrast, B285 did not reduce the rate of occurrence of the brief closings until high concentrations were applied. However, both B285 and ACN reduced the rate of occurrence of the activation-related closed state selectively, with comparable IC50 concentrations (about 40 nM ACN, 20 nM B285). As in the case for

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates adenylyl cyclase activity in rat thyroid cells: reduction of thyrotropin receptor number and increase in guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi-2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Berg, J P; Sandvik, J A; Ree, A H; Sørnes, G; Bjøro, T; Torjesen, P A; Gordeladze, J O; Haug, E

    1994-08-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] is the most potent of the naturally occurring vitamin D metabolites. In rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, 1,25-(OH)2D3 attenuated the increase in TSH-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity obtained by removing TSH from the culture medium. When cells were incubated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nmol/liter; 4 days), the binding capacity for specific [125I]TSH binding decreased from 20.1 +/- 1.8 to 8.8 +/- 1.6 fmol/10(6) cells (mean +/- SEM; n = 4; P < 0.01) compared to that in control cells. The Kd did not change (mean +/- SEM, 0.46 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.07 nmol/liter; n = 4; P = NS). Western blotting revealed no change in the membrane content of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) alpha-subunit (Gs alpha) during 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment. Similarly, levels of the AC inhibitory G-protein Gi-3 alpha- and G-protein beta-subunits were not altered by 1,25-(OH)2D3. However, Western blotting with antibodies recognizing both Gi-1 alpha and Gi-2 alpha was augmented 4-fold, presumably representing an increase in Gi-2 alpha only, as Gi-1 alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) was not detected in FRTL-5 cells. 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nmol/liter; 4 days) reduced cholera toxin (10 nmol/liter)-stimulated AC activity to 85% of the control value (P < 0.05), whereas forskolin (100 mumol/liter)-stimulated direct activation of AC was inhibited by 39%. The TSH receptor mRNA level correlated to the beta-actin mRNA was 2-fold higher in control cells compared to that in 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated cells 12 h after TSH removal. Only minor alterations in the Gs alpha mRNA/beta-actin mRNA and Gi-3 alpha mRNA/beta-actin mRNA ratios were observed during 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment, whereas Gi-2 alpha mRNA increased 3-fold compared to that in control cells. No change in the resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be detected after 4 days of 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment. Our studies show that 1,25-(OH)2D3 attenuates AC activity by reducing the TSH receptor

  3. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple. PMID:27766161

  4. Autophagy in periodontitis patients and gingival fibroblasts: unraveling the link between chronic diseases and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontitis, the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, has been related to cardiovascular diseases. Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. The aim of this research was to study the role of autophagy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis and gingival fibroblasts treated with a lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and in other diseases related to periodontitis, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus it is important to study the role of autophagy in the pathophysiology of periodontitis. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis (n = 38) and without periodontitis (n = 20) were used to study autophagy. To investigate the mechanism of autophagy, we evaluated the influence of a lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis in human gingival fibroblasts, and autophagy was monitored morphologically and biochemically. Autophagosomes were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Results We found increased levels of autophagy gene expression and high levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis compared with controls. A significantly positive correlation between both was observed. In human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis, there was an increase of protein and transcript of autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha LC3. A reduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced a decrease in autophagy whereas inhibition of autophagy in infected cells increased apoptosis, showing the protective role of autophagy. Conclusion Results from the present study suggest that autophagy is an important and shared

  5. Alpha-T-catenin (CTNNA3) displays tumour specific monoallelic expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Maria; Melvin, Audrey; Gallagher, Emma; Smith, James; McGoldrick, Alo; Moss, Catherine; Goossens, Steven; Harrison, Michèle; Kay, Elaine; Fitzpatrick, John; Dervan, Peter; Mc Cann, Amanda

    2007-06-01

    CTNNA3 (alpha-T-catenin) is imprinted with preferential monoallelic expression of the maternal allele in placental tissue. The allelic expression pattern of CTNNA3 in adult human cancer is unknown and warrants investigation as CTNNA3 stabilizes cellular adherence, a feature which if compromised could enable cells to acquire an increased capability to detach and invade. We document the frequency of monoallelic versus biallelic expression of CTNNA3 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) samples and compare the observed patterns with that found in the paired normal sample. DNA PCR reactions encompassing a transcribable SNP polymorphism within exon 12 of CTNNA3 were sequence analyzed to identify heterozygous cases. A total of 96 samples were analyzed and included 22 paired normal and tumor UCB cases, 38 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UCB samples consisting of 18 noninvasive pTa tumors and 20 lamina propria invasive pT1 tumors and 14 cell lines of various lineages. RT-PCR analysis of 35 heterozygous samples followed by sequence analysis allowed monoallelic versus biallelic patterns to be assigned. We have provided the first demonstration that CTNNA3 displays differing allelic expression patterns in UCB. Specifically, 35% (7/20) of informative UCB, showed monoallelic expression, a feature confined to the tumor, with normal urothelial samples displaying biallelic expression. Real time RT-PCR analyses, demonstrated a significantly lower (P = 0.00039) level of CTNNA3 in the tumor samples compared with the paired normals, all of which displayed biallelic expression. In conclusion, monoallelic and biallelic CTNNA3 expression patterns are demonstrable in tumor bladder tissue, whereas normal cases show only biallelic expression.

  6. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Giovambattista; Rizzo, Maria; Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Mugione, Alessandra; Ferrari, Patrizia; Paulmichl, Markus; Lang, Florian; Loffing, Johannes; Carrel, Monique; Damiano, Sara; Wagner, Carsten A; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC2), but higher (119%, n = 5, P < 0.005) for Na+-Cl- (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules (DCT). These results were confirmed by Western blots, which revealed: 1) unchanged NHE3 in the cortex and NKCC2 in the outer medulla; 2) a significant increase (52%, n = 6, P < 0.001) of NCC in the cortex; 3) alpha- and beta-sodium channels [epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)] unaffected in renal cortex and slightly reduced in the outer medulla, while gamma-ENaC remained unchanged. Pendrin protein expression was unaffected. The role of NCC was reinforced by immunocytochemical studies showing increased NCC on the apical membrane of DCT cells of MHS animals, and by clearance experiments demonstrating a larger sensitivity (P < 0.001) to bendroflumethiazide in MHS rats. Kidney-specific chloride channels (ClC-K) were studied by Western blot experiments on renal cortex and by patch-clamp studies on primary culture of DCT dissected from MNS and MHS animals. Electrophysiological characteristics of ClC-K channels were unchanged in MHS rats, but the number of active channels in a patch was 0.60 +/- 0.21 (n = 35) in MNS rats and 2.17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension.

  7. Microarray-based gene expression profiling reveals genes and pathways involved in the oncogenic function of REG3A on pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Fu, Rong; Yin, Guoxiao; Liu, Xiulan; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Ming

    2016-03-10

    We previously reported that regenerating islet-derived protein 3 alpha (REG3A) exacerbates pancreatic malignancies. The mechanism of this effect has not been clearly elucidated. Here we first identified key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and signal pathways in the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, compared to two control cell lines, by microarray analysis. We then identified key genes and pathways regulated by REG3A or the cytokine IL6 in SW1990 cells. Afterwards, these DEGs induced by REG3A or IL6 were subjected to KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and GO function analysis by the DAVID online tool. Ultimately, we constructed protein-protein interaction networks among the DEGs by Cytoscape. Among the three pancreatic cell lines, SW1990 exhibited highly deterioration with the activation of genes and pathways related to proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and invasion. As a result, 50 DEGs enriched in 11 pathways were identified in REG3A-treated SW1990 cells, and 28 DEGs enriched in 9 pathways were detected in IL6-treated cells. Overall, results of microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting suggest that REG3A regulates pancreatic cell growth by increasing the expression of at least 8 genes: JAK1, STAT3, IL10, FOXM1, KRAS, MYC, CyclinD1, and c-fos; and activation of at least 4 signal pathways: TGFβ, PDGF, angiogenesis and RAS. Similar results were obtained with IL6 treatment. Regulation network analysis confirmed the cell growth related DEGs, and further uncovered three transcription factor families with immune functions regulated by REG3A.

  8. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik A; Hespel, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 12-wk intervention groups: chow-fed controls (CON), cafeteria diet (CAF), and cafeteria diet plus swimming exercise during the last 4 wk (CAF(TR)). CAF feeding led to increased body weight (16%, P < 0.01) and increased plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin levels (P < 0.01) during an IVGTT, which was counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P = 0.051) in the CAF group, there were no differences in insulin signaling (IR Tyr(1150/1151), PI 3-kinase activity, Akt Thr(308), TBC1D4 Thr(642), GSK3-alpha/beta Ser(21/9)) or changes in AMPKalpha1 or -alpha2, GLUT4, Munc18c, or syntaxin 4 protein expression or in phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK expression or phosphorylation. Thus, compared with previous studies of high-fat feeding, where insulin signaling is significantly impaired, the mechanism by which CAF diet induces insulin resistance seems different.

  9. Chronically inflamed human tissues are infiltrated by highly differentiated Th17 lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pène, Jérôme; Chevalier, Sylvie; Preisser, Laurence; Vénéreau, Emilie; Guilleux, Marie-Hélène; Ghannam, Soufiane; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Danger, Yannic; Ravon, Elisa; Lesaux, Sabine; Yssel, Hans; Gascan, Hugues

    2008-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are characterized by local tissue injury caused by immunocompetent cells, in particular CD4(+) T lymphocytes, that are involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders via the production of distinctive sets of cytokines. Here, we have characterized single CD4(+) T cells that infiltrate inflamed tissue taken from patients with psoriasis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or allergic asthma. Results from a cytokine production and gene profile analysis identified a population of in vivo differentiatedretinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-expressing T cells, producing high levels of IL-17, that can represent up to 30% of infiltrating T lymphocytes. Activated Th17 cells produced IL-26, TNF-alpha, lymphotoxin-beta, and IL-22. IL-17 and IL-22 concentrations secreted by tissue infiltrating Th17 cells could reach up to 100 nM and were inversely correlated with the production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines. In addition, tissue-infiltrating Th17 cells are also characterized by high cell surface expression of CCR6, a chemokine receptor that was not expressed by Th1 and Th2 cells, isolated from the same lesions, and by the production of CCL20/MIP3alpha, a CCR6 ligand, associated with tissue infiltration. Culture supernatants of activated Th17 cells, isolated from psoriatic lesions, induced the expression of gene products associated with inflammation and abnormal keratinocyte differentiation in an IL-17 and IL-22-dependent manner. These results show that tissue-infiltrating Th17 cells contribute to human chronic inflammatory disease via the production of several inflammatory cytokines and the creation of an environment contributing to their migration and sequestration at sites of inflammation.

  10. Crystal Structure of TDP-Fucosamine Acetyl Transferase (WECD) from Escherichia Coli, an Enzyme Required for Enterobacterial Common Antigen Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hung,M.; Rangarajan, E.; Munger, C.; Nadeau, G.; Sulea, T.; Matte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide found on the outer membrane of virtually all gram-negative enteric bacteria and consists of three sugars, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, organized into trisaccharide repeating units having the sequence {yields}(3)-{alpha}-D-Fuc4NAc-(1{yields}4)-{beta}-D-ManNAcA-(1{yields}4)-{alpha}-D-GlcNAc-(1{yields}). While the precise function of ECA is unknown, it has been linked to the resistance of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 to organic acids and the resistance of Salmonella enterica to bile salts. The final step in the synthesis of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acetylation of the 4-amino group, is carried out by TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD). We have determined the crystal structure of WecD in apo form at a 1.95-Angstroms resolution and bound to acetyl-CoA at a 1.66-Angstroms resolution. WecD is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer adopting the GNAT N-acetyltransferase fold, common to a number of enzymes involved in acetylation of histones, aminoglycoside antibiotics, serotonin, and sugars. The crystal structure of WecD, however, represents the first structure of a GNAT family member that acts on nucleotide sugars. Based on this cocrystal structure, we have used flexible docking to generate a WecD-bound model of the acetyl-CoA-TDP-fucosamine tetrahedral intermediate, representing the structure during acetyl transfer. Our structural data show that WecD does not possess a residue that directly functions as a catalytic base, although Tyr208 is well positioned to function as a general acid by protonating the thiolate anion of coenzyme A.

  11. The alpha2beta1 integrin inhibitor rhodocetin binds to the A-domain of the integrin alpha2 subunit proximal to the collagen-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Eble, Johannes A; Tuckwell, Danny S

    2003-01-01

    Rhodocetin is a snake venom protein that binds to alpha2beta1 integrin, inhibiting its interaction with its endogenous ligand collagen. We have determined the mechanism by which rhodocetin inhibits the function of alpha2beta1. The interaction of alpha2beta1 with collagen and rhodocetin differed: Ca(2+) ions and slightly acidic pH values increased the binding of alpha2beta1 integrin to rhodocetin in contrast with their attenuating effect on collagen binding, suggesting that rhodocetin preferentially binds to a less active conformation of alpha2beta1 integrin. The alpha2A-domain [von Willebrand factor domain A homology domain (A-domain) of the integrin alpha2 subunit] is the major site for collagen binding to alpha2beta1. Recombinant alpha2A-domain bound rhodocetin, demonstrating that the A-domain is also the rhodocetin-binding domain. Although the interaction of alpha2beta1 with rhodocetin is affected by altering divalent cations, the interaction of the A-domain was divalent-cation-independent. The rhodocetin-binding site on the alpha2A-domain was mapped first by identifying an anti-alpha2 antibody that blocked rhodocetin binding and then mapping the epitope of the antibody using human-mouse alpha2A-domain chimaeras; and secondly, by binding studies with alpha2A-domain, which bear point mutations in the vicinity of the mapped epitope. In this way, the rhodocetin-binding site was identified as the alpha3-alpha4 loop plus adjacent alpha-helices. This region is known to form part of the collagen-binding site, thus attaining a mainly competitive mode of inhibition by rhodocetin. PMID:12871211

  12. Early diagenetic transformation of higher-plant triterpenoids in deep-sea sediments from Baffin Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haven, H.L. Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison ); Peakman, T.M. ); Rullkoetter, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A sediment sequence of early Miocene to Holocene from Ocean Drilling Program Site 645 in central Baffin Bay was found to contain abundant triterpenoids of higher-plant origin including mono-desmethyl derivatives and other oxidative degradation products. 24-nor-triterpenoids of the oleanene, ursene, and lupane series were found in the nonaromatic hydrocarbon and alcohol fractions of the sediment extracts. Other diagenetic transformation products included 24,28-dinor-olean-17-ene and 24-nor-urs-12-en-11-one as well as their tentatively identified des-A counterparts. The identification of these novel degradation products was confirmed by synthesis of a suite of reference compounds. The simple reaction sequence applied to obtain 24-nor-urs-12-ene-from 3{alpha}-acetoxyurs-12-en-24-oic acid is likely to happen in a similar manner during early diagenesis of organic matter in nature. These results have implications for the understanding of the diagenetic reaction sequence leading to the formation of other demethylated triterpenoids of terrigenous origin (e.g., 24,28-dinor-lupanes). 28,30-dinot-17{alpha}-hopane is sometimes the dominant hydrocarbon in the most deeply buried samples. Its co-occurrence with higher plant triterpenoids and the low abundance of other regular hopanoids is not considered an indication, however, that 28,20-dinor-17{alpha}-hopane is derived from a higher plant precursor molecule. It is suggested that two independent sedimentary processes are responsible for the presence of the two types of demethylated triterpenoids observed in Baffin Bay sediments.

  13. Distribution of adenylate cyclase and GTP-binding proteins in hepatic plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B S; Sutherland, E; Alexander, A; Nibel, D; Simon, F R

    1993-10-01

    Hepatic membrane subfractions prepared from control rats demonstrated forskolin (FSK)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the basolateral (sinusoidal) but not apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. After bile duct ligation (BDL) for 12 or 24 h, there was an increase in FSK-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the apical membrane (54.2 +/- 3.9 pmol.mg-1 x min-1). The mechanism for this increase was explored further. ATP hydrolysis was found to be much higher in the apical than the basolateral membrane. Increasing the ATP levels in the assay enhanced apical membrane adenylate cyclase activity (10.5 +/- 0.2 pmol.mg-l.min-1); however, total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity was not altered after BDL. Extraction of the apical membrane with bile acids or other detergents resulted in a two- to threefold increase in adenylate cyclase activity (30.6 +/- 3.6 pmol.mg-1 x min-1; detergent C12E8) This suggested that bile duct ligation was acting via the detergent-like action of bile acids to uncover latent adenylate cyclase activity on apical membranes. Further studies demonstrated that both BDL and detergent extraction also enhanced toxin-directed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha (cholera toxin) and Gi alpha (pertussis toxin) in the apical but not the basolateral membrane. After BDL, Gi alpha was found to be twofold greater in the apical membrane than the basolateral membrane. Immunoblotting using specific G protein antibodies further confirmed that apical membranes from control rats had a higher concentration of Gi1, 2 alpha and beta and slightly elevated levels of Gi3 alpha and Gs alpha compared with the basolateral membrane. The results demonstrate that adenylate cyclase and heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are present on the apical membrane, but measurement of their functional activity requires detergent permeabilization of apical membrane vesicles and is limited by the presence of high ATPase activity.

  14. Different Thermodynamic Binding Mechanisms and Peptide Fine Specificities Associated with a Panel of Structurally Similar High-Affinity T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Colf, L; Bankovich, A; Stone, J; Gao, Y; Chan, C; Huang, R; Garcia, K; Kranz, D

    2008-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms that govern T cell receptor (TCR)-peptide MHC (pMHC) binding and the role that different regions of the TCR play in affinity and antigen specificity, we have studied the TCR from T cell clone 2C. High-affinity mutants of the 2C TCR that bind QL9-L{sup d} as a strong agonist were generated previously by site-directed mutagenesis of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1{Beta}, 2{alpha}, 3{alpha}, or 3{Beta}. We performed isothermal titration calorimetry to assess whether they use similar thermodynamic mechanisms to achieve high affinity for QL9-L{sup d}. Four of the five TCRs examined bound to QL9-L{sup d} in an enthalpically driven, entropically unfavorable manner. In contrast, the high-affinity CDR1{Beta} mutant resembled the wild-type 2C TCR interaction, with favorable entropy. To assess fine specificity, we measured the binding and kinetics of these mutants for both QL9-L{sup d} and a single amino acid peptide variant of QL9, called QL9-Y5-Ld. While 2C and most of the mutants had equal or higher affinity for the Y5 variant than for QL9, mutant CDR1{Beta} exhibited 8-fold lower affinity for Y5 compared to QL9. To examine possible structural correlates of the thermodynamic and fine specificity signatures of the TCRs, the structure of unliganded QL9-L{sup d} was solved and compared to structures of the 2C TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complex and three high-affinity TCR/QL9-L{sup d} complexes. Our findings show that the QL9-L{sup d} complex does not undergo major conformational changes upon binding. Thus, subtle changes in individual CDRs account for the diverse thermodynamic and kinetic binding mechanisms and for the different peptide fine specificities.

  15. Loci of Mycobacterium avium ser2 gene cluster and their functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J A; McNeil, M R; Belisle, J T; Jacobs, W R; Brennan, P J

    1994-01-01

    The highly antigenic glycopeptidolipids present on the surface of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex serve to distinguish these bacteria from all others and to define the various serovars that compose this complex. Previously, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the disaccharide hapten [2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose] of serovar 2 of the M. avium complex were isolated, localized to a contiguous 22- to 27-kb fragment of the M. avium genome, and designated the ser2 gene cluster (J. T. Belisle, L. Pascopella, J. M. Inamine, P. J. Brennan, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 173:6991-6997, 1991). In the present study, transposon saturation mutagenesis was used to map the specific genetic loci within the ser2 gene cluster required for expression of this disaccharide. Four essential loci, termed ser2A, -B, -C, and -D, constituting a total of 5.7 kb within the ser2 gene cluster, were defined. The ser2B and ser2D loci encode the methyltransferases required to methylate the fucose at the 3 and 2 positions, respectively. The rhamnosyltransferase was encoded by ser2A, whereas either ser2C or ser2D encoded the fucosyltransferase. The ser2C and ser2D loci are also apparently involved in the de novo synthesis of fucose. Isolation of the truncated versions of the hapten induced by the transposon insertions provides genetic evidence that the glycopeptidolipids of M. avium serovar 2 are synthesized by an initial transfer of the rhamnose unit to the peptide core followed by fucose and finally O methylation of the fucosyl unit. PMID:8050992

  16. Successful intrauterine insemination of Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) with frozen-thawed spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Monfort, S L; Asher, G W; Wildt, D E; Wood, T C; Schiewe, M C; Williamson, L R; Bush, M; Rall, W F

    1993-11-01

    This study tested the efficacy of assisted reproduction (synchronization of oestrus and intrauterine artificial insemination (AI)) in contributing to the captive propagation of an endangered species, the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin). Semen was collected from males preselected on the basis of under-represented genotype. Motility of spermatozoa after thawing from ejaculates diluted with BF5F extender (8% glycerol), frozen on dry ice in 0.5 ml straws and stored in liquid nitrogen was 60-70%. Intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (controlled internal drug release, CIDR-type G) were inserted into 20 adult Eld's deer hinds for 14 days. In all hinds, semen (7.5-10 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa per uterine horn) was deposited by laparoscopy performed 70 h after removal of the CIDR device. Ovarian activity, before and after AI, was monitored by analysing pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide (PdG) concentrations in voided urine collected three to seven times per week. During the period of CIDR device insertion, urinary PdG profiles were equal to, or above, normal luteal phase concentrations in all hinds. Within 48 h of device withdrawal, PdG concentrations returned to baseline values in 17 of the 20 females, and the onset of behavioural oestrus occurred at this time in 12 hinds. On the basis of sustained increases in urinary PdG, 9 of the 20 hinds were diagnosed as pregnant by 90 days after AI, all of which delivered offspring after a mean gestation of 241.1 days (range, 235-245). Seven singletons (two females, five males) were born alive and survived, and one singleton and one set of twins were stillborn (three females).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Rüker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed. PMID:7538846

  18. Profiles of circulating steroid hormones, gonadotropins, immunoreactive inhibin and prolactin during pregnancy in goats and immunolocalization of inhibin subunits, steroidogenic enzymes and prolactin in the corpus luteum and placenta.

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Sosa, Gamal A; Abou El-Roos, Mahmoud E A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Alaa E; Li, Jun Y; Manabe, Noboru; El Azab, Abd El Salam I; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    The current study was performed to follow up the circulating hormonal changes and to correlate the findings with the physiological activity of the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta during pregnancy in goats. Blood samples were collected weekly from five goats during pregnancy for measuring steroid and protein hormones. A gradual increase was observed in immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, with maximal levels at the 17th week. The plasma concentrations of estradiol and prolactin (PRL) showed nearly similar patterns during pregnancy, where they declined to basal levels during the first 4 weeks post-breeding and then increased significantly, with the maximal concentration during late pregnancy. The plasma FSH and LH concentrations were maintained at basal levels throughout the gestation period. The plasma progesterone concentration abruptly increased in the first week post-breeding and remained at high values throughout the pregnancy period. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin alpha, beta(A), beta(B) and steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), cytochrome 17alpha-hydroxylase P450 and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 in the cyclic and pregnant goat CL revealed positive immunoreactivity without affinity differences between the luteal and pregnancy stages. The placental syncytiotrophoblasts also showed positive staining, except for inhibin beta(A) and 3betaHSD. The giant binucleate cells of the placenta showed positive immunoreactions to PRL. These results suggest that the high concentrations of ir-inhibin, estradiol and PRL during late pregnancy are of placental origin and that the placenta may have a vital role in the maintenance of pregnancy, regulation of mammary growth and preparation for kidding and lactation in goats.

  19. Establishment of cholinergic neuron-like cell lines with differential vulnerability to nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Personett, David A; Williams, Katrina; Baskerville, Karen A; McKinney, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Cholinergic cell lines were established by fusion of embryonic day 17 wild-type neurons from rat basal forebrain (BF) and upper brainstem (BS) with N18tg neuroblastoma cells. Isolated clones expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities that were increased upon differentiation with retinoic acid. Clones from the BF expressed high levels of the tyrosine kinase type A (TrkA) receptor expression and activation of the mitogen-activated kinase ERK2 upon treatment with nerve growth factor. Like wild-type cholinergic populations, the six clones studied were variably resistant to nitric oxide (NO) excess from addition of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP). Of these, the BS2 clone exhibited resistance like in vivo BS cholinergic neurons, while the MS10 clone mimicked in vivo BF vulnerability. Apoptosis in response to NO excess was preceded by increases in mitochondrial responses bax/bcl-2 ratios, but cytochrome C was not released. Mitochondrial levels of apoptosis initiating factor (AIF) were either unchanged or increased, and only in MS clones was endonuclease G (EndoG) released. Microarray data indicated the existence of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and caspase-4 and caspase-12 were involved in the pathway to DNA fragmentation. The array data also indicated a survival role for mdm2, and its blockade rendered vulnerable the brainstem survivor clone BS2. Akt and ERK1/2 pathways were activated in response to NO and their blockade increased DNA fragmentation. Blockade of GSK-3 alpha/beta, a downstream target of Akt, reduced SNAP toxicity and this was more prominent in basal forebrain clones. We have identified two cholinergic cell lines useful for molecular studies of cholinergic vulnerability. We hypothesize that, in cholinergic neurons, control of ER stress signaling may be a major factor in differential vulnerability.

  20. Interleukin-13 modulates collagen homeostasis in human skin and keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oriente, A; Fedarko, N S; Pacocha, S E; Huang, S K; Lichtenstein, L M; Essayan, D M

    2000-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases characterized by fibrosis. We describe the effects of IL-13 on collagen homeostasis from normal (NF) and keloid (KF) fibroblasts and compare these effects with those of IL-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1). Total collagen generation was up-regulated in NF after 48 h of stimulation by IL-13; in KF, IL-13 stimulated a more rapid collagen response. The kinetics and magnitude of collagen generation induced by IL-13 were equivalent to those induced by similar concentrations of IL-4 and TGF-beta(1). Collagen type I production paralleled total collagen generation from both NF and KF; however, IL-4-induced collagen type I and total collagen production from KF was more transient than that induced by either IL-13 or TGF-beta(1). Procollagen 1alpha1 gene expression was induced in KF by stimulation with IL-13 for 24 h. Moreover, IL-13 was unique among these three cytokines in its ability to induce gene expression for procollagen 3alpha1. Finally, IL-13 inhibited IL-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 production and enhanced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 generation from NF; although similar effects were observed with IL-4, TGF-beta(1) transiently enhanced MMP-1 and MMP-3 generation without effecting TIMP-1. In KF, IL-13 and IL-4 inhibited MMP-3, whereas TGF-beta(1) enhanced MMP-3; TIMP-1 was unaffected by any of the three cytokines. These data demonstrate both the profibrotic effects of IL-13 on collagen homeostasis and the potential differential regulation of collagen homeostasis in fibroblast subtypes by IL-13.

  1. SUPERBURST MODELS FOR NEUTRON STARS WITH HYDROGEN- AND HELIUM-RICH ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Heger, A.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.

    2012-06-20

    Superbursts are rare day-long type I X-ray bursts due to carbon flashes on accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. They heat the neutron star envelope such that the burning of accreted hydrogen and helium becomes stable, and the common shorter X-ray bursts are quenched. Short bursts reappear only after the envelope cools down. We study multi-zone one-dimensional models of the neutron star envelope, in which we follow carbon burning during the superburst, and we include hydrogen and helium burning in the atmosphere above. We investigate the cases of both a solar-composition and a helium-rich atmosphere. This allows us to study for the first time a wide variety of thermonuclear burning behavior as well as the transitions between the different regimes in a self-consistent manner. For solar composition, burst quenching ends much sooner than previously expected. This is because of the complex interplay between the 3{alpha}, hot CNO, and CNO breakout reactions. Stable burning of hydrogen and helium transitions via marginally stable burning (mHz quasi-periodic oscillations) to less energetic bursts with short recurrence times. We find a short-lived bursting mode where weaker and stronger bursts alternate. Eventually the bursting behavior changes back to that of the pre-superburst bursts. Because of the scarcity of observations, this transition has not been directly detected after a superburst. Using the MINBAR burst catalog we identify the shortest upper limit on the quenching time for 4U 1636-536, and derive further constraints on the timescale on which bursts return.

  2. Neurosteroid prolongs GABAA channel deactivation by altering kinetics of desensitized states.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W J; Vicini, S

    1997-06-01

    Fast applications of GABA (1 mM) to nucleated and outside-out patches excised from granule neurons in cerebellar slices from developing rats evoked currents with a double exponential time course reminiscent of that of IPSCs. A neurosteroid 3alpha, 21dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (THDOC) remarkably increased the slow deactivation time constant and slowed down recovery from desensitization, as estimated by paired-pulse GABA applications. THDOC also reduced the amplitude of GABA currents, whereas it failed to affect the fast deactivation component and its relative contribution to peak amplitude. The effects of THDOC on slow deactivation were greater in rats younger than postnatal day 13 (P13) as compared with rats at P30-P35. THDOC failed to alter deactivation of short responses induced by a less-potent agonist taurine at saturating doses. These responses had deactivation kinetics described by a fast single exponential decay, little desensitization, and quick recovery. However, THDOC slowed deactivation if taurine responses were long enough to allow consistent desensitization, suggesting that desensitized states are required for the neurosteroid to modulate GABA responses. In outside-out patches, just as desensitized states prolonged GABA responses by producing reopening of channels activated by brief GABA pulses, THDOC increased the channel open probability by further increasing the number of late channel openings, resulting in a prolongation of the slow deactivation. Our data suggest that neurosteroid potentiates the inhibitory postsynaptic transmission via the prolongation of the slow deactivation and that the alteration of kinetics of entry and exit from desensitized states underlies the allosteric modification of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids.

  3. Development of Valpha4+ NK T cells in the early stages of embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Y; Kanno, R; Koseki, H; Taniguchi, M

    1996-01-01

    The majority of T lymphocytes start to develop at around day 15 of gestation (d15)-d17 in the thymus and comprise the peripheral repertoire characterized by the expression of polymorphic T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs). Contrary to these conventional T cells, a subset of T cells, called natural killer (NK) T cells (most of them expressing an invariant TCR encoded by the Valpha14Jalpha281 gene with a 1-nt N-region), preferentially differentiates extrathymically and dominates the peripheral T-cell population at a high frequency (5% in splenic T cells and 40% in bone marrow T cells). Here, we investigated the development of NK T cells and found that the invariant Valpha14+ TCR transcripts and the circular DNA created by Valpha14 and Jalpha281 gene rearrangements can be detected in the embryo body at d9.5 of gestation and in the yolk sac and the fetal liver at d11.5-d13.5 of gestation, but not in the thymus, whereas T cells with Valpha1+ TCR expression, a major population in the thymus, were not observed at these early stages of gestation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also demonstrated that there exist CD3+ alpha beta+ T cells, almost all of which are Valpha14/Vbeta8+ NK+ T cells, during early embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this demonstrates for the first time that a T lymphocyte subset develops in extrathymic tissues during the early stages of embryogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8692847

  4. Interaction of linear manno-oligosaccharides with three mannose-specific bulb lectins. Comparison with mannose/glucose-binding lectins.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J

    1992-05-22

    Three new mannose-binding lectins, isolated from daffodil (NPA), amaryllis (HHA), and snowdrop (GNA) bulbs, are capable of precipitating with a linear mannopentaose (Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-2Man). NPA and HHA reacted strongly with the mannopentaose whereas GNA gave a precipitate only at concentrations greater than 500 microM. A phosphate group at C-6 of the nonreducing terminal mannosyl group prevented precipitation in all three cases. The reduced (NaBH4) mannopentaose, Man4Man-ol, did not precipitate with GNA or NPA, but was active with HHA. This activity was lost when Man4Man-ol was converted (NaIO4 then NaBH4; mild acid hydrolysis of the reduced product) into trisaccharide derivatives. With alpha-D-Manp-OMe the three lectins gave UV difference spectra having large positive peaks at 292-293 and 283-284 nm, and a small positive peak at 275 nm, characteristic of tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues. The association constants for the interaction with alpha-D-Manp-OMe were very low (NPA, 86; HHA, 66; and GNA, 41 M-1), but the lectins bound methyl (1----3)-alpha-mannobioside with increased affinity (K for NPA 540, for HHA 2400, and for GNA 200 M-1). The bulb lectins lack binding sites for hydrophobic ligands, as judged by their failure to interact with the fluorescent probes 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) and 6-p-toluidino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (TNS).

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of cortisol with enzyme fragment complementation technology using functionalized nanowire.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Aravamudhan, Shyam; Gordic, Milorad; Bhansali, Shekhar; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2007-04-15

    Cortisol is a member of the glucocorticoid hormone family and a key metabolic regulator. Increased intracellular cortisol levels have been implicated in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Cortisol is an important bio-marker of stress and its detection is also important in sports medicine. However, rapid methods for sensitive detection of cortisol are limited. Functionalized gold nanowires were used to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of cortisol detection. Gold nanowires are used to improve the electron transfer between the electrodes. Moreover, the large surface to volume ratio, small diffusion time and high electrical conductivity and their aligned nature will enhance the sensitivity and detection limit of the biosensor several fold. The biosensor was fabricated using, aligned gold (Au) nanowires to behave as the working electrode, platinum deposited on a silicon chip to function as the counter electrode, and silver/silver chloride as reference electrode. The gold nanowires were coupled with cortisol antibodies using covalent linkage chemistry and a fixed amount of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was introduced into the reaction cell during each measurement to convert (reduce) ketosteroid into hydroxyl steroid. Furthermore, the micro-fluidic, micro-fluid part of the sensor was fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology to have better control on liquid flow over Au nanowires to minimize the signal to noise ratio. The biosensor was characterized using SEM, AFM and FTIR technique. The response curve of the biosensor was found to be linear in the range of 10-80 microM of cortisol. Moreover, the presence of hydrocortisone is sensitively detected in the range of 5-30 microM. It is concluded that the functionalized gold nanowires with micro-fluidic device using enzyme fragment complementation technology can provide an easy and sensitive assay for cortisol detection in serum and other biological fluids.

  6. Glomerular laminin isoform transitions: errors in metanephric culture are corrected by grafting.

    PubMed

    St John, P L; Wang, R; Yin, Y; Miner, J H; Robert, B; Abrahamson, D R

    2001-04-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly and maturation are marked by the replacement of laminin-1 (containing alpha 1-, beta 1-, and gamma 1-chains) with laminin-11 (consisting of alpha 5-, beta 2-, and gamma 1-chains). Similarly, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-chains of type IV collagen are replaced by collagen alpha 3-, alpha 4-, and alpha 5(IV)-chains. The cellular origins of these molecules and mechanisms for isoform removal and substitution are unknown. To explore glomerular laminin isoform transitions in vitro, we assessed metanephric organ cultures. Standard culture conditions do not support endothelial cell differentiation, and glomerular structures that form in vitro are avascular. Nevertheless, extensive podocyte development occurs in these cultures, including the formation of foot processes and assembly of a GBM-like matrix. Here, we show that the podocyte-specific markers, glomerular epithelial protein 1 and nephrin, which are normally expressed in capillary loop stage glomeruli in vivo, are also expressed by glomerular figures that form in organ culture. However, the GBM-like segments that form in vitro do not undergo normal laminin isoform switching. Instead, both laminin alpha 1- and alpha 5-chains are present, as is the beta 1-chain, but not beta 2. When avascular organ-cultured kidneys are grafted into anterior eye chambers, however, kidney-derived angioblasts establish extensive vasculature by 6 days, and glomeruli are lined by endothelial cells. We evaluated embryonic day 12 (E12) vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk1)-lacZ kidneys that had first been grown in organ culture for 6--7 days and then grafted into wild-type mice. Correct laminin isoform substitution occurred and correlated with the appearance of endothelial cells expressing Flk1. Our findings indicate that endothelial cells, and/or factors present in the circulation, mediate normal GBM laminin isoform transitions in vivo.

  7. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  8. Excreted corticosterone metabolites co-vary with ambient temperature and air pressure in male Greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Didone; Dittami, John; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2004-05-15

    In many species, seasonal activities such as reproduction or migration need to be fine-tuned with weather conditions. Air pressure and temperature changes are the best parameters for such conditions. Adapting to climatic changes invariably involves physiological and behavioral reactions associated with the adrenals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature and air pressure on excreted immuno-reactive metabolites of corticosterone (BM) and androgens (AM). Focal individuals were 14 paired male greylag geese (Anser anser) from a semi-tame, unrestrained flock. BM and AM were measured in individual fecal samples over 25 days in November and December. Two different ACTH-validated assays were used for the assessment of BM: the first one cross-reacting with 11beta,21-diol-20-one structures ("old assay") and the second one with 5beta,3alpha,11beta-diol structures ("new assay"). With the "new assay," BM correlated negatively with the minimum ambient temperature of the night before, which may reflect corticosterone involvement in thermoregulation. BM also correlated positively with the minimum air pressure of the previous afternoon, which supports the value of air pressure for predicting weather conditions. Together, these reactions suggest a role of the adrenals in responding behaviorally and physiologically to changes in weather. Preliminary analysis indicated a higher sensitivity to the excreted glucocorticosteroid metabolites in the "new assay." As expected for outside the mating season, no relationships were found between excreted AM and the weather parameters considered. The gradual changes in BM excretion in parallel with weather conditions may be part of the fine-tuning of physiology and behavior by environmental clues.

  9. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse. PMID:10827975

  10. Comparative analysis of the noncollagenous NC1 domain of type IV collagen: identification of structural features important for assembly, function, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Netzer, K O; Suzuki, K; Itoh, Y; Hudson, B G; Khalifah, R G

    1998-06-01

    Type IV collagen alpha1-alpha6 chains have important roles in the assembly of basement membranes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder, and Alport syndrome, a hereditary renal disease. We report comparative sequence analyses and structural predictions of the noncollagenous C-terminal globular NC1 domain (28 sequences). The inferred tree verified that type IV collagen sequences fall into two groups, alpha1-like and alpha2-like, and suggested that vertebrate alpha3/alpha4 sequences evolved before alpha1/alpha2 and alpha5/alpha6. About one fifth of NC1 residues were identified to confer either the alpha1 or alpha2 group-specificity. These residues accumulate opposite charge in subdomain B of alpha1 (positive) and alpha2 (negative) sequences and may play a role in the stoichiometric chain selection upon type IV collagen assembly. Neural network secondary structure prediction on multiple aligned sequences revealed a subdomain core structure consisting of six hydrophobic beta-strands and one short alpha-helix with a significant hydrophobic moment. The existence of opposite charges in the alpha-helices may carry implications for intersubdomain interactions. The results provide a rationale for defining the epitope that binds Goodpasture autoantibodies and a framework for understanding how certain NC1 mutations may lead to Alport syndrome. A search algorithm, based entirely on amino acid properties, yielded a possible similarity of NC1 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) and prompted an investigation of a possible functional relationship. The results indicate that NC1 preparations decrease the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 (MMP-2, MMP-3) toward a peptide substrate, though not to [14C]-gelatin. We suggest that an ancestral NC1 may have been incorporated into type IV collagen as an evolutionarily mobile domain carrying proteinase inhibitor function.

  11. Induction of native protein reactive antibodies by immunization with peptides containing linear B-cell epitopes defined by anti-porcine ZP3 beta monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Afzalpurkar, A; Sacco, A G; Yurewicz, E C; Gupta, S K

    1997-06-01

    To identify pertinent target epitopes for contraceptive vaccine development, rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against four peptides synthesized from the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of porcine zona pellucida macromolecule ZP3 beta and coupled to diphtheria toxoid (DT). Synthetic peptides consisted of: P1, 23-37 aa; P2, 164-179 aa with an additional C-terminal cysteine; P3, 246-263 aa with an extra C-terminal cysteine; and P4, 310-321 aa residues corresponding to pZP3 beta precursor protein. Selected sequences were based upon B cell epitopes identified previously by monoclonal antibodies. Immune sera reacted with their respective peptides and DT in an ELISA, and also recognized porcine SIZP and pZP3 beta both in ELISA and Western blot and zona pellucida of porcine oocytes in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. None of the four anti-peptide sera recognized pZP3 alpha in Western blot, emphasizing the specificity of these antibodies to pZP3 beta. The anti-peptide sera, individually, failed to inhibit in vitro attachment of boar sperm to antibody treated zona encased porcine oocytes. However, combinations of immune sera against peptides such as P1 + P4, P2 + P4 and P1 + P2 + P4, did significantly inhibit porcine sperm-oocyte interaction. These results identify combinations of peptides that could potentially be used in the design of an immunocontraceptive vaccine based upon synthetic peptides corresponding to pZP3 beta or its homologues in other species.

  12. Heparin-binding Hemagglutinin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is an Inhibitor of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Xiaorui; Yang, Liu; Ma, Yueyun; Hao, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Airway epithelial cell is often the initial site of attack by pathogens, and cell death is commonly caused by internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the mechanism of interaction between epithelial cells and Mtb is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) protein of Mtb in the function of epithelial cells. In particular, the autophagy of A549 cells was determined based on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) activity. Autophagosome formation was detected by Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and immune fluorescence staining of LC3. Autophagy could be significantly suppressed by HBHA protein. In addition, the LDH assay results showed that HBHA treatment could induce death on A549 cells. To explore the form of cell death, we detected the activity of caspase-3 and LDH release of A549 cells in the presence or absence of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Results demonstrated that HBHA treatment could induce apoptosis of A549 cells. To further confirm these results, we constructed the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) expressing HBHA (rMS-HBHA) and explored the influence of rMS-HBHA on the function of A549 cells. rMS-HBHA infection significantly inhibited LC3 expression and the maturation of autophagosomes in A549 cells. Subsequently, we infected A549 cells with MS and detected the viability of intracellular MS by CFU counts. rMS-HBHA showed higher survival and replication capacity in A549 cells than those of the wild-type MS. Finally, infection of A549 cells with rMS-HBHA caused further apoptosis. These findings suggested that rMS-HBHA could inhibit autophagy, promote its survival and replication within A549 cells, and subsequently induce apoptosis on infected cells to facilitate infection.

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes from deep-sea cold seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Fukuba, Tatsuhiro; Ogawa, Mari; Fujii, Teruo; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR, EC 1.8.99.3) alpha-subunit genes from a deep-sea cold seep was analyzed. Bulk genomic DNA was extracted from the cold seep sediment and used for amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of DSR alpha-subunit gene. Two sizes of PCR products, 1.4 kb (expected) and 1.3 kb (unexpected), were amplified. Sixteen clones of the 1.4-kb amplicons and 16 clones of 1.3-kb amplicons, a total of 32 clones, were obtained and grouped into operational DSR units (ODUs) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by digestion with HaeIII and MboI. A total of 14 ODUs, i.e., 5 ODUs from 1.4-kb amplicon clones and 9 ODUs from 1.3-kb amplicon clones, were recovered. About 400 bp of the 5' ends of all the clones was sequenced and validated the RFLP-based ODU grouping. All the 5'-end 400-bp sequences of ODUs, even from the 1.3-kb amplicons, showed the characteristic DSR amino acid sequence motifs. The ODUs from 1.4-kb amplicons were closely related to the delta-Proteobacterial lineage with the DSR genes from epsilon-Proteobacterial epibionts of the hot vent worm Alvinella pompejana. The ODUs from 1.3-kb amplicons were mostly related to the unknown but possibly archaeal lineage. The diversity of the DSR genes may indicate the diversity of sulfate reducers in the seep sediment as well as the complexity of electron donors including methane.

  14. Lung macrophage uptake of unopsonized environmental particulates: Role of scavenger-type receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kobzik, L.

    1995-07-01

    The receptors responsible for avid alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis of unopsonized environmental particulates have not been well defined. This study used flow cytometry to quantitate the effects of a panel of soluble ligands for macrophage adhesion receptors on AM binding of unopsonized environmental dusts (titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}; iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}; {alpha}-quartz, SiO{sub 2}; diesel engine exhaust dust) or fluorescent latex beads. Polyanionic ligands of the macrophage scavenger receptor (SR) for acetylated-LDL caused marked inhibition of AM binding of the oxide particles and latex beads (e.g., TiO{sub 2} binding; polyinosinic acid (polyl), 10 {mu}g/ml: 70.2 {+-} 1.5% inhibition, mean {+-} SE, n = 11). In contrast, no inhibition was seen with the polyanions heparin and chondroitin sulfate (chond-S), or dextran, consistent with the known inhibitor profile of macrophage SRs for acetylated-LDL. AM uptake of latex or SiO{sub 2} beads instilled into lungs of hamsters was inhibited by administration of polyl but not chondroitin sulfate (AM beads per cell: control, 6.1 {+-} 0.7; polyl, 3.5 {+-} 0.2; chond-S, 5.1 {+-} 0.7, n {ge} 4, p < 0.05 for control vs polyl) indicating macrophage SRs operate in vivo as well as in vitro. In contrast, AM binding of the carbonaceous diesel dust particles was not inhibited by any ligand tested. AM uptake of unopsonized TiO{sub 2}, SR ligands or acetylated LDL caused no significant activation of AM respiratory burst or TNF production, consistent with past observations that opsonin-independent phagocytosis of inert particles by normal AMs is not accompanied by pro-inflammatory activation. These data implicate macrophage-type SRs in AM binding of charged environmental particles and indicate that distinct mechanisms mediate binding of carbonaceous dusts. 54 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Formation of 5alpha-reduced androgens in the testes and urogenital tract of the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jean D; Renfree, Marilyn B; Auchus, Richard J; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Testicular 5alpha-reduced androgens, largely 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (androstanediol), are responsible for virilisation of pouch young in one marsupial (the tammar wallaby), but are not formed until later in development in another marsupial (the brushtail possum) and in rodents. Because the mechanism of virilisation of the urogenital tract in the grey short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica has never been defined, androgen formation and metabolism were investigated in this species. Testis fragments from grey short-tailed opossums of a wide range of ages were incubated with [3H]-progesterone and the metabolites were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only 19-carbon metabolites identified in the youngest ages (5-26 days) and the major metabolites in adult testes were testosterone and androstenedione. At 30, 42 and 49 days of age, dihydrotestosterone and small amounts of androstanediol were present. Time-sequence studies indicated that dihydrotestosterone and androstanediol were formed from the 5alpha-reduction (and 3-keto reduction) of testosterone. In a second series of experiments, tissue fragments of a variety of urogenital tract tissues were incubated with [3H]-testosterone and the metabolites separated by HPLC. During the interval in which male urogenital tract differentiation takes place in this species (between Days 15 and 28), the major metabolite identified was dihydrotestosterone. We conclude that the timing of 5alpha-reductase expression in the testes of the grey short-tailed possum resembles that of rodents and the brushtail possum rather than that of the tammar wallaby and that dihydrotestosterone is probably the intracellular androgen responsible for virilisation of the urogenital tract in this species.

  16. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Meisheng; Tran, V.T.; Fong, H.K.W. ); Pandey, S. )

    1991-05-01

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein {alpha} subunits (G{alpha}) including G{sub s}{alpha}, G{sub i-1}{alpha}, G{sub i-2}{alpha}, G{sub i-3}{alpha}, and G{sub z}{alpha} (or G{sub x}{alpha}), where G{sub s} and G{sub i} are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and G{sub z} is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensitive events. Other G{alpha}-related mRNA transcripts were detected in fetal RPE cells by low-stringency hybridization to G{sub i-2}{alpha} and G{sub s}{alpha} protein-coding cDNA probes. The diversity of G proteins in RPE cells was further studied by cDNA amplification with reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction. This approach revealed that, besides the above mentioned members of the G{alpha} gene family, at least two other G{alpha} subunits are expressed in RPE cells. Human retinal cDNA clones that encode one of the additional G{alpha} subunits were isolated and characterized. The results indicate that this G{alpha} subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

  17. GSK3 inactivation is involved in mitochondrial complex IV defect in transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1-induced senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Yong-Hak; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Hwang, Sung-Chul; Seong Hwang, Eun; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2012-09-10

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF {beta}1) induces Mv1Lu cell senescence by persistently producing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) through decreased complex IV activity. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of TGF {beta}1 on mitochondrial complex IV activity. TGF {beta}1 progressively phosphorylated the negative regulatory sites of both glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) {alpha} and {beta}, corresponding well to the intracellular ROS generation profile. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, did not alter this GSK3 phosphorylation (inactivation), whereas pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 by SB415286 significantly increased mitochondrial ROS, implying that GSK3 phosphorylation is an upstream event of the ROS generation. GSK3 inhibition by SB415286 decreased complex IV activity and cellular O{sub 2} consumption rate and eventually induced senescence of Mv1Lu cell. Similar results were obtained with siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK3. Moreover, we found that GSK3 not only exists in cytosol but also in mitochondria of Mv1Lu cell and the mitochondrial GSK3 binds complex IV subunit 6b which has no electron carrier and is topologically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Involvement of subunit 6b in controlling complex IV activity and overall respiration rate was proved with siRNA-mediated knockdown of subunit 6b. Finally, TGF {beta}1 treatment decreased the binding of the subunit 6b to GSK3 and subunit 6b phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK3 inactivation is importantly involved in TGF {beta}1-induced complex IV defects through decreasing phosphorylation of the subunit 6b, thereby contributing to senescence-associated mitochondrial ROS generation.

  18. Role of the rfe gene in the synthesis of the O8 antigen in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Rick, P D; Hubbard, G L; Barr, K

    1994-01-01

    The Escherichia coli O8 antigen is a mannan composed of the trisaccharide repeat unit -->3)-alpha-Man-(1-->2)-alpha-Man-(1-->2)-alpha-Man-(1--> (K. Reske and K. Jann, Eur. J. Biochem. 67:53-56, 1972), and synthesis of the O8 antigen is rfe dependent (G. Schmidt, H. Mayer, and P. H. Mäkelä, J. Bacteriol. 127:755-762, 1976). The rfe gene has recently been identified as encoding a tunicamycin-sensitive UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenylphosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase (U. Meier-Dieter, K. Barr, R. Starman, L. Hatch, and P. D. Rick, J. Biol. Chem. 267:746-753, 1992). However, the role of rfe in O8 side chain synthesis is not understood. Thus, the role of the rfe gene in the synthesis of the O8 antigen was investigated in an rfbO8+ (rfb genes encoding O8 antigen) derivative of E. coli K-12 mutant possessing a defective phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi). The in vivo synthesis of O8 side chains was inhibited by the antibiotic tunicamycin. In addition, putative lipid carrier-linked O8 side chains accumulated in vivo when lipopolysaccharide outer core synthesis was precluded by growing cells in the absence of exogenously supplied glucose. The lipid carrier-linked O8 antigen was extracted from cells and treated with mild acid in order to release free O8 side chains. The water-soluble O8 side chains were then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-bound concanavalin A. Characterization of the affinity-purified O8 side chains revealed the occurrence of glucosamine in the reducing terminal position of the polysaccharide chains. The data presented suggest that GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol functions as the acceptor of mannose residues for the in vivo synthesis of O8 side chains in E. coli K-12. Images PMID:7514591

  19. Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis and degradation is modified in rat liver at late gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, C; Ruiz, P; Satrustegui, J; Andres, A; Carrascosa, J M

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is known to play a key role in regulating insulin action, and it is well documented that in several cases of physiological insulin resistance its concentration is increased. Since late pregnancy in the rat is associated with liver insulin resistance, we have studied possible alterations of some cellular mechanisms regulating the cAMP metabolism. (1) Liver cAMP concentration was shown to be increased by some 30% and 50% at 18 and 22 days of pregnancy respectively, compared with virgins. (2) Basal adenylate cyclase activity was higher only in the 18-days-pregnant rat, and the forskolin-stimulated maximal activity was similar in the three groups of animals. (3) alpha s protein is decreased in term-pregnant rats; however, coupling between Gs and adenylate cyclase is only impaired in the 18-days-pregnant animals, and stimulation by glucagon is impaired in both groups of pregnant animals. (4) Gi-2 protein was shown to be unable to elicit the tonic inhibition of adenylate cyclase in pregnant rats, although it was only decreased at 22 days of gestation. The increased alpha i-2 level detected by immunoblotting at 18 days of gestation did not correlate with its decreased ADP-ribosylation, suggesting that the protein is somehow modified at this stage. (5) Pregnancy is associated with a decrease in membrane phosphodiesterase activity. Our results show that late pregnancy is associated with increases in liver cAMP levels that might be involved in eliciting the characteristic insulin-resistant state, and suggest that mechanisms leading to these increments are changing during this phase of gestation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1326941

  20. The MUSES-C, mission description and its status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Uesugi, Kuninori T.; Fujiwara, Akira; Saitoh, Hirobumi

    1999-11-01

    The MUSES-C mission is the world's first sample and return attempt to/from the near Earth asteroid Nereus (4660). It is the ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Ministry of Education) which manages the mission that started in 1996 scheduling to be launched in January of 2002. The mission is built as a kind of technology demonstration, however, it is aiming at not only the in-situ observation but also the touch-down sampling of the surface fragments. The sample collected is returned to the Earth in January of 2006. The mission is a four year journey. The major purpose of it originally consists of the following four subjects: 1) The Ion thruster propulsion performed in interplanetary field as a primary means, 2) Autonomous guidance, navigation and control during the rendezvous and touch down phase, 3) The sample collection mechanism and 4) The hyperbolic reentry capsule with the asteroid sample contained inside it. The current primary objective is extended to carry the joint small rover with NASA/JPL, which is supposed to be placed on the surface and to look into the crater created by the sampling shot of the projectile. The rover is designated as the Small Science Vehicle (SSV) that weighs about 1 kg carrying three kinds of in-situ instruments: 1) A Visible Camera, 2) Near Infra-Red Spectrometer and potentially 3) Alpha-Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) similar to that delivered on the Mars Path Finder. During the fiscal 1998, the spacecraft undergoes the PM tests and the FM fabrication starts from next year, 1999. The paper presents the latest mission description around the asteroid and shows the current status of the spacecraft as well as the instruments and so on. The mission will be the good example of an international collaboration in the small interplanetary exploration.

  1. Fluorescently tagged laminin subunits facilitate analyses of the properties, assembly and processing of laminins in live and fixed lung epithelial cells and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Susan B; DeBiase, Phillip J; Kligys, Kristina; Hamill, Kevin; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses of collagen, elastin and fibronectin matrix assembly, organization and remodeling have been facilitated by the use of tagged proteins that can be visualized without the need for antibody labeling. Here, we report the generation of C-terminal tagged, full-length and "processed" (alpha3DeltaLG4-5) human alpha3 as well as C-terminal tagged, full-length human beta3 laminin subunits in adenoviral vectors. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells, which assemble laminin-332-rich matrices, as well as primary rat lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells, which elaborate a fibrous network rich in laminin-311, were infected with adenovirus encoding the tagged human laminin subunits. In HEKs and BEP2D cells, tagged, full-length alpha3, alpha3DeltaLG4-5 and beta3 laminin subunits incorporate into arrays of matrix organized into patterns that are comparable to those observed when such cells are stained using laminin-332 subunit antibody probes. Moreover, HEKs and BEP2Ds move over these tagged, laminin-332-rich matrix arrays. We have also used the tagged beta3 laminin subunit-containing matrices to demonstrate that assembled laminin-332 arrays influence laminin matrix secretion and/or assembly. In the case of rat ATII cells, although tagged alpha3 laminin subunits are not detected in the matrix of rat ATII cells infected with virus encoding full-length human alpha3 laminin protein, processed human alpha3 laminin subunits are incorporated into an extracellular fibrous array. We discuss how these novel laminin reagents can be used to study the organization, processing and assembly of laminin matrices and how they provide new insights into the potential functional importance of laminin fragments.

  2. Comparison between the phi distribution of the amino acids in the protein database and NMR data indicates that amino acids have various phi propensities in the random coil conformation.

    PubMed

    Serrano, L

    1995-11-24

    It has been indicated that amino acids have various intrinsic phi and psi propensities, as demonstrated from the comparison between experimental secondary structure propensities and their relative statistical distribution in the protein database for the appropriate region of the Ramachandran plot. However, this does not eliminate the possibility that these experimental propensities are the result of context effects due to the secondary structure environment of the mutated position. To demonstrate that there are at least real intrinsic phi propensities, independent of context effects, we have used two different nuclear magnetic resonance parameters related to the phi dihedral angle (J3 alpha HN coupling constants and the chemical shift of the C alpha H proton), determined in random-coil tetra- and pentapeptides, and/or in proteins. Comparison of the experimentally determined values for these parameters with the theoretical ones determined from the analysis by different empirical and theoretical equations of the phi dihedral angle statistical distribution of the amino acids in the protein database, supports the idea that each amino acid has, at least, different phi intrinsic propensities. Consideration of all conformations, or only coil conformations, in the protein database produces similar results. The reasonable correlation between these experimental and theoretical data and the hydrogen-exchange data in random-coil peptides suggests that maximisation of hydrophobic surface-buried and hydrogen-bond formation with the solvent could be responsible for these different random-coil conformational preferences. Analysis of the intrinsic propensities for beta-strand, alpha-helix and polyproline II dihedral angles of the 20 amino acids in coil conformations, indicates that the side-chain of the amino acids is mainly determining the relative preferences for the phi angle.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3}: UV spectra and kinetic data for CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH({sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} and CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(OO{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals, and atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.N.N.; Christensen, L.K.; Platz, J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1999-07-22

    Recognition of the adverse effect of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release into the atmosphere has led to an international effort to replace CFCs with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) are fluids designed to replace CFCs in applications such as the cleaning of electronic equipment, heat transfer agents in refrigeration systems, and carrier fluids for lubricant deposition. HFEs are volatile compounds and will be released into the atmosphere during its use. In the atmosphere, photochemical oxidation of HFEs will lead to the formation of fluorinated esters and fluorinated formates. The atmospheric fate of these products is unknown at the present. To improve their understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of esters the authors have studied the atmospheric chemistry of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyltrifluoroacetate CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3} (bp = 55.0 C). This compound provides insight into the behavior of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radicals formed {alpha} to the ester functionality. The atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals was investigated in a FTIR smog chamber. Three loss processes for the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals were identified at 296 K and 700 Torr total pressure, reaction with O{sub 2} to form CF{sub 3}C(O)OC(O)CF{sub 3}, {alpha}-rearrangement to form CF{sub 3}C(O){sm_bullet} radicals and CF{sub 3}C(O)OH, and decomposition via a mechanism which is unclear. In 760 Torr of air at 296 K, 65% of the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals react with oxygen, 18% undergo {alpha}-rearrangement, while the fate of the remaining 17% is unclear.

  4. Pectin methylesterases of pollen tissue, a major allergen in olive tree.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Quiralte, Joaquín; Moreno, Carmen; Pascual, Cristina Y; Barber, Domingo; Villalba, Mayte

    2010-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen is a main cause of allergy in Mediterranean areas and North America. A novel allergen, Ole e 11, has been detected by proteomic techniques. Protein bands binding IgE from allergic sera were excised from a 2D electrophoresis gel and analysed by Edman degradation and MALDI-TOF MS. Four peptides were sequenced and used for designing primers to clone the cDNA codifying the protein. Ole e 11 consists of a 342 amino acid length polypeptide with a molecular mass of 37.4 kDa and a pI of 7.8. The allergen was identified as a pectin methylesterase and showed low identity with other members of this family from foods such as those from carrot (23%), orange (25%) and tomato (24%), and higher identity with those from Arabidopsis thaliana (57%) and Salsola kali (54%) pollen. The protein was overproduced in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized as an active enzyme. CD analysis rendered 3%alpha-helix, 50%beta-sheet and 27%beta-turns for its secondary structure, which is in agreement with other pectin methylesterase structures. The recombinant protein was demonstrated to be immunologically equivalent to the natural form by immunoblotting, indirect ELISA and inhibition experiments, using polyclonal antiserum and sera from olive pollen allergic patients. The prevalence fluctuated between 55.9% and 75.6% in three different allergic populations. The availability of this new olive pollen allergen could improve the component-resolved diagnosis. Its allergenic relevance is stepped up by the biotechnological use of these enzymes to improve organoleptic properties in processing foods and further confirms the need to include it in an accurate diagnosis.

  5. Altered GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in human Angelman syndrome cortex.

    PubMed

    Roden, William H; Peugh, Lindsey D; Jansen, Laura A

    2010-10-15

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is most frequently caused by deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which includes not only the causative UBE3A gene, but also the beta(3)-alpha(5)-gamma(3) GABA(A) receptor subunit gene cluster. GABAergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to contribute to the occurrence of epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral impairments in this condition. In the present study, analysis of GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology was performed in cerebral cortex from four subjects with Angelman syndrome and compared to that from control tissue. The membrane fraction of frozen postmortem neocortical tissue was isolated and subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. The ratios of beta(3)/beta(2) and alpha(5)/alpha(1) subunit protein expression in Angelman syndrome cortex were significantly decreased when compared with controls. An additional membrane fraction was injected into Xenopus oocytes, resulting in incorporation of the brain membrane vesicles with their associated receptors into the oocyte cellular membrane. Two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis of GABA(A) receptor currents was then performed. Studies of GABA(A) receptor pharmacology in Angelman syndrome cortex revealed increased current enhancement by the alpha(1)-selective benzodiazepine-site agonist zolpidem and by the barbiturate phenobarbital, while sensitivity to current inhibition by zinc was decreased. GABA(A) receptor affinity and modulation by neurosteroids were unchanged. This shift in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in Angelman syndrome is consistent with impaired extrasynaptic but intact to augmented synaptic cortical GABAergic inhibition, which could contribute to the epileptic, behavioral, and cognitive phenotypes of the disorder.

  6. I-TAC is a dominant chemokine in controlling skin intragraft inflammation via recruiting CXCR3+ cells into the graft.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohua; Xu, Wei; Xu, Lin; Jiang, Zhenggang; Wen, Zhenke; Li, Kang; Xiong, Sidong

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines play a critical role in the acute transplant rejection. In order to provide an overview of the chemokine expression during the course of acute allograft rejection, the intragraft expression profile of 11 chemokines representative of all four chemokine subfamilies was analyzed in a murine skin transplantation model of acute rejection. It was found that RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17 and FKN/CX(3)CL1 were expressed at equivalent levels in iso- and allografts. However, the other eight chemokines expression was up-regulated to some extent in allograft compared with that in isograft. The levels of MIP-1alpha/CCL3, MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and CTACK/CCL27 were progressively increased from early stage (day 3 post-transplantation) to late stage (day 11). Mig/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11, CXCL16 and LTN/XCL1 expression was elevated at middle stage (day 7), and peaked at late stage. Among the up-regulated chemokines, I-TAC was the most obviously elevated chemokine. Therefore, the effect of I-TAC on the skin acute allograft rejection was evaluated. Block of I-TAC by the intradermal injection of anti-I-TAC monoclonal antibody (mAb) reduced the number of CXCR3(+) cells in skin allograft and significantly prolonged the skin allograft survival. The mAb treatment did not influence the proliferation of the intragraft infiltrating cells in response to the allogeneic antigens, but significantly decreased the number of the infiltrating cells and consequently lowered the secretion of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. These data indicate I-TAC might be a dominant chemokine involved in the intradermal infiltration and I-TAC-targeted intervening strategies would have potential application for the alleviation of acute transplant rejection.

  7. Structural basis for substrate specificity differences of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Adolph, H W; Zwart, P; Meijers, R; Hubatsch, I; Kiefer, M; Lamzin, V; Cedergren-Zeppezauer, E

    2000-10-24

    A structure determination in combination with a kinetic study of the steroid converting isozyme of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, SS-ADH, is presented. Kinetic parameters for the substrates, 5beta-androstane-3beta,17beta-ol, 5beta-androstane-17beta-ol-3-one, ethanol, and various secondary alcohols and the corresponding ketones are compared for the SS- and EE-isozymes which differ by nine amino acid substitutions and one deletion. Differences in substrate specificity and stereoselectivity are explained on the basis of individual kinetic rate constants for the underlying ordered bi-bi mechanism. SS-ADH was crystallized in complex with 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan -24-acid (cholic acid) and NAD(+), but microspectrophotometric analysis of single crystals proved it to be a mixed complex containing 60-70% NAD(+) and 30-40% NADH. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1) with cell dimensions a = 55.0 A, b = 73.2 A, c = 92.5 A, and beta = 102.5 degrees. A 98% complete data set to 1.54-A resolution was collected at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by the molecular replacement method utilizing EE-ADH as the search model. The major structural difference between the isozymes is a widening of the substrate channel. The largest shifts in C(alpha) carbon positions (about 5 A) are observed in the loop region, in which a deletion of Asp115 is found in the SS isozyme. SS-ADH easily accommodates cholic acid, whereas steroid substrates of similar bulkiness would not fit into the EE-ADH substrate site. In the ternary complex with NAD(+)/NADH, we find that the carboxyl group of cholic acid ligates to the active site zinc ion, which probably contributes to the strong binding in the ternary NAD(+) complex.

  8. The hederagenin saponin SMG-1 is a natural FMLP receptor inhibitor that suppresses human neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wang, Chien-Chiao; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Wu, Yi-Hsiu

    2010-10-15

    The pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn is traditionally used as an expectorant in Japan, China, and Taiwan. Activated neutrophils produce high concentrations of the superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and elastase known to be involved in airway mucus hypersecretion. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory functions of hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (SMG-1), a saponin isolated from S. mukorossi, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in human neutrophils. SMG-1 potently and concentration-dependently inhibited O(2)(*-) generation and elastase release in N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils. Furthermore, SMG-1 reduced membrane-associated p47(phox) expression in FMLP-induced intact neutrophils, but did not alter subcellular NADPH oxidase activity in reconstituted systems. SMG-1 attenuated FMLP-induced increase of cytosolic calcium concentration and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, and AKT. However, SMG-1 displayed no effect on cellular cAMP levels and activity of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase. Significantly, receptor-binding analysis showed that SMG-1 inhibited FMLP binding to its receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, neither phorbol myristate acetate-induced O(2)(*-) generation and MAPKs activation nor thapsigargin-caused calcium mobilization was altered by SMG-1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SMG-1 is a natural inhibitor of the FMLP receptor, which may have the potential to be developed into a useful new therapeutic agent for treating neutrophilic inflammatory diseases.

  9. Characterization of Exiguobacterium isolates from the Siberian permafrost. Description of Exiguobacterium sibiricum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Debora Frigi; Goris, Johan; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Gilichinsky, David; Thomashow, Michael F; Tiedje, James M

    2006-08-01

    Three Gram-positive bacterial strains, 7-3, 255-15 and 190-11, previously isolated from Siberian permafrost, were characterized and taxonomically classified. These microorganisms are rod-shaped, facultative aerobic, motile with peritrichous flagella and their growth ranges are from -2.5 to 40 degrees C. The chemotaxonomic markers indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Exiguobacterium. Their peptidoglycan type was A3alpha L-Lys-Gly. The predominant menaquinone detected in all three strains was MK7. The polar lipids present were phosphatidyl-glycerol, diphosphatidyl-glycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C13:0, anteiso-C13:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and six diverse genes, gyrB (gyrase subunit B), rpoB (DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta subunit), recA (homologous recombination), csp (cold shock protein), hsp70 (ClassI-heat shock protein-chaperonin) and citC (isocitrate dehydrogenase), indicated that the strains were closely related to Exiguobacterium undae (DSM 14481(T)) and Exiguobacterium antarcticum (DSM 14480(T)). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA reassociation data, strain 190-11 was classified as E. undae, while the other two isolates, 7-3 and 255-15, comprise a novel species, for which the name Exiguobacterium sibiricum sp. nov. is proposed.

  10. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and redistribution of substrate partitioning mediate the acute insulin-sensitizing effects of troglitazone in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fediuc, S; Pimenta, A S; Gaidhu, M P; Ceddia, R B

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of troglitazone on several pathways of glucose and fatty acid (FA) partitioning and the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in skeletal muscle. Exposure of L6 myotubes to troglitazone for 1 h significantly increased phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, which was followed by approximately 30% and approximately 60% increases in palmitate oxidation and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) activity, respectively. Troglitazone inhibited basal ( approximately 25%) and insulin-stimulated ( approximately 35%) palmitate uptake but significantly increased basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by approximately 2.2- and 2.7-fold, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK completely prevented the effects of troglitazone on palmitate oxidation and glucose uptake. Interestingly, even though troglitazone exerted an insulin sensitizing effect, it reduced basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glycogen synthesis, incorporation of glucose into lipids, and glucose oxidation to values corresponding to approximately 30%, approximately 60%, and 30% of the controls, respectively. These effects were accompanied by an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(Thr308), Akt(Ser473), and GSK3alpha/beta. Troglitazone also powerfully suppressed pyruvate decarboxylation, which was followed by a significant increase in basal ( approximately 3.5-fold) and insulin-stimulated ( approximately 5.5-fold) rates of lactate production by muscle cells. In summary, we provide novel evidence that troglitazone exerts acute insulin sensitizing effects by increasing FA oxidation, reducing FA uptake, suppressing pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and shifting glucose metabolism toward lactate production in muscle cells. These effects seem to be at least partially dependent on AMPK activation and may account for potential acute PPAR-gamma-independent anti-diabetic effects of thiazolidinediones in skeletal

  11. Vascular Tone Regulation Induced by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide: Differences in Endothelium-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms Involved in Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Caniffi, Carolina; Cerniello, Flavia M.; Gobetto, María N.; Sueiro, María L.; Arranz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Given that the role of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in the regulation of vascular tone in hypertensive states is unclear, we hypothesized that impaired response of the nitric oxide system to CNP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) could affect vascular relaxation induced by the peptide in this model of hypertension, and that other endothelial systems or potassium channels opening could also be involved. We examined the effect of CNP on isolated SHR aortas, and the hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) in response to CNP administration compared to normotensive rats. Aortas were mounted in an isometric organ bath and contracted with phenylephrine. CNP relaxed arteries in a concentration-dependent manner but was less potent in inducing relaxation in SHR. The action of CNP was diminished by removal of the endothelium, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one in both groups. In contrast, blockade of cyclooxygenase or subtype 2 bradykinin receptor increased CNP potency only in SHR. In both Wistar and SHR, CNP relaxation was blunted by tetraethylammonium and partially inhibited by BaCl2 and iberiotoxin, indicating that it was due to opening of the Kir and BKCa channels. However, SHR seem to be more sensitive to Kir channel blockade and less sensitive to BKCa channel blockade than normotensive rats. In addition, CNP decreases HVR in Wistar and SHR, but the effect of CNP increasing blood flow was more marked in SHR. We conclude that CNP induces aorta relaxation by activation of the nitric oxide system and opening of potassium channels, but the response to the peptide is impaired in conductance vessel of hypertensive rats. PMID:27936197

  12. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae): involvement of extracellular calcium influx in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    DalBó, Silvia; Goulart, Suelen; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms related to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in the relaxant effects of a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF), obtained from Croton celtidifolius Baill barks, in rat thoracic aorta rings with endothelium. In vessels pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe), PRF (0.1 - 100 microg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. This effect was significantly reduced by endothelium denudation, by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, and by 1H[1,2,3]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin. However, the vasorelaxant effect was not altered by indomethacin, atropine, tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin plus apamin. In thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with phorbol-12,13-dibuyrate, PRF also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. The PRF-induced relaxation disappeared in the absence of extracellular calcium in the medium and decreased significantly in the presence of lanthanum. A sulfhydryl alkylating agent, N-ethylmaleimide, and a phospholipase C (PLC) blocker, neomycin, significantly decreased PRF-induced vasorelaxation. In vessels pre-contracted with Phe, the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect was not altered by quinacrine and ONO-RS-082, genistein and thyrphostin A-23, GF109203, and pertussis toxin and cholera toxin. The results suggest that the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect is endothelium-dependent and involves the NO/cGMP pathway. We hypothesize that the activation of eNOS is due to an increase of intracellular calcium derived from PLC activation and an N-ethylmaleimide sensitive pathway.

  13. Heparin-binding Hemagglutinin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is an Inhibitor of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Xiaorui; Yang, Liu; Ma, Yueyun; Hao, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Airway epithelial cell is often the initial site of attack by pathogens, and cell death is commonly caused by internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the mechanism of interaction between epithelial cells and Mtb is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) protein of Mtb in the function of epithelial cells. In particular, the autophagy of A549 cells was determined based on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) activity. Autophagosome formation was detected by Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and immune fluorescence staining of LC3. Autophagy could be significantly suppressed by HBHA protein. In addition, the LDH assay results showed that HBHA treatment could induce death on A549 cells. To explore the form of cell death, we detected the activity of caspase-3 and LDH release of A549 cells in the presence or absence of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Results demonstrated that HBHA treatment could induce apoptosis of A549 cells. To further confirm these results, we constructed the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) expressing HBHA (rMS-HBHA) and explored the influence of rMS-HBHA on the function of A549 cells. rMS-HBHA infection significantly inhibited LC3 expression and the maturation of autophagosomes in A549 cells. Subsequently, we infected A549 cells with MS and detected the viability of intracellular MS by CFU counts. rMS-HBHA showed higher survival and replication capacity in A549 cells than those of the wild-type MS. Finally, infection of A549 cells with rMS-HBHA caused further apoptosis. These findings suggested that rMS-HBHA could inhibit autophagy, promote its survival and replication within A549 cells, and subsequently induce apoptosis on infected cells to facilitate infection. PMID:28224118

  14. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Graindorge, Arnault; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  15. Tibolone is not converted by human aromatase to 7alpha-methyl-17alpha-ethynylestradiol (7alpha-MEE): analyses with sensitive bioassays for estrogens and androgens and with LC-MSMS.

    PubMed

    de Gooyer, Marcel E; Oppers-Tiemissen, Hendrika M; Leysen, Dirk; Verheul, Herman A M; Kloosterboer, Helenius J

    2003-03-01

    To exclude that aromatization plays a role in the estrogenic activity of tibolone, we studied the effect tibolone and metabolites on the aromatization of androstenedione and the aromatization of tibolone and its metabolites to 7alpha-methyl-17alpha-ethynylestradiol (7alpha-MEE) by human recombinant aromatase. Testosterone (T), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 19-nortestosterone (Nan), 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and norethisterone (NET) were used as reference compounds. Sensitive in vitro bioassays with steroid receptors were used to monitor the generation of product and the reduction of substrate. LC-MSMS without derivatization was used for structural confirmation. A 10 times excess of tibolone and its metabolites did not inhibit the conversion of androstenedione to estrone by human recombinant aromatase as determined by estradiol receptor assay whereas T, MT, Nan, and MENT inhibited the conversion for 75, 53, 85 and 67%, respectively. Tibolone, 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxytibolone were not converted by human aromatase whereas the estrogenic activity formed with the Delta4-isomer suggests a conversion rate of 0.2% after 120 min incubation. In contrast T, MT, Nan, and MENT were completely converted to their A-ring aromates within 15 min while NET could not be aromatized. Aromatization of T, MT, Nan and MENT was confirmed with LC-MSMS. Structure/function analysis indicated that the 17alpha-ethynyl-group prevents aromatization of (19-nor)steroids while 7alpha-methyl substitution had no effect. Our results with the sensitive estradiol receptor assays show that in contrast to reference compounds tibolone and its metabolites are not aromatized.

  16. KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, H; Hama, Y; Sumi, T; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    2001-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the mucus coat of fish plays a variety of important physical, chemical, and physiological functions. One of the major constituents of the mucus coat is mucus glycoprotein. We found that sialic acids in the skin mucus of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, consisted predominantly of KDN. Subsequently, we isolated KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus and characterized its chemical nature and structure. Loach mucus glycoprotein was purified from the Tris-HCl buffer extract of loach skin mucus by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Nuclease P1 treatment, and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration. The purified mucus glycoprotein was found to contain 38.5 KDN, 0.5% NeuAc, 25.0% GalNAc, 3.5% Gal, 0.5% GlcNAc and 28% amino acids. Exhaustive Actinase digestion of the glycoprotein yielded a glycopeptide with a higher sugar content and higher Thr and Ser contents. The molecular size of this glycopeptide was approximately 1/12 of the intact glycoprotein. These results suggest that approximately 11 highly glycosylated polypeptide units are linked in tandem through nonglycosylated peptides to form the glycoporotein molecule. The oligosaccharide alditols liberated from the loach mucus glycoprotein by alkaline borohydride treatment were separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and HPLC. The purified sugar chains were analyzed b --> 6GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 3(GalNAcbeta1 --> 14)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(GalNAcalpha1 --> 3)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(Gal3alpha1--> 3)GalNAc-ol, and NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Gal NAc-ol. It is estimated that one loach mucus glycoprotein molecule contains more than 500 KDN-containing sugar chains that are linked to Thr and Ser residues of the protein core through GalNAc.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-09-20

    The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS-ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the {alpha}2 helix and in the conformation of the {alpha}3-{alpha}4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4-6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS-ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS-ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  18. Pharmacological profile of T-1032, a novel specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, in isolated rat aorta and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Takagi, M; Mochida, H; Noto, T; Yano, K; Inoue, H; Ikeo, T; Kikkawa, K

    2001-01-05

    This study was designed to examine the pharmacological properties of T-1032 (methyl-2-(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-7-(2-pyridinylmethoxy)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxylate sulfate), a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, in isolated rat aorta and rabbit corpus cavernosum. T-1032 (3x10(-11) to 3x10(-7) M) caused an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated rat aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, and the relaxation was accompanied by an increase in cGMP but not cAMP levels. The T-1032-induced relaxation was attenuated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10(-3) M), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (10(-5) M), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. T-1032 (10(-9), 10(-8) M) produced a potentiation of the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside, but not of the relaxation induced by isoproterenol. In the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum precontracted with phenylephrine, the electrical field stimulation-induced relaxation was attenuated by treatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) as well as L-NAME (10(-4) M). The L-NAME-inhibited relaxation was restored by treatment with L-arginine (5x10(-4) M). T-1032 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) and sildenafil (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) produced a potentiation of the electrical field stimulation-induced relaxation as well as a decrease in basal tension in a concentration-dependent manner. It was concluded that T-1032 had potentiating effects on the NO/cGMP signaling pathway in isolated tissues, probably through specific blockade of phosphodiesterase type 5. T-1032 would be a useful compound to examine the physiologic functions of phosphodiesterase type 5 in mammalian tissues.

  19. Revision about hearing loss in the Alport's syndrome, analyzing the clinical, genetic and bio-molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fátima R A; de A Quintanilha Ribeiro, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Alport Syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by hematuria, which often leads to renal failure. It may also be accompanied by extra-renal alterations, such as: sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities. Dominant forms related to the X chromosome and caused by mutations in the locus COL4A5 have been described, as well as an autossomic recessive form resulting from mutations in the locus COL4A3 or COL4A4. An autossomic dominant type of AS has also been reported. The disease is caused by changes in the collagen type IV chains, where symptoms reflect the damage to the basal membrane of several organs. The alpha3.alpha4.alpha5(IV) networks are found in the kidneys, cochlea and eyes. The objective was to characterize AS in this group of patients. In the current literature review it was found that: 1. AS is characterized by hematuria that may develop into renal failure and can also be accompanied by extra-renal manifestations. Hearing loss is a frequent extra-renal finding and one of the first symptoms of AS, therefore representing a relevant factor in the prognosis of the renal disease; 2. It is a genetic disorder resulting from abnormalities in the chains of collagen type IV in the basal membranes; 3. The hearing loss in AS is typically sensorineural with variable intensities, progressive and symmetrical, affecting middle and high frequencies; 4. Otolaryngologists should include a urine test in the SNHL work-up. It is essential to have an otologist involved in the treatment of these patients.

  20. Cloning, biological characterization and high-level expression of rat interleukin-3 using recombinant adenovirus: description of a new splicing variant.

    PubMed

    del C Esandi, M; van Someren, G D; van der Velde, I; van Bekkum, D W; Valerio, D; Noteboom, J L; Bout, A

    1998-04-28

    In the present study, we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of rat IL-3. Two different mRNA isoforms were isolated after transfection of COS cells with the cytokine genomic sequences. One of the isoforms has been predicted before by Cohen et al. (1986), and the other one is identical except that it encodes a protein with an insertion of three amino acids at position 56. As names for the two isoforms, we propose IL-3alpha for the predicted and IL-3beta for the novel molecule. IL-3beta mRNA was detected as the predominant isoform in rat lymphocytes in vivo. High levels of the cytokine were obtained after infection of human cells (A549) with a recombinant adenovirus harboring rIL-3beta cDNA (IG.Ad.CMV.IL-3beta). The biological properties of the IL-3beta protein were tested in a FDC-P1 proliferation assay and in a hematopoietic progenitor colony forming assay. To assess in-vivo bioactivity, lysed 293 cells containing IG.Ad.CMV.rIL-3beta virus were injected subcutaneously into F344 rats. Stimulation of hematopoiesis and leucocytosis were observed during the treatment. After subcutaneous injections of the lysed adeno-producer cells in mice, the only effect observed was a cellular infiltration at the site of injection, confirming the poor cross-reactivity between the two species. The biological properties in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that the cDNA sequences of IL-3beta presented here encode active rat IL-3 protein.

  1. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio

    1996-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Electrical remodeling in a canine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Sheng; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Mei; Tang, Daniel; Clemo, Henry F; Higgins, Robert S D; Tseng, Gea-Ny

    2007-01-01

    The nature of electrical remodeling in a canine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM; induced by repetitive intracoronary microembolizations) that exhibits spontaneous ventricular tachycardia is not entirely clear. We used the patch-clamp technique to record action potentials and ionic currents of left ventricular myocytes isolated from the region affected by microembolizations. We also used the immunoblot technique to examine channel subunit expression in adjacent affected tissue. Ventricular myocytes and tissue isolated from the corresponding region of normal hearts served as control. ICM myocytes had prolonged action potential duration (APD) and more pronounced APD dispersion. Slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) was reduced at voltages positive to 0 mV, along with a negative shift in its voltage dependence of activation. Immunoblots showed that there was no change in KCNQ1.1 (I(Ks) pore-forming or alpha-subunit), but KCNE1 (I(Ks) auxiliary or beta-subunit) was reduced, and KCNQ1.2 (a truncated KCNQ1 splice variant with a dominant-negative effect on I(Ks)) was increased. Transient outward current (I(to)) was reduced, along with an acceleration of the slow phase of recovery from inactivation. Immunoblots showed that there was no change in Kv4.3 (alpha-subunit of fast-recovering I(to) component), but KChIP2 (beta-subunit of fast-recovering component) and Kv1.4 (alpha-subunit of slow-recovering component) were reduced. Inward rectifier current was reduced. L-type Ca current was unaltered. The immunoblot data provide mechanistic insights into the observed changes in current amplitude and gating kinetics of I(Ks) and I(to). We suggest that these changes, along with the decrease in inward rectifier current, contribute to APD prolongation in ICM hearts.

  3. FRMAC Mission Analysis: What is it, and why is it useful?

    SciTech Connect

    Rhonda Hopkins

    2008-03-01

    In 2002, the Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration, Division of Emergency Response, requested a team of DOE scientists, considered experts in the field of radiological consequence management, assemble and construct a mission analysis upon which the DOE could build its response program and plan for future requirements. The team developed five scenarios upon which to build the data quality objectives (DQOs) that they considered necessary to ensure a comprehensive consequence management response from the DOE perspective. The resulting document was called the Consequence Management Mission Analysis. Based upon the positive reaction to this document and its obvious benefit to the Consequence Management mission, it was decided to expand the scope of the document to cover a mission analysis of the entire Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) mission. The documentation team was expanded to include representatives from all signatories to the National Response Plan who have a role in responding to radiological emergencies. The scope of the FRMAC Mission Analysis includes all federal response resources which are activated to provide rapid support to affected state and local governments in the form of radiological monitoring and dose assessment activities at the incident site. An analysis of the necessary resources was performed to determine the required numbers and types of responders, in addition to the procedures and equipment necessary for performing the monitoring and dose assessment activities from the time the federal assets arrive at the site through the first week of the incident. The five scenarios that were considered were: (1) Nuclear Detonation; (2) Nuclear Reactor Incident or Event Involving Significant Release; (3) Alpha Radiological Dispersal Devise or Failed Improvised Nuclear Device; (4) Beta-Gamma Radiological Dispersal Device; and (5) Psychological Threat.

  4. Two classes of outer hair cells along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Braig, C; Rüttiger, L; Kuhn, S; Zimmermann, U; Blin, N; Sausbier, M; Kalbacher, H; Münkner, S; Rohbock, K; Ruth, P; Winter, H; Knipper, M

    2006-12-01

    The molecular basis of high versus low frequency hearing loss and the differences in the sensitivity of outer hair cells depending on their cochlear localization are currently not understood. Here we demonstrate the existence of two different outer hair cell phenotypes along the cochlear axis. Outer hair cells in low frequency regions exhibit early sensitivity for loss of Ca(v)1.3 (alpha1 subunit 1.3 forming the class D L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel), while high frequency regions display a progressive susceptibility for loss of the Ca(2+)-activated large conductance K(+) (BK) channel. Despite deafness, young Ca(v)1.3-deficient mice displayed distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), indicating functional outer hair cells in the higher frequency range of the cochlea. Considering that DPOAEs are also found in the human deafness syndrome DFNB9 caused by mutations in the synaptic vesicle protein otoferlin, we tested the expression of otoferlin in outer hair cells. Surprisingly, otoferlin showed a distinct tonotopic expression pattern at both the mRNA and protein level. Otoferlin-expressing, Ca(v)1.3 deletion-sensitive outer hair cells in the low frequency range could be clearly separated from otoferlin-negative, BK deletion-sensitive outer hair cells in the high frequency range. In addition, BK deletion led to a higher noise vulnerability in low frequency regions, which are normally unaffected by the BK deletion alone, suggesting that BK currents are involved in survival mechanisms of outer hair cells under noise conditions. Our findings propose new mechanisms and candidate genes for explaining high and low frequency hearing loss.

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  6. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulating cell cycle progression are expressed in human gingival keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, J; Hall, L L; Ndoye, A; Chernyavsky, A I; Jolkovsky, D L; Grando, S A

    2003-02-01

    We have previously reported the presence in human gingival keratinocytes (GKC) of choline acetyltransferase, the acetylcholine (ACh) synthesizing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, the ACh degrading enzyme, and alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha 7, beta 2 as well as alpha 9 nicotinic ACh receptor subunits. To expand the knowledge about the role of ACh in oral biology, we investigated the presence of the muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) subtypes in GKC. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of m2, m3, m4, and m5 mRNA transcripts. Synthesis of the respective proteins was verified by immunoblotting with the subtype-specific antibodies that revealed receptor bands at the expected molecular weights. The antibodies mapped mAChR subtypes in the epithelium of human attached gingiva and also visualized them on the cell membrane of cultured GKC. The whole cell radioligand binding assay revealed that GKC have specific binding sites for the muscarinic ligand [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate, Bmax = 222.9 fmol/106 cells with a Kd of 62.95 pM. The downstream coupling of the mAChRs to regulation of cell cycle progression in GKC was studied using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays. Incubation of GKC for 24 h with 10 micro m muscarine increased relative amounts of Ki-67, PCNA and p53 mRNAs and PCNA, cyclin D1, p21 and p53 proteins. These effects were abolished in the presence of 50 micro m atropine. The finding in GKC of mAChRs coupled to regulation of the cell cycle progression demonstrate further the structure/function of the non-neuronal cholinergic system operating in human oral epithelium. The results obtained in this study help clarify the role for keratinocyte ACh axis in the physiologic control of oral gingival homeostasis.

  7. Binding of collagens to an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Visai, L.; Speziale, P.; Bozzini, S. )

    1990-02-01

    An enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli, B34289c, has been shown to bind the N-terminal region of fibronectin with high affinity. We now report that this strain also binds collagen. The binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to bacteria was time dependent and reversible. Bacteria expressed a limited number of collagen receptors (2.2 x 10(4) per cell) and bound collagen with a Kd of 20 nM. All collagen types tested (I to V) as well as all tested cyanogen bromide-generated peptides (alpha 1(I)CB2, alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB7, alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB4) were recognized by bacterial receptors, as demonstrated by the ability of these proteins to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled collagen to bacteria. Of several unlabeled proteins tested in competition experiments, fibronectin and its N-terminal region strongly inhibited binding of the radiolabeled collagen to E. coli cells. Conversely, collagen competed with an 125I-labeled 28-kilodalton fibronectin fragment for bacterial binding. Collagen bound to bacteria could be displaced by excess amounts of either unlabeled fibronectin or its N-terminal fragment. Similarly, collagen could displace 125I-labeled N-terminal peptide of fibronectin bound to the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria grown at 41 degrees C or in the presence of glucose did not express collagen or fibronectin receptors. These results indicate the presence of specific binding sites for collagen on the surface of E. coli cells and furthermore that the collagen and fibronectin binding sites are located in close proximity, possibly on the same structure.

  8. Contraction-induced increases in Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA levels in human skeletal muscle are not amplified by activation of additional muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Thomassen, Martin; Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise with a large compared with a small active muscle mass results in a higher contraction-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase mRNA expression due to greater hormonal responses. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), alpha(4), beta(1), beta(2), and beta(3) mRNA in human skeletal muscle was investigated. On two occasions, eight subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise (L) or combined one-legged knee extension and bilateral arm cranking (AL) for 5.00, 4.25, 3.50, 2.75, and 2.00 min separated by 3 min of rest. Leg exercise power output was the same in AL and L, but heart rate at the end of each exercise interval was higher in AL compared with L. One minute after exercise, arm venous blood lactate was higher in AL than in L. A higher level of blood epinephrine and norepinephrine was evident 3 min after exercise in AL compared with L. Nevertheless, none of the exercise-induced increases in alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), and beta(3) mRNA expression levels were higher in AL compared with L. The most abundant Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit at the mRNA level was beta(1), which was expressed 3.4 times than alpha(2). Expression of alpha(1), beta(2), and beta(3) was less than 5% of the alpha(2) expression, and no reliable detection of alpha(3) and alpha(4) was possible. In conclusion, activation of additional muscle mass does not result in a higher exercise-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit-specific mRNA.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  10. Using ToxCast data to reconstruct dynamic cell state trajectories and estimate toxicological points of departure.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: High-content imaging (HCI) allows simultaneous measurement of multiple cellular phenotypic changes and is an important tool for evaluating the biological activity of chemicals.Objectives: Our goal was to analyze dynamic cellular changes using HCI to identify the ??tipping point?? at which the cells did not show recovery towards a normal phenotypic state.Methods: HCI was used to evaluate the effects of 967 chemicals (in concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 200 03bcM) on HepG2 cells over a 72-hr exposure period. The HCI end points included p53, c-Jun, histone H2A.x, 03b1-tubulin, histone H3, alpha tubulin, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial mass, cell cycle arrest, nuclear size, and cell number. A computational model was developed to interpret HCI responses as cell-state trajectories.Results: Analysis of cell-state trajectories showed that 336 chemicals produced tipping points and that HepG2 cells were resilient to the effects of 334 chemicals up to the highest concentration (200 03bcM) and duration (72 hr) tested. Tipping points were identified as concentration-dependent transitions in system recovery, and the corresponding critical concentrations were generally between 5 and 15 times (25th and 75th percentiles, respectively) lower than the concentration that produced any significant effect on HepG2 cells. The remaining 297 chemicals require more data before they can be placed in either of these categories.Conclusions: These findings show t

  11. Functional analysis and quantification of the complement C3 derived anaphylatoxin C3a with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, R; Bader, A; Kirschfink, M; Rother, U; Schrod, L; Wörner, I; Zilow, G

    1987-01-01

    The C3 fragment C3a belongs to the anaphylatoxins. It has immune regulatory activity and contributes to the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The low molecular weight (9 kD) of C3a complicates the production of antibodies to C3a. We obtained a monoclonal antibody (designated H13) to human C3a. It reacts with C3a or C3a-desArg and with native C3 but not with C5 or C5a. In immunoblot analysis it reacts with the alpha- but not with beta-chain of C3 and binds to a protein with a mol. wt of about 10 kD present in zymosan-activated sera which is only marginally detectable in nonactivated serum and absent in plasma. H13 crossreacts with the analogous proteins of rabbit, guinea pig and sheep. H13 has the capacity to bind 125I-radiolabelled C3a efficiently but fails totally to react with 125I-C5a or with other C3 alpha-chain fragments. H13 blocks C3a functional activity. It markedly inhibits C3a-induced 3H-serotonin release from platelets in vitro and similarly inhibits the C3a-induced extravasation of Evans blue into the skin in vivo. H13 does not interfere with the haemolytic activity of C3. An ELISA system was established using H13 which permits quantification of C3a in sera of polytrauma patients. The antibody H13 should facilitate further functional analysis of C3a in experimental systems. It should be useful for quantification of C3a in diagnostic assays and also for application in immunopathology. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3498585

  12. Non-targeted Metabolite Profiling and Scavenging Activity Unveil the Nutraceutical Potential of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish K.; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids) and essential and sulfur-rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds, and husks, about 76, 78, 58% polyunsaturated, 21, 15, 20% saturated, and 3, 7, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively. A range of FAs (C12 to C24) was detected in psyllium and among different plant parts, a high content of the nutritive indicators ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (57%) and ω-6 linoleic acid (18%) was detected in leaves. Similarly, total content of phenolics and the essential amino acid valine were also detected utmost in leaves followed by sulfur-rich amino acids and flavonoids. In total, 36 different metabolites were identified in psyllium, out of which 26 (13 each) metabolites were detected in leaves and seeds, whereas the remaining 10 were found in the husk. Most of the metabolites are natural antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, or alkaloids and can be used as nutrient supplements. Moreover, these metabolites have been reported to have several pharmaceutical applications, including anti-cancer activity. Natural plant ROS scavengers, saponins, were also detected. Based on metabolomic data, the probable presence of a flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was inferred, which provides useful insight for metabolic engineering in the future. Non-targeted metabolomics, antioxidants and scavenging activities reveal the nutraceutical potential of the plant and also suggest that psyllium leaves can be used as a green salad as a dietary supplement to daily food. PMID:27092153

  13. Regulation of human natural killer cell migration and proliferation by the exodus subfamily of CC chemokines.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M J; Williams, B T; Christopherson, K; Brahmi, Z; Hromas, R

    2000-01-10

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to obligate intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the regulation of NK cell trafficking and migration to inflammatory sites is poorly understood. Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, Exodus-2/6Ckine/SLC, and Exodus-3/MIP-3beta/ELC/CKbeta-11 are CC chemokines that share a unique aspartate-cysteine-cysteine-leucine motif near their amino terminus and preferentially stimulate the migration of T lymphocytes. The effects of Exodus chemokines on human NK cells were examined. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce detectable chemotaxis of resting peripheral blood NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-2 and -3 stimulated migration of polyclonal activated peripheral blood NK cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Exodus-2 and -3 also induced dose-dependent chemotaxis of NKL, an IL-2-dependent human NK cell line. Results of modified checkerboard assays indicate that migration of NKL cells in response to Exodus-2 and -3 represents true chemotaxis and not simply chemokinesis. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce NK cell proliferation in the absence of other stimuli. Nevertheless, Exodus-2 and -3 significantly augmented IL-2-induced proliferation of normal human CD56(dim) NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not affect the cytolytic activity of resting or activated peripheral blood NK cells. Expression of message for CCR7, a shared receptor for Exodus-2 and -3, was detected in activated polyclonal NK cells and NKL cells but not resting NK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Exodus-2 and -3 can participate in the recruitment and proliferation of activated NK cells. Exodus-2 and -3 may regulate interactions between T cells and NK cells that are crucial for the generation of optimal immune responses.

  14. Rigid lipid membranes and nanometer clefts: motifs for the creation of molecular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangtao; Fudickar, Werner; Skupin, Marc; Klyszcz, Andreas; Draeger, Christian; Lauer, Matthias; Fuhrhop, Jürgen-Hinrich

    2002-06-03

    Amphiphilic lipids associate in water spontaneously to form micelles, vesicles, monolayers, or biological membranes. These aggregates are soft and their shape can be changed easily. They behave like complex fluids because they are merely held together by weak, nondirected forces. The most important characteristic of these monolayers is their ability to dissolve hydrophobic molecules in the form of freely movable monomers. The fluid molecular layers are not suitable to anchor the components of chain reactions. However, if the alkyl chains are replaced by rigid skeletons or if the head groups are connected through intermolecular interactions, the aggregates become rigid and their fluid solvent character is lost. The construction of chiral surfaces by synkinesis (synthesis of noncovalent compounds) and of enzyme-type surface clefts of defined size can now be carried out by using rigid lipid membranes. Monolayers and nanometer pores on solid substrates attain sharp edges, and upright nanometer columns on smooth surfaces no longer dissipate. Five examples illustrate the advantages of using rigid molecular assemblies: 1) Cationic domains of rigid edge amphiphiles in fluid membranes act as manipulable ion channels. 2) Spherical micelles, micellar helical fibers, and vesicular tubes can be dried and stored as stable material. Molecular landscapes form on smooth surfaces. 3) alpha,omega-Diamide bolaamphiphiles form rigid nanometer-thick walls on smooth surfaces and these barriers cannot be penetrated by amines. Around steroids and porphyrins, they form rigid nanometer clefts whose walls and water-filled centers can be functionalized. 4) The structure of rigid oligophenylene- and quinone monolayers on electrodes can be changed drastically and reversibly by changing the potential. 5) 10(10) Porphyrin cones on a 1-cm2 gold electrode can be controlled individually by AFM- and STM-tips and investigated by electrochemical, photochemical, and mechanical means. In summary, rigid

  15. Expression of alphaVbeta3 integrin in the chick embryo aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    The integrin chain alphaV, expressed in association with beta3, by cells of the megakaryocytic/thrombocytic and endothelial lineages is thought to play an important role in angiogenesis. alphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells is not constitutive but induced by various stimuli in avian and human models. Here the developmental pattern of alphaVbeta3 expression was analysed in the chick embryo by immunocytochemistry, using a specific monoclonal antibody. On day 2 of development alphaVbeta3 expression was restricted to rare cells in the blood stream, in the embryo proper and in the yolk sac blood islands. AlphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells became detectable on day 3 and was restricted to the dorsal aorta. Interestingly it was absent from the intra-aortic hemopoietic clusters (E3.5) which, as we have showed previously, express the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and display progenitor potentialities. However the endothelium underlying intra-embryonic hemopoietic clusters expressed this integrin. In contrast E6-7 para-aortic hemopoietic foci contained numerous alphaVbeta3 positive cells. Both alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 were expressed in these latter hemopoietic sites, while alphaVbeta3 was still selectively expressed by the aortic endothelium until E6. Thereafter, at E7 the pulmonary artery also expressed it. Since alphaIIbbeta3 is expressed by avian and murine multilineage hemopoietic progenitors, we then studied the hemopoietic potentialities of alphaVbeta3/alphaIIbeta3 double positive cells from embryonic bone marrow differentiating in vitro in erythro-myeloid conditions. Thrombocytic, erythroid and myeloid progenitor potentialities were found within the cell population expressing both beta3 integrins.

  16. Structure and serological properties of the O-antigen of two clinical Proteus mirabilis strains classified into a new Proteus O77 serogroup.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Staczek, Paweł; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sidorczyk, Zygmunt

    2008-11-01

    Two Proteus mirabilis strains, 3 B-m and 3 B-k, were isolated from urine and faeces of a hospitalized patient from Lodz, Poland. It was suggested that one strain originated from the other, and the presence of the bacilli in the patient's urinary tract was most probably a consequence of autoinfection. The O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of P. mirabilis 3 B-m and studied by sugar analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating frame Overhause effect spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) experiments. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide-repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established:-->2)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-6dTalp2Ac-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->where 6dTal2Ac stands for 2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-L-talose. It resembles the structure of the O-polysaccharide of Proteus penneri O66, which includes additional lateral residues of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose. The lipopolysaccharides from two P. mirabilis strains studied were serologically identical to each other but not to that from any of the existing 76 Proteus O-serogroups. Therefore, the strains were classified into a new O77 serogroup specially created in the genus Proteus. Serological studies using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with intact and adsorbed O-antisera showed that the P. mirabilis O77 antigen is related to Proteus vulgaris O2 and P. penneri O68 antigens, and a putative disaccharide epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity was revealed.

  17. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins. PMID:16184762

  18. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing.