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Sample records for 12th cranial nerves

  1. Lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy.

  2. Imaging the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Parry, Andrew T; Volk, Holger A

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the normal course of the cranial nerves (CN) is essential when interpreting images of patients with cranial neuropathies. CN foramina are depicted best using computed X-ray tomography, but the nerves are depicted best using magnetic resonance imaging. The function and anatomy of the CN in the dog are reviewed and selected examples of lesions affecting the CN are illustrated.

  3. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  4. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  5. Cranial Nerve II: Vision.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2009-09-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858

  6. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  7. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  8. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base.

  9. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included.

  10. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. PMID:24678025

  11. [Third cranial nerve palsy in sphenoid sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Dores, Luís Almeida; Simão, Marco Alveirinho; Marques, Marta Canas; Dias, Éscar

    2014-01-01

    Sphenoid sinus disease is particular not only for its clinical presentation, as well as their complications. Although rare, these may present as cranial nerve deficits, so it is important to have a high index of suspicion and be familiar with its diagnosis and management. Symptoms are often nonspecific, but the most common are headache, changes in visual acuity and diplopia due to dysfunction of one or more ocular motor nerves. The authors report a case of a 59 years-old male, who was referred to the ENT emergency department with frontal headaches for one week which had progressively worsened and were associated, since the last 12 hours, with diplopia caused by left third cranial nerve palsy. Neurologic examination was normal aside from the left third cranial nerve palsy. Anterior and posterior rhinoscopy excluded the presence of nasal masses and purulent rhinorrhea. The CT scan revealed a soft tissue component and erosion of the roof of the left sphenoid sinus. Patient was admitted for intravenous antibiotics and steroids treatment without any benefit after 48 hours. He was submitted to endoscopic sinus surgery with resolution of the symptoms 10 days after surgery. The authors present this case for its rarity focusing on the importance of differential diagnosis in patients with headaches and cranial nerves palsies.

  12. [From anatomy to image: the cranial nerves at MRI].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Renata; Marrone, Valeria; Sardaro, Angela; Faella, Pierluigi; Grassi, Roberta; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging depicts only the larger cranial nerves but SSFP sequences of magnetic resonance imaging are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of 12 cranial nerves and also provide submillimetric spatial resolution.

  13. On the terminology of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Simon, František; Marečková-Štolcová, Elena; Páč, Libor

    2011-10-20

    The present contribution adopts various points of view to discuss the terminology of the twelve nervi craniales. These are paired nerves and have dual names, terms with Roman ordinal numerals, i.e., the nerves are numbered in the top-to-bottom direction, and descriptive historical names. The time of origin and motivation behind the investigated terms are determined. The majority of terms come from the 17th and 18th centuries. The motivation behind most of them is (a) nerve localization, as this is in conformity with anatomical nomenclature in general, (b) nerve function, and rarely (c) nerve appearance. The occurrence of synonymous names and variants is also a focus of attention. In several cases, reference is made to the process called terminologization, meaning when a certain expression acquires technical meaning and the characteristic/feature of the term. PMID:21724380

  14. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399242

  15. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  16. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery.

  17. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves.

  18. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  19. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

  20. Asymmetric type F botulism with cranial nerve demyelination.

    PubMed

    Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N; Fagan, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.

  1. Cranial Nerve Schwannomas: Diagnostic Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Aaron D; Loevner, Laurie A; Sampathu, Deepak M; Newman, Jason G; Lee, John Y; Bagley, Linda J; Learned, Kim O

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck. The clinical presentations associated with CN schwannomas vary and range from no symptoms to symptoms caused by mass effect or CN deficits. Individuals with the inherited disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 are predisposed to multiple schwannomas. When a lesion follows the course of a CN, the radiologist's roles are to confirm the imaging features of schwannoma and exclude appropriate differential considerations. The characteristic imaging features of CN schwannomas reflect their slow growth as benign neoplasms and include circumscribed margins, displacement of local structures, and smooth expansion of osseous foramina. These neoplasms exhibit various degrees of solid enhancement, often with internal cystic spaces on magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) images and heterogeneous high signal intensity specifically on T2-weighted MR images. Clinical and/or imaging evidence of end-organ compromise of the involved CN may exist and aid in the identification of the nerve of origin. With a detailed understanding of the course of the CNs, the diagnostic features of CN schwannomas, and the correlation between these data and the associated clinical presentations of these tumors, the radiologist can have a key role in the diagnosis of CN schwannomas and the treatment planning for affected patients. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID

  2. Intraoperative monitoring of motor cranial nerves in skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Maurer, J; Pelster, H; Amedee, R G; Mann, W J

    1995-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerves is performed to minimize postoperative cranial nerve dysfunction. We performed electrophysiologic monitoring of motor cranial nerves with a NIM 2 unit from Xomed Treace and a patient multiplexer developed in our clinic. This multiplexer allows simultaneous monitoring of four cranial nerves and is additionally equipped with a bipolar stimulation mode. This intraoperative monitoring was used during 102 skull base operations. Of these, 44 operations were acoustic neuroma removals by translabyrinthine approach and 36 by a middle fossa approach. Various operations, including removal of tumors of the jugular foramen and the infratemporal fossa, were performed in the remaining 22 patients. The facial nerve, being the most frequently monitored nerve, was evaluated both preoperatively and intraoperatively. Electrophysiologic data were evaluated with respect to their predictive value for postoperative facial nerve function. The relative percent decrease in amplitude of the electromyogram after resection compared to that observed before resection seems to be of some predictive value for the postoperative facial nerve function. A 50 to 60% decrease or more is associated with an increase in the House classification. Intraoperative monitoring is a useful tool in skull base surgery, allowing for safer and faster identification of motor nerves in pathologic-anatomic conditions. It allows the surgeon a degree of comfort by providing immediate information regarding the status of the nerve. It may also improve postoperative nerve function and shorten operating time. Additionally, neuromonitoring provides some information about expected postoperative facial nerve function.

  3. [Intraoperative monitoring of motor cranial nerves in operations of the neck and cranial base].

    PubMed

    Maurer, J; Pelster, H; Mann, W

    1994-11-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerves is performed to minimize postoperative cranial nerve dysfunction. We performed electrophysiological monitoring of motor cranial nerves with a NIM 2 unit from Xomed Treace and a patient multiplexer developed in our clinic. This multiplexer allows simultaneous monitoring of 4 cranial nerves and is additionally equipped with a bipolar stimulation mode. This intraoperative monitoring was employed during 102 skull base operations. Of these 102 operations, 44 were acoustic neuroma removals by translabyrinthine approach and 36 by a middle fossa approach. Various operations including removal of tumours of the jugular foramen and the infratemporal fossa were performed in the remaining 22 patients. The facial nerve, being the most frequently monitored nerve, was evaluated both pre- and intraoperatively. Electrophysiologic data were evaluated with respect to their predictive value for postoperative facial nerve function. The relative per cent decrease in amplitude of the EMG after resection compared to that observed before resection seems to be of some predictive value for postoperative facial nerve function. A 50-60% decrease or more is associated with an increase in the House classification. Intraoperative monitoring is a useful tool in skull base surgery allowing for safer and faster identification of motor nerves in pathologic anatomic conditions. It allows the surgeon a degree of comfort by providing immediate information regarding the status of the nerve. It may also improve post-operative nerve function and shorten operating time. Additionally, neuromonitoring provides some information about expected postoperative facial nerve function.

  4. Motonuclear changes after cranial nerve injury and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, E; Pallini, R; Lauretti, L; La Marca, F; Scogna, A; Rossi, G F

    1997-09-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms at play in nerve regeneration after nerve injury. Personal studies are reported regarding motonuclear changes after regeneration of injured cranial nerves, in particular of the facial and oculomotor nerves, as well as the influence that the natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has on post-axotomy cranial nerve motoneuron degeneration after facial and vagus nerve lesions. Adult and newborn animal models were used. Massive motoneuron response after nerve section and reconstruction was observed in the motonuclei of all nerves studied. ALC showed to have significant neuroprotective effects on the degeneration of axotomized motoneurons. Complex quantitative, morphological and somatotopic nuclear changes occurred that sustain new hypotheses regarding the capacities of motoneurons to regenerate and the possibilities of new neuron proliferation. The particularities of such observations are described and discussed.

  5. Cranial nerve palsies in spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Sturzenegger, M; Huber, P

    1993-01-01

    Two patients had isolated unilateral cranial nerve palsies due to spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection without ischaemic cerebral involvement. One had acute glossopharyngeal and vagal, the other isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. Reviewing all reported cases of angiographically confirmed ICA dissection in the literature, 36 additional cases with unequivocal ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies were analysed. While an isolated palsy of the IXth and Xth has not been reported previously, palsies of the XIIth nerve or the IXth to XIIth nerves were most frequently found. In these patients, lower cranial nerve palsies are probably the result of compression by an enlarging ICA due to mural haematoma. Symptoms and signs indicative of carotid dissection were concurrently present only in some reported cases. This raises the question of unrecognised carotid dissection as a cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. When the dissection occurs in the subadventitial layer without relevant narrowing of the arterial lumen and when an aneurysm is thrombosed, angiography does not reliably yield the diagnosis. Therefore, carotid dissection might have been underestimated as a cause of isolated lower cranial nerve palsies before the advent of MRI. MRI demonstrates directly the extension of the wall haematoma in the axial and longitudinal planes. Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Images PMID:8229030

  6. Morphological characteristics of the cranial root of the accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-11-01

    There has been the controversy surrounding the cranial root (CR) of the accessory nerve. This study was performed to clarify the morphological characteristics of the CR in the cranial cavity. Fifty sides of 25 adult cadaver heads were used. The accessory nerve was easily distinguished from the vagus nerve by the dura mater in the jugular foramen in 80% of 50 specimens. The trunk of the accessory nerve from the spinal cord penetrated the dura mater at various distances before entering the jugular foramen. In 20% of the specimens there was no dural boundary. In these cases, the uppermost cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve could be identified by removing the dura mater around the jugular foramen where it joined to the trunk of the accessory nerve at the superior vagal ganglion. The cranial rootlet was formed by union of two to four short filaments emerging from the medulla oblongata (66%) and emerged single, without filament (34%), and usually joined the trunk of the accessory nerve directly before the jugular foramen. The mean number of rootlets of the CR was 4.9 (range 2-9) above the cervicomedullary junction. The CR of the accessory nerve was composed of two to nine rootlets, which were formed by the union of two to four short filaments and joined the spinal root of the accessory nerve. The CR is morphologically distinct from the vagus nerve, confirming its existence.

  7. Schwannoma originating from lower cranial nerves: report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Noda, Tomoyuki; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular tumor was enucleated, facial palsy, hoarseness, dysphagia and paresis of the deltoid muscle occurred transiently after the operation. The patient's hearing had also slightly deteriorated. Case 3 is a dumbbell-typed schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal canal was markedly enlarged by the tumor. As the hypoglossal nerves were embedded in the tumor, the tumor around the hypoglossal nerves was not resected. The tumor was significantly enlarged for a while after stereotactic irradiation. Case 4 is an intracranial cystic schwannoma originating from the IXth or Xth cranial nerves. The tumor was resected through the cerebello-medullary fissure. The tumor capsule attached to the brain stem was not removed. Hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Cranial nerve palsy readily occurs after the removal of the schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves. Mechanical injury caused by retraction, extension and compression of the nerve and heat injury during the drilling of the petrous bone should be cautiously avoided.

  8. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities.

  9. The Six Syndromes of the Sixth Cranial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Azarmina, Mohsen; Azarmina, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy. PMID:23943691

  10. Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jannetta, P J

    1980-01-01

    As we age, our arteries elongate and our brains "sag." As a consequence of these processes, redundant arterial loops and bridging or intrinsic hindbrain veins may cause cross-compression of cranial nerve root entry zones in the cerebellopontine angle. This pulsatile compression can be seen to produce hyperactive dysfunction of the cranial nerve. Symptoms of trigeminal or glossopharyngeal neuralgia (somatic sensory), hemifacial spasm (somatic motor), tinnitus and vertigo (special sensory) and some cases of "essential" hypertension are caused by these vessels compressing cranial nerves V, IX--X, VII, VIII, and left X and medulla oblongata. Using microsurgical techniques, the symptoms may be relieved by vascular decompression, findings and results in 695 paients are briefly reviewed and correlated. A chronic primate model of "essential" hypertension is briefly described. PMID:6968543

  11. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. ); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Direct Cranial Nerve Involvement by Gliomas: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mabray, M C; Glastonbury, C M; Mamlouk, M D; Punch, G E; Solomon, D A; Cha, S

    2015-07-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by infiltrative growth of tumor cells, including along white matter tracts. This may result in clinical cranial neuropathy due to direct involvement of a cranial nerve rather than by leptomeningeal spread along cranial nerves. Gliomas directly involving cranial nerves III-XII are rare, with only 11 cases reported in the literature before 2014, including 8 with imaging. We present 8 additional cases demonstrating direct infiltration of a cranial nerve by a glioma. Asymmetric cisternal nerve expansion compared with the contralateral nerve was noted with a mean length of involvement of 9.4 mm. Based on our case series, the key imaging feature for recognizing direct cranial nerve involvement by a glioma is the detection of an intra-axial mass in the pons or midbrain that is directly associated with expansion, signal abnormality, and/or enhancement of the adjacent cranial nerves.

  13. Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    PlexinsA1-A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves. This is the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult cranial nerves. The findings will set the basis for future studies on the potential role of PlexinA4 in regeneration and repair of the adult central and peripheral nervous system.

  14. [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)].

    PubMed

    Guclu, B; Meyronet, D; Simon, E; Streichenberger, N; Sindou, M; Mertens, P

    2009-04-01

    This study reports a review of the literature on the structural anatomy of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves, known to harbor dysfunction syndromes in humans. Because these dysfunctions are hypothesized to be caused by neurovascular conflicts at the root entry/exit zone and the transitional zone between central and peripheral myelinization, this investigation focused on the study and description of this junction. All the cranial nerves, except the optic and olfactory nerves, which are considered to be more a direct expansion of the central nervous system, have a transitional zone between central myelin (coming from oligodendrocytes) and peripheral myelin (produced by Schwann cells). The human studies reported in the literature argue in favor of a dome-shaped transitional zone directed to the periphery. It seems that this junctional region is situated more peripherally in sensory nerves than in motor nerves. The transitional zone is situated very peripherally for the cochlear and vestibular nerves, and on the contrary very close to its exit from the brain stem for the facial nerve.

  15. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size.

  16. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-01

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury.

  17. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  18. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve impairment*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Wenliang; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosisis is a rare, multisystem obliterative vasculopathy of unknown etiology, occasionally involving the cranial nerve. We describe the first case of malignant atrophic papulosisis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve involvement in China. A 47-year-old woman presented to our hospital with atrophic porcelain white papules over the trunk and extremities, numbness in the right calf, vision decrease and impaired movement of the right eye. She was diagnosed with malignant atrophic papulosisis, based on characteristic symptoms and histopathologic examination. The patient was treated with dipyridamole and aspirin for 9 months, but later died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We reviewed currently available case reports on cranial nerve involvement in malignant atrophic papulosisis and emphasized the importance of skin biopsy in diagnosing this disease. PMID:26312664

  19. A case of malignant atrophic papulosis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Wenliang; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosisis is a rare, multisystem obliterative vasculopathy of unknown etiology, occasionally involving the cranial nerve. We describe the first case of malignant atrophic papulosisis with cranial nerve and peripheral nerve involvement in China. A 47-year-old woman presented to our hospital with atrophic porcelain white papules over the trunk and extremities, numbness in the right calf, vision decrease and impaired movement of the right eye. She was diagnosed with malignant atrophic papulosisis, based on characteristic symptoms and histopathologic examination. The patient was treated with dipyridamole and aspirin for 9 months, but later died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We reviewed currently available case reports on cranial nerve involvement in malignant atrophic papulosisis and emphasized the importance of skin biopsy in diagnosing this disease. PMID:26312664

  20. Perineural tumor spread - Interconnection between spinal and cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Kozić, Duško; Njagulj, Vesna; Gaćeša, Jelena Popadić; Semnic, Robert; Prvulović, Nataša

    2012-12-15

    The secondary neoplastic involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck malignancies is extremely rare. MR examination of the neck revealed the diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the right C2 root, in a 57-year-old patient with several months long pain in the right ear region and a history of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Associated perineural tumor spread and consequent distal involvement of great auricular nerve and vagus nerve were evident. Best of our knowledge, this is the first reported involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck cancers, associated with the clearly documented interconnection between the cervical plexus and cranial nerves via great auricular nerve.

  1. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae

    PubMed Central

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed. PMID:27482355

  2. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae.

    PubMed

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed. PMID:27482355

  3. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae.

    PubMed

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed.

  4. Water excitation MPRAGE MRI of VII and VIII cranial nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, A.W.; Licata, P.; Knopp, E.A.; Thomasson, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to compare magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo-water excitation (MPR-AGE-WE) with conventional spin echo (CSE) in the evaluation of the VII and VIII cranial nerves. One hundred three consecutive patients with symptoms referable to the VII/VIII nerves were studied with CSE T1 and MPRAGE-WE following intravenous gadolinium, contrast agent. Each right and left nerve pair was independently evaluated for the presence of an enhancing mass and for visualization of the nerves. On the CSE images, 26 definite and 2 possible lesions were identified, whereas 28 definite and 2 possible abnormalities were seen on the MPRAGE-WE. Four cases were better identified on the MPRAGE-WE and one better seen on the CSE. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0. 19). CSE demonstrated the nerves partially in 23 instances and completely in 6; MPRAGE-WE showed the nerves partially in 35 and completely in 73. This was highly significant (p < 0.001). With equivalent or slightly improved lesion detection and better visualization of the nerves, MPRAGE-WE may replace CSE in studying the VII/VIII nerves. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Cranial nerve development requires co-ordinated Shh and canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1(Wig/ Wig) mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25799573

  6. Cranial Nerve Development Requires Co-Ordinated Shh and Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A.; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1Wig/ Wig mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25799573

  7. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-01

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs. PMID:22948066

  8. Sphenoidal mucocele presenting as acute cranial nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Clarissa S.M.; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yip, Chee Chew; Yuen, Heng-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Sphenoidal sinus mucoceles are indolent lesions that, when sufficiently large, can compress on the optic canal or superior orbital fissure, rapidly causing loss of vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pain, ophthalmoplegia, and diplopia. We herein report a 72-year-old gentleman who presented acutely with Cranial Nerve II, III, and IV palsies secondary to a sphenoidal sinus mucocele that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully treated with endoscopic drainage. This cause of orbital apex syndrome is important for clinicians to know as early diagnosis and treatment is critical in recovering visual potential. PMID:23961035

  9. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. PMID:27199282

  10. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain.

  11. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  12. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kosaki, Katsura; Nagai, Aiko

    2010-06-01

    Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures. We treated 11 cases of skull base metastases from other visceral carcinomas. They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1). The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months. Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose. Imaging and clinical follow-up has been obtained in all 11 patients for 5-36 months after SRT. Seven patients among 11 died from primary carcinoma or other visceral metastases 9-36 months after Novalis SRT. All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient. In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially. In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT. Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.

  13. MRI of the cranial nerves--more than meets the eye: technical considerations and advanced anatomy.

    PubMed

    Casselman, Jan; Mermuys, Koen; Delanote, Joost; Ghekiere, Johan; Coenegrachts, Kenneth

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the method of choice to evaluate the cranial nerves. Although the skull base foramina can be seen on CT, the nerves themselves can only be visualized in detail on MR. To see the different segments of nerves I to XII, the right sequences must be used. Detailed clinical information is needed by the radiologist so that a tailored MR study can be performed. In this article, MR principles for imaging of the cranial nerves are discussed. The basic anatomy of the cranial nerves and the cranial nerve nuclei as well as their central connections are discussed and illustrated briefly. The emphasis is on less known or more advanced extra-axial anatomy, illustrated with high-resolution MR images.

  14. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity.

  15. Cranial mononeuropathy III

    MedlinePlus

    Third cranial nerve palsy; Oculomotor palsy; Pupil-involving third cranial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy - compression type ... cranial (oculomotor) nerve. This is one of the cranial nerves that control eye movement. Local tumors or swelling ...

  16. Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster laryngitis with multiple cranial nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Shinha, Takashi; Krishna, Pasala

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by varicella zoster virus infection affecting the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It typically presents with vesicles in the external auditory canal associated with auricular pain and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Although vestibulocochlear nerve is frequently co-involved during the course of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple lower cranial nerve involvement has rarely been described in the literature. In addition, laryngitis due to varicella zoster virus is a diagnostic challenge due to its unfamiliarity among clinicians. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with laryngitis involving multiple lower cranial nerves.

  17. A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25045551

  18. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized.

  19. Cranial nerve injuries with supraglottic airway devices: a systematic review of published case reports and series.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatarajan, V; Van Wijk, R M; Rajbhoj, A

    2015-03-01

    Cranial nerve injuries are unusual complications of supraglottic airway use. Branches of the trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus and the hypoglossal nerve may all be injured. We performed a systematic review of published case reports and case series of cranial nerve injury from the use of supraglottic airway devices. Lingual nerve injury was the most commonly reported (22 patients), followed by recurrent laryngeal (17 patients), hypoglossal (11 patients), glossopharyngeal (three patients), inferior alveolar (two patients) and infra-orbital (one patient). Injury is generally thought to result from pressure neuropraxia. Contributing factors may include: an inappropriate size or misplacement of the device; patient position; overinflation of the device cuff; and poor technique. Injuries other than to the recurrent laryngeal nerve are usually mild and self-limiting. Understanding the diverse presentation of cranial nerve injuries helps to distinguish them from other complications and assists in their management. PMID:25376257

  20. Paresis of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI: clinical manifestation and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Carlow, T J

    1989-01-01

    Successful identification of the cranial nerve and ocular muscle responsible for a subjective complaint of diplopia requires an evaluation of the type and character of the double vision and not infrequently the use of a red glass or Maddox rod, especially in incomplete and subtle cases. An isolated third nerve lesion is most commonly seen with a supraclinoid aneurysm (pupil dilated and fixed), vascular disease (pupil spared), and trauma. Mild frontal head trauma and vascular disease are the most common etiologies associated with an isolated fourth nerve paresis. Tumor, vascular disease and trauma should be prime considerations when a patient presents with an isolated sixth nerve paresis. A child's diagnostic possibilities will differ from the adult: third nerve (congenital), fourth nerve (congenital), and sixth nerve (brainstem glioma, postviral or inflammatory). Finally, myasthenia gravis can readily mask or mimic an isolated or mixed cranial nerve palsy. A Tensilon test is always indicated in unexplained diplopia with ophthalmoplegia and normal pupils.

  1. Surgical outcomes of lateral approach for jugular foramen schwannoma: postoperative facial nerve and lower cranial nerve functions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang-Sun; So, Yoon Kyoung; Park, Kwan; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Jeong, Han-Sin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The lateral surgical approach to jugular foramen schwannomas (JFS) may result in complications such as temporary facial nerve palsy (FNP) and hearing loss due to the complicated anatomical location. Ten patients with JFS surgically treated by variable methods of lateral approach were retrospectively reviewed with emphasis on surgical methods, postoperative FNP, and lower cranial nerve status. Gross total removal of the tumors was achieved in eight patients. Facial nerves were rerouted at the first genu (1G) in six patients and at the second genu in four patients. FNP of House-Brackmann (HB) grade III or worse developed immediately postoperatively in six patients regardless of the extent of rerouting. The FNP of HB grade III persisted for more than a year in one patient managed with rerouting at 1G. Among the lower cranial nerves, the vagus nerve was most frequently paralyzed preoperatively and lower cranial nerve palsies were newly developed in two patients. The methods of the surgical approach to JFS can be modified depending on the size and location of tumors to reduce injury of the facial nerve and loss of hearing. Careful manipulation and caution are also required for short facial nerve rerouting as well as for long rerouting to avoid immediately postoperative FNP.

  2. Injury of the peripheral cranial nerves during carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Theodotou, B; Mahaley, M S

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of local nerve injury among 192 consecutive carotid endarterectomies in 162 patients between 1977-1983 was determined from review of the medical records. Two facial nerve, 5 hypoglossal nerve, and 2 vagus nerve injuries were discovered for a total incidence of 4.7%. Only the 2 facial nerve injuries failed to improve over 2 years. Followup ranged from 1 to 60 months in this group of patients. Careful attention to details of tissue dissection at surgery should lower the incidence of nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy. PMID:4049454

  3. Motor palsies of cranial nerves (excluding VII) after vaccination: reports to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Woo, Emily Jane; Winiecki, Scott K; Ou, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed cranial nerve palsies, other than VII, that have been reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We examined patterns for differences in vaccine types, seriousness, age, and clinical characteristics. We identified 68 reports of cranial nerve palsies, most commonly involving the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves. Isolated cranial nerve palsies, as well as palsies occurring as part of a broader clinical entity, were reported. Forty reports (59%) were classified as serious, suggesting that a cranial nerve palsy may sometimes be the harbinger of a broader and more ominous clinical entity, such as a stroke or encephalomyelitis. There was no conspicuous clustering of live vs. inactivated vaccines. The patient age range spanned the spectrum from infants to the elderly. Independent data may help to clarify whether, when, and to what extent the rates of cranial nerve palsies following particular vaccines may exceed background levels.

  4. Primary Neurolymphomatosis of the Lower Cranial Nerves Presenting as Dysphagia and Hoarseness: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves. PMID:25083392

  5. Primary neurolymphomatosis of the lower cranial nerves presenting as Dysphagia and hoarseness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves.

  6. [Anatomy of the skull base and the cranial nerves in slice imaging].

    PubMed

    Bink, A; Berkefeld, J; Zanella, F

    2009-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are suitable methods for examination of the skull base. Whereas CT is used to evaluate mainly bone destruction e.g. for planning surgical therapy, MRI is used to show pathologies in the soft tissue and bone invasion. High resolution and thin slice thickness are indispensible for both modalities of skull base imaging. Detailed anatomical knowledge is necessary even for correct planning of the examination procedures. This knowledge is a requirement to be able to recognize and interpret pathologies. MRI is the method of choice for examining the cranial nerves. The total path of a cranial nerve can be visualized by choosing different sequences taking into account the tissue surrounding this cranial nerve. This article summarizes examination methods of the skull base in CT and MRI, gives a detailed description of the anatomy and illustrates it with image examples.

  7. Clinical anatomy and imaging of the cranial nerves and skull base.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ruchira M; Klein, Joshua P

    2012-09-01

    Evaluation of patients with cranial neuropathies requires an understanding of brainstem anatomy and nerve pathways. Advances in neuroimaging, particularly high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have enabled visualization of these tiny structures and their related pathology. This review provides an approach toward using imaging in the evaluation of cranial nerve (CN) and skull base anatomy and pathology. Because brainstem nuclei are inextricably linked to the information contained within CNs, they are briefly mentioned whenever relevant; however, a comprehensive discussion of brainstem syndromes is beyond the scope of this review.

  8. α-Synuclein pathology in the cranial and spinal nerves in Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in neurons and glial cells is a histological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently, filamentous aggregations of phosphorylated α-synuclein have been reported in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells, but not in axons, in the peripheral nervous system in MSA, mainly in the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Here we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the cranial and spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia of patients with LBD. Lewy axons were found in the oculomotor, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves, but not in the hypoglossal nerve. The glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves were most frequently affected, with involvement in all of 20 subjects. In the spinal nerve roots, Lewy axons were found in all of the cases examined. Lewy axons in the anterior nerves were more frequent and numerous in the thoracic and sacral segments than in the cervical and lumbar segments. On the other hand, axonal lesions in the posterior spinal nerve roots appeared to increase along a cervical-to-sacral gradient. Although Schwann cell cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the spinal nerves, they were only minimal. In the dorsal root ganglia, axonal lesions were seldom evident. These findings indicate that α-synuclein pathology in the peripheral nerves is axonal-predominant in LBD, whereas it is restricted to glial cells in MSA.

  9. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development.

    PubMed

    Sajgo, Szilard; Ali, Seid; Popescu, Octavian; Badea, Tudor Constantin

    2016-04-01

    During development, transcription factor combinatorial codes define a large variety of morphologically and physiologically distinct neurons. Such a combinatorial code has been proposed for the differentiation of projection neurons of the somatic and visceral components of cranial nerves. It is possible that individual neuronal cell types are not specified by unique transcription factors but rather emerge through the intersection of their expression domains. Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c, in combination with each other and/or transcription factors of other families, can define subgroups of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), spiral and vestibular ganglia, inner ear and vestibular hair cell neurons in the vestibuloacoustic system, and groups of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The present study investigates the expression and potential role of the Brn3b transcription factor in cranial nerves and associated nuclei of the brainstem. We report the dynamic expression of Brn3b in the somatosensory component of cranial nerves II, V, VII, and VIII and visceromotor nuclei of nerves VII, IX, and X as well as other brainstem nuclei during different stages of development into adult stage. We find that genetically identified Brn3b(KO) RGC axons show correct but delayed pathfinding during the early stages of embryonic development. However, loss of Brn3b does not affect the anatomy of the other cranial nerves normally expressing this transcription factor.

  10. The 12, 24, or is it 26 cranial nerves?

    PubMed Central

    Welsby, P

    2004-01-01

    Many of our perceptions are gained through interpretative organs that we assume to be providing objective accounts. Notably, however, neither vision nor hearing provide an objective account of reality. This paper challenges the "conventional wisdoms" held regarding the optic, auditory, and hypoglossal nerves, and the nerves of eye movement. PMID:15466996

  11. [A case of Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Nakamura, S; Koseki, T; Yamauchi, F; Baba, M; Mikami, M; Kobayashi, R; Fujikawa, T; Nagaoka, S

    1991-08-01

    The authors report a 56-year-old woman with Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure. Five days before admission, she experienced right otalgia and right facial pain and consulted an otolaryngologist of our hospital, who diagnosed the illness as acute parotitis and laryngopharyngitis. One day before admission, she experienced mild dyspnea and general fatigue and came to our hospital emergency room. A chest X-ray film revealed no abnormalities but some blisters were observed around her right ear. The next day, her dyspnea became more severe and she was admitted. A chest X-ray film on admission revealed right lower lobe consolidation, and neurological examination disclosed multiple cranial nerve paralysis, i.e., paralysis of the right fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth and left tenth cranial nerve. The serum titer of anti-herpes zoster antibody was elevated to 1,024, and the patient was diagnosed as having Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with hypercapnea, which was considered to be due to aspiration pneumonia and central airway obstruction caused by vocal cord paralysis. Mechanical ventilation was soon instituted and several antibiotics and acyclovir were administered intravenously, with marked effects. Three months after admission, the patient was discharged with no sequelae except mild hoarseness. Patients with herpes zoster oticus, facial nerve paralysis and auditory symptoms are diagnosed as having Ramsey Hunt syndrome. This case was complicated by lower cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure, which is very rare.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Intraoperative monitoring of lower cranial nerves in skull base surgery: technical report and review of 123 monitored cases.

    PubMed

    Topsakal, Cahide; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Bulsara, Ketan R; Williford, Veronica S

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental goal of skull base surgery is tumor removal with preservation of neurological function. Injury to the lower cranial nerves (LCN; CN 9-12) profoundly affects a patient's quality of life. Although intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring (IOM) is widely practiced for other cranial nerves, literature addressing the LCN is scant. We examined the utility of IOM of the LCN in a large patient series. One hundred twelve patients underwent 123 skull base operations with IOM between January 1994 to December 1999. The vagus nerve (n=37), spinal accessory nerve (n=118), and the hypoglossal nerve (n=83) were monitored intraoperatively. Electromyography (EMG) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were recorded from the relevant muscles after electrical stimulation. This data was evaluated retrospectively. Patients who underwent IOM tended to have larger tumors with more intricate involvement of the lower cranial nerves. Worsening of preoperative lower cranial nerve function was seen in the monitored and unmonitored groups. With the use of IOM in the high risk group, LCN injury was reduced to a rate equivalent to that of the lower risk group (p>0.05). The immediate feedback obtained with IOM may prevent injury to the LCN due to surgical manipulation. It can also help identify the course of a nerve in patients with severely distorted anatomy. These factors may facilitate gross total tumor resection with cranial nerve preservation. The incidence of high false positive and negative CMAP and the variability in CMAP amplitude and threshold can vary depending on individual and technical factors.

  13. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images.

  14. It's All in the Mime: Actions Speak Louder than Words When Teaching the Cranial Nerves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The…

  15. Investigation of cranial and other nerves in the mouse with muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, T J; Caddy, K W; Pallot, D J; Pehrson, U M

    1975-01-01

    In the muscular dystrophic mouse mutant there is an absence of Schwann cells over circumscribed lengths of all cranial nerves except for II (I was not examined) and the lesion involves the sympathetic system. Where present, Schwann cells do not produce myelin of normal thickness. The lesion is similar to that described for the spinal roots. Causation is discussed. Images PMID:1141926

  16. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; Vith nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy ... mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. This nerve, also called the abducens nerve, helps ...

  17. Delayed onset and long-lasting hemidiaphragmatic paralysis and cranial nerve deficit after interscalene nerve block for rotator cuff repair in beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Chiaghana, Chukwudi O; Awoniyi, Caleb A

    2016-11-01

    Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis is the most common adverse effect associated with interscalene block. In most cases, it resolves with the resolution of nerve blockade with only an estimated incidence of 0.048% persisting for longer duration. Occasionally, interscalene block is also associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve block and seldom with cranial nerve paresis. We present a case of delayed onset and prolonged hemidiaphragmatic paralysis that was associated with 3 cranial nerve deficits after interscalene nerve block for shoulder surgery performed under general anesthesia in the beach chair position. Etiology is unclear, but most likely multifactorial. PMID:27687453

  18. Frequency-dependent effects of sine-wave cranial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D N; Lee, C T

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind protocol, ninety healthy volunteer subjects received 30 minutes of constant current sine-wave cranial transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of 5 Hertz (Hz), 100 Hz, or 2000 Hz frequency (current maintained below .5 mA for safety), placebo TENS, or no treatment. The five groups were compared on pre- to posttreatment changes in blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral temperature, and anxiety. Analysis showed significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after 100 Hz cranial TENS as compared to the other groups. No other differences achieved significance. PMID:1357927

  19. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the orbit with associated enhancement of the meninges and multiple cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    McKinney, A M; Short, J; Lucato, L; SantaCruz, K; McKinney, Z; Kim, Y

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), and idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) seem to be part of a spectrum of disorders that have diverse locations but similar histologic and imaging findings. We report a case of a 50-year-old man presenting with multiple progressive cranial nerves palsies with leptomeningeal cranial nerve enhancement on MRI (II, V1-V3, and X), orbital and infraorbital masses, prominence within the left cavernous sinus, and diffuse dural enhancement. Biopsies of the orbital lesion and infraorbital nerve revealed IMT. The patient's lesions, symptoms, and dural enhancement quickly improved with steroid administration and nearly resolved over multiple subsequent scans over the next few months. This case illustrates a rare case of pseudotumor mimicking a more aggressive appearance that would usually portend a case of malignancy. There is a potential association of IMT, THS, and IHP, which may have existed in a concomitant fashion in this patient. The case also describes the unique finding of enhancement of the cisternal segments of multiple cranial nerves (simulating leptomeningeal malignant involvement), which may be related to inflammatory perineural edema or ischemic neuropathy.

  20. Radiation-induced lower cranial nerve palsy in patients with head and neck carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    JANSSEN, STEFAN; GLANZMANN, CHRISTOPH; YOUSEFI, BITA; LOEWENICH, KARL; HUBER, GERHARD; SCHMID, STEPHAN; STUDER, GABRIELA

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy (RICNP) is a severe long-term complication in patients with head and neck cancer following high-dose radiation therapy (RT). We present the case report of a patient with bilateral RICNP of the hypoglossal and vagus cranial nerves (XII/X) following postoperative RT in the era prior to the introduction of intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and an analysis of our IMRT patient cohort at risk including the case of a XII RICNP. A total of 201 patients whose glosso-pharyngeal (IX), X and XII cranial nerves had been exposed to >65 Gy definitive IMRT in our institution between January, 2002 and December, 2012 with or without systemic therapy, were retrospectively identified. A total of 151 patients out of 201 fulfilling the following criteria were included in the analysis: Locoregionally controlled disease, with a follow-up (FU) of >24 months and >65 Gy exposure of the nerves of interest. So far, one of the assessed 151 IMRT patients at risk exhibited symptoms of RICNP after 6 years. The mean/median FU of the entire cohort was 71/68 months (range, 27–145). The results were compared with literature reports. In conclusion, RICNP appears to be a rare complication. However, a longer FU and a larger sample size are required to draw reliable conclusions on the incidence of RICNP in the era of IMRT. PMID:26171186

  1. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast. PMID:27054056

  2. Skull Base Meningiomas and Cranial Nerves Contrast Using Sodium Fluorescein: A New Application of an Old Tool.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Vinicius Duval; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2014-08-01

    Objective The identification of cranial nerves is one of the most challenging goals in the dissection of skull base meningiomas. The authors present an application of sodium fluorescein (SF) in skull base meningiomas with the purpose of improving the identification of cranial nerves. Design A prospective study within-subjects design. Setting Hospital Ernesto Dornelles, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Patients with skull base meningiomas. Main Outcomes Measures Cranial nerve identification. Results The group of nine meningiomas was composed of one cavernous sinus, three petroclival, one tuberculum sellae, two sphenoid wing, one olfactory groove, and one temporal floor meningioma. The SF enhancement in all tumors was strong, and the contrast with cranial nerves clearly evident. There were one definite olfactory nerve deficit, one transient abducens deficit, and one definite hemiparesis. All lesions were resected (Simpson grades 1 and 2). The analysis of the difference of the delta SF wavelength between the meningiomas and cranial nerve contrast was performed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and showed p = 0.011. Conclusions The contrast between the enhanced meningiomas and cranial nerves was evident and assisted in the visualization and microsurgical dissection of these structures. The anatomical preservation of these structures was improved using the contrast.

  3. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain.

  4. Cranial nerves of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae [Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii: Actinistia], and comparisons with other craniata.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R G; Bemis, W E

    1993-01-01

    We reconstructed the cranial nerves of a serially sectioned prenatal coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. This allowed us to correct several mistakes in the literature and to make broad phylogenetic comparisons with other craniates. The genera surveyed in our phylogenetic analysis were Eptatretus, Myxine, Petromyzon, Lampetra, Chimaera, Hydrolagus, Squalus, Mustelus, Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepisosteus, Amia, Neoceratodus, Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Latimeria and Ambystoma. Cladistic analysis of our data shows that Latimeria shares with Ambystoma two characters of the cranial nerves. Our chief findings are: 1) Latimeria possesses an external nasal papilla and pedunculated olfactory bulbs but lacks a discrete terminal nerve. In other respects its olfactory system resembles the plesiomorphic pattern for craniates. 2) The optic nerve is plicated, a character found in many but not all gnathostomes. Latimeria retains an interdigitated partial decussation of the optic nerves, a character found in all craniates surveyed. 3) The oculomotor nerve supplies the same extrinsic eye muscles as in lampreys and gnathostomes. As in gnathostomes generally, Latimeria has a ciliary ganglion but its cells are located intracranially in the root of the oculomotor nerve, and their processes reach the eye via oculomotor and profundal rami. 4) The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle as in all craniates that have not secondarily reduced the eye and its extrinsic musculature. 5) The profundal ganglion and ramus are entirely separate from the trigeminal system, with no exchange of fibers. This character has an interesting phylogenetic distribution: in hagfishes, lampreys, lungfishes and tetrapods, the profundal and trigeminal ganglia are fused, whereas in other taxa surveyed the ganglia are separate. The principal tissues innervated by the profundal nerve are the membranous walls of the tubes of the rostral organ. 6) As in lampreys and gnathostomes, the trigeminal nerve has

  5. Lyme Disease Presenting with Multiple Cranial Nerve Deficits: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Baker, Keith; Jeanmonod, Donald; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. With more than 25,000 CDC reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. We report a case of 38-year-old man with Lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves. PMID:27635267

  6. Lyme Disease Presenting with Multiple Cranial Nerve Deficits: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Baker, Keith; Jeanmonod, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. With more than 25,000 CDC reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. We report a case of 38-year-old man with Lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  7. Lyme Disease Presenting with Multiple Cranial Nerve Deficits: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Baker, Keith; Jeanmonod, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. With more than 25,000 CDC reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. We report a case of 38-year-old man with Lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves. PMID:27635267

  8. Acupuncture: a potential modality for the treatment of auricular pruritus in Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with multiple cranial nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan Ying; Wang, He Sheng; Sun, Jian Hua

    2015-03-01

    Auricular pruritus coexisted with multiple cranial nerve lesions in Ramsay Hunt syndrome has been rarely reported in the literature especially its treatment. However, auricular pruritus cannot be better improved along with the improvement of multiple cranial nerve lesions. We tried to solve the problem with acupuncture and got experience from it. The following 2 cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome show a potential modality for the treatment of auricular pruritus with acupuncture.

  9. A guide to the evaluation of fourth cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hayman; Beaver; Prager; Kelder; Scasta; Avilla; von Noorden GK; Tang

    1998-12-01

    PURPOSE To devise a cost-effective guide for the evaluation of fourth nerve palsies (FNP). METHODS A review of the pertinent English language literature was performed to devise a guide for the evaluation (including neuroimaging) of FNP. The authors report a retrospective review of imaging studies performed on 206 patients with FNP. RESULTS The literature was used to develop the imaging guide. In the retrospective chart review of 206 patients from two tertiary care centers, 28 patients (13.6%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or a magnetic resonance scan. Of these patients, five had associated neurological symptoms (non-isolated), one was traumatic, five were congenital, four were vasculopathic, eleven were non-vasculopathic, and two were progressive. Following the recommendations of the imaging guide, the five isolated congenital FNP and the four isolated vasculopathic FNP would not have undergone neuroimaging studies. The total costs of these neuroimaging studies in these nine patients were 19,000 dollars. Four patients in the retrospective review with associated neurological deficits (non-isolated) should have undergone neuroimaging according to the guide, but did not. CONCLUSIONS Although the evaluation of FNP can be difficult, the decision to order neuroimaging can be improved by using an imaging guide. An imaging guide for the evaluation of FNP may allow more appropriate and cost-effective imaging of these patients. Isolated congenital, old traumatic, or vasculopathic FNP do not require neuroimaging studies. Patients with non-isolated FNP should have directed neuroimaging studies based upon the results of clinical examination.

  10. Development of a Generic Tubular Tree Structure for the Modeling of Orbital Cranial Nerves.

    PubMed

    Kaltofen, Thomas; Ivcevic, Sara; Kogler, Mathias; Priglinger, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    We developed a generic approach for modeling tubular tree structures as triangle meshes for the extension of our biomechanical eye model SEE-KID with a visualization of the orbital cranial nerves. Since three of the orbital nerves innervate extraocular eye muscles and move together with them, the structure must also support the partial translation and rotation of the nerves. For the SEE-KID model, this extension allows a better parameterization as well as an easier simulation of innervational disorders. Moreover, it makes the model even more useful for education and training purposes in contrast to other anatomical models. Due to its generic nature, the developed data structure and the associated algorithms can be used for any tubular tree structures, even in non-medical application areas.

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ryang; Kanda, Fumio; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2006-11-01

    We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves. Brain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an ill-defined mass with abnormal enhancement around the sella turcica. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed that the mass involved the clivus, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex. On contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium-chelated contrast medium, the mass showed inhomogeneous intermediate enhancement. The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations. Further studies may provide insights into various methods for diagnosing HCC metastasizing to the craniospinal area.

  12. Idiopathic Ninth, Tenth, and Twelfth Cranial Nerve Palsy with Ipsilateral Headache: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Seung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This case report is to report the effect of Korean traditional treatment for idiopathic ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy with ipsilateral headache. Methods: The medical history and imaging and laboratory test of a 39-year-old man with cranial palsy were tested to identify the cause of disease. A 0.2-mL dosage of Hwangyeonhaedoktang pharmacopuncture was administered at CV23 and CV17, respectively. Acupuncture was applied at P06, Li05, TE05, and G37 on the right side of the body. Zhuapiandutongbang (左 偏頭痛方) was administered at 30 minutes to 1 hour after mealtime three times a day. The symptoms were investigated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: The results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and laboratory tests were normal. The medical history showed no trauma, other illnesses, family history of diseases, medications, smoking, drinking and so on. All symptoms disappeared at the 10th day of treatment. Conclusion: Korean traditional treatment such as acupuncture, pharmcopuncture, and herbal medicine for the treatment of ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy of unknown origin is suggested to be effective even though this conclusion is based on a single. PMID:25780655

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging for anatomical localization of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei in pontine lesions: initial experiences with 3T-MRI.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils H; Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Woernle, Christoph M; Alzarhani, Yahea A; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Kollias, Spyros S

    2014-11-01

    With continuous refinement of neurosurgical techniques and higher resolution in neuroimaging, the management of pontine lesions is constantly improving. Among pontine structures with vital functions that are at risk of being damaged by surgical manipulation, cranial nerves (CN) and cranial nerve nuclei (CNN) such as CN V, VI, and VII are critical. Pre-operative localization of the intrapontine course of CN and CNN should be beneficial for surgical outcomes. Our objective was to accurately localize CN and CNN in patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and estimate its input in surgical planning for avoiding unintended loss of their function during surgery. DTI of the pons obtained pre-operatively on a 3Tesla MR scanner was analyzed prospectively for the accurate localization of CN and CNN V, VI and VII in seven patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons. Anatomical sections in the pons were used to estimate abnormalities on color-coded fractional anisotropy maps. Imaging abnormalities were correlated with CN symptoms before and after surgery. The course of CN and the area of CNN were identified using DTI pre- and post-operatively. Clinical associations between post-operative improvements and the corresponding CN area of the pons were demonstrated. Our results suggest that pre- and post-operative DTI allows identification of key anatomical structures in the pons and enables estimation of their involvement by pathology. It may predict clinical outcome and help us to better understand the involvement of the intrinsic anatomy by pathological processes.

  14. The initial appearance of the cranial nerves and related neuronal migration in staged human embryos.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabiola; O'Rahilly, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    The initial development of the cranial nerves was studied in 245 human embryos of stages 10-23 (4-8 postfertilizational weeks). Significant findings in the human embryo include the following. (1) Neuronal migration is a characteristic feature in the development of all the cranial nerves at stages 13-18, with the exception of the somatic efferent group. (2) The somatic efferent and the visceral efferent neurons are arranged respectively in ventrolateral and ventromedial columns (stages 13-17). (3) The ventrolateral column gives rise to somatic efferent nuclei; the neurons of the hypoglossal nerve develop rapidly and show a segmental organization as four roots that innervate three of the four occipital somites (stage 13); the abducent nucleus becomes displaced rostrally by a change in the rhombomeric pattern at stage 16. (4) The ventromedial column, originally continuous in rhombomeres 2-7, gives rise to visceral efferent and pharyngeal efferent nuclei. (5) All the 'true' cranial nerves (III-XII) are recognizable by stage 16. (6) In a primary migration the visceral efferent neurons proceed mediolaterally and accumulate dorsolaterally as nuclei (stages 13, 14); they differentiate into salivatory nuclei (stages 16, 17). (7) A secondary migration involves the pharyngeal efferent neurons (of nerves V and IX-XI), which also proceed mediolaterally and then form ventrolateral nuclei (stages 17, 18). (8) The facial complex shows a distinctive development in that its neural crest arises from the lateral wall of the neural folds/tube. Moreover, the migration of its pharyngeal efferent neurons is delayed, which may be related to the formation of the internal genu, and the motor nucleus begins to appear only at stage 23. (9) The sequence of appearance of afferent constituents is: cranial ganglia (stage 12), mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (stage 15), vestibular nuclei (stages 18-22), and cochlear nuclei (stage 19). The unsatisfactory term special is avoided and the term

  15. Anastomoses between lower cranial and upper cervical nerves: a comprehensive review with potential significance during skull base and neck operations, part I: trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Radcliff, Virginia; Loukas, Marios; Chern, Joshua J; Benninger, Brion; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of the anatomy of the neural communications among the cranial nerves and their branches is lacking in the literature. Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found among these nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate in these regions to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections among the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized in two parts. Part I concerns the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches with any other nerve trunk or branch in the vicinity. Part II concerns the anastomoses among the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or among these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part I is presented in this article. An extensive anastomotic network exists among the lower cranial nerves. Knowledge of such neural intercommunications is important in diagnosing and treating patients with pathology of the skull base.

  16. An inferior alveolar intraneural cyst: a case example and an anatomical explanation to support the articular theory within cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Strasia, Rhys P; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    The authors describe the case of an intraneural ganglion cyst involving a cranial nerve (V3), which was found to have a joint connection in support of an articular origin within the cranial nerves. An inferior alveolar intraneural cyst was incidentally discovered on a plain radiograph prior to edentulation. It was resected from within the mandibular canal with no joint connection perceived at surgery. Histologically, the cyst was confirmed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. Reinterpretation of the preoperative CT scan showed the cyst arising from the temporomandibular joint. This case is consistent with the articular (synovial) theory of intraneural ganglion cysts. An anatomical explanation and potential joint connection are provided for this case as well as several other cases of intraneural cysts in the literature, and thus unifying cranial nerve involvement with accepted concepts of intraneural ganglion cyst formation and propagation.

  17. Development of a computer-assisted cranial nerve simulation from the visible human dataset.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jeffrey C; Fung, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in technology and personal computing have allowed for the development of novel teaching modalities such as online web-based modules. These modules are currently being incorporated into medical curricula and, in some paradigms, have been shown to be superior to classroom instruction. We believe that these modules have the potential of significantly enriching anatomy education by helping students better appreciate spatial relationships, especially in areas of the body with greater anatomical complexity. Our objective was to develop an online module designed to teach the anatomy and function of the cranial nerves. A three-dimensional model of the skull, brainstem, and thalamus were reconstructed using data from the Visible Human Project and Amira®. The paths of the cranial nerves were overlaid onto this 3D reconstruction. Videos depicting these paths were then rendered using a "roller coaster-styled" camera approach. Interactive elements adding textual information and user control were inserted into the video using Adobe Creative Suite® 4, and finally, the module was exported as an Adobe Flash movie to be viewable on Internet browsers. Fourteen Flash-based modules were created in total. The primary user interface comprises a website encoded in HTML/CSS and contains links to each of the 14 Flash modules as well as a user tutorial. PMID:21438158

  18. New approach to neurorehabilitation: cranial nerve noninvasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, Yuri P.; Tyler, Mitchel E.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Skinner, Kimberley L.

    2014-06-01

    Cranial Nerve NonInvasive NeuroModulation (CN-NINM) is a primary and complementary multi-targeted rehabilitation therapy that appears to initiate the recovery of multiple damaged or suppressed brain functions affected by neurological disorders. It is deployable as a simple, home-based device (portable neuromodulation stimulator, or PoNSTM) and training regimen following initial patient training in an outpatient clinic. It may be easily combined with many existing rehabilitation therapies, and may reduce or eliminate the need for more aggressive invasive procedures or possibly decrease total medication intake. CN-NINM uses sequenced patterns of electrical stimulation on the tongue. Our hypothesis is that CN-NINM induces neuroplasticity by noninvasive stimulation of two major cranial nerves: trigeminal (CN-V), and facial (CN-VII). This stimulation excites a natural flow of neural impulses to the brainstem (pons varolli and medulla), and cerebellum, to effect changes in the function of these targeted brain structures, extending to corresponding nuclei of the brainstem. CN-NINM represents a synthesis of a new noninvasive brain stimulation technique with applications in physical medicine, cognitive, and affective neurosciences. Our new stimulation method appears promising for treatment of a full spectrum of movement disorders, and for both attention and memory dysfunction associated with traumatic brain injury.

  19. Dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses and supply to the cranial nerves: vessels the neurointerventionalist needs to know.

    PubMed

    Geibprasert, S; Pongpech, S; Armstrong, D; Krings, T

    2009-09-01

    Transarterial embolization in the external carotid artery (ECA) territory has a major role in the endovascular management of epistaxis, skull base tumors, and dural arteriovenous fistulas. Knowledge of the potential anastomotic routes, identification of the cranial nerve supply from the ECA, and the proper choice of embolic material are crucial to help the interventionalist avoid neurologic complications during the procedure. Three regions along the skull base constitute potential anastomotic routes between the extracranial and intracranial arteries: the orbital, the petrocavernous, and the upper cervical regions. Branches of the internal maxillary artery have anastomoses with the ophthalmic artery and petrocavernous internal carotid artery (ICA), whereas the branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery are connected to the petrocavernous ICA. Branches of both the ascending pharyngeal artery and the occipital artery have anastomoses with the vertebral artery. To avoid cranial nerve palsy, one must have knowledge of the supply to the lower cranial nerves: The petrous branch of the middle meningeal artery and the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery form the facial arcade as the major supply to the facial nerve, and the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery supplies the lower cranial nerves (CN IX-XII).

  20. [Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Roberto Leal; Andrade, Gustavo Cardoso de; Pinheiro Júnior, Nilson; Pittella, José Eymard Homem; Barbosa, Vinícius Cotta

    2005-03-01

    We report the surgically treated case of a 21-year-old caucasian male harboring a cavernous hemangioma of the right internal auditory canal encasing the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex. Only 18 cases of cavernous hemangiomas of this location have been previously reported. The clinical features, the differential diagnosis and the treatment are discussed.

  1. Anatomic study of cranial nerve emergence and associated skull foramina in cats using CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eymeric; Degueurce, Christophe; Ruel, Yannick; Dennis, Ruth; Begon, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of four normal cats were reviewed retrospectively to assess the emergence and course of the cranial nerves (CNs). Two-millimeter-thick images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T unit. CN skull foramina, as anatomic landmarks for MR imaging, were identified by computed tomography performed on an isolated cat skull using thin wire within each skull foramen. Thin slice (1 mm slice thickness) images were obtained with a high-resolution bone filter scan protocol. The origins of CNs II, V, VII, and VIII and the group of IX, X, XI, and XII could be identified. The pathway and proximal divisions of CNs V were described. CNs III, IV, and VI were not distinguished from each other but could be seen together in the orbital fissure. CN V was characterized by slight contrast enhancement.

  2. Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. IV. Vessel and nerve related variations

    PubMed Central

    HANIHARA, TSUNEHIKO; ISHIDA, HAJIME

    2001-01-01

    This concludes a series of descriptive statistical reports on discrete cranial traits in 81 human populations from around the world. Four variants classified as vessel and nerve related characters were investigated: patent condylar canal; supraorbital foramen; accessory infraorbital foramen; and accessory mental foramen. A significant asymmetric occurrence without any side preference was detected for the accessory mental foramen. Significant intertrait associations were found between the accessory infraorbital and supraorbital foramina in the panPacific region and Subsaharan African samples. The intertrait associations between the accessory infraorbital foramen and some traits classified as hypostotic were found mainly in the samples from the western part of the Old World, and those as hyperostotic traits in the samples from eastern Asian and the related population samples. With a few exceptions, the occurrence of a patent condylar canal and a supraorbital foramen was predominant in females, but the accessory infraorbital and accessory mental foramina were predominant in males. The frequency distributions of the traits showed interregional clinality and intraregional discontinuity. A temporal trend was found in the Northeast Asian region in the frequencies of the accessory infraorbital and accessory mental foramina. The diversity of modern human discrete cranial traits may at least in part be attributable to differential retention or intensification from an ancestral pattern. PMID:11554505

  3. Prevalence of ocular motor cranial nerve palsy and associations following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, F

    2011-01-01

    Aim Occurrence of ocular motor cranial nerve palsies (OMCNP), following stroke, has not been reported in relation to the type of OMCNP seen and in relation to brain area affected by stroke. The aim of this study was to identify all patients referred with suspected visual impairment to establish the presence and type of OMCNP. Methods Prospective, observation study with standardised referral and assessment forms across 20 sites. Visual assessment included visual acuity measurement, visual field assessment, ocular alignment, and movement and visual inattention assessment. Multicentre ethics approval and informed patient consent was obtained. Results In total, 915 patients were recruited with mean age of 69.18 years (SD 14.19). Altogether, 498 patients (54%) were diagnosed with ocular motility abnormalities. Of these, 89 patients (18%) had OMCNP. Unilateral third nerve palsy was present in 23 patients (26%), fourth nerve palsy in 14 patients (16%), and sixth nerve palsy in 52 patients (58%). Out of these, 44 patients had isolated OMCNP and 45 had OMCNP combined with other ocular motility abnormalities. Location of stroke was reported mainly in cerebellum, brain stem, thalamus, and internal and external capsules. Treatment was provided for each case including prisms, occlusion, typoscope, scanning exercises, and refraction. Conclusions OMCNP account for 18% of eye movement abnormalities in this stroke sub-population. Sixth CNP was most common, followed by third and fourth CNP. Half were isolated and half combined with other eye movement abnormality. Most were treated with prisms or occlusion. The reported brain area affected by stroke was typically the cerebellum, brain stem, and diencephalic structures. PMID:21475314

  4. [Depiction of the cranial nerves around the cavernous sinus by 3D reversed FISP with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Go; Oishi, Makoto; Jinguji, Shinya; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Sato, Mitsuya; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomy of cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus, we employed three-dimensional reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI) on 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system. After determining the proper parameters to obtain sufficient resolution of 3D PSIF-DWI, we collected imaging data of 20-side cavernous regions in 10 normal subjects. 3D PSIF-DWI provided high contrast between the cranial nerves and other soft tissues, fluid, and blood in all subjects. We also created volume-rendered images of 3D PSIF-DWI and anatomically evaluated the reliability of visualizing optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, and abducens nerves on 3D PSIF-DWI. All 20 sets of cranial nerves were visualized and 12 trochlear nerves and 6 abducens nerves were partially identified. We also presented preliminary clinical experiences in two cases with pituitary adenomas. The anatomical relationship between the tumor and cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus could be three-dimensionally comprehended by 3D PSIF-DWI and the volume-rendered images. In conclusion, 3D PSIF-DWI has great potential to provide high resolution "cranial nerve imaging", which visualizes the whole length of the cranial nerves including the parts in the blood flow as in the cavernous sinus region.

  5. A case of possible paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting as multiple cranial nerve palsies associated with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Misako; Yuasa, Yoshihito; Yamamoto, Tameyoshi; Munakata, Satoru; Tagawa, Naohiro; Tanaka, Keiko

    2016-09-29

    We report the case of a patient who had developed multiple cranial nerve palsies in the course of possible paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) associated with gallbladder cancer. Twelve days prior to visiting our hospital, a 69-year-old man began experiencing neurological symptoms, beginning with diplopia and progressing to ptosis of the left palpebra and subsequent complete closure of the eye within 8 days. Results of the initial medical examination indicated paresis of left oculomotor (III) and abducens (VI) nerves. MRI of the brain revealed no focal lesion that could have resulted in compression of the affected nerves, while further examination ruled out diabetes mellitus, infection, vasculitis, and other systemic autoimmune diseases as potential causes. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed high intensity located in the oculomotor nerves, and steroid pulse therapy was performed based on the assumption of inflammatory diseases. Although slight improvement was observed with respect to the left extraocular paresis, subsequent emergence of bilateral facial nerve (VII) palsy, right abducens nerve palsy, and right oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in succession. PET/CT performed under suspicion of PNS, confirmed the presence of gallbladder cancer. Surgical extirpation of the cancer occurred 3 months following the appearance of left oculomotor paralysis, after which the patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy. All cranial nerve palsies resolved within 2 months after the operation, and both cancer and PNS have shown no recurrence for over 5 years. Pathological examination of the resected tumor revealed well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma showing some signs of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, typically an indicator of a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, lymph node metastasis did not progress beyond N2, and the cancer was completely removed by lymph node dissection. Therefore, the presence of multiple cranial palsies in this patient led to early detection of

  6. [Microanatomy of the cranial segment of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Possible correlations with the symptoms of neurovascular compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaya, N L; Yatskovsky, A N; Mishchenko, V V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the topographic features of the nerve fibers belonging to the acoustic and vestibular analyzers located in the intracranial cranial segment of human vestibulocochlear nerve (VCN). A total of 16 samples of the intracranial cranial segment of the human vestibulocochlear nerve isolated from the region enclosed between the exit of VCN from the brainstem and its entrance into the internal acoustic meatus were available for the investigation. Prior to fixation of the samples, the VCN segments were marked in correspondence with their intravital anatomical location in the posterior cranial fossa. Cross sections of the PCN segments were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as according to the van-Hison method. The cross sections were made either at the exit of the nerve from the brainstem (N1), its entrance into the internal acoustic meatus (N3) or in-between these sites (N2). The morphometric analysis of the sections and the statistical treatment of the data obtained were performed with the use of the Diamfor hardware and software complex («Diamfor», Russia). The digitized images of the PCN sections were prepared using amVizo 103 microvisor (Russia). It was shown that the intracranial segment of the human vestibulocochlear nerve consists of two isolated groups of nerve fibers differing in terms of staining density, size, and the degree of myelinization. The mutual location of the fibers forming the cochlear and vestibular nuclei (CN and VN respectively) varies. Namely, CN near the internal acoustic foramen occupies the antero-posterior position with respect to VN. In the middle part of VCN, CN-forming fibers are located at the anetro-inferoposterior surface of the nerve. The nerve fibers of both CN and VN are similarly arranged near the lateral surface of the brain stem. PMID:26977563

  7. Cranial nerve root entry zone primary cerebellopontine angle gliomas: a rare and poorly recognized subset of extraparenchymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic, K I; Husain, M M; Linskey, M E

    2000-09-01

    With the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis type II, pediatric extraparenchymal cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors of any sort are extremely rare. Most gliomas encountered in the CPA in either children or adults involve the CPA as exophytic extensions of primary brain stem and/or cerebellar tumors. We encountered an unusual case of a giant CPA pilocytic astrocytoma arising from the proximal trigeminal nerve, completely separate from the brain stem. A nine-year-old girl with no evidence for any neurocutaneous syndrome, presented with headaches, mild obstructive hydrocephalus, trigeminal hypesthesia and a subtle peripheral facial paresis. Pre-operative neuroimaging suggested a petroclival meningioma. The tumor was completely resected via a right pre-sigmoid, retro-labyrinthine, subtemporal, transtentorial ('petrosal') approach, using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, with minimal morbidity. This appears to be the first reported case of a pediatric primary CPA glioma and the seventh reported case of primary CPA glioma, overall. It represents the second reported case of a primary CPA pilocytic astrocytoma. Given the findings in this case and the six other cases of primary CPA gliomas reported in the literature, as well as the results of histological studies of normal cranial nerves, we hypothesize that the point of origin of these rare and unusual tumors is the root entry zone of the involved cranial nerves. The differential diagnosis of primary CPA tumors should be expanded to include cranial nerve root entry zone primary CPA gliomas.

  8. Embryological origin for autism: developmental anomalies of the cranial nerve motor nuclei.

    PubMed

    Rodier, P M; Ingram, J L; Tisdale, B; Nelson, S; Romano, J

    1996-06-24

    The underlying brain injury that leads to autism has been difficult to identify. The diagnostic criteria of the disease are not readily associated with any brain region or system, nor are they mimicked by vascular accidents, tumors, or degenerative neurological diseases occurring in adults. Fortuitously, a recent report of autism induced by thalidomide exposure provides evidence that the disease originates by an injury at the time of closure of the neural tube. The human data suggest that the initiating lesion includes the motor cranial nerve nuclei. To test this hypothesis, we first examined motor nuclei in the brainstem of a human autistic case. The autopsy brain exhibited near-complete absence of the facial nucleus and superior olive along with shortening of the brainstem between the trapezoid body and the inferior olive. A similar deficit has been reported in Hoxa-1 gene knockout mice in which pattern formation of the hindbrain is disrupted during neurulation. Alternatively, exposure to antimitotic agents just after neural tube closure could produce the observed pattern of deficits. Thus, the lesions observed in the autopsy case appear to match those predicted by the thalidomide cases in both time of origin and central nervous system (CNS) location. To produce similar brain lesions experimentally, we exposed rat embryos to valproic acid, a second teratogen newly linked to autism. Dams received 350 mg/kg of valproic acid (VPA) on day 11.5 (the day of neural tube closure), day 12, or day 12.5 gestation. Each treatment significantly reduced the number of motor neurons counted in matched sections of the earliest-forming motor nuclei (V, XII), and progressively later exposures affected the VIth and IIIrd cranial nerve nuclei. All treatments spared the facial nucleus, which forms still later. Counts from the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the locus ceruleus were not affected by exposure to VPA, even though these nuclei

  9. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    PubMed Central

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27738402

  10. Morphological abnormalities of embryonic cranial nerves after in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for the pathogenesis of autism with multiple developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yasura; Oyabu, Akiko; Imura, Yoshio; Uchida, Atsuko; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Autism is often associated with multiple developmental anomalies including asymmetric facial palsy. In order to establish the etiology of autism with facial palsy, research into developmental abnormalities of the peripheral facial nerves is necessary. In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their cranial nerves were visualized by immunostaining. Treatment with VPA after embryonic day 9 had a significant effect on the peripheral fibers of several cranial nerves. Following VPA treatment, immunoreactivity within the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was significantly reduced. Additionally, abnormal axonal pathways were observed in the peripheral facial nerves. Thus, the morphology of several cranial nerves, including the facial nerve, can be affected by prenatal VPA exposure as early as E13. Our findings indicate that disruption of early facial nerve development is involved in the etiology of asymmetric facial palsy, and may suggest a link to the etiology of autism.

  11. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre‐ and post‐testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre‐ to post‐test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five‐point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non‐CN questions—particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 8: 584–592. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25952466

  12. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. PMID:25952466

  13. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge.

  14. Lower cranial nerves function after surgical treatment of Fisch Class C and D tympanojugular paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Bacciu, Andrea; Medina, Marimar; Ait Mimoune, Hassen; D'Orazio, Flavia; Pasanisi, Enrico; Peretti, Giorgio; Sanna, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report the postoperative lower cranial nerves (LCNs) function in patients undergoing surgery for tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) and to evaluate risk factors for postoperative LCN dysfunction. A retrospective case review of 122 patients having Fisch class C or D TJP, surgically treated from 1988 to 2012, was performed. The follow-up of the series ranged from 12 to 156 months (mean, 39.4 ± 32.6 months). The infratemporal type A approach was the most common surgical procedure. Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 86% of cases. Seventy-two percent of the 54 patients with preoperative LCN deficit had intracranial tumor extension. Intraoperatively, LCNs had to be sacrificed in 63 cases (51.6%) due to tumor infiltration. Sixty-six patients (54.09%) developed a new deficit of one or more of the LCNs. Of those patients who developed new LCN deficits, 23 of them had intradural extension. Postoperative follow-up of at least 1 year showed that the LCN most commonly affected was the CN IX (50%). Logistic regression analysis showed that intracranial transdural tumor extension was correlated with the higher risk of LCN sacrifice (p < 0.05). Despite the advances in skull base surgery, new postoperative LCN deficits still represent a challenge. The morbidity associated with resection of the LCNs is dependent on the tumor's size and intradural tumor extension. Though no recovery of LCN deficits may be expected, on long-term follow-up, patients usually compensate well for their LCNs loss.

  15. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian

    2015-10-15

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  16. [Imaging anatomy of the cranial nerves using 3.0 Tesla MRI: a practical review for clinicians].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Barba, Oscar; Martínez-Martínez, Lidieth; Cazares-Arellano, José Luis; Martínez-López, Manuel; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the method of choice to evaluate the cranial nerves (CN). These nerves constitute a group of structures that have acquired during their phylogenetic development a high degree of specialization. There are 12 pairs of CN to which we use their specific name or number. The olfactory (I) and optic (II) pairs are not real nerves but tracts from the encephalon. The spinal nerve (XI) derives from superior cervical segment of the spine. The other 9 pairs of CN are related with the brain stem. Although the skull base foramina can be seen on computed tomography, the nerves themselves can only be visualized in detail on MR. That means, in order to see the different segments of nerves I to XII, the right sequences must be used. It is important to provide detailed clinical information to the radiologist so that a tailored MR study can be performed. In this review, the basic imaging anatomy of the 12 CN is discussed and illustrated briefly with an emphasis on more advanced extra-axial anatomy, illustrated with high-resolution MR images. Clinicians looking for complete anatomic descriptions and/or MR illustrations are advised to consult specialized textbooks considering it is not possible to describe all of the anatomy in one article. This manuscript is intended to be a practical review for clinicians.

  17. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  18. Radiation-Induced Cranial Nerve Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients After Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lin; Lu, Jiade J.; Liss, Adam L.; Hu Chaosu; Guo Xiaomao; Wu Yongru; Zhang Youwang

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To address the characteristics and the causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy (CNP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with an extensive period of followed-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 317 consecutive and nonselected patients treated with definitive external-beam radiotherapy between November 1962 and February 1995 participated in this study. The median doses to the nasopharynx and upper neck were 71 Gy (range, 55-86 Gy) and 61 Gy (range, 34-72 Gy), respectively. Conventional fractionation was used in 287 patients (90.5%). Forty-five patients (14.2%) received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 11.4 years (range, 5.1-38.0 years). Ninety-eight patients (30.9%) developed CNP, with a median latent period of 7.6 years (range, 0.3-34 years). Patients had a higher rate of CNP (81 cases, 25.5%) in lower-group cranial nerves compared with upper group (44 cases, 13.9%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 34.444, p < 0.001). Fifty-nine cases experienced CNP in more than one cranial nerve. Twenty-two of 27 cases (68.8%) of intragroup CNP and 11 of 32 cases (40.7%) of intergroup CNP occurred synchronously ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.661, p = 0.031). The cumulative incidences of CNP were 10.4%, 22.4%, 35.5%, and 44.5% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CNP at diagnosis, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, and upper neck fibrosis were independent risk factors for developing radiation-induced CNP. Conclusion: Radiation-induced fibrosis may play an important role in radiation-induced CNP. The incidence of CNP after definitive radiotherapy for NPC remains high after long-term follow-up and is dose and fractionation dependent.

  19. Value of free-run electromyographic monitoring of lower cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base surgeries.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of cranial nerves (CNs) VII, IX, X, XI, and XII in skull base surgeries performed using endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to reduce iatrogenic CN deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 73 patients out of 990 patients who had EEA in our institution who had at least one CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as group I and those who did not as group II. Results We monitored a total of 342 CNs. A total of 62 nerves had SG f-EMG activity including CN VII = 18, CN IX = 16, CN X = 13, CN XI = 5, and CN XII = 10. No nerve deficit was found in the nerves that had significant activity during procedure. A total of five nerve deficits including (CN IX = 1, CN X = 2, CN XII = 2) were observed in the group that did not display SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG seems highly sensitive to surgical manipulations and in locating CNs. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of lower CNs during EEA procedures need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  20. Enterovirus 71 can directly infect the brainstem via cranial nerves and infection can be ameliorated by passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2014-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications.

  1. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Zelenakova, Jana; DeRiggo, Julius; Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema; Polacek, Hubert

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  2. [Chondroma adjacent to Meckel's cave mimicking a fifth cranial nerve neurinoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Narro-Donate, Jose María; Huete-Allut, Antonio; Velasco-Albendea, Francisco J; Escribano-Mesa, Jose A; Mendez-Román, Paddy; Masegosa-González, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Cranial chondromas are tumours arising from chondrocyte embryonic remnants cells that usually appear in the skull base synchondrosis. In contrast to the rest of the organism, where chondroid tumours are the most common primary bone tumour just behind the haematopoietic lineage ones, they are a rarity at cranial level, with an incidence of less than 1% of intracranial tumours. The case is reported on a 42 year-old male referred to our clinic due to the finding of an extra-axial lesion located close to the Meckel's cave region, with extension to the posterior fossa and brainstem compression after progressive paraparesis of 6 months onset. With the diagnosis of trigeminal schwannoma, a subtotal tumour resection was performed using a combined supra-infratentorial pre-sigmoidal approach. The postoperative histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of cranial chondroma.

  3. High-resolution CISS MR imaging with and without contrast for evaluation of the upper cranial nerves: segmental anatomy and selected pathologic conditions of the cisternal through extraforaminal segments.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Ari M; Macedo, Leonardo L; Chonka, Zachary D; Ilica, Ahmet T; Choudhri, Asim F; Gallia, Gary L; Aygun, Nafi

    2014-02-01

    The authors review the course and appearance of the major segments of the upper cranial nerves from their apparent origin at the brainstem through the proximal extraforaminal region, focusing on the imaging and anatomic features of particular relevance to high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Selected pathologic entities are included in the discussion of the corresponding cranial nerve segments for illustrative purposes.

  4. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: The importance of MRI for radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chen, T.-M.; Kang, C.-J.; Ng, S.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Cheng, A.-J.; Liao, C.-T. . E-mail: cgmhnog@yahoo.com

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate various prognostic factors and the impact of imaging modalities on tumor control in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) with cranial nerve (China) palsy. Material and Methods: Between September 1979 and December 2000, 330 NPC patients with CN palsy received radical radiotherapy (RT) by the conventional opposing technique at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou. Imaging methods used varied over that period, and included conventional tomography (Tm) for 47 patients, computerized tomography (CT) for 195 patients, and magnetic resonance image (MRI) for 88 patients. Upper CN (II-VI) palsy was found in 268 patients, lower CN (IX-XII) in 13, and 49 patients had both. The most commonly involved CN were V or VI or both (23%, 12%, and 16%, respectively). All patients had good performance status (World Health Organization <2). The median external RT dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 63-77.5 Gy). Brachytherapy was also given to 156 patients in addition to external RT, delivered by the remote after-loading, high-dose-rate technique. A total of 139 patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy, in 115 received as neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and in 24 concomitant with RT. Recovery from CN palsy occurred in 171 patients during or after radiotherapy. Patients who died without a specific cause identified were regarded as having died with persistent disease. Results: The 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year overall survival was 47.1%, 34.4%, and 22.2%. The 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 50.4%, 37.8%, and 25.9%. The 5-year DSS for patients staged with MRI, CT, and Tm were 46.9%, 36.7%, and 21.9%, respectively (p = 0.016). The difference between MRI and CT was significant (p = 0.015). The 3-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 53%, respectively. The 5-year local control was 68.2% if excluding patients who died without a specific cause. Patients who had an MRI had a significantly better tumor control rate than those

  5. HINDBRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVE DYSMORPHOGENESIS RESULT FROM ACUTE MATERNAL ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure of mouse embryos to ethanol during stages of hindbrain segmentation results in excessive cell death in specific cell populations. This study details the ethanol-induced cell loss and defines the subsequent effects of this early insult on rhombomere and cranial ner...

  6. CT-clinical approach to patients with symptoms related to the V, VII, IX-XII cranial nerves and cervical sympathetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalovidouris, A.; Mancuso, A.A.; Dillon, W.

    1984-06-01

    Forty-three patients who had signs and symptoms possibly related to the extracranial course of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X-XII, and the cervical sympathetics were examined prospectively using high resolution CT to obtain images of thin sections during rapid drip infusion of contrast material. Anatomic areas in the scan protocols included the posterior fossa, cavernous and paranasal sinuses, skull base, temporal bone, nasopharynx, parotid gland, tongue base, and neck. Nine of the 23 patients with possible fifth nerve deficits had extracranial structural lesions that explained the symptoms; none of these nine, however, had typical trigeminal neuralgia. Of eight patients with peripheral seventh nerve abnormalities, two had positive findings on scans. Of five patients presenting with referred ear pain, three had carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The authors' experience suggests that patients at high risk for structural lesions responsible for cranial nerve deficits can be selected by clinical criteria. Protocols for each clinical setting are presented.

  7. Optimal learning in a virtual patient simulation of cranial nerve palsies: The interaction between social learning context and student aptitude

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, TERESA R.; LYONS, REBECCA; CHUAH, JOON HAO; KOPPER, REGIS; LOK, BENJAMIN C.; CENDAN, JUAN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation in medical education provides students with opportunities to practice interviews, examinations, and diagnosis formulation related to complex conditions without risks to patients. Aim To examine differences between individual and team participation on learning outcomes and student perspectives through use of virtual patients (VPs) for teaching cranial nerve (CN) evaluation. Methods Fifty-seven medical students were randomly assigned to complete simulation exercises either as individuals or as members of three-person teams. Students interviewed, examined, and diagnosed VPs with possible CN damage in the Neurological Exam Rehearsal Virtual Environment (NERVE). Knowledge of CN abnormalities was assessed pre- and post-simulation. Student perspectives of system usability were evaluated post-simulation. Results An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effect was detected; at pre-test scores ≤50%, students in teams scored higher (83%) at post-test than did students as individuals (62%, p = 0.02). Post-simulation, students in teams reported greater confidence in their ability to diagnose CN abnormalities than did students as individuals (p = 0.02; mean rating = 4.0/5.0 and 3.4/5.0, respectively). Conclusion The ATI effect allows us to begin defining best practices for the integration of VP simulators into the medical curriculum. We are persuaded to implement future NERVE exercises with small teams of medical students. PMID:22938679

  8. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of the cranial nerves and their nuclei correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Johnson, Aleksandra; Chua, Beng Choon; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the cranial nerves and their nuclei is critical in clinical practice, medical research and education. However to our best knowledge, a comprehensive source capturing full three-dimensional (3D) relationships of the cranial nerves along with surrounding neuroanatomy is not yet available. This work addresses the construction and validation of an atlas of the cranial nerves with their nuclei, correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature, and magnetic resonance imaging. The atlas is interactive, stereotactic, 3D, detailed, fully parcellated, completely labeled, consistent in 3D, electronically dissectible, and scalable. A 3D geometrical model of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves with nuclei was created from an in vivo magnetic resonance scan exploiting in-house developed tools and methods, including tubular and iso-surface modeling, interactive editing, and mesh compression. This virtual model contains 439 objects with 121 different names, labeled based on Terminologia Anatomica. The model was integrated with a 3D atlas of structure, vasculature and tracts developed earlier, and correlated with sectional magnetic resonance anatomy. The whole model or its components can be interactively rotated, zoomed, panned, and add or removed with a simple few clicks. The studied material can be adaptively selected in an in-depth manner by using controls available in the user interface. This atlas is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, automatic student assessment, preparing materials, and localization in clinical neurology.

  9. Development and Use of an Interactive Computerized Dog Model to Evaluate Cranial Nerve Knowledge in Veterinary Students.

    PubMed

    Bogert, K; Platt, Simon; Haley, Allison; Kent, Marc; Edwards, Gaylen; Dookwah, H; Johnsen, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, the cognitive skills necessary to interpret neurological disorders from text-based case descriptions may not translate into the diagnostic capabilities required for clinical neurological patients. As live animals exhibiting certain specific neurological disorders are infrequent during a student's exposure to clinics, students may graduate without the experience necessary to make an accurate diagnosis in the field. To address this, we have developed a computerized simulated dog head that can exhibit cranial nerve dysfunctions and respond to specific testing procedures in a clinically accurate manner. To evaluate whether this type of model could add value to traditional student assessments, we created a multiple-choice quiz system with three types of questions: standard text-based cases, videos of an expert performing an examination of the simulated dog, and an interactive version requiring the student to perform an appropriate examination of the simulated dog to uncover the lesion localization. In an experiment conducted with 97 freshman veterinary students who had recently been taught cranial nerve anatomy and function, we found that examination performance decreased with the need for interactivity compared to memorization of fact, while satisfaction increased. Students were less likely to identify the correct disorder when they had to conduct the examination of the virtual dog themselves, revealing an inadequacy in traditional neuroanatomical teaching. However, students overwhelmingly supported the use of interactive question for assessment. Interestingly, performance on text-based questions did not correlate significantly with interactive or video questions. The results have implications for veterinary teaching and assessment within the classroom and in clinical environments.

  10. Development and Use of an Interactive Computerized Dog Model to Evaluate Cranial Nerve Knowledge in Veterinary Students.

    PubMed

    Bogert, K; Platt, Simon; Haley, Allison; Kent, Marc; Edwards, Gaylen; Dookwah, H; Johnsen, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, the cognitive skills necessary to interpret neurological disorders from text-based case descriptions may not translate into the diagnostic capabilities required for clinical neurological patients. As live animals exhibiting certain specific neurological disorders are infrequent during a student's exposure to clinics, students may graduate without the experience necessary to make an accurate diagnosis in the field. To address this, we have developed a computerized simulated dog head that can exhibit cranial nerve dysfunctions and respond to specific testing procedures in a clinically accurate manner. To evaluate whether this type of model could add value to traditional student assessments, we created a multiple-choice quiz system with three types of questions: standard text-based cases, videos of an expert performing an examination of the simulated dog, and an interactive version requiring the student to perform an appropriate examination of the simulated dog to uncover the lesion localization. In an experiment conducted with 97 freshman veterinary students who had recently been taught cranial nerve anatomy and function, we found that examination performance decreased with the need for interactivity compared to memorization of fact, while satisfaction increased. Students were less likely to identify the correct disorder when they had to conduct the examination of the virtual dog themselves, revealing an inadequacy in traditional neuroanatomical teaching. However, students overwhelmingly supported the use of interactive question for assessment. Interestingly, performance on text-based questions did not correlate significantly with interactive or video questions. The results have implications for veterinary teaching and assessment within the classroom and in clinical environments. PMID:26560546

  11. Outcome on hearing and facial nerve function in microsurgical treatment of small vestibular schwannoma via the middle cranial fossa approach.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Scheich, Matthias; Harnisch, Wilma; Bonn, Verena; Ehrmann-Müller, Desiree; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf

    2013-03-01

    Encouraging results regarding hearing preservation and facial nerve function as well as increasing understanding of the natural behaviour of vestibular schwannomas have led to the recommendation of an early treatment in small VS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate current data on functional outcome of patients with small VS treated by middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach. A retrospective chart study of all cases treated by MCF approach between October 2007 and September 2011 was performed. Records were analyzed regarding demographical data, tumor size, hearing status, vestibular function and facial nerve function. Facial nerve function was classified according to the House-Brackmann scale (HB). Hearing status was classified according to the American Association of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) and a modified classification of Gardner and Robertson (GR). Eighty-nine patients were included in the study; 41 % of VS was classified as intracanalicular (stage 1) and 59 % as stage 2. From 65 patients with a preoperative hearing status according to AAO-HNS A or B, 74 % still presented with A or B after surgery. Using a modified GR classification, from 70 patients categorized as class I or II prior to surgery, 70 % were still class I or II. Looking to the facial nerve function 1 week after surgery, 82 % of patients presented with HB 1 or 2. Three to twelve months later, 96 % demonstrated HB 1 or 2. A persisting facial palsy was recorded in four patients. Preoperative hearing status was evaluated as a prognostic factor for postoperative hearing, whereas no influence was detected in ABR, vestibular function and tumor length. Early diagnosis of small VS due to high-sensitive MRI requires the management of this tumor entity. Natural behaviour of VS in many cases demonstrates an increase of tumor size over time with deterioration of hearing status. The presented data underline the recommendation of an early surgical treatment in small VS as a valuable

  12. Treatment of cervical internal carotid artery spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm and unilateral lower cranial nerves palsy by two silk flow diverters.

    PubMed

    Zeleňák, Kamil; Zeleňáková, Jana; DeRiggo, Július; Kurča, Egon; Kantorová, Ema; Poláček, Hubert

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  13. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications.

  14. Electrical Stimulation of the Ear, Head, Cranial Nerve, or Cortex for the Treatment of Tinnitus: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Adjamian, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is defined as the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is often associated with hearing loss and is thought to result from abnormal neural activity at some point or points in the auditory pathway, which is incorrectly interpreted by the brain as an actual sound. Neurostimulation therapies therefore, which interfere on some level with that abnormal activity, are a logical approach to treatment. For tinnitus, where the pathological neuronal activity might be associated with auditory and other areas of the brain, interventions using electromagnetic, electrical, or acoustic stimuli separately, or paired electrical and acoustic stimuli, have been proposed as treatments. Neurostimulation therapies should modulate neural activity to deliver a permanent reduction in tinnitus percept by driving the neuroplastic changes necessary to interrupt abnormal levels of oscillatory cortical activity and restore typical levels of activity. This change in activity should alter or interrupt the tinnitus percept (reduction or extinction) making it less bothersome. Here we review developments in therapies involving electrical stimulation of the ear, head, cranial nerve, or cortex in the treatment of tinnitus which demonstrably, or are hypothesised to, interrupt pathological neuronal activity in the cortex associated with tinnitus. PMID:27403346

  15. Three-dimensional stereotactic atlas of the extracranial vasculature correlated with the intracranial vasculature, cranial nerves, skull and muscles.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Shoon Let Thaung, Thant; Choon Chua, Beng; Hnin Wut Yi, Su; Yang, Yili; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to construct a 3D, interactive, and reference atlas of the extracranial vasculature spatially correlated with the intracranial blood vessels, cranial nerves, skull, glands, and head muscles.The atlas has been constructed from multiple 3T and 7T magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) brain scans, and 3T phase contrast and inflow MRA neck scans of the same specimen in the following steps: vessel extraction from the scans, building 3D tubular models of the vessels, spatial registration of the extra- and intracranial vessels, vessel editing, vessel naming and color-coding, vessel simplification, and atlas validation.This new atlas contains 48 names of the extracranial vessels (25 arterial and 23 venous) and it has been integrated with the existing brain atlas.The atlas is valuable for medical students and residents to easily get familiarized with the extracranial vasculature with a few clicks; is useful for educators to prepare teaching materials; and potentially can serve as a reference in the diagnosis of vascular disease and treatment, including craniomaxillofacial surgeries and radiologic interventions of the face and neck. PMID:25923683

  16. Three-dimensional stereotactic atlas of the extracranial vasculature correlated with the intracranial vasculature, cranial nerves, skull and muscles.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Shoon Let Thaung, Thant; Choon Chua, Beng; Hnin Wut Yi, Su; Yang, Yili; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to construct a 3D, interactive, and reference atlas of the extracranial vasculature spatially correlated with the intracranial blood vessels, cranial nerves, skull, glands, and head muscles.The atlas has been constructed from multiple 3T and 7T magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) brain scans, and 3T phase contrast and inflow MRA neck scans of the same specimen in the following steps: vessel extraction from the scans, building 3D tubular models of the vessels, spatial registration of the extra- and intracranial vessels, vessel editing, vessel naming and color-coding, vessel simplification, and atlas validation.This new atlas contains 48 names of the extracranial vessels (25 arterial and 23 venous) and it has been integrated with the existing brain atlas.The atlas is valuable for medical students and residents to easily get familiarized with the extracranial vasculature with a few clicks; is useful for educators to prepare teaching materials; and potentially can serve as a reference in the diagnosis of vascular disease and treatment, including craniomaxillofacial surgeries and radiologic interventions of the face and neck.

  17. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  18. A Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Three Cranial Nerves in Two Phocids: The Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) and the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Wohlert, Dennis; Kröger, Jürgen; Witt, Martin; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Czech-Damal, Nicole; Siebert, Ursula; Folkow, Lars; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-03-01

    While our knowledge about the senses of pinnipeds has increased over the last decades almost nothing is known about the organization of the neuroanatomical pathways. In a first approach to this field of research, we assessed the total number of myelinated axons of three cranial nerves (CNs) in the harbor (Phoca vitulina, Pv) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, Cc). Axons were counted in semithin sections of the nerves embedded in Epon and stained with toluidine blue. In both species, the highest axon number was found within the optic nerve (Pv 187,000 ± 8,000 axons, Cc 481,600 ± 1,300 axons). Generally, considering absolute axon numbers, far more axons were counted within the optic and trigmenial nerve (Pv 136,700 ± 2,500 axons, Cc 179,300 ± 6,900 axons) in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. The axon counts of the vestibulocochlear nerve are nearly identical for both species (Pv 87,100 ± 8,100 axons, Cc 86,600 ± 2,700 axons). However, when comparing cell density, the cell density is almost equal for all nerves for both species except for the optic nerve in which cell density was particularly higher than in the other nerves and higher in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. We here present the first comparative analysis of three CNs in two phocid seals. While the CNs of these closely related species share some general characteristics, pronounced differences in axon numbers/densities are apparent. These differences seem to reflect differences in e.g. size, habitat, and/or functional significance of the innervated sensory systems.

  19. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... African- and Latino-Americans Apr 26, 2016 Annual Eye Exams Can Save Sight for People with Diabetes Nov 30, 2015 Seniors With Diabetes: Are You Making the Most of Your Medicare Benefits? Nov 02, 2015 Fighting the Signs of Aging? Don’t Forget the Eyes Sep 11, 2015 Study Says Eye Screening for ...

  20. 3T MRI and 128-slice dual-source CT cisternography images of the cranial nerves a brief pictorial review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Martinez-Anda, Jaime J; Corona-Cedillo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    There is a broad community of health sciences professionals interested in the anatomy of the cranial nerves (CNs): specialists in neurology, neurosurgery, radiology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, radiation oncology, and emergency medicine, as well as other related fields. Advances in neuroimaging using high-resolution images from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have made highly-detailed visualization of brain structures possible, allowing normal findings to be routinely assessed and nervous system pathology to be detected. In this article we present an integrated perspective of the normal anatomy of the CNs established by radiologists and neurosurgeons in order to provide a practical imaging review, which combines 128-slice dual-source multiplanar images from CT cisternography and 3T MR curved reconstructed images. The information about the CNs includes their origin, course (with emphasis on the cisternal segments and location of the orifices at the skull base transmitting them), function, and a brief listing of the most common pathologies affecting them. The scope of the article is clinical anatomy; readers will find specialized texts presenting detailed information about particular topics. Our aim in this article is to provide a helpful reference for understanding the complex anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  1. Usefulness of Leksell GammaPlan for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection: delineation of the cranial nerves and fusion of the neuroimaging data, including diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Manabu; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Noriko; Hayashi, Motohiro; Nakao, Naoyuki; Uematsu, Yuji; Itakura, Toru; Régis, Jean; Mangin, Jean François; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) software was initially designed for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but it can be successfully applied to planning of the open neurosurgical procedures as well. We present our initial experience of delineating the cranial nerves in the vicinity of skull base tumors, combined visualization of the implanted subdural electrodes and cortical anatomy to facilitate brain mapping, and fusion of structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging performed with the use of LGP before removal of intracranial neoplasms. Such preoperative information facilitated choosing the optimal approach and general surgical strategy, and corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Therefore, LGP may be helpful for planning open neurosurgical procedures in cases of both extraaxial and intraaxial intracranial tumors.

  2. Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Oyama, Kazutaka; Ueno, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Honma, Keiichirou

    2008-12-01

    Experience with dissection of the cavernous sinus and the temporal bone is essential for training in skull base surgery, but the opportunities for cadaver dissection are very limited. A modification of a commercially available prototype three-dimensional (3D) skull base model, made by a selective laser sintering method and incorporating surface details and inner bony structures such as the inner ear structures and air cells, is proposed to include artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, venous sinuses, and the internal carotid artery for such surgical training. The transpetrosal approach and epidural cavernous sinus surgery (Dolenc's technique) were performed on this modified model using a high speed drill or ultrasonic bone curette under an operating microscope. The model could be dissected in almost the same way as a real cadaver. The modified 3D skull base model provides a good educational tool for training in skull base surgery.

  3. Human primitive meninges in and around the mesencephalic flexure and particularly their topographical relation to cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Han, Eui Hyeog; Verdugo-López, Samuel; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2010-09-20

    Development of the meninges in and around the plica ventralis encephali has not been well documented. A distinct mesenchymal structure, the so-called plica ventralis encephali, is sandwiched by the fetal mesencephalic flexure. We histologically examined paraffin-embedded sections from 18 human embryos and fetuses at 6-12 weeks of gestation. In the loose tissues of the plica, the first meninx appeared as a narrow membrane along the oculomotor nerve at 7-8 weeks. Subsequently, the plica ventralis evolved into 3 parts: bilateral lateral mesenchymal condensations and a primitive membranous meninx extending between. Notably, the topographical anatomy of the oculomotor, trochlear and trigeminal nerves did not change: the oculomotor nerve ran along the rostral aspect of the membranous meninx, the trigeminal nerve ran along the caudal side of the lateral mesenchymal condensation, and the trochlear nerve remained embedded in the lateral condensation. Up to 9-10 weeks, the lateral mesenchymal condensations became tongue-like folds; i.e., the primitive form of the tentorium cerebelli, while the membranous meninx became the diaphragma sellae. The falx cerebri seemed to develop from the tongue-like folds. Overall, the final tentorium cerebelli corresponded to the regressed plica ventralis, while the parasellar area originated from the base of the plica and other tissues along the ventral aspects of the basisphenoid and basioccipital.

  4. ["Left hemicranium, the cranial nerves" by Tramond: An anatomical model in wax from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière's Museum in Paris: description and tri-dimensional photographic reconstruction (TDPR)].

    PubMed

    Paravey, S; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2011-06-01

    An anatomical model in wax made by Tramond (middle of the 19th century) represented the cranial nerves of a left hemicranium. The aim of the study was to verify its anatomical veracity, to realize a tri-dimensional visualization by computer, and finally to numerize and to diffuse it to the general public in the purpose of culture on the internet. The model belonged to the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière Museum (Paris Descartes university). It represented the cranial nerves especially the facial and the trigeminal nerves and their branches. To perform the photographic rotation every 5° along 360°, we used a special device made of two identical superimposed marble disks linked by a ball bearing. A digital camera and the Quick Time Virtual Reality software were used. Seventy-two pictures were shot. This wax was realized with a great morphological accuracy from a true cranium as a support for the cranial nerves. The work of numerization and its free diffusion on the Internet permitted to deliver to everybody the images of this sample of the collection of the Orfila Museum, the pieces of which were evacuated on December 2009 after its closure. PMID:21493118

  5. ["Left hemicranium, the cranial nerves" by Tramond: An anatomical model in wax from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière's Museum in Paris: description and tri-dimensional photographic reconstruction (TDPR)].

    PubMed

    Paravey, S; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2011-06-01

    An anatomical model in wax made by Tramond (middle of the 19th century) represented the cranial nerves of a left hemicranium. The aim of the study was to verify its anatomical veracity, to realize a tri-dimensional visualization by computer, and finally to numerize and to diffuse it to the general public in the purpose of culture on the internet. The model belonged to the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière Museum (Paris Descartes university). It represented the cranial nerves especially the facial and the trigeminal nerves and their branches. To perform the photographic rotation every 5° along 360°, we used a special device made of two identical superimposed marble disks linked by a ball bearing. A digital camera and the Quick Time Virtual Reality software were used. Seventy-two pictures were shot. This wax was realized with a great morphological accuracy from a true cranium as a support for the cranial nerves. The work of numerization and its free diffusion on the Internet permitted to deliver to everybody the images of this sample of the collection of the Orfila Museum, the pieces of which were evacuated on December 2009 after its closure.

  6. 12th International CHARGE syndrome conference proceedings.

    PubMed

    Martin, Donna M; Salem-Hartshorne, Nancy; Hartshorne, Timothy S; Scacheri, Peter C; Hefner, Margaret A

    2016-04-01

    The CHARGE Syndrome Foundation holds an International conference for families and professionals every other summer. In July, 2015, the 12th meeting was held in Schaumburg, Illinois, at the Renaissance Schaumburg Hotel. Day one of the 4-day conference was dedicated to professionals caring for and researching various aspects of CHARGE, including education, medical management, animal models, and stem cell-based approaches to understanding and treating individuals with CHARGE. Here, we summarize presentations from the meeting, including a synopsis of each of the three different breakout sessions (Medical/Clinical, Basic Science/CHD7, and Education), followed by a list of abstracts and authors for both platform and poster presentations. PMID:26754144

  7. [Invasive aspergillosis of sphenoidal sinus in a patient in Djibouti, revealed by palsy of cranial nerves: a case report].

    PubMed

    Crambert, A; Gauthier, J; Vignal, R; Conessa, C; Lombard, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report a case of invasive aspergillosis of a sphenoid sinus mucocele revealed in a patient with diabetes in Djibouti by homolateral palsy of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th nerves. This rare condition occurs preferentially in immunodeficient subjects. Because of its clinical polymorphism, its diagnosis is difficult and is often not made until complications develop. Endonasal surgery with anatomopathological and mycological examination is both a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. It must be performed early, to avoid functional or even life-threatening complications. PMID:23803589

  8. Panel Recommends State-Level NAEP for 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    A national commission formed to review the future of the 12th grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has recommended that the nation's primary barometer of student performance should expand dramatically to provide mandatory state results on the achievement of 12th graders and to measure their readiness for college, employment,…

  9. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    MedlinePlus

    ... the examiner. 5th Trigeminal Facial sensation Sensation in areas of the face is tested using a pin and a wisp of cotton. The blink reflex is tested by touching the cornea of the eye with a cotton wisp. Chewing Strength and movement of muscles that control the jaw are tested ...

  10. Detection of third and sixth cranial nerve palsies with a novel method for eye tracking while watching a short film clip

    PubMed Central

    Samadani, Uzma; Farooq, Sameer; Ritlop, Robert; Warren, Floyd; Reyes, Marleen; Lamm, Elizabeth; Alex, Anastasia; Nehrbass, Elena; Kolecki, Radek; Jureller, Michael; Schneider, Julia; Chen, Agnes; Shi, Chen; Mendhiratta, Neil; Huang, Jason H.; Qian, Meng; Kwak, Roy; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; George, Ajax; Fergus, Robert; Kondziolka, Douglas; Huang, Paul P.; Smith, R. Theodore

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT Automated eye movement tracking may provide clues to nervous system function at many levels. Spatial calibration of the eye tracking device requires the subject to have relatively intact ocular motility that implies function of cranial nerves (CNs) III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducent) and their associated nuclei, along with the multiple regions of the brain imparting cognition and volition. The authors have developed a technique for eye tracking that uses temporal rather than spatial calibration, enabling detection of impaired ability to move the pupil relative to normal (neurologically healthy) control volunteers. This work was performed to demonstrate that this technique may detect CN palsies related to brain compression and to provide insight into how the technique may be of value for evaluating neuropathological conditions associated with CN palsy, such as hydrocephalus or acute mass effect. METHODS The authors recorded subjects’ eye movements by using an Eyelink 1000 eye tracker sampling at 500 Hz over 200 seconds while the subject viewed a music video playing inside an aperture on a computer monitor. The aperture moved in a rectangular pattern over a fixed time period. This technique was used to assess ocular motility in 157 neurologically healthy control subjects and 12 patients with either clinical CN III or VI palsy confirmed by neuro-ophthalmological examination, or surgically treatable pathological conditions potentially impacting these nerves. The authors compared the ratio of vertical to horizontal eye movement (height/width defined as aspect ratio) in normal and test subjects. RESULTS In 157 normal controls, the aspect ratio (height/width) for the left eye had a mean value ± SD of 1.0117 ± 0.0706. For the right eye, the aspect ratio had a mean of 1.0077 ± 0.0679 in these 157 subjects. There was no difference between sexes or ages. A patient with known CN VI palsy had a significantly increased aspect ratio (1.39), whereas 2

  11. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix

    2012-04-01

    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  12. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe,...

  13. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on...

  14. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe,...

  15. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on...

  16. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe,...

  17. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on...

  18. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe,...

  19. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on...

  20. The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, N J; Chilton, J K

    2015-07-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance. PMID:25633065

  1. The relative effects of transection of the gustatory branches of the seventh and ninth cranial nerves on NaCl taste detection in rats.

    PubMed

    Blonde, Ginger D; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2006-06-01

    Chorda tympani nerve (CT) transection in rats severely impairs NaCl taste detection. These rats can detect higher concentrations of NaCl, however, suggesting that remaining oral nerves maintain some salt sensibility. Rats were tested in a gustometer with a 2-response operant taste-detection task before and after sham surgery (n = 5), combined transection of the CT and the greater superficial petrosal nerves (GSP; 7x, n = 6), or transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL; 9x, n = 4). Thresholds did not significantly change after sham surgery. Although the GL responds to NaCl and innervates nearly 60% of total taste buds, 9x surgery had no effect. However, 7x surgery increased NaCl detection threshold by approximately 2.5 log(10) units, greater than that reported for CT transection alone. These results suggest that the GSP contributes to NaCl sensitivity in rats and also demonstrate that the GL and perhaps the superior laryngeal and lingual nerve proper can maintain some NaCl detectability at high concentrations. These findings confirm the primacy of the 7th nerve relative to the 9th nerve in sensibility of NaCl in the rat model.

  2. Making New Links, 12th Grade and beyond: Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research, convened by the Governing Board, consists of seven members with expertise in a variety of measurement and policy areas related to preparedness. The purpose of the Panel was to assist the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) in planning research and validity studies that will enable the…

  3. The Future of 12th Grade NAEP: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for NAEP 12th Grade Assessments in 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The task of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for the the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 12th Grade Assessments in 2009 addresses three policy areas: (1) Conducting assessment at the state level in 12th grade; (2) Reporting on 12th grade student preparedness for college-credit coursework, training for employment and entrance…

  4. Multiple cranial neuropathies following etanercept administration.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jacob B; Rivas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There have been recent reports of sarcoid-like granulomatosis development following the administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. To date, only four cases of neurosarcoidosis have been reported in association with TNF inhibitors, two of which were attributed to etanercept. We present the first case of etanercept-induced neurosarcoidosis involving multiple cranial neuropathies, including the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves, while also highlighting the differential diagnoses of multiple cranial neuropathies and the association of TNF inhibitors and neurosarcoidosis. PMID:27178520

  5. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  6. PREFACE: 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    This special issue presents a collection of refereed plenary and review papers presented at the 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics held in Nice, France, 25 29 October, 2004 (ICPP2004). The primary aims of ICPPs are: To advance all fields of plasma physics worldwide. To promote strong linkage with other areas of science in order to highlight the interdisciplinary character of the field. To strongly encourage participation by all members of the plasma physics community, in particular by young plasma physicists, women plasma physicists and plasma physicists from developing countries. The 12th ICPP was organized on behalf of the International Advisory Committee (IAC). About 330 papers (invited and contributed) were presented. These papers covered the four topics: Plasma applications Space and astrophysical plasmas Fundamental plasma physics Fusion plasmas Most of the contributions are available online at the following address: http://hal.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ICPP2004/en/. The Congress was underwritten by the Association Euratom CEA. The organizers wish to thank the main sponsors: the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, the Region Provence Alpes Côtes d'Azur, the city of Nice and the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For this special issue, the Programme Committee selected 41 speakers from about 100 proposals received from the IAC, to present invited talks. Some of them provided a written paper. Refereeing of these papers was conducted by the guest editors, following the normal refereeing standards of the journal.

  7. 12th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    The Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) had its 12th annual meeting in Villa Clythia, Fréjus, France, from 16th to 18th January 2013. This series of meetings is a collaboration between the Physical Acoustics Group (PAG) of the Institute of Physics and the Groupe d'Acoustique Physique, Sous-marine et UltraSonore (GAPSUS) of the Société Française d'Acoustique. This year, attendees got the opportunity to see the French Riviera with its Mediterranean vegetation covered by a nice thick snow layer. The participants heard 34 excellent oral presentations and saw 3 posters covering an exciting and diverse range of subjects and of frequencies, from ultrasonic wave propagation in chocolate to metamaterials applied to seismic waves for protecting buildings. Among them, invited talks were given by Pr F A Duck ( Enhanced healing by ultrasound: clinical effects and mechanisms), Pr. J-C Valiére, who actually gave two invited talks ( 1. Measurement of audible acoustic particle velocity using laser: Principles, signal processing and applications, 2. Acoustic pots in ancient and medieval buildings: Literary analysis of ancient texts and comparison with recent observations in French churches), Dr P Huthwaite ( Ultrasonic imaging through the resolution of inverse problems), Dr X Lurton ( Underwater acoustic systems on oceanographic research vessels: principles and applications), Dr S Guenneau ( From platonics to seismic metamaterials). For the fifth consecutive year AFPAC is followed by the publication of its proceedings with 12 peer-reviewed papers which cover the most recent research developments in the field of Physical Acoustics in the UK and France. Alain Lhémery (CEA, France) and Nader Saffari (UCL, United Kingdom) French Riviera 12th AFPAC — Villa Clythia, Fréjus (French Riviera), the 17th of January 2013

  8. The Mars 6 Landing, 12th March 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    The Soviet Union sent five landers to Mars: 2MV3 in 1962; Mars 2 and 3 in 1971 and Mars 6 and 7 in 1973. Influenced by astrobiologist Gavril Tikhov, early Soviet designers believed that it would be possible to reach the surface of Mars using large parachutes. When the atmosphere was found to be much thinner than anticipated, the landers were redesigned to incorporate rockets. The Mars 2 and 3 missions were impeded by a poor level of navigational knowledge, making it difficult to achieve precise entry trajectories for the subsequent touchdowns. Despite that, Mars 3 achieved the first soft landing on Mars in 1971 and a brief surface transmission. Two years later, the Soviet Union achieved the first temperature and pressure profile of the atmosphere of Mars down to the surface when Mars 6 landed in the Mare Erythraeum on 12th March 1974. Because of internal debates within the Soviet space programme and the nature of news management at the time, the achievement of Mars 6 has been obscured.

  9. Familial Idiopathic Cranial Neuropathy in a Chinese Family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China. PMID:27161475

  10. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  11. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  12. The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Cushion, Melanie T; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2013-01-01

    The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms.

  13. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  14. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  15. 78 FR 24069 - Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port Canaveral Harbor; Port Canaveral, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port... Canaveral, Florida during the 12th Annual Saltwater Classic. The event is scheduled to take place...

  16. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment.

  17. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. PMID:27329470

  18. Highlights of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Anastasia; Dorbala, Sharmila; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2015-09-01

    The 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT was held from 3 to 5 May 2015 in Madrid, Spain. In this article, the three Congress Program Committee Chairs summarize selected highlights of the presented abstracts.

  19. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  20. Environmental Education in High School 9th-12th Biology Course Curricula Started to Be Implemented in 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula started to be implemented in 2007 with regard to concepts and attainments addressing to environmental education. In this regard, 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula were analyzed using content-analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods. 9th-12th grade…

  1. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  2. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    This illustrated work covers the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases by MRI. It focuses on strategies for detecting a wide range of intracranial disorders and includes protocols for cranial MRI. For each disease discussed, characteristic MR findings are described, and contrasted with CT and angiography where appropriate. Offers useful appendices on functional neuroanatomy and a glossary of terminology and abbreviations.

  3. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  4. Why 12th Grade Must Be Redesigned Now--and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This first report in a new series by Jobs For the Future (JFF) provides the rationale for restructuring 12th grade and tying it more tightly to the first year of college through new high school and college partnerships. The paper proposes a new common benchmark of readiness that high schools and colleges can work together to meet to ensure…

  5. Crime and the Law: A 12th Grade Social Studies Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Education, Madison.

    The document outlines a semester-long 12th grade study of criminal law which is accomplished through an examination of Wisconsin and constitutional law. Six sections comprise the teaching outline. Section I, The Legislative Process, considers the legislature, various statutes and terminologies, revision of legislation, and penalties. Section II,…

  6. Engaging the Learner. Annual Instructional Technology Conference (12th, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 1-3, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carter F.; Schneider, Gary F.; Kontos, George; Kuzat, Hanan; Janossy, James; Thurmond, Karen; Moore, Beth; Whitledge, Lynn; Speer, Priscilla; Harber, Annette; Bailey, Kathrine; Penney, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    The following is a collection of papers presented at the 12th annual Instructional Technology Conference at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This conference is an opportunity for higher-education professionals from across the country to discuss opportunities and challenges presented by instructional technology. The…

  7. Diagnostic nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Brown, Martin E; Eulitt, Patrick; Walker, Francis O; Lawson, Victoria H; Caress, James B

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound is emerging as a useful tool for evaluation of neuromuscular conditions, because it can provide high-resolution anatomic information to complement electrodiagnostic data. There have been few studies in which ultrasound was used to assess the peripheral nerves of individuals with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and none involving CMT type 1B. In this study we compared nerve cross-sectional area in individuals from a single large family with CMT 1B with normal, healthy controls. We also assessed for cranial nerve enlargement in those with CMT 1B with cranial neuropathies compared to those with CMT 1B without cranial neuropathies. Individuals with CMT 1B have significantly larger median and vagus nerves than healthy controls, but no difference was seen in cranial nerve size between those with versus those without cranial neuropathies. This is the first study to characterize the ultrasonographic findings in the peripheral nerves of individuals with CMT 1B.

  8. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals.

  9. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  10. Pediatric cranial computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of CT in the investigation of intercranial pathology has revolutionized the approach to clinical neurological and neurosurgical practice. This book applies the advances of cranial CT to the pediatric patient. The test is divided into two sections. The first portion describes the practical methodology, anatomy and normal and abnormal CT scan appearance, including high or low density lesions, cystic lesions and ventricular or subarachnoid space dilation. The characteristic scans for various neurological diseases are presented and discussed. The author has given special attention to the CT diagnosis of congenital malformations and cerebral neoplasms. Partial Contents: Normal Computed Tomographic Anatomy/ High Density Lesions/Low Density Lesions/Cystic Lesions; Supratentorial/Cystic Lesions; Infratentorial/Increased Head Circumference/Increased Ventricular Size/Small Ventricular Size/Cranial Lesions/Spinal Lesions/CT Cisternography/Part II CT in Neonates/Congenital Craniocerebral Malformations/Hydrocephalus/Craniosynostosis/Head Trauma/Cerebrovascular Lesions/Intracranial Lesions/Seizure Disorders/Intracranial and Other Chronic Neurological Disorders.

  11. Multiple hypertrophic relapsing remitting cranial neuropathies as an initial presentation of primary CNS lymphoma without any brain or spinal cord lesion

    PubMed Central

    Watane, Gaurav V; Pandya, Saumil P; Atre, Isha D; Kothari, Foram N

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve thickening as an initial isolated presentation of CNS lymphoma is rare. Once an extremely rare neoplasm, primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) now ranks only next to meningiomas and low-grade astrocytomas in prevalence. Multiple cranial nerve thickening can be a feature of primary CNS lymphoma. Here we report a case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with relapsing remitting multiple cranial nerve thickening as an initial feature of primary CNS lymphoma without any other brain or spinal cord lesions. PMID:27081238

  12. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  13. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Ali; Yilmaz, Cahide; Yilmaz, Nebi; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2006-06-01

    We describe a 5-year-old girl showed recovery of vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment. A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed preB cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). She received chemotherapy according to the previously described modified St. Jude total therapy studies XIII. Five days after the fourth dose of vincristine, she presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis, and complete external opthalmoplegia with normal pupillary and corneal reflexes. She received 3.8 mg cumulative dose of vincristin before development of ptosis. A neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment attempt with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine was initiated. The bilateral ptosis markedly improved after 7 days of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment and completely resolved after two weeks. The both agents were given for 3 weeks and were well tolerated without any side effects. During the follow up period we did not observe residue or recurrence of the ptosis.

  14. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  15. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, a

  16. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  17. Tumors of the cranial base: Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhar, L.N.; Schramm, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of this book highlights the differences and similarities in the pathology and biology of the various types of neoplasms of the cranial base. The second section covers improvements in radiological diagnosis with the advent of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and a better knowledge of radiological anatomy. It also examines the significance and proper evaluation of minor symptoms to enable earlier diagnosis, as well as the advances in interventional radiology that have produced the balloon occlusion text and tumor embolization. Section three is on advanced neuroanesthetic techniques and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. Section four describes specialized treatment modalities including microsurgical resection with the laser, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Section five reviews the latest techniques for reconstruction of the cranial base following resection, as well as the preservation and reconstruction of cranial nerves and cerebral blood vessels exposed during the surgery. The final three sections examine the lesions and surgical techniques specific to the different anatomical regions, i.e, the anterior, middle and posterior cranial base.

  18. Paediatric Extracranial Spinal Accessory Nerve Schwannoma: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Arunabha; Garg, Sunil; Bhargava, Rahul

    2016-07-01

    Schwannoma in head and neck region are quiet common and generally arise from last four cranial nerves. Spinal accessory nerve involvement is very rare. We are hereby presenting an extremely rare case of paediatric XI nerve schwannoma hitherto unreported in English medical literature till date. PMID:27630872

  19. Paediatric Extracranial Spinal Accessory Nerve Schwannoma: An Extremely Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil; Bhargava, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma in head and neck region are quiet common and generally arise from last four cranial nerves. Spinal accessory nerve involvement is very rare. We are hereby presenting an extremely rare case of paediatric XI nerve schwannoma hitherto unreported in English medical literature till date. PMID:27630872

  20. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  2. Microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-10-01

    The trochlear nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest intracranial course, but also the thinnest. It is the only nerve that arises from the dorsal surface of the brainstem and decussates in the superior medullary velum. After leaving the dorsal surface of the brainstem, it courses anterolaterally around the lateral surface of the brainstem and then passes anteriorly just beneath the free edge of the tentorium. It passes forward to enter the cavernous sinus, traverses the superior orbital fissure and terminates in the superior oblique muscle in the orbit. Because of its small diameter and its long course, the trochlear nerve can easily be injured during surgical procedures. Therefore, precise knowledge of its surgical anatomy and its neurovascular relationships is essential for approaching and removing complex lesions of the orbit and the middle and posterior fossae safely. This review describes the microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve and is illustrated with pictures involving the nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures.

  3. Analysis and Visualization of Nerve Vessel Contacts for Neurovascular Decompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süßmuth, Jochen; Piazza, Alexander; Enders, Frank; Naraghi, Ramin; Greiner, Günther; Hastreiter, Peter

    Neurovascular compression syndromes are caused by a pathological contact between cranial nerves and vascular structures at the surface of the brainstem. Aiming at improved pre-operative analysis of the target structures, we propose calculating distance fields to provide quantitative information of the important nerve-vessel contacts. Furthermore, we suggest reconstructing polygonal models for the nerves and vessels. Color-coding with the respective distance information is used for enhanced visualization. Overall, our new strategy contributes to a significantly improved clinical understanding.

  4. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, and non-profit organizations. In this regard, this conference has wide-ranging support and participation among private and public entities involved in the science and management of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.

  5. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  6. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  7. PREFACE: 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsson, M. L.; Chadwick, A. V.; Jackson, R. A.; McCabe, E. E.

    2015-04-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe

  8. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  9. PREFACE: 12th International Conference on Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, N.; Landl, N.; Bogdan, A.; Yudin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference ''Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications'' (GDP 2015) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 6-11, 2015. GDP 2015 represents a continuation of the conferences on physics of gas discharge held in Russia since 1984 and seminars and conferences on the technological applications of low temperature plasmas traditionally organized in Tomsk. The six-day Conference brought together the specialists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussions on the topics that are of interest to the Conference participants. The selected papers of the Conference cover a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of the physical processes in the generators of low-temperature plasma, the low and high-pressure discharges, the pulsed plasma sources, the surface modification, and other gas-discharge technologies. The Conference was hosted by Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Scientific Center, and Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building.

  10. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  11. Ancient legacy of cranial surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

    2012-01-01

    Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

  12. Transitional Nerve: A New and Original Classification of a Peripheral Nerve Supported by the Nature of the Accessory Nerve (CN XI)

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, Brion; McNeil, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Classically, the accessory nerve is described as having a cranial and a spinal root. Textbooks are inconsistent with regard to the modality of the spinal root of the accessory nerve. Some authors report the spinal root as general somatic efferent (GSE), while others list a special visceral efferent (SVE) modality. We investigated the comparative, anatomical, embryological, and molecular literature to determine which modality of the accessory nerve was accurate and why a discrepancy exists. We traced the origin of the incongruity to the writings of early comparative anatomists who believed the accessory nerve was either branchial or somatic depending on the origin of its target musculature. Both theories were supported entirely by empirical observations of anatomical and embryological dissections. We find ample evidence including very recent molecular experiments to show the cranial and spinal root are separate entities. Furthermore, we determined the modality of the spinal root is neither GSE or SVE, but a unique peripheral nerve with a distinct modality. We propose a new classification of the accessory nerve as a transitional nerve, which demonstrates characteristics of both spinal and cranial nerves. PMID:21318044

  13. Embryonic anastomosis between hypoglossal nerves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Verdugo-López, S; Sanz-Casado, J V; Jiménez-Collado, J

    2009-12-01

    This article presents two cases of anastomosis of hypoglossal nerves in the suprahyoid region in human embryos of CR length 10.75 and 17.5 mm. This variation was studied in two human specimens at this stage of development and compared with the normal arrangement of the hypoglossal nerves in embryos at the same stage. The anastomotic branches were of similar caliber to the main trunks. In both cases the anastomosis was located dorsal to the origin of the geniohyoid muscles and caudal to the genioglossus muscles, lying transversally over the cranial face of the body of the hyoid bone anlage. The anastomosis formed a suprahyoid nerve chiasm on the midline in the embryo of 10.75 mm CR length.

  14. Cystic olfactory schwannoma of the anterior cranial base.

    PubMed

    Daglioglu, E; Okay, Onder; Dalgic, Ali; Albayrak, Ahmet Levent; Ergungor, Fikret

    2008-10-01

    Olfactory groove schwannomas are extremely uncommon and less than 30 cases are reported in the literature. We report a 21-year-old developmentally-retarded boy who experienced severe headache and aggressive behaviour for 5 months. Imaging showed a cystic mass in the subfrontal region, which was removed by craniotomy. The lesion had a vascular supply from the anterior ethmoidal arteries and it was noted to be attached to the right olfactory nerve. It was removed completely and histology showed it to be a schwannoma. Olfactory groove schwannomas are rare lesions and should be differentiated from meningiomas, neuroblastomas and dural-based metastatic lesions of the anterior cranial base.

  15. The Consistency of the Opinions of 12th-Grade Biology Pupils on the Desirability of Biotechnologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Roth, Zvi

    1986-01-01

    This study examined 12th-grade biology students' opinions and beliefs on the desirability of the use and/or development of various biotechnologies. Describes the development of and presents results from the three questionnaires employed in the study. Includes a listing of the 15 biotechnology topics investigated in the study. (ML)

  16. Examining the Alignment of Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and 12th-Grade Exit Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Yuan, Haiquan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of the 2002 Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and the alignment between the curriculum guidelines and two most recent provincial-level 12th-grade exit examinations in China. Both curriculum guidelines and test content were represented using two-dimensional matrices (i.e., topic by level of…

  17. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (12th, Atlanta, Georgia, December 12-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Camille, Ed.

    This proceedings includes 62 papers presented at the 12th annual International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) conference. Topics of papers include: electronic undergraduate courses; software for teaching change management; cooperative projects; experiential learning; World Wide Web applications; internationalization of the information…

  18. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  19. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  20. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis Risks Allergic reaction to the local anesthetic Discomfort ... Neurosarcoidosis Peripheral neuropathy Primary amyloidosis Radial nerve dysfunction Sarcoidosis Tibial nerve dysfunction Update Date 6/1/2015 ...

  1. Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Coma (Video) Cerebral Angiography: Catheter Insertion (News) Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ... recover. Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ...

  2. Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kiyoharu; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Sadatomo, Takashi; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: As an extremely rare subtype of sarcoidosis that develops exclusively in the nervous system, isolated neurosarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose. In addition, its exact clinical features are not known. Case Description: A 61-year-old man presented with right ear hearing loss, diplopia, and fever. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed mass lesions in the right cerebellum and left side body of the lateral ventricle. Neither systemic CT nor positron emission tomography revealed extracranial lesions. A neuroendoscopic biopsy was performed on the lateral ventricle lesion, and a histopathology analysis revealed epithelioid granulomatous inflammation. By systematic exclusion of other possible granulomatous diseases, isolated neurosarcoidosis was diagnosed. The lesions disappeared immediately upon corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) treatment and had not recurred as of a 12-month follow-up examination. Conclusions: Isolated neurosarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose. Successful diagnosis requires compatible clinical findings, histological demonstration of noncaseating granulomas, and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Isolated neurosarcoidosis has a relatively good clinical prognosis, which could be characteristic of the disease. PMID:27168947

  3. Results following treatment of third cranial nerve palsy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher-Feero, L A; Yoo, K W; Solari, F M; Biglan, A W

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the etiology, sensory, motor, and cosmetic results of treatment for oculomotor (CNIII) palsy in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the clinical records of children with a diagnosis of CNIII palsy who were followed up in our practice between 1981 and 1996. RESULTS: During the 15-year period, 49 children with 53 affected eyes were followed for a mean of 5.5 years. CNIII palsy was congenital in one third of cases and secondary to postnatal trauma in another third. Thirty-three of the eyes were affected before visual maturation (age 8 years) and 27 eyes developed amblyopia. None of the 6 eyes with amblyopia in which visual acuity could be quantitated had measurable improvement of Snellen acuity after treatment. Overall, visual acuity was between 6/5 and 6/12 at the last follow-up visit in 56% of affected eyes. Ocular alignment was greatly improved after recess-resect procedures on the horizontal rectus muscles, but binocular function was difficult to preserve or restore. Blepharoptosis improved after levator palpebrae muscle resection or eyelid suspension procedures. CONCLUSIONS: CNIII palsy may undergo partial resolution in children, but surgical treatment is frequently necessary. Although surgery can result in cosmetically acceptable alignment of the eyes, it rarely results in restoration or achievement of binocular function. Multiple procedures are often necessary to maintain good ocular alignment. Several surgical procedures may be needed to correct related blepharoptosis and maintain an acceptable eyelid position. Treatment of amblyopia is only effective in maintaining the level of visual acuity present at the onset of the CNIII palsy, and improvement in acuity is difficult to achieve. PMID:10360301

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Proximity to Commercial Physical Activity Facilities Among 12th Grade Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Lobelo, Felipe; Porter, Dwayne E.; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between proximity to commercial physical activity facilities and cardiorespiratory fitness of 12th grade girls. Methods Adolescent girls (N=786, 60% African American, mean age=17.6 ± 0.6 years) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170). Commercial physical activity facilities were mapped and counted within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer around girls’ homes using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Sedentary activities and vigorous physical activity (VPA, greater or equal to 6 METs) were determined by the average number of 30-minute blocks reported per day on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Mixed model regressions were calculated using school as a random variable. Results Girls had higher weight-relative PWC170 scores if there was a commercial physical activity facility (n=186, 12.4±4.2 kg·m/min/kg) within 0.75-mile street-network buffer of home as compared to girls without a nearby facility (n=600, 11.2±3.6 kg·m/min/kg). After adjusting for demographic variables, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and VPA, having one or more commercial physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of homes was significantly related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions Both with and without adjustment for covariates, the presence of a commercial physical activity facility within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of a girl’s home was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22525114

  5. PREFACE: 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ondřej; Punčochář, Ivo; Duník, Jindřich

    2015-11-01

    The 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015) took place at the Research Centre NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic, on November 19 - 20, 2015. The annual European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis has been organized since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and Denmark to bring together senior and junior academics and engineers from diverse fields of automatic control, fault detection, and signal processing. The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers and developers to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, or even open problems. It also offers a great opportunity for industrial partners to express their needs and priorities and to review the current activities in the fields. A total of 74 papers have been submitted for ACD 2015. Based on the peer reviews 48 papers were accepted for the oral presentation and 10 papers for the poster presentation. The accepted papers covered areas of control theory and applications, identification, estimation, signal processing, and fault detection. In addition, four excellent plenary lectures were delivered by Prof. Fredrik Gustafsson (Automotive Sensor Mining for Tire Pressure Monitoring), Prof. Vladimír Havlena (Advanced Process Control for Energy Efficiency), Prof. Silvio Simani (Advanced Issues on Wind Turbine Modelling and Control), and Prof. Robert Babuška (Learning Control in Robotics). The ACD 2015 was for the first time in the workshop history co-sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC). On behalf of the ACD 2015 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who prepared and submitted papers, participated in the peer review process, supported, and attended the workshop.

  6. [Successful treatment with acyclovir and a corticosteroid for lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete: a case report].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Nakahara Ph D, Toshiki; Nakajima, Sho; Nakazato, Tomoko; Mikasa, Michitaka; Furukawa Ph D, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although there was no evidence of a typical cutaneous or mucosal herpetic lesion, PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis due to VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. After starting intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone, her hypoglossal nerve palsy disappeared within a day and all other symptoms and signs dramatically improved. A rapid improvement observed in our patient suggests that the right cranial polyneuropathy could be caused by inflammation associated with epineurial edema (where the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves pass through the right jugular foramen), whereas the exact mechanism of the twelfth cranial nerve involvement on the contralateral side is unknown. Our clinical findings indicate that acute lower cranial polyneuropathy in patients with zoster sine herpete should be treated immediately with combined administration of acyclovir and an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid. PMID:26511031

  7. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and

  8. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    Continuing the 24 year old tradition, one of the Greek relativistic groups, this time the Relativity Group of the Physics Department of the University of Athens, organized the 12th Conference of the series "Recent Developments in Gravity" (NEB XII). This time NEB took place at Nafplio, Greece, from Thursday 29 June to Sunday 2 July, 2006. The Conference was attended by more than 100 participants, more than 50% of whom were relativists from abroad (both Greek and other nationalities). This signifies a tendency of the last few Conferences to open up the Greek Relativity Conference to the international scientific community. Actually, many notable members of the relativistic community all over the globe showed particular interest in coming to Nafplio, and spend four relaxed days in a nice sunny and historical place, presenting the results of their more recent work and discussing it with colleagues and students from Greece. The NEB XII Conference covered various aspects of gravitational physics: Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, Quantum Gravity, and Cosmology. Although the program was rather heavy and for the first time we had parallel sessions running in the afternoons, the wonderful weather (apart from the last afternoon when it rained heavily) and the beauty of Nafplio helped the organizers offer the participants a warm, pleasant, and creative time. According to most attendees, their impression was more than good, not only with respect to the hospitable environment, but with respect to the high level of talks as well. We hope the next Conference, which will be organized by the Relativity Group of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the summer of 2008, will raise the standards of the Conference even higher, thus further establishing our Conference as a notable Conference in the Relativistic community all over the world. Finally, we would like to thank the Gravitational Physics Section of the European Physical Society (GPS/EPS), ILIAS

  9. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  10. Cranial computed tomography and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book appears to be a hybrid between an atlas and a text. The second edition attempts to depict the current status of both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in neuroradiology. Although only the final chapter of the book is completely devoted to cranial MR imaging, MR images are scattered throughout various other chapters. There is coverage of the major anatomic and pathophysiologic entities. There are 17 chapters with images, tables, and diagrams.

  11. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    PubMed

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  12. Inherited thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur after 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Gorana; Kovac, Mirjana; Povazan, Ljubica; Magic, Zvonko; Djordjevic, Valentina; Salatic, Iva; Mitic, Igor; Novakov-Mikic, Aleksandra

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent fetal loss (RFL) is a significant clinical problem, occurring in 1% to 5% of reproductive females. Inherited or acquired thrombophilia has been diagnosed in 50% to 65% of women with history of unexplained fetal loss. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of thrombophilia in women with unexplained RFL in Serbian population and to find out whether the presence of thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur later than 12th gestational week. We have examined 147 women with unexplained RFL or intrauterine fetal death and 128 healthy women with at least 1 uncomplicated pregnancy. The antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V (FV) G1691A, factor II (FII) G20210A, and MTHFR C677T were determined. At least 1 inherited thrombophilic defect was found in 54 (36.7%) of 147 women with repeated fetal losses and in 11 (8.59%) of 128 controls (P < .001, OR 6.17, 95% CI 3.06-12.48). The most common thrombophilic abnormalities were homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT, FV Leiden, and FII G20210A. Deficiency of natural anticoagulants occurred in 10 patients, with protein S deficiency being the most frequent one. Thrombophilia was found in 46 of 94 women with RFL that occurred later than the 12th gestational week and in only 8 of 53 with RPL earlier than 12th week (P = .001). Our study has shown the association between the hereditary thrombophilia and RFL that occurred after the 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

  13. Superbugs and Superdrugs-SMi's 12th annual conference--Overcoming resistance. 17-18 March 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adekemi

    2010-05-01

    The 12th Annual Superbugs and Superdrugs conference, held in London, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antimicrobial research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on antimicrobial peptides, addressing bacterial resistance, and new treatments for bacterial infections. Investigational drugs discussed include DPK-060 (DermaGen AB), DAV-132 (Da Volterra), PF-4287881, PNU-100480 and PF-02538084 (all Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) and lanbiotics from Novacta.

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes of French and Israeli 12th Graders in Agricultural or Rural Secondary Schools about Water and Irrigation Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Jacobi, Daniel; Mazouz, Yossef; Lacroix, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge and attitudes of 154 Israeli 12th graders, expected to be very aware of water-related agricultural issues, and of 447 French 12th graders were compared, focusing on possibilities of change of existing situations. Israeli students put much greater emphasis on the role of scientific knowledge and the authorities in water control issues.…

  15. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed. PMID:25790340

  16. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed.

  17. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  18. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  19. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  20. Effects of lead acetate on guinea pig - cochear microphonics, action potential, and motor nerve conduction velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.

    1987-04-01

    Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.

  1. Rehabilitation of the trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Bumm, Klaus; Waldfahrer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to restoring impaired neural function by means of surgical reconstruction, sensory nerves have always been in the role of the neglected child when compared with motor nerves. Especially in the head and neck area, with its either sensory, motor or mixed cranial nerves, an impaired sensory function can cause severe medical conditions. When performing surgery in the head and neck area, sustaining neural function must not only be highest priority for motor but also for sensory nerves. In cases with obvious neural damage to sensory nerves, an immediate neural repair, if necessary with neural interposition grafts, is desirable. Also in cases with traumatic trigeminal damage, an immediate neural repair ought to be considered, especially since reconstructive measures at a later time mostly require for interposition grafts. In terms of the trigeminal neuralgia, commonly thought to arise from neurovascular brainstem compression, a pharmaceutical treatment is considered as the state of the art in terms of conservative therapy. A neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal root can be an alternative in some cases when surgical treatment is sought after. Besides the above mentioned therapeutic options, alternative treatments are available. PMID:22073060

  2. Endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery simulation using an artificial cranial base model created by selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kenichi; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; de Souza, Daniel G; Gun, Ramazan; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires anatomical knowledge and surgical skills; the learning curve for this technique is steep. To a great degree, these skills can be gained by cadaveric dissections; however, ethical, religious, and legal considerations may interfere with this paradigm in different regions of the world. We assessed an artificial cranial base model for the surgical simulation of EEA and compared its usefulness with that of cadaveric specimens. The model is made of both polyamide nylon and glass beads using a selective laser sintering (SLS) technique to reflect CT-DICOM data of the patient's head. It features several artificial cranial base structures such as the dura mater, venous sinuses, cavernous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, and cranial nerves. Under endoscopic view, the model was dissected through the nostrils using a high-speed drill and other endonasal surgical instruments. Anatomical structures around and inside the sphenoid sinus were accurately reconstructed in the model, and several important surgical landmarks, including the medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses and vidian canals, were observed. The bone was removed with a high-speed drill until it was eggshell thin and the dura mater was preserved, a technique very similar to that applied in patients during endonasal cranial base approaches. The model allowed simulation of almost all sagittal and coronal plane EEA modules. SLS modeling is a useful tool for acquiring the anatomical knowledge and surgical expertise for performing EEA while avoiding the ethical, religious, and infection-related problems inherent with use of cadaveric specimens.

  3. A comprehensive review with potential significance during skull base and neck operations, Part II: glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves and cervical spinal nerves 1-4.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Chern, Joshua J; Rizk, Elias B; Loukas, Marios; Miller, Joseph H; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate on the skull base and upper neck regions in order to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized into two parts. Part I discusses the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches and other nerve trunks or branches in the vicinity. Part II deals with the anastomoses between the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or between these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part II is presented in this article. Extensive and variable neural anastomoses exist between the lower cranial nerves and between the upper cervical nerves in such a way that these nerves with their extra-axial communications can be collectively considered a plexus.

  4. Cranial kinesis in the amphibia: a review.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiĭ, N N

    2000-01-01

    All extant orders of amphibians are characterized by kinetic skulls. Main type of intracranial movability in amphibians is pleurokinetism, that is supplemented in different amphibian groups by various types of rhyncho- and prokinetism. The most primitive pattern of cranial kinesis is revealed in the stegocrotaphic gymnophions. More paedomorphic species retain general cranial flexibility that is characteristic of larval skull. That is unfavourable for evolution of well-regulated (adult) cranial kinesis and related feeding adaptations. Kinetism is also reduced in the species with heavily ossified skulls. Adaptive role and evolution of cranial kinesis in amphibians are discussed.

  5. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  6. Unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies associated with posterior fossa exploration surgery.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. PMID:26951144

  7. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  8. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival in 2015.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.

  9. Cranial base evolution within the hominin clade

    PubMed Central

    Nevell, L; Wood, B

    2008-01-01

    The base of the cranium (i.e. the basioccipital, the sphenoid and the temporal bones) is of particular interest because it undergoes significant morphological change within the hominin clade, and because basicranial morphology features in several hominin species diagnoses. We use a parsimony analysis of published cranial and dental data to predict the cranial base morphology expected in the hypothetical last common ancestor of the Pan–Homo clade. We also predict the primitive condition of the cranial base for the hominin clade, and document the evolution of the cranial base within the major subclades within the hominin clade. This analysis suggests that cranial base morphology has continued to evolve in the hominin clade, both before and after the emergence of the genus Homo. PMID:18380865

  10. Nerve conduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fascicles) that contain hundreds of individual nerve fibers (neurons). Neurons consist of dendrites, axon, and cell body. The ... tree-like structures that receive signals from other neurons and from special sensory cells that sense the ...

  11. Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2007-07-27

    Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207

  12. [Paralysis of the oculomotor nerve caused by aneurysm--general facts and a case report].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Ciurea, A V

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent etiology of oculomotor nerve palsy are intracerebral aneurysms. Due to anatomical facts (its course and main relations with vascular structures of the brain) lesions of the oculomotor nerve often occur. In this paper there are presented essential issues concerning neuroanatomy of the III-rd cranial nerve pair main locations of the cerebral aneurysms in order to investigate the effect of nerve compression, clinical data regarding the palsy of the oculomotor nerve due to a cerebral aneurysm, the treatment and post surgery recovery followed by a clinical report. PMID:21888076

  13. THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Shams, Mesbah; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman; Dalfardi, Behnam; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is supposed to be a post-renaissance described medical entity. Although it is often believed that John Fothergill (1712-1780) provided the first description of this condition in 1773, a review of the medieval Persian medical writings will show the fact that neuropathic pain was a medieval-originated concept. "Auojae Asab" [Nerve-originated Pain] was used as a medical term in medieval Persian medical literature for pain syndromes which etiologically originated from nerves. Physicians like Rhazes (d. 925 CE), Haly Abbas (d. 982 CE), Avicenna (d. 1037 CE), and Jorjani (d. 1137 CE) have discussed multiple aspects of nerve-originated pain including its classification, etiology, differentiating characteristics, different qualities, and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Recognizing medieval scholars' views on nerve-originated pain can lighten old historical origins of this concept.

  14. 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

    1997-01-01

    The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

  15. Isolated unilateral idiopathic transient hypoglossal nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Viqar; Akram, Muhammad Saqub

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of difficulty in moving his tongue to the left with preceding left-sided headache with no neck pain. Earlier, he had self-limiting chest infection without rashes or tonsillar enlargement. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable with no recent trauma. Oral examination revealed difficulty in protruding his tongue to the left with muscle bulk loss and fasciculation on the same side, suggesting left hypoglossal nerve palsy. Examination of the rest of the cranial nerves and nervous system was normal. The patient's oropharyngeal and laryngeal examination was unremarkable with no cervical lymphadenopathy. He had normal laboratory investigations and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Extensive imaging of the head, neck and chest failed to reveal any pathology. Further review by an otorhinologist and rheumatologist ruled out any other underlying pathology. He made a good recovery without treatment. English literature search revealed very few cases of idiopathic, transient, unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:24969070

  16. Bilateral Abducent Nerve Palsy After Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Shafiee, Sajad; Sazegar, Mohammad; Nosrati, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The abducent nucleus is located in the upper part of the rhomboid fossa beneath the fourth ventricle in the caudal portion of the pons. The abducent nerve courses from its nucleus, to innervate the lateral rectus muscle. This nerve has the longest subarachnoid course of all the cranial nerves, it is the cranial nerve most vulnerable to trauma. It has been reported that 1% to 2.7% of all head injuries are followed by unilateral abducent palsy, but bilateral abducent nerve palsy is extremely rare. Case Presentation A 65-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle accident. A neurological assessment showed the patient’s Glascow coma scale (GCS) to be 15. She complained of double vision, and we found lateral gaze palsy in both eyes. A hangman fracture type IIA (C2 fracture with posterior ligamentous C1 - C2 distraction) was found on the cervical CT scan. A three-month follow-up of the patient showed complete recovery of the abducent nerve. Conclusions Conservative treatment is usually recommended for traumatic bilateral abducent nerve palsy. Our patient recovered from this condition after three months without any remaining neurological deficit, a very rare outcome in a rare case. PMID:27218062

  17. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  18. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prominent regions of an infant's cranium in order to improve cranial symmetry and/or shape in infants from 3... infants with plagiocephalic-, brachycephalic-, and scaphocephalic-shaped heads. (b) Classification....

  19. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  20. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  1. Abrupt onset of disturbed vigilance, bilateral third nerve palsy and masturbating behaviour: a rare presentation of stroke.

    PubMed

    Mondon, Karl; Bonnaud, Isabelle; Debiais, Séverine; Brunault, Paul; Saudeau, Denis; de Toffol, Bertrand; Autret, Alain

    2007-08-01

    The clinical presentation of stroke usually includes sensory-motor impairment, cranial nerve palsies, or cognitive dysfunction. Disorders in behaviour are less frequently seen. The case of a patient with a very disturbing presentation, which included a disturbance in vigilance, bilateral third nerve palsy and masturbating behaviour, is presented. The topography of the lesions and its implications on the deficits observed are discussed.

  2. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, A; Yiğit, S; Firat, M; Oran, O

    2000-05-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia.

  3. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M.; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations. PMID:26015748

  4. Harvey Cushing's experience with cranial deformity.

    PubMed

    Maher, Cormac O; Buchman, Steven R; O'Hara, Edward; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-12-01

    Surgery for cranial deformity was associated with significant surgical morbidity during the early part of the 20th century. For this reason, Harvey Cushing was initially not in favor of surgical treatment of craniosynostosis. Later in his career, Cushing began to operate on these children, although it never became a major focus of his practice. Several examples of his patients with cranial deformity are presented, and his limited role in the development of this field is discussed. PMID:21121720

  5. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils. PMID:18402165

  6. Cranial kinesis in gekkonid lizards

    PubMed

    Herrel; De Vree F; Delheusy; Gans

    1999-12-01

    Cranial kinesis was studied in two species of gekkonid lizard, Gekko gecko and Phelsuma madagascariensis, using cineradiography and electromyography. The skull of these geckoes showed the three types of kinesis described by Versluys at the beginning of this century: streptostyly, mesokinesis and metakinesis. In accordance with the later model of Frazzetta, the skull of these animals can be modelled by a quadratic crank system: when the mouth opens during feeding, the quadrate rotates forward, the palato-maxillary unit is lifted and the occipital unit swings forward. During jaw closing, the inverse movements are observed; during crushing, the system is retracted beyond its resting position. The data gathered here indicate that the coupled kinesis (streptostyly + mesokinesis) is most prominently present during the capture and crushing cycles of feeding and is largely absent during late intraoral transport, swallowing, drinking and breathing. The electromyographic data indicate a consistent pattern of muscular activation, with the jaw opener and pterygoid protractor always active during the fast opening phase, and the jaw closers active during closing and crushing. Our data generally support the model of Frazzetta. Although the data gathered here do not allow speculation on the functional significance of the kinesis, they clearly provide some key elements required for a further investigation of the functional and adaptive basis of the system.

  7. Delayed exacerbation of third nerve palsy due to aneurysmal regrowth after endovascular coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M Tariq; Peters, Keith R; Firment, Christopher; Mericle, Robert A

    2004-03-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a painful left third cranial nerve palsy due to a basilar artery aneurysm situated between the superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries was treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). Despite a good initial angiographic result with a small residual neck and improvement in the ocular motility and pain, the patient experienced worsening of the third cranial nerve palsy 15 months later. Cerebral angiography confirmed coil compaction with aneurysmal regrowth. A second endovascular coil embolization resulted in complete obliteration of the aneurysm. The patient experienced complete resolution of the pain and partial resolution of the third cranial nerve palsy. In some patients, a small residual aneurysm neck after endovascular embolization therapy with GDCs can result in delayed aneurysmal regrowth due to coil compaction. Clinical manifestations may herald this dangerous regrowth.

  8. Giant-cell arteritis without cranial manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Lambert, Marc; Liozon, Eric; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Ollivier, Yann; Ly, Kim; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is challenging in the absence of cardinal cranial symptoms/signs. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and disease course of GCA patients without cranial symptoms, and to compare them to those of patients with typical cranial presentation. In this retrospective multicenter study, we enrolled patients with GCA who satisfied at least 3 of the 5 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with contributory vascular biopsy other than temporal artery biopsy or with demonstration of large-vessel involvement; underwent iconographic evaluation of large arterial vessels (aortic CT scan or a positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan or cardiac echography combined with a large-vessel Doppler) at diagnosis. We divided the cohort into 2 groups, distinguishing between patients without cranial symptoms/signs (i.e., headaches, clinical temporal artery anomaly, jaw claudication, ophthalmologic symptoms) and those with cranial symptoms/signs. In the entire cohort of 143 patients, all of whom underwent vascular biopsy and vascular imaging, we detected 31 (22%) patients with no cranial symptoms/signs. In the latter, diagnosis was biopsy proven in an arterial sample in 23 cases (74% of patients, on a temporal site in 20 cases and on an extratemporal site in 3). One-third of these 31 patients displayed extracranial symptoms/signs whereas the remaining two-thirds presented only with constitutional symptoms and/or inflammatory laboratory test results. Compared to the 112 patients with cardinal cranial clinical symptoms/signs, patients without cranial manifestations displayed lower levels of inflammatory laboratory parameters (C-reactive level: 68 [9–250] mg/L vs 120 [3–120] mg/L; P < 0.01), highest rate of aorta and aortic branch involvement identified (19/31 (61%) vs 42/112 (38%); P = 0.02) and also

  9. A rare presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with Horner's syndrome, VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Azer; Ribeiro, Nuno Pedro Lobato; Ali, Asem; Hijazi, Mohsen; Farook, Hina

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm. He was started on anticoagulation and made a good recovery on discharge. This case presents a unique combination of cranial nerve palsies due to internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and to our knowledge is the first reported case in the literature. Early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy is critical to prevention of ischemic stroke.

  10. A rare presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with Horner's syndrome, VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Azer; Ribeiro, Nuno Pedro Lobato; Ali, Asem; Hijazi, Mohsen; Farook, Hina

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm. He was started on anticoagulation and made a good recovery on discharge. This case presents a unique combination of cranial nerve palsies due to internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and to our knowledge is the first reported case in the literature. Early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy is critical to prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:27699055

  11. Ganglioneuromas involving the hypoglossal nerve and the vagus nerve in a child: Surgical difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Jaimanti; Mohammed, Abdul Wadood; Lele, Saudamini; Nada, Ritambra

    2016-02-01

    Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors that arise from the Schwann cells of the autonomic nervous system. They are usually seen in the posterior mediastinum and the paraspinal retroperitoneum in relation to the sympathetic chain. In the head and neck, they are usually related to the cervical sympathetic ganglia or to the ganglion nodosum of the vagus nerve or the hypoglossal nerve. We describe what we believe is the first reported case of multiple ganglioneuromas of the parapharyngeal space in which two separate cranial nerves were involved. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who presented with a 2-year history of a painless and slowly progressive swelling on the left side of her neck and a 1-year history hoarseness. She had no history of relevant trauma or surgery. Intraoperatively, we found two tumors in the left parapharyngeal space-one that had arisen from the hypoglossal nerve and the other from the vagus nerve. Both ganglioneuromas were surgically removed, but the affected nerves had to be sacrificed. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited hypoglossal nerve and vocal fold palsy, but she was asymptomatic. In addition to the case description, we discuss the difficulties we faced during surgical excision. PMID:26930339

  12. Ganglioneuromas involving the hypoglossal nerve and the vagus nerve in a child: Surgical difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Jaimanti; Mohammed, Abdul Wadood; Lele, Saudamini; Nada, Ritambra

    2016-02-01

    Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors that arise from the Schwann cells of the autonomic nervous system. They are usually seen in the posterior mediastinum and the paraspinal retroperitoneum in relation to the sympathetic chain. In the head and neck, they are usually related to the cervical sympathetic ganglia or to the ganglion nodosum of the vagus nerve or the hypoglossal nerve. We describe what we believe is the first reported case of multiple ganglioneuromas of the parapharyngeal space in which two separate cranial nerves were involved. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who presented with a 2-year history of a painless and slowly progressive swelling on the left side of her neck and a 1-year history hoarseness. She had no history of relevant trauma or surgery. Intraoperatively, we found two tumors in the left parapharyngeal space-one that had arisen from the hypoglossal nerve and the other from the vagus nerve. Both ganglioneuromas were surgically removed, but the affected nerves had to be sacrificed. Postoperatively, the patient exhibited hypoglossal nerve and vocal fold palsy, but she was asymptomatic. In addition to the case description, we discuss the difficulties we faced during surgical excision.

  13. Proper migration and axon outgrowth of zebrafish cranial motoneuron subpopulations require the cell adhesion molecule MDGA2A

    PubMed Central

    Ingold, Esther; vom Berg-Maurer, Colette M.; Burckhardt, Christoph J.; Lehnherr, André; Rieder, Philip; Keller, Philip J.; Stelzer, Ernst H.; Greber, Urs F.; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.; Gesemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of functional neuronal circuits relies on accurate migration and proper axonal outgrowth of neuronal precursors. On the route to their targets migrating cells and growing axons depend on both, directional information from neurotropic cues and adhesive interactions mediated via extracellular matrix molecules or neighbouring cells. The inactivation of guidance cues or the interference with cell adhesion can cause severe defects in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In this study we have analyzed the function of the MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2A (MDGA2A) protein in zebrafish cranial motoneuron development. MDGA2A is prominently expressed in distinct clusters of cranial motoneurons, especially in the ones of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Analyses of MDGA2A knockdown embryos by light sheet and confocal microscopy revealed impaired migration and aberrant axonal outgrowth of these neurons; suggesting that adhesive interactions mediated by MDGA2A are required for the proper arrangement and outgrowth of cranial motoneuron subtypes. PMID:25572423

  14. Multiple cranial neuropathies following zoledronic acid infusion: a relationship? Clinical features and pathogenic discussion concerning a case.

    PubMed

    Deshayes, S; Martin Silva, N; Cogez, J; Baldolli, A; Fedrizzi, S; Bienvenu, B; Aouba, A

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of bisphosphonates, especially in osteoporosis, has led to a greater number of reports of side effects. We describe for the first time a case of a 75-year-old female patient with a history of indolent sicca syndrome who developed multiple cranial neuropathies after zoledronic acid infusion. In this case, the elimination of the main causes of multiple cranial neuropathies, the chronology with zoledronic acid infusion, the absence of secondary complications of the Sjögren's syndrome, reported cases of similar peripheral nerve injuries with interferon infusions, the spontaneous remission of this multiple cranial neuropathy in parallel with the induced flu-like syndrome, argue for its iatrogenic origin, probably by a great release of inflammatory mediators in this particular background of primary Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:26980457

  15. Concurrent cranial mediastinal Blastomyces granuloma and carcinoma with cranial vena caval syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Natashia A.; Viviano, Katrina R.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes an unusual progression of blastomycosis in a dog with concurrent mediastinal carcinoma. The dog was evaluated for respiratory distress. Diagnostic results revealed chylothorax and a cranial vena caval thrombus. Histopathology of the cranial mediastinal mass diagnosed mediastinal carcinoma and fungal granuloma. Intercurrent disease may complicate the clinical presentation and clinical course of blastomycosis. PMID:26538674

  16. The use of a multi-method approach to identify the pigments in the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneckere, A.; De Reu, M.; Martens, M. P. J.; De Coene, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Vandenabeele, P.; Moens, L.

    2011-10-01

    A selection of illuminations of the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus was analysed with Raman spectroscopy (in situ and laboratory measurements), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-fluorescence photography and infrared reflectography (IRR). The aim of this study is to determine the pigments used, in order to search for anachronisms. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy (molecular information) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (elemental information) following pigments could be identified: ultramarine (Na 8-10Al 6Si 6O 24S 2-4), azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), caput mortuum (Fe 2O 3), vermilion (HgS), orpiment (As 2S 3) and lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2). Moreover, two synthetic red pigments, PR4 and PR176, and a degradation product, gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), were present in the manuscript. To establish the origin of the modern materials UV-fluorescence photography was used. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was applied to visualise the underdrawing of the investigated folios.

  17. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  18. Pediatric neuroradiology: Cerebral and cranial diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Diebler, C.; Dulac, O.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, a neuroradiologist and a neuropediatrician have combined forces to provide the widest possible knowledge in investigating cranial and cerebral disorders in infancy and childhood. Based on more than 20,000 pediatric CT examinations, with a follow-up time often exceeding ten years, the book aims to bridge interdisciplinary gaps and help radiologists, pediatricians and neurosurgeons solve the various problems of pediatric neuroradiology that frequently confront them. For each disease, the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathological lesions and radiological presentations are discussed, supported by extensive illustrations. Malformative, vascular, traumatic, tumoral, infectious and metabolic diseases are reviewed. Miscellaneous conditions presenting particular symptoms or syndromes are also studied, such as hydrocephalus and neurological complications of leukemia. Contents: Cerebral and cranial malformations; neurocutaneous syndromes; inherited metabolic diseases; infectious diseases - vascular disorders; intracranial tumors; cranial trauma - miscellaneous and subject index.

  19. Odontoid upward migration in rheumatoid arthritis. An analysis of 45 patients with "cranial settling".

    PubMed

    Menezes, A H; VanGilder, J C; Clark, C R; el-Khoury, G

    1985-10-01

    Lack of correlation between the severity of rheumatoid subluxation of the upper cervical vertebrae and supposed absence of neurological damage has led to the erroneous supposition that this finding is innocuous. Incomplete autopsy studies in rheumatoid arthritis have failed to recognize the cause of death, despite previously proven dramatic occipito-atlanto-axial dislocations. The most feared entity of rheumatoid basilar invagination, namely "cranial settling," is poorly understood. Between 1978 and 1984, the authors treated 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients who were symptomatic with "cranial settling." This consisted of vertical odontoid penetration through the foramen magnum (9 to 33 mm), occipito-atlanto-axial dislocation, lateral atlantal mass erosion, downward telescoping of the anterior arch of C-1 on the axis, and rostral rotation of the posterior arch of C-1 producing ventral and dorsal cervicomedullary junction compromise. Cervicomedullary junction dysfunction has mistakenly been called "entrapment neuropathy," "progression of disease," or "vasculitis." Occipital pain occurred in all 45 patients, myelopathy in 36, blackout spells in 24, brain-stem signs in 17, and lower cranial nerve palsies in 10. Four patients had prior tracheostomies. Four previously asymptomatic patients with "cranial settling" presented acutely quadriplegic. The factors governing treatment were reducibility and direction of encroachment determined by skeletal traction and myelotomography. Transoral odontoidectomy was performed in seven patients with irreducible pathology. All patients underwent occipitocervical bone fusion (with C-1 decompression if needed) and acrylic fixation. Improvement occurred during traction, implying that compression might be the etiology for the neurological signs. There were no complications. Thus, "cranial settling" is a frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis; although it is poorly recognized, it has serious implications and is treatable. PMID:4032013

  20. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes. Parathyroid tissue and parathyroid adenoma can also be found in close association with the vagus nerve in intra or paravagal situations. Vagal parathyroid adenoma can be identified with preoperative imaging or suspected intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Vagal parathyroid adenomas located in the neck or superior mediastinum can be removed via initial cervicotomy, while those located in the aortopulmonary window require a thoracic approach. This review particularly emphasizes the embryology, molecular genetics, and modern imaging of these tumors. PMID:27406876

  1. [Functional anatomy of the trigeminal nerve].

    PubMed

    Leston, J M

    2009-04-01

    The cranial nerve (CN) V is a mixed nerve that consists primarily of sensory neurons. It exits the brain on the lateral surface of the pons, entering the trigeminal ganglion within a few millimeters. Three major branches emerge from the trigeminal ganglion. The first division (V1, the ophthalmic nerve) exits the cranium through the superior orbital fissure, entering the orbit to innervate the globe and skin in the area above the eye and forehead. The second division (V2, the maxillary nerve) exits through a round hole, the foramen rotundum, into a space posterior to the orbit, the pterygopalatine fossa. It then re-enters a canal running inferior to the orbit, the infraorbital canal, and exits through a small hole, the infraorbital foramen, to innervate the skin below the eye and above the mouth. The third division (V3, the mandibular nerve) exits the cranium through an oval hole, the foramen ovale. The third division also has an additional motor component, which may run in a separate fascial compartment. Most fibers travel directly to their target tissues. Sensory axons innervate skin on the lateral side of the head, the tongue, and the mucosal wall of the oral cavity. Motor fibers innervate the muscles that are attached to the mandible. Some sensory axons enter in the mandible to innervate the teeth and emerge from the mental foramen to innervate the skin of the lower jaw.

  2. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  3. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution.

    PubMed

    Fahlke, Julia M; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  4. Dural neurogenic inflammation induced by neuropathic pain is specific to cranial region.

    PubMed

    Filipović, B; Matak, I; Lacković, Z

    2014-05-01

    Up to now, dural neurogenic inflammation (DNI) has been studied primarily as a part of migraine pain pathophysiology. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated the occurrence of DNI in response to peripheral trigeminal nerve injury. In this report, we characterize the occurrence of DNI after different peripheral nerve injuries in and outside of the trigeminal region. We have used the infraorbital nerve constriction injury model (IoNC) as a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Greater occipital nerve constriction injury (GoNC), partial transection of the sciatic nerve (ScNT) and sciatic nerve constriction injury (SCI) were employed to characterize the occurrence of DNI in response to nerve injury outside of the trigeminal region. DNI was measured as colorimetric absorbance of Evans blue plasma protein complexes. In addition, cellular inflammatory response in dural tissue was histologically examined in IoNC and SCI models. In comparison to the strong DNI evoked by IoNC, a smaller but significant DNI has been observed following the GoNC. However, DNI has not been observed either in cranial or in lumbar dura following ScNT and SCI. Histological evidence has demonstrated a dural proinflammatory cell infiltration in the IoNC model, which is in contrast to the SCI model. Inflammatory cell types (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and monocytes) have indicated the presence of sterile cellular inflammatory response in the IoNC model. To our knowledge, this is the first observation that the DNI evoked by peripheral neuropathic pain is specific to the trigeminal area and the adjacent occipital area. DNI after peripheral nerve injury consists of both plasma protein extravasation and proinflammatory cell infiltration.

  5. Influence of Skip Patterns on Item Non-Response in a Substance Use Survey of 7th to 12th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Olds, R. Scott; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective case study assessed the influence of item non-response error on subsequent response to questionnaire items assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Post-hoc analyses were conducted on survey results obtained from 4,371 7th to 12th grade students in Ohio in 2005. A skip pattern design in a conventional questionnaire…

  6. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  7. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smoking, Drinking and Illicit Drug Use among American 8th, 10th and 12th Grade Students, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2003-01-01

    Paper examines ethnic differences in licit and illicit drug use among American 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular focus on girls. Across ethnic groups, drug use is highest among Native American girls and lowest among black and Asian American girls. Trend data suggest that girls' and boys' drug use patterns are converging.…

  8. Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Use by 9th-12th Grade Students: Results from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…

  9. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  10. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  11. Foreword: The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) (Erice, 20 26 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca

    2008-06-01

    The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19

  12. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  13. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  14. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  15. [The 12th amendment to the German Drug Law. Chances and obstacles for investigator-initiated clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Dreier, G; Marx, C; Schmoor, C; Maier-Lenz, H

    2005-04-01

    The European Union's so called Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC was implemented in national law in Germany in August 2004, leading to the 12th amendment of the German Drug Law (Arzneimittelgesetz). The directive is intended to harmonize the clinical trial's regulatory environment across the European Union and to improve protection of human subjects. It lays down the principles and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice (GCP). As the regulation applies to all clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, and as only non-interventional studies are excluded, academic, investigator-initiated clinical trials will also have to comply with the EU clinical trials directive implemented in the German Drug Law. In an investigator-initiated trial in which the investigator takes the responsibility of a sponsor, the investigator-sponsor must take total legal and financial responsibility for the clinical trial. Since publicly funded clinical trials make a large contribution to improved care, concern has been expressed that non-commercial research projects will be reduced and the vital medical research conducted at academic institutions curtailed. Nonetheless GCP ensures a valid study design, qualified data management, analysis and monitoring of the trial and thereby promotes more valid data and protection of study participants. The trials are more likely to lead to reliable results leading to new therapies, strategies or a better understanding of diseases. What is needed, therefore, is an increase in public funding and the establishment of clinical trial units/organizations associated with the universities or hospitals where independent researchers have the possibility to obtain theoretical advice and practical help, professional training and support. In the end, the directive may serve as a stimulus to build a better national research environment and to promote public funding, and may lead to fewer but more valid clinical trials. PMID:15830256

  16. Acute multiple cranial neuropathy: An oculopharyngeal variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dosi, Rupal; Ambaliya, Annirudh; Patel, Niyati; Shah, Monisha; Patell, Rushad

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old male who presented to us with acute bilateral multiple cranial neuropathy in the form of bilateral total ophthalmoplegia and bulbar dysfunction. The patient had normal haematological and biochemical investigations, however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed raised protein (96mg/dl) in the second week of illness. Peripheral nerve conduction studies and an MRI of the brain were normal. The patient showed gradual improvement after three weeks of supportive treatment. Considering the course of illness and the clinical and investigational profile, a diagnosis of an oculopharyngeal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was made.

  17. [Malignant lymphoma in a perineural spreading along trigeminal nerve, which developed as trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Mano, Tomoo; Matsuo, Koji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Toshinao

    2014-01-01

    A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia is malignant lymphoma which spread along the trigeminal nerve. We report a 79-year-old male presented with 4-month history of neuralgic pain in right cheek. He was diagnosed as classical trigeminal neuralgia. It had improved through medication of carbamazepine. Four months later, the dull pain unlike neuralgia complicated on the right cheeks, it was ineffective with the medication. Furthermore, diplopia and facial palsy as the other cranial nerve symptoms appeared. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed contrast-enhanced mass lesion extend both external pterygoid muscle and brainstem through the swelling trigeminal nerve. The patient was pathological diagnosed of diffuse large B cell lymphoma by biopsy. Malignant lymphoma should be considered in the different diagnosis of cases with a minimal single cranial nerve symptom.

  18. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  5. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  6. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  7. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  8. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. 4.124 Section 4.124 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by...

  9. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. 4.123 Section 4.123 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss...

  10. Post-operative cranial pressure monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fager, C. A., Jr.; Long, L. E.; Trent, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System for monitoring of fluidic pressures in cranial cavity uses a miniaturized pressure sensing transducer, combined with suitable amplification means, a meter with scale calibrated in terms of pressures between minus 100 and plus 900 millimeters of water, and a miniaturized chart recorder covering similar range of pressures.

  11. Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

    1966-01-01

    Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

  12. Cranial kinesis in geckoes: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Herrel, A; Aerts, P; De Vree, F

    2000-05-01

    Although it is generally assumed that cranial kinesis is a plesiomorphic characteristic in squamates, experimental data tend to contradict this hypothesis. In particular, coupled kinesis (i.e. streptostyly and mesokinesis) presumably arose independently in only a limited number of highly specialised groups. In this study, we investigated cranial kinesis in one of the most specialised of these groups: geckoes. On the basis of cineradiographic and electromyographic data, the fast opening and the slow closing/power stroke phases were modelled to elucidate possible functions of the observed kinesis. The results of these analyses show that the retraction of the muzzle unit during crushing is a self-reinforcing system that increases bite force and reduces the joint forces; the active protraction of the kinetic system during jaw opening, in contrast, enhances opening speed through the coupling of the intracranial units. It can be argued that cranial kinesis in geckoes is probably not an adaptive trait as such but, instead, a consequence of the 'Bauplan' of the cranial system in these animals. Presumably as a result of constructional constraints on the size of the jaw musculature and eyes, the supratemporal and postorbital bars were lost, which resulted in enormous mobility in the skull. To counteract the potential negative factors associated with this (decrease in bite force, skull damage), the kinetic system may have become coupled, and thus functional.

  13. Cranial computed tomography and MRI. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 17 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Physics and Instrumentation: CT and MRI; Normal Cranial CT and MRI Anatomy; The Orbit; The ventricles and Subarachnoid Spaces in Children; Primary Tumors in Children; Trauma: Craniocerebral and Craniofacial; Infectious Disease; and Stroke.

  14. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  15. Stereotactic radiotherapy for malignancies involving the trigeminal and facial nerves.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, K C; Zagar, T M; Brizel, D M; Yoo, D S; Hoang, J K; Chang, Z; Wang, Z; Yin, F F; Das, S K; Green, S; Ready, N; Bhatti, M T; Kaylie, D M; Becker, A; Sampson, J H; Kirkpatrick, J P

    2012-06-01

    Involvement of a cranial nerve caries a poor prognosis for many malignancies. Recurrent or residual disease in the trigeminal or facial nerve after primary therapy poses a challenge due to the location of the nerve in the skull base, the proximity to the brain, brainstem, cavernous sinus, and optic apparatus and the resulting complex geometry. Surgical resection caries a high risk of morbidity and is often not an option for these patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy are potential treatment options for patients with cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve. These techniques can deliver high doses of radiation to complex volumes while sparing adjacent critical structures. In the current study, seven cases of cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve are presented. These patients had unresectable recurrent or residual disease after definitive local therapy. Each patient was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy using a linear accelerator based system. A multidisciplinary approach including neuroradiology and surgical oncology was used to delineate target volumes. Treatment was well tolerated with no acute grade 3 or higher toxicity. One patient who was reirradiated experienced cerebral radionecrosis with mild symptoms. Four of the seven patients treated had no evidence of disease after a median follow up of 12 months (range 2-24 months). A dosimetric analysis was performed to compare intensity modulated fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (IM-FSRT) to a 3D conformal technique. The dose to 90% (D90) of the brainstem was lower with the IM-FSRT plan by a mean of 13.5 Gy. The D95 to the ipsilateral optic nerve was also reduced with IM-FSRT by 12.2 Gy and the D95 for the optic chiasm was lower with FSRT by 16.3 Gy. Treatment of malignancies involving a cranial nerve requires a multidisciplinary approach. Use of an IM-FSRT technique with a micro-multileaf collimator resulted in a lower dose to the brainstem, optic nerves and chiasm

  16. Anthropoid cranial base architecture and scaling relationships.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, R C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines how various measures of basicranial length and cranial base angulation affect the relationship between basicranial flexion and relative brain size in anthropoids, including Homo sapiens. Most recent studies support the "spatial packing" hypothesis, that basicranial flexion in haplorhines maximizes braincase volume relative to basicranial length. However, a few studies find the basicranium is less flexed in H. sapiens than expected for other anthropoids, suggesting that other factors contribute to variation in hominin basicranial flexion. The measure of relative brain size used to test the spatial packing hypothesis, the Index of Relative Encephalization (IRE), is calculated with basicranial length (BL) in its denominator, so that shorter BL and larger brain size potentially inflate H. sapiens IREs. To investigate this problem, the lengths of midline cranial floor sections were scaled relative to the cube root of endocranial volume in 157 specimens from 18 anthropoid species. Results indicate that the posterior cranial base and planum sphenoideum are significantly shorter in H. sapiens than in other anthropoids, accounting for higher IREs. Including the cribriform plate in BL, advisable in studies using anthropoids, affects whether H. sapiens differs from other anthropoids for basicranial flexion vs. IRE. However, despite a shorter BL and elevated IRE, H. sapiens does not deviate significantly from the anthropoid relationship between basicranial flexion and relative brain size for two cranial base angles. Because different measures of cranial base angulation change how H. sapiens falls along the anthropoid regression line, it remains equivocal whether the basicranium is less flexed in H. sapiens than in other anthropoids when compared to relative brain size.

  17. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R.; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia). PMID:27548428

  18. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia). PMID:27548428

  19. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  20. Paedogenesis in european newts (Triturus: salamandridae): cranial morphology during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Djorović, A; Kalezić, M L

    2000-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis using different ontogenetic stages (larvae, juveniles, paedotypic, and metamorphic adults) of the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, and the alpine newt, T.alpestris, revealed a broad spectrum of perennibranchiation influences on cranial ontogeny in European newts, more pronounced than previously thought. These influences included marked variation in ossification levels, pronounced morphometric variability of many cranial elements, and considerable skull shape changes in the transition from larvae to the adult stage. In comparison with metamorphosed individuals, paedotypic newts had a higher level of variability in both individual cranial traits and cranial shape changes. Sexual size difference of the skull traits was mostly negligible, especially in comparison to the influence of paedogenesis. The main changes in cranial shape of the European newts occurred during metamorphosis. Cranial morphological organization in the majority of examined paedotypes corresponds to cranial organization at late larval stages prior to metamorphosis or at the onset of metamorphosis.

  1. Organization within the cranial IX-X complex in ranid frogs: a horseradish peroxidase transport study.

    PubMed

    Stuesse, S L; Cruce, W L; Powell, K S

    1984-01-20

    Cranial nerves IX and X in frogs have been described as originating from a nuclear group referred to as the IX-X complex. We studied the central nervous system components of this complex in Rana pipiens and R. catesbiana by labeling peripheral branches of cranial nerves IX and X and identifying the central nervous system contributions of these branches. Various peripheral nerves (IX and the cardiac, gastric, pulmonary, and laryngeal branches of X) were identified and soaked in horseradish peroxidase (HRP). One to 2 weeks later, the frogs were killed and processed for HRP by the tetramethylbenzidine method. Glossopharyngeal efferents originated from a small ventrolateral cell group found at the level of IX root exit. Vagal efferents formed a single column of cells in a ventrolateral position from the level of the brainstem exist of the vagus nerve (approximately 2,000 micrometers above the obex) to 200 micrometers below the obex (values given are for an 80-g frog). This cell group was separate from and just caudal to efferent cells of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Within the vagal portion of the column, cells projecting through the gastric branch were found throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the nucleus. "Cardiac" cells tended to be more rostral than "pulmonary" cells, and both groups of cells were located in the middle of the nucleus. "Laryngeal" cells were located more caudally in the nucleus. This peripheral representation within the vagal nucleus corresponds more closely to the organization found in the mammalian nucleus ambiguus, rather than to the apparent lack of organization found in the mammalian dorsal motor nucleus. Afferents of IX and X entered slightly rostral to the ventral roots of their respective nerves and descended in two tracts. The majority entered the tractus solitarius and descended in a medial position to cervical spinal cord. A portion of the afferents from the vagus nerve crossed the midline in the lower myelencephalon just dorsal to the

  2. Secondary optic nerve tumors.

    PubMed

    Christmas, N J; Mead, M D; Richardson, E P; Albert, D M

    1991-01-01

    Secondary tumors of the optic nerve are more common than primary optic nerve tumors. The involvement of the optic nerve may arise from direct invasion from intraocular malignancies, from hematopoietic malignancy, from meningeal carcinomatosis, or from distant primary tumors. Orbital tumors rarely invade the optic nerve, and brain tumors involve it only in their late stages.

  3. The Association of Employment and Physical Activity among Black and White 10th and 12th Grade Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams. Methods We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n=12073) and 12th grade students (n=5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study. Results Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise. Conclusions Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research. PMID:20231752

  4. Frizzled3 controls axonal development in distinct populations of cranial and spinal motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhong L; Smallwood, Philip M; Nathans, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the Frizzled3 (Fz3) gene leads to defects in axonal growth in the VIIth and XIIth cranial motor nerves, the phrenic nerve, and the dorsal motor nerve in fore- and hindlimbs. In Fz3−/− limbs, dorsal axons stall at a precise location in the nerve plexus, and, in contrast to the phenotypes of several other axon path-finding mutants, Fz3−/− dorsal axons do not reroute to other trajectories. Affected motor neurons undergo cell death 2 days prior to the normal wave of developmental cell death that coincides with innervation of muscle targets, providing in vivo evidence for the idea that developing neurons with long-range axons are programmed to die unless their axons arrive at intermediate targets on schedule. These experiments implicate planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in motor axon growth and they highlight the question of how PCP proteins, which form cell–cell complexes in epithelia, function in the dynamic context of axonal growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01482.001 PMID:24347548

  5. Cranial fasciitis of childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Y; Sakaki, S; Sakoh, M; Nakano, K; Fukui, K; Kurihara, K

    1992-07-01

    Cranial fasciitis of childhood is very rare, only 17 cases having been reported in the literature. We report an additional case of this rare disease. The patient was a 5-year-old boy who complained of left exophthalmos and double vision. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large epidural mass in the left frontal region that had invaded into the underlying anterior skull base. The tumor showed homogeneous, low density with nonhomogeneous contrast enhancement on the CT scans, and low intensity on the T1-weighted and high intensity on the T2-weighted MRI images. A whitish-pink, elastic, hard tumor was revealed in the epidural space in the left anterior cranial fossa, which was totally excised with curettage of the affected anterior skull base. The origin of the tumor was suspected to be the fibrous connective tissue of the sphenofrontal suture. The histological diagnosis was that of cranial fasciitis. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  6. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  7. Unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy: unusual sign of hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Cultrera, F; D'Andrea, M; Battaglia, R; Chieregato, A

    2009-06-01

    We report an unusual case of hydrocephalus in which unilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis was the predominant sign. Misinterpretation of such an atypical clinical sign may lead to inappropriate therapy. We outline the role of intracranial pressure monitoring as an adjunctive diagnostic tool and we suggest a presumptive mechanism to explain the correlation between enlarged ventricles and 3(rd) nerve dysfunction. A 16-year-old boy presented with a complete left oculomotor nerve palsy associated with imaging findings of dilated ventricles and Dandy-Walker variant cystic malformation. Monitoring of intracranial pressure through a ventricular catheter was undertaken. In the first phase (no cerebrospinal fluid drainage [CSF] drainage) mean intracranial pressure (ICP) values were >0 mmHg. A second phase (with progressively longer CSF draining) further defined the diagnosis. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was then placed and the nerve function returned to normal within few days. Third cranial nerve dysfunction as a predominant sign of hydrocephalus is very rare and may raise doubts as to the real significance of the imaging findings of enlarged ventricles. In this ground, ICP monitoring is a safe and helpful diagnostic tool that can afford a more accurate evaluation and proper treatment. The supposed mechanism of 3(rd) nerve dysfunction was bending/stretching of the nerve. PMID:19546847

  8. Familial risks for nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders in siblings based on hospitalisations in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Background Nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders are common diseases, but little is known about familial clustering in these diseases. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic family study carried out on these diseases. Methods Familial risks for siblings who were hospitalised for nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders in Sweden were defined. A nationwide database for neurological diseases was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register on 0–69‐year‐old siblings to the Hospital Discharge Register covering the years 1987–2001. Standardised risk ratios (SIRs) were calculated for affected sibling pairs by comparing them with those whose siblings had no neurological disease. Results 29 686 patients, 43% men and 57% women, were diagnosed at a mean age of 37.5 years. 191 siblings were hospitalised for these disorders, giving an overall SIR of 2.59 (95% CI 1.58 to 4.22), with no sex difference. Plantar nerve mononeuritis and carpal tunnel syndrome showed the highest familial risks: 4.82 (1.08 to 16.04) and 4.08 (2.07 to 7.84), respectively. Lateral poplitean and plantar nerve neuritis preferentially affected women, with SIRs of >8; disorders of the other cranial nerves affected only men, with an SIR of >10. Concordant trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy and carpal tunnel syndrome showed familial risks, but, with the exception of Bell's palsy, they also showed correlation between spouses, implying environmental sharing of risk factors. Conclusions The results cannot distinguish between inheritable or shared environmental factors, or their interactions, but they clearly show familial clustering, suggestive of multifactorial aetiology and inviting for aetiological research. PMID:17183020

  9. Primary glioblastoma of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone: case report.

    PubMed

    Breshears, Jonathan D; Ivan, Michael E; Cotter, Jennifer A; Bollen, Andrew W; Theodosopoulos, Phillip V; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas of the cranial nerve root entry zone are rare clinical entities. There have been 11 reported cases in the literature, including only 2 glioblastomas. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with isolated facial numbness and was found to have a glioblastoma involving the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. After biopsy the patient completed treatment with conformal radiation and concomitant temozolomide, and at 23 weeks after surgery he demonstrated symptom progression despite the treatment described. This is the first reported case of a glioblastoma of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. PMID:25380115

  10. A Case of Delusional Parasitosis Associated with Multiple Lesions at the Root of Trigeminal Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Alvi; Scholma, Randal S.; Joshi, Kaustubh G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a patient with multiple pontine lesions who exhibited symptoms consistent with delusional parasitosis. The trigeminal nerve nuclei are located throughout the brainstem. Pathology in either the nuclei or the branches of the fifth cranial nerve has been associated with both sensory and motor disturbances. Delusional parasitosis is a condition in which the patient has the firm belief that small, living organisms have infested his or her skin or other organs. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of delusional parasitosis associated with lesions at the root of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:20877531

  11. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, K; Storey, M; Peterson, K; Nutter, P

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Nerve injuries in athletes may be serious and may delay or prevent an athlete's return to his or her sport. Over a two-year period, the authors evaluated the condition of 65 patients who had entrapments of a nerve or nerve root, documented with electromyography. They describe four case histories: Two patients had radial nerve entrapments, one caused by baseball pitching and the other by kayaking; one football player had combined suprascapular neuropathy and upper trunk brachial plexopathy; and one patient had carpal tunnel syndrome of a median nerve secondary to rowing. Sports-related peripheral nerve lesions of the lower extremity were not seen during the study period. Based on a literature review, the nerve injuries discussed represent the spectrum of nerve entrapments likely to be seen in US clinics. The authors conclude that peripheral nerve lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sports injuries, particularly at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

  12. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  13. Post-Cranial Traumatic Injury Patterns in Two Medieval Polish Populations: The Effects of Lifestyle Differences.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Betsinger, Tracy K; Justus, Hedy M

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries can be used as general indicators of activity patterns in past populations. This study tests the hypothesis that contemporaneous (10th-12th century) rural and urban populations in medieval Poland will have a significantly different prevalence of non-violent fractures. Traumatic injuries to the post-cranial skeleton were recorded for 180 adults from rural Giecz and for 96 adults from urban Poznań-Śródka. They were statistically analyzed by body region and individual skeletal element. Results reveal that Giecz had a significantly higher rate of trunk fractures than Poznań-Śródka (Fisher's exact, p<0.05). In particular, rib and vertebral fractures were more common in Giecz males and females than in their Poznań-Śródka counterparts. Traumatic injuries in the extremities were comparable between the two samples, suggesting similar risks of trauma to these regions. These results indicate that in early medieval Poland, activities associated with a rural lifestyle resulted in more injuries. These stress or accidental fractures, which are related to a high-risk setting, were not consistent with an urban lifestyle. Overall, agricultural populations like Giecz were engaged in a laborious lifestyle, reflected in a variety of injuries related to repetitive, high-risk activities. Although urban populations like Poznań engaged in craft specialization participated in repetitive activities, their lifestyle resulted in lesser fracture-risk.

  14. Post-Cranial Traumatic Injury Patterns in Two Medieval Polish Populations: The Effects of Lifestyle Differences

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Amanda M.; Betsinger, Tracy K.; Justus, Hedy M.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries can be used as general indicators of activity patterns in past populations. This study tests the hypothesis that contemporaneous (10th–12th century) rural and urban populations in medieval Poland will have a significantly different prevalence of non-violent fractures. Traumatic injuries to the post-cranial skeleton were recorded for 180 adults from rural Giecz and for 96 adults from urban Poznań-Śródka. They were statistically analyzed by body region and individual skeletal element. Results reveal that Giecz had a significantly higher rate of trunk fractures than Poznań-Śródka (Fisher’s exact, p<0.05). In particular, rib and vertebral fractures were more common in Giecz males and females than in their Poznań-Śródka counterparts. Traumatic injuries in the extremities were comparable between the two samples, suggesting similar risks of trauma to these regions. These results indicate that in early medieval Poland, activities associated with a rural lifestyle resulted in more injuries. These stress or accidental fractures, which are related to a high-risk setting, were not consistent with an urban lifestyle. Overall, agricultural populations like Giecz were engaged in a laborious lifestyle, reflected in a variety of injuries related to repetitive, high-risk activities. Although urban populations like Poznań engaged in craft specialization participated in repetitive activities, their lifestyle resulted in lesser fracture-risk. PMID:26068106

  15. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  16. Application and histology-driven refinement of active contour models to functional region and nerve delineation: towards a digital brainstem atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nirmal; Sultana, Sharmin; Rashid, Tanweer; Krusienski, Dean; Audette, Michel A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the digital formatting of a printed atlas of the brainstem and the delineation of cranial nerves from this digital atlas. It also describes on-going work on the 3D resampling and refinement of the 2D functional regions and nerve contours. In MRI-based anatomical modeling for neurosurgery planning and simulation, the complexity of the functional anatomy entails a digital atlas approach, rather than less descriptive voxel or surface-based approaches. However, there is an insufficiency of descriptive digital atlases, in particular of the brainstem. Our approach proceeds from a series of numbered, contour-based sketches coinciding with slices of the brainstem featuring both closed and open contours. The closed contours coincide with functionally relevant regions, whereby our objective is to fill in each corresponding label, which is analogous to painting numbered regions in a paint-by-numbers kit. Any open contour typically coincides with a cranial nerve. This 2D phase is needed in order to produce densely labeled regions that can be stacked to produce 3D regions, as well as identifying the embedded paths and outer attachment points of cranial nerves. Cranial nerves are modeled using an explicit contour based technique called 1-Simplex. The relevance of cranial nerves modeling of this project is two-fold: i) this atlas will fill a void left by the brain segmentation communities, as no suitable digital atlas of the brainstem exists, and ii) this atlas is necessary to make explicit the attachment points of major nerves (except I and II) having a cranial origin. Keywords: digital atlas, contour models, surface models

  17. A Systematic Analysis of the Reliability of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography for Facial Nerve Imaging in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Ung, Nolan; Mathur, Monica; Chung, Lawrance K; Cremer, Nicole; Pelargos, Panayiotis; Frew, Andrew; Thill, Kimberly; Mathur, Ishani; Voth, Brittany; Lim, Michael; Yang, Isaac

    2016-08-01

    Surgeons need to visualize the facial nerve reliably in relation to the vestibular schwannoma (VS) in surgical planning. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography has enabled unprecedented in vivo preoperative visualization. We collected data to measure the accuracy of DTI for an accurate location of the nerve in preoperative VS resection planning. A PubMed search for relevant studies was conducted. Inclusion criteria were gross total resection of VS, preoperative DTI identification of the facial nerve, and intraoperative cranial nerve localization by the surgeon. Exclusion criteria were tumors other than VS and unsuccessful preoperative location of the cranial nerve. Accuracy rate was calculated by comparing the intraoperative and preoperative locations detailed by DTI. The query identified 38 cases of VS that fit our inclusion criteria. Overall, 89% had surgical findings that agreed with the DTI location of the facial nerve. Of these cases, 32 patients had a postoperative House-Brackmann grade I or II. Our findings suggest that DTI is a reliable method for facial nerve imaging. Implementation of this technique may help decrease facial nerve injury during surgery. Limitations and further studies are needed to better understand what factors correlate with successful location of the facial nerve and DTI in patients with VS. PMID:27441156

  18. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  19. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... toe-out movements Tests of nerve activity include: Electromyography (EMG, a test of electrical activity in muscles) Nerve ... Peroneal neuropathy. In: Preston DC, Shapiro BE, eds. Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  20. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... to measure the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

  1. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  2. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  3. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  4. Cranial mediastinal liposarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kondo, H; Wickins, S C; Conway, J A; Mallicote, M F; Sanchez, L C; Agnew, D W; Farina, L L; Abbott, J R

    2012-11-01

    A 23-year-old Anglo-Arabian mare was presented with tachypnea, dyspnea, and pitting edema of the ventral thoracic subcutis. On necropsy, a tan to red, friable, irregularly shaped mass (23 × 20 × 18 cm) occupied the cranial mediastinum. Histologically, the mass was classified as a liposarcoma and was composed of short interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped to irregularly rounded cells with discrete, variably sized, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles, which were stained with oil red O in frozen sections of formalin-fixed tissue.

  5. The role of cranial kinesis in birds.

    PubMed

    Bout, R G; Zweers, G A

    2001-12-01

    In birds, the ability to move the upper beak relative to the braincase has been the subject of many functional morphological investigations, but in many instances the adaptive significance of cranial kinesis remains unclear. Alternatively, cranial kinesis may be considered a consequence of the general design of the skull, rather than an adaptive trait as such. The present study reviews some results related to the mechanism and functional significance of cranial kinesis in birds. Quantitative three-dimensional X-ray has shown that in skulls morphologically as divers as paleognaths and neognaths the mechanism for elevation of the upper beak is very similar. One of the mechanisms proposed for avian jaw movement is a mechanical coupling of the upper and the lower jaw movement by the postorbital ligament. Such a mechanical coupling would necessitate upper beak elevation. However, independent control of upper and lower jaw has been shown to occur during beak movements in birds. Moreover, kinematic modeling and force measurements suggests that the maximum extensibility of collagen, in combination with the short distance of the insertion of the postorbital ligament to the quadrato-mandibular articulation do not constitute a block to lower jaw depression. The lower jaw ligaments serve to limit the maximal extension of the mandibula. It is suggested here that cranial kinesis in avian feeding may have evolved as a consequence of an increase in eye size. This increase in size led to a reduction of bony bars in the lateral aspect of the skull enabling the transfer of quadrate movement to the upper jaw. The selective forces favoring the development of a kinetic upper beak in birds may be subtle and act in different ecological contexts. Simultaneous movement of the upper and lower jaw not only increases the velocity of beak movements, but with elevated upper beak also less force is required to open the lower jaw. However, the penalty of increased mobility of elements in a

  6. Cranial mediastinal liposarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kondo, H; Wickins, S C; Conway, J A; Mallicote, M F; Sanchez, L C; Agnew, D W; Farina, L L; Abbott, J R

    2012-11-01

    A 23-year-old Anglo-Arabian mare was presented with tachypnea, dyspnea, and pitting edema of the ventral thoracic subcutis. On necropsy, a tan to red, friable, irregularly shaped mass (23 × 20 × 18 cm) occupied the cranial mediastinum. Histologically, the mass was classified as a liposarcoma and was composed of short interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped to irregularly rounded cells with discrete, variably sized, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles, which were stained with oil red O in frozen sections of formalin-fixed tissue. PMID:22287648

  7. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  8. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  9. Arteriovenous malformation of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Adam; Tsuji, Masao; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Hanabusa, Kenichiro; Ukita, Tohru; Miyake, Hiroji; Ohmura, Takehisa

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embedded in the vestibulocochlear nerve presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated by microsurgical elimination of the main feeding artery and partial nidus volume reduction with no permanent deficits. This 70-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed 4 years previously with two small unruptured tandem aneurysms (ANs) on the right anterior inferior cerebral artery feeding a small right cerebellopontine angle AVM. The patient was followed conservatively until she developed sudden headache, nausea and vomiting and presented to our outpatient clinic after several days. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated findings suggestive of early subacute SAH in the quadrigeminal cistern. A microsurgical flow reduction technique via clipping between the two ANs and partial electrocoagulation of the nidus buried within the eighth cranial nerve provided radiographical devascularization of the ANs with residual AVM shunt flow and no major deficits during the 2.5 year follow-up. This is only the second report of an auditory nerve AVM. In the event of recurrence, reoperation or application of alternative therapies may be considered. PMID:26244159

  10. Recurrent laryngeal nerve pathology in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Bocchino, J V; Tucker, H M

    1978-08-01

    Since it was first described in 1871, spasmodic (spastic) dysphonia has been considered a disease of psychogenic origin. Unsupported theories of possible organic etiology have appeared sporadically in the literature. In 1976 sectioning of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for patients with this disease was reported with resultant improvement in voice production. This was attempted because the spasmodic dysphonic has, in effect, already compensated vocal cords bilaterally. It was reasoned, therefore, that if one of these was paralyzed the patient would immediately be converted to a state approximating that of well-compensated unilateral vocal cord paralysis which situation, as is well known, usually carries with it a fairly good voice. A controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of this surgical approach has been undertaken at the Cleveland Clinic during the past year. In an attempt to elucidate the possible organic etiology of spasmodic dysphonia, a section of nerve was removed in every case and examined by both light and electron microscopy. Special stains for myelin were also used on the light microscopy specimens. Demyelinization has been found in most of the cases examined by electron microscopy. Possible correlation between this disease entity and other cranial nerve syndromes of unknown etiology is noted. Such conditions as trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, belpharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and even possibly Bell's palsy may exhibit a similar etiology.

  11. In vitro classical conditioning of abducens nerve discharge in turtles.

    PubMed

    Keifer, J; Armstrong, K E; Houk, J C

    1995-07-01

    In vitro classical conditioning of abducens nerve activity was performed using an isolated turtle brainstem-cerebellum preparation by direct stimulation of the cranial nerves. Using a delayed training procedure, the in vitro preparation was presented with paired stimuli consisting of a 1 sec train stimulus applied to the auditory nerve (CS), which immediately preceded a single shock US applied to the trigeminal nerve. Conditioned and unconditioned responses were recorded in the ipsilateral abducens nerve. Acquisition exhibited a positive slope of conditioned responding in 60% of the preparations. Application of unpaired stimuli consisting of CS-alone, alternate CS and US, or backward conditioning failed to result in conditioning, or resulted in extinction of CRs. Latencies of CR onset were timed such that they occurred midway through the CS. Activity-dependent uptake of the dye sulforhodamine was used to examine the spatial distribution of neurons labeled during conditioning. These data showed label in the cerebellum and red nucleus during conditioning whereas these regions failed to label during unconditioned responses. Furthermore, the principal abducens nucleus labeled heavily during conditioning. These findings suggest the feasibility of examining classical conditioning in a vertebrate in vitro brainstem-cerebellum preparation. It is postulated that the abducens nerve CR represents a behavioral correlate of a blink-related eye movement. Multiple sites of conditioning are hypothesized, including the cerebellorubral circuitry and brainstem pathways that activate the principal abducens nucleus.

  12. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed Central

    Rayfield, Emily J.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. PMID:15306316

  13. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry for analysis of cranial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.

    1986-04-01

    A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease.

  14. Improving cranial ultrasound scanning strategy in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound scans are undertaken in this tertiary neonatal intensive care unit by the doctors within the department. A quality improvement project was undertaken by means of two PDSA cycles to determine adherence to neonatal cranial ultrasound scanning schedule, assess the quality of scan reporting, and formulate a comprehensive guideline outlining best practice. The baseline measurements assessed 93 scans of preterm infants and 9 of term infants. The results of this prompted intradepartmental education (PDSA cycle 1) then creation and implementation of a documentation template, a local guideline, and education via presentations, posters, and email (PDSA cycle 2). These encompassed 77 preterm and 5 term scans. In our baseline measurements, 52% of preterm infant scans and 44% of term infant scans were performed to schedule. Of premature baby scan reports, 75% had the time documented and 92% the name of the scanning doctor. After implementing changes PDSA cycle 2 data showed that 74% of preterm infant scans and all term infant scans were performed according to schedule, with 100% having the doctor's name and time of scan documented. We successfully introduced a guideline and documentation template, improving performance to schedule and documentation in most areas. It remains an ongoing challenge to adhere to basic standards of documentation; a template can assist in achieving this. Rotating trainees may offer insight into areas that could benefit from quality improvement. This enthusiasm can be successfully harnessed to implement changes to improve quality of patient care. PMID:27096095

  15. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  16. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2004-07-22

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals.

  17. Quantitative analysis of the anatomy of the epineurium of the canine recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    BARKMEIER, JULIE M.; LUSCHEI, ERICH S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the amount of epineurium surrounding the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) compared with a limb nerve, that to flexor hallicus longus (NFHL). Nerve samples were obtained from 10 adult dogs and studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to measure the relative proportion of epineurium and the relative proportions of adipose and collagenous tissue comprising the epineurium in both nerves. Significantly greater relative epineurial cross-sectional areas and adipose content were found in the RLN than in the NFHL. Based on observations on noncranial peripheral nerves, the findings indicate that the RLN is better protected against deformational forces associated with compression than stretching forces. The RLN may not be structured well for successful reinnervation after injury. The patterns observed for adipose tissue in RLN epineurial tissue appeared unique compared with those previously reported in peripheral nerves. The primary role associated with adipose tissue is to ‘package’ the nerve for protection. The RLN is considered to be a vital nerve in the body, as are other cranial nerves. The large proportions of adipose tissue in the epineurium may relate to the importance of protecting this nerve from injury. PMID:10697291

  18. Distal nerve entrapment following nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, T; Otto, A; Wechselberger, G; Pommer, B; Papp, C

    1998-04-01

    Failure of nerve repair or poor functional outcome after reconstruction can be influenced by various causes. Besides improper microsurgical technique, fascicular malalignment and unphysiologic tension, we found in our clinical series that a subclinical nerve compression distal to the repair site can seriously impair regeneration. We concluded that the injured nerve, whether from trauma or microsurgical intervention, could be more susceptible to distal entrapment in the regenerative stage because of its disturbed microcirculation, swelling and the increase of regenerating axons followed by increased nerve volume. In two cases we found the regenerating nerve entrapped at pre-existing anatomical sites of narrowing resulting in impaired functional recovery. In both cases the surgical therapy was decompression of the distal entrapped nerve and this was followed by continued regeneration. Thorough clinical and electrophysiologic follow-up is necessary to detect such adverse compression effects and to distinguish between the various causes of failed regeneration. Under certain circumstances primary preventive decompression may be beneficial if performed at the time of nerve coaptation.

  19. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  20. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  1. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  2. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  3. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  4. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  5. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  6. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  7. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  12. The contribution of subsistence to global human cranial variation.

    PubMed

    Noback, Marlijn L; Harvati, Katerina

    2015-03-01

    Diet-related cranial variation in modern humans is well documented on a regional scale, with ample examples of cranial changes related to the agricultural transition. However, the influence of subsistence strategy on global cranial variation is less clear, having been confirmed only for the mandible, and dietary effects beyond agriculture are often neglected. Here we identify global patterns of subsistence-related human cranial shape variation. We analysed a worldwide sample of 15 populations (n = 255) with known subsistence strategies using 3-D landmark datasets designed to capture the shape of different units of the cranium. Results show significant correlations between global cranial shape and diet, especially for temporalis muscle shape and general cranial shape. Importantly, the differences between populations with either a plant- or an animal-based diet are more pronounced than those between agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers, suggesting that the influence of diet as driver of cranial variation is not limited to Holocene transitions to agricultural subsistence. Dental arch shape did not correlate with subsistence pattern, possibly indicating the high plasticity of this region of the face in relation to age, disease and individual use of the dentition. Our results highlight the importance of subsistence strategy as one of the factors underlying the evolution of human geographic cranial variation. PMID:25661439

  13. Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography. PMID:27195026

  14. Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography. PMID:27195026

  15. Topographic study on nerve-associated lymphatic vessels in the murine craniofacial region by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masahide; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Kajiwara, Tooru; Kato, Seiji; Yanagisawa, Shigetaka

    2008-12-01

    The distribution and fine structure of lymphatic vessels associated with nerves was studied by immunohistochemistry in the murine craniofacial region. The tissue sections and blocks were immunostained for LYVE-1, protein gene product 9.5, CD34 and aquaporin-1 to demonstrate the lymphatic vessels, nerves, blood vessels and water channel protein, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic examination was also performed to investigate the relationship between the lymphatics and nerves. In the nasal area, the lymphatics were found in dura mater on the cribriform plate and beneath the nasal mucosa, this supposedly supplying the cerebrospinal fluid drainage route along the olfactory nerves. The proximal portions of the cranial nerves were equipped with the lymphatics in the epineurium. In the distal portions of the nerves, the lymphatics were distributed in close proximity of the perineural sheath, and thus might contribute to maintenance of microenvironment suitable for the nerves by an absorptive activity of the lymphatic endothelial cells. The present findings suggest that the lymphatic system associated with the cranial nerves provides the pathway for transport of cerebrospinal fluid, tissue fluid, and free cells involved in immune response and tumor metastasis in the craniofacial region.

  16. [Transnasal endoscopic approaches to the cranial base].

    PubMed

    Lysoń, Tomasz; Sieśkiewicz, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Robert; Kochanowicz, Jan; Turek, Grzegorz; Rogowski, Marek; Mariak, Zenon

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical endoscopy have made it possible to reach nearly the whole cranial base through a transnasal approach. These 'expanded approaches' lead to the frontal sinuses, the cribriform plate and planum sphenoidale, the suprasellar space, the clivus, odontoid and atlas. By pointing the endoscope laterally, the surgeon can explore structures in the coronal plane such as the cavernous sinuses, the pyramid and Meckel cave, the sphenopalatine and subtemporal fossae, and even the middle fossa and the orbit. The authors of this contribution use most of these approaches in their endoscopic skull base surgery. The purpose of this contribution is to review the hitherto established endoscopic approaches to the skull base and to illustrate them with photographs obtained during self-performed procedures and/or cadaver studies. PMID:23487296

  17. Varicella zoster virus infection of the pharynx and larynx with multiple cranial neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yung; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of the head and neck region may present with various clinical symptoms, involving different entities and different routes of viral spreading. We present a case of VZV infection of the pharynx and larynx with multiple cranial nerve (CN) neuropathies (CN VII, VIII, IX, and X) of a 52-year-old woman who complained of the sudden onset of hoarseness, odynophagia, dysphagia, and hearing loss in the left ear, followed by left-side facial weakness lasting for 1 week. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple mucosal erosions over the oropharynx, with extension upward to the nasopharynx and downward to the mucosa overlying the epiglottis, arytenoid, and vocal cord. All of these lesions tended to lateralize to the left side, suggesting a VZV infection diagnosis; this was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction on eruptional exudates, as well as serologic examination.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  19. Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-μs-long pulses of 2.12 μm radiation delivered via a 600-μm-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

  20. The Furcal Nerve Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

  1. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of “archaic” Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis). PMID:11805284

  2. Anthropogenic environments exert variable selection on cranial capacity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Wick, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that behaviourally flexible species will be able to cope with novel and rapidly changing environments associated with human activity. However, it is unclear whether such environments are selecting for increases in behavioural plasticity, and whether some species show more pronounced evolutionary changes in plasticity. To test whether anthropogenic environments are selecting for increased behavioural plasticity within species, we measured variation in relative cranial capacity over time and space in 10 species of mammals. We predicted that urban populations would show greater cranial capacity than rural populations and that cranial capacity would increase over time in urban populations. Based on relevant theory, we also predicted that species capable of rapid population growth would show more pronounced evolutionary responses. We found that urban populations of two small mammal species had significantly greater cranial capacity than rural populations. In addition, species with higher fecundity showed more pronounced differentiation between urban and rural populations. Contrary to expectations, we found no increases in cranial capacity over time in urban populations—indeed, two species tended to have a decrease in cranial capacity over time in urban populations. Furthermore, rural populations of all insectivorous species measured showed significant increases in relative cranial capacity over time. Our results provide partial support for the hypothesis that urban environments select for increased behavioural plasticity, although this selection may be most pronounced early during the urban colonization process. Furthermore, these data also suggest that behavioural plasticity may be simultaneously favoured in rural environments, which are also changing because of human activity. PMID:23966638

  3. Anthropogenic environments exert variable selection on cranial capacity in mammals.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Wick, Naomi

    2013-10-22

    It is thought that behaviourally flexible species will be able to cope with novel and rapidly changing environments associated with human activity. However, it is unclear whether such environments are selecting for increases in behavioural plasticity, and whether some species show more pronounced evolutionary changes in plasticity. To test whether anthropogenic environments are selecting for increased behavioural plasticity within species, we measured variation in relative cranial capacity over time and space in 10 species of mammals. We predicted that urban populations would show greater cranial capacity than rural populations and that cranial capacity would increase over time in urban populations. Based on relevant theory, we also predicted that species capable of rapid population growth would show more pronounced evolutionary responses. We found that urban populations of two small mammal species had significantly greater cranial capacity than rural populations. In addition, species with higher fecundity showed more pronounced differentiation between urban and rural populations. Contrary to expectations, we found no increases in cranial capacity over time in urban populations-indeed, two species tended to have a decrease in cranial capacity over time in urban populations. Furthermore, rural populations of all insectivorous species measured showed significant increases in relative cranial capacity over time. Our results provide partial support for the hypothesis that urban environments select for increased behavioural plasticity, although this selection may be most pronounced early during the urban colonization process. Furthermore, these data also suggest that behavioural plasticity may be simultaneously favoured in rural environments, which are also changing because of human activity.

  4. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground.

    PubMed

    Beck, Inken M; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-02-01

    The 12th Transgenic Technology meeting was held in Edinburgh on 6th-8th October 2014 and interest to participate in the meeting overcame all expectations. The TT2014 was the largest meeting ever with more than 540 scientists, technicians, and students from all over the world. The meeting had an excellent scientific program that brought information on the latest ground-breaking technologies for gene targeting and genome editing using programmable nucleases into the foreground. These presentations were well balanced with several highlights over viewing topics in embryonic stem cell research, embryogenesis, disease models, and animals in agriculture. Ample space was reserved also for short talks presenting technical development and for highlighting posters contributions. A highlight of the meeting was the award of the 10th International Society of Transgenic Technologies Prize to Janet Rossant for her outstanding contributions in the field of mouse embryogenesis.

  5. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  6. Stimulation of the human auditory nerve with optical radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Andrew; Winkler, Piotr; Mierzwinski, Jozef; Beuth, Wojciech; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Siedlecki, Zygmunt; Teudt, Ingo; Maier, Hannes; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2009-02-01

    A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve with infrared laser pulses is possible in the human inner ear. The finding is an important step for translating results from animal experiments to human and furthers the development of a novel interface that uses optical radiation to stimulate neurons. Additional measurements are required to optimize the stimulation parameters.

  7. Current status and future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution during the 12th FYP period in Guiyang city of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hezhong; Qiu, Peipei; Cheng, Ke; Gao, Jiajia; Lu, Long; Liu, Kaiyun; Liu, Xingang

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate the future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution in Guiyang city of China, the MM5/CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system is applied to assess the effects of air pollution improvement that would result from reduction targets for SO2 and NOx emissions during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). Three scenarios are established for the objective year 2015 based on the reference emissions in base year 2010. Scenario analysis and modeling results show that emissions are projected to increase by 26.5% for SO2 and 138.0% for NOx in 2015 Business-As-Usual (BAU) relative to base year 2010, respectively, which will lead to a substantial worsening tendency of SO2 and NOx pollution. In comparison, both the 2015 Policy Reduction (PR) and 2015 Intensive Policy Reduction (IPR) scenarios would contribute to improve the urban air quality. Under 2015 PR scenario, the maximum annual average concentration of SO2 and NOx will reduce by 54.9% and 31.7%, respectively, relative to the year 2010, with only 2.1% of all individual gridded receptors exceed the national air quality standard limits; while the maximum annual average concentrations of SO2 and NOx can reduce further under 2015 IPR scenario and comply well with standards limits. In view of the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness, the emission reduction targets set in the 2015 PR scenario are regarded as more reasonable in order to further improve the air quality in Guiyang during the 12th FYP period and a series of comprehensive countermeasures should be effectively implemented.

  8. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among U.S. 12th-grade students: Prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Meghan E.; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Methods Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) following alcohol consumption. Results Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and White students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors, and other substance use. Conclusions AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. PMID:25907654

  9. Climate Change and the Water Cycle: A New Southwest Regional Climate Hub Curriculum Unit for 6th-12th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, S.; Haan-Amato, S.; Deswood, H.; Rango, A.; Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and scientifically rigorous education unit for 6th -12th grade students. The unit is aligned with Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Nine activities can be conducted over 10 instruction hours. Each activity can also stand alone. In partnership with SWRCH, the Asombro Institute for Science Education developed the unit. Each activity was reviewed by an educator for educational practices and by a scientist for scientific accuracy. The unit was pilot tested with 524 students in 2014, and pre- and post-tests were administered. Ninety-one percent of students were able to name a greenhouse gas on the post-test, compared to only 48% on the pre-test. On the post-test, 86% of students identified the relationship between average global temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, compared to only 52% on the pre-test. A student commented: "I loved all of the activities! They are fun and help us understand about what goes on in the world." Educators who participated in pilot testing said: "the entire curriculum is great, but I was particularly impressed with the progression of ideas and the variety of lessons," and "students could see the relevance and importance of these real life issues." Anyone interested in using the unit to host workshops for teachers in southwestern states should contact Asombro for more information (information@asombro.org). The Climate Change and the Water Cycle 6th-12th grade curriculum unit is available online: www.swclimatehub.info/education/climate-change-and-water-cycle

  10. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  11. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica M; Cohen, Yale E; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L

    2016-05-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  12. Familial idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects in children

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, A.J.; Schiapachasse, V.; Guerrero, R.

    1982-05-01

    Three children with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects are reported. The syndrome was recognized after birth and in the two oldest siblings, the cranial defects and subperiosteal bone formation resolved almost completely by age 4 and 6 years. The joint swelling and clubbing persisted and mild bone reabsorption of the distal phalanges became apparent at an older age. Two siblings and both parents had normal bone X-rays and no clubbing. This study confirms the association of cranial sutural defects and familial idopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

  13. Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Yaser Ud Din; Aziz, Amir; Ishaque, Khurram; Abbas, Sadia; Ud Din, Tariq Salah

    2016-06-01

    Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Depending upon the site, degree of inflammation and local damage, toxoplasmosis encephalitis and cranial abscess can cause long lasting neurologic sequel. With modern imaging techniques, toxoplasmosis antibody titers, slit lamp examination and brain biopsy, there is improvement in diagnosis along with reduction in the mortality rate. We present a case illustrating the radiological manifestations, complications, potential pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment of intra-cranial toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient. PMID:27376217

  14. The Role of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Large Nerve Perineural Spread of Cancer of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Gorayski, Peter; Foote, Matthew; Porceddu, Sandro; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large nerve perineural spread (LNPNS) is an uncommon but serious sequelae of cutaneous and salivary gland malignancies arising in the head and neck. This distinct clinical entity is caused by malignant cell spread along the course of larger (named) cranial nerves in a bidirectional pattern of spread toward the origins of the nerve in the brainstem and/or its most distal branches residing in the dermis. Untreated, LNPNS causes multiple cranial neuropathies that significantly impact on quality of life and ultimately is fatal. Curative treatment involves en bloc surgical resection of all known involved sites of gross disease followed by risk-adapted postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) to improve local control. We review the evidence for contemporary practice and outline the processes involved in the delivery of PORT using the zonal anatomical classification. PMID:27123394

  15. Quantifying cognitive decrements caused by cranial radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Christie, Lori-Ann; Acharya, Munjal M; Limoli, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    With the exception of survival, cognitive impairment stemming from the clinical management of cancer is a major factor dictating therapeutic outcome. For many patients afflicted with CNS and non-CNS malignancies, radiotherapy and chemotherapy offer the best options for disease control. These treatments however come at a cost, and nearly all cancer survivors (~11 million in the US alone as of 2006) incur some risk for developing cognitive dysfunction, with the most severe cases found in patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy (~200,000/yr) for the control of primary and metastatic brain tumors. Particularly problematic are pediatric cases, whose long-term survival plagued with marked cognitive decrements results in significant socioeconomic burdens. To date, there are still no satisfactory solutions to this significant clinical problem. We have addressed this serious health concern using transplanted stem cells to combat radiation-induced cognitive decline in athymic rats subjected to cranial irradiation. Details of the stereotaxic irradiation and the in vitro culturing and transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) can be found in our companion paper (Acharya et al., JoVE reference). Following irradiation and transplantation surgery, rats are then assessed for changes in cognition, grafted cell survival and expression of differentiation-specific markers 1 and 4-months after irradiation. To critically evaluate the success or failure of any potential intervention designed to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive sequelae, a rigorous series of quantitative cognitive tasks must be performed. To accomplish this, we subject our animals to a suite of cognitive testing paradigms including novel place recognition, water maze, elevated plus maze and fear conditioning, in order to quantify hippocampal and non-hippocampal learning and memory. We have demonstrated the utility of these tests for quantifying specific types of cognitive decrements in irradiated animals

  16. Ecological correlates to cranial morphology in Leporids (Mammalia, Lagomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Emma; Bumacod, Nicholas; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian order Lagomorpha has been the subject of many morphometric studies aimed at understanding the relationship between form and function as it relates to locomotion, primarily in postcranial morphology. The leporid cranial skeleton, however, may also reveal information about their ecology, particularly locomotion and vision. Here we investigate the relationship between cranial shape and the degree of facial tilt with locomotion (cursoriality, saltation, and burrowing) within crown leporids. Our results suggest that facial tilt is more pronounced in cursors and saltators compared to generalists, and that increasing facial tilt may be driven by a need for expanded visual fields. Our phylogenetically informed analyses indicate that burrowing behavior, facial tilt, and locomotor behavior do not predict cranial shape. However, we find that variables such as bullae size, size of the splenius capitus fossa, and overall rostral dimensions are important components for understanding the cranial variation in leporids. PMID:25802812

  17. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  18. Cryotherapy and nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Drez, D; Faust, D C; Evans, J P

    1981-01-01

    Ice application is one of the most extensively used treatments for athletic injuries. Frostbite is a recognized danger. Five cases of nerve palsy resulting from ice application are reported here. These palsies were temporary. They usually resolve spontaneously without any significant sequelae. This complication can be avoided by not using ice for more than 30 minutes and by guarding superficial nerves in the area.

  19. [Sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma].

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Benjamin; Poussange, Nicolas; Le Collen, Philippe; Fabre, Thierry; Vital, Anne; Lepreux, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a benign tumor developed from the perineurium and responsible for localized nerve hypertrophy. This uncommon tumor is characterized by a proliferation of perineural cells with a "pseudo-onion bulb" pattern. We report a sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma in a 39-year-old patient. PMID:26586011

  20. Optic Nerve Decompression

    MedlinePlus

    ... canals). The optic nerve is the “nerve of vision” and extends from the brain, through your skull, and into your eye. A ... limited to, the following: loss of vision, double vision, inadequate ... leakage of brain fluid (CSF), meningitis, nasal bleeding, infection of the ...

  1. Skull base, orbits, temporal bone, and cranial nerves: anatomy on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Morani, Ajaykumar C; Ramani, Nisha S; Wesolowski, Jeffrey R

    2011-08-01

    Accurate delineation, diagnosis, and treatment planning of skull base lesions require knowledge of the complex anatomy of the skull base. Because the skull base cannot be directly evaluated, imaging is critical for the diagnosis and management of skull base diseases. Although computed tomography (CT) is excellent for outlining the bony detail, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides better soft tissue detail and is helpful for evaluating the adjacent meninges, brain parenchyma, and bone marrow of the skull base. Thus, CT and MR imaging are often used together for evaluating skull base lesions. This article focuses on the radiologic anatomy of the skull base pertinent to MR imaging evaluation.

  2. Development of a Computer-Assisted Cranial Nerve Simulation from the Visible Human Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Jeffrey C.; Fung, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in technology and personal computing have allowed for the development of novel teaching modalities such as online web-based modules. These modules are currently being incorporated into medical curricula and, in some paradigms, have been shown to be superior to classroom instruction. We believe that these modules have the potential of…

  3. [First case described of isolated, complete and fluctuating cranial nerve III palsy heralding multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, Moisés; Benito-León, Julián; Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando; García-Soldevilla, Miguel Ángel; Izquierdo-Esteban, Laura; Tejeiro-Martínez, José; Cabrera-Valdivia, Francisco; García-Albea Ristol, Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El mieloma multiple es la neoplasia de celulas plasmaticas mas frecuente. Al ser incurable, el tratamiento persigue obtener el mayor tiempo de supervivencia libre de clinica. Constituye una causa extremadamente rara de afectacion de los nervios craneales y es producido habitualmente por un plasmocitoma intracraneal. Presentamos un caso de mieloma multiple, que asociaba un plasmocitoma intracraneal y que comenzo clinicamente con paralisis aislada, completa y fluctuante del III nervio craneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años que acudio a urgencias por presentar un cuadro clinico oscilante, consistente en diplopia binocular horizontal y, posteriormente, cefalea. La exploracion neurooftalmologica revelo una paralisis completa del III nervio craneal derecho. Se solicito una tomografia axial computarizada craneal urgente, que revelo multiples lesiones osteoliticas diploicas, asociando una de ellas componente de partes blandas en la hendidura esfenoidal derecha. La paciente fue ingresada, y se le diagnostico posteriormente un mieloma multiple IgA-kappa. Tras recibir induccion quimioterapica y ser sometida a un trasplante autologo de progenitores hematopoyeticos, alcanzo la remision completa. Conclusiones. El mieloma multiple es un trastorno raro de los nervios craneales, una causa muy infrecuente de paralisis aislada y completa del III nervio craneal y menos aun fluctuante, y no se ha encontrado ningun caso publicado con este inicio clinico. Tener en cuenta las posibles manifestaciones neurooftalmologicas del mieloma multiple puede contribuir a un diagnostico precoz y a una incidencia positiva sobre el curso de esta enfermedad.

  4. EMBRYOLOGICAL ORIGIN FOR AUTISM: DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES OF THE CRANIAL NERVE MOTOR NUCLEI. (R824758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. [Neurophysiological identification of the cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors].

    PubMed

    Shkarubo, A N; Ogurtsova, A A; Moshchev, D A; Lubnin, A Yu; Andreev, D N; Koval', K V; Chernov, I V

    2016-01-01

    Интраоперационная идентификация черепных нервов является полезной методикой при удалении опухолей основания черепа эндоскопическим эндоназальным доступом. В настоящее время при изучении мировой литературы найдена одна пилотная работа об использовании электромиографии (ЭМГ) в триггерном режиме (t-EMG) для идентификации VI нерва в эндоскопической эндоназальной хирургии опухолей основания черепа [14]. Цель исследования — предотвращение ятрогенных повреждений черепных нервов без уменьшения степени радикальности удаления опухолевых тканей. Материал и методы. В течение 2014 г. нами прооперированы 5 пациентов эндоскопическим эндоназальным доступом. Операции проводились по поводу больших хордом основания черепа (2 пациента) и неврином тройничного нерва, расположенных в кавернозных синусах (3). Во время проведенных операций осуществлялась идентификация черепных нервов с использованием электромиографии в триггерном режиме с помощью биполярного электрода (кроме 1 случая — хордомы, где использовался монополярный электрод). Оценка функциональной активности черепных нервов проводилась как дооперационно, так и послеоперационно. Результаты. В 4 случаях из 5 удаление опухоли было оценено как радикальное и в 1 случае — как субтотальное (хордома). В ходе исследования интраоперационно были идентифицированы III (2 пациента), V (2), VI (4) черепные нервы. В после­операционном периоде ни в одном случае не ухудшилась функция тех нервов, которые были идентифицированы интра­операционно. В одном случае интраоперационно не удалось получить ответы от VI нерва справа (в области кавернозного синуса), и в послеоперационном периоде развился глубокий парез иннервируемых им мышц до плегии. До операции его функция не была нарушена. Заключение. Методика использования t-EMG является перспективной и требует дальнейших исследований.

  6. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) following administration of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Stassen, L F A

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral transient paralysis of facial muscles resulting from dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve. Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers' attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's palsy, as a possible rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination, and steps taken to manage such a presentation.

  7. Benign Recurrent Sixth (Abducens) Nerve Palsy following Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bourtoulamaiou, Areti; Yadav, Sohraab; Nayak, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Benign, isolated, recurrent sixth nerve palsy is rare in children. It may be associated with febrile viral illness and vaccination in exceptional circumstances although this is a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we present the case of a 2-year-old Caucasian girl who developed recurrent 6th nerve palsy following vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. No underlying pathology was identified following extensive investigations and followup. There is limited data available on the pathophysiology of vaccination-related nerve palsies. As with all previous reports of cranial nerve palsies following vaccination, there was complete resolution in this case. Long term followup with repeated physical examination and investigations is warranted to avoid missing severe pathology and operating unnecessarily. PMID:26257972

  8. Erector Spinal Muscular Schwannoma of the Dorsal Ramus Nerve: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Tack Geun; Kim, Chang Hyun; Moon, Jae Gon; Lee, Ho Kook

    2015-09-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular schwannoma originating from the dorsal ramus nerve in a 62-year-old woman. The mass grew slowly, with pain developing upon touch five years prior. No neurological deficit was detected. The mass was observed in the erector spinae muscles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical excision was performed. The mass was well encapsulated with clear margin. The lesion appeared to originate from the cranial side. We completely removed the mass including the origin. Histopathology confirmed a schwannoma diagnosis. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a dorsal ramus-nerve schwannoma within the erector spinae muscles.

  9. Short course prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Feld, R.; Clamon, G.H.; Blum, R.; Moran, E.; Weiner, R.; Kramer, B.; Evans, W.K.; Herman, J.G.; Hoffman, F.; Burmeister, L.

    1985-10-01

    Ninety-one patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were given a shortened, intensive course of prophylactic cranial irradiation consisting of 2,000 rad in five fractions. The CNS relapse rate was 21%, but in only one of 91 patients was the brain the first and only site of relapse. Acute toxicities consisting of headache (16%) and nausea and vomiting (15%) were observed. Results are compared with previous results from other studies of cranial irradiation.

  10. Ulnar nerve tuberculoma.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Chandra, V V; Prasad, Bodapati Chandramowliswara; Varaprasad, Gangumolu

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a very rare case of tuberculoma involving the ulnar nerve. The patient, a 7-year-old girl, presented with swelling over the medial aspect of her right forearm just below the elbow joint, with features of ulnar nerve palsy, including paresthesias along the little and ring fingers and claw hand deformity. There was a history of trauma and contact with a contagious case of tuberculosis. There were no other signs of tuberculosis. At surgical exploration the ulnar nerve was found to be thickened, and on opening the sheath there was evidence of caseous material enclosed in a fibrous capsule compressing and displacing the nerve fibers. The lesion, along with the capsule, was subtotally removed using curettage, and a part of the capsule that was densely adherent to the nerve fibers was left in the patient. Histopathological examination of the specimen was consistent with tuberculoma. The patient received adequate antitubercular treatment and showed significant improvement.

  11. Peripheral nerve stimulation: definition.

    PubMed

    Abejón, David; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous evolution in the field of neurostimulation, both from the technological point of view and from development of the new and different indications. In some areas, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, there has been a boom in recent years due to the variations in the surgical technique and the improved results documented by in multiple published papers. All this makes imperative the need to classify and define the different types of stimulation that are used today. The confusion arises when attempting to describe peripheral nerve stimulation and subcutaneous stimulation. Peripheral nerve stimulation, in its pure definition, involves implanting a lead on a nerve, with the aim to produce paresthesia along the entire trajectory of the stimulated nerve.

  12. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles.

  13. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  14. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  15. Cavernous portion of the trochlear nerve with special reference to its site of entrance.

    PubMed Central

    Bisaria, K K

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 80 cavernous sinuses in 40 cadavers, the trochlear nerve entered the cavernous sinus in 87.5% of cases before the crossing, in 7.5% at the crossing and in 5.0% after the crossing of the free and the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli. In 77.5% of specimens the trochlear nerve showed a marked bend with flattening at the site of its entrance into the cavernous sinus. The nerve ran between the superficial and deep layers of dura, partly between them, in the thickness of the deeper layer, or deep to the deep layer but adherent to it. These findings do not conform with the description of its course by other workers in the past. In 72.5% of specimens the size of the trochlear nerve was larger during its course in the cavernous sinuses but in 20.0% of specimens such an increase in thickness was noted even in the posterior cranial fossa. Only in one specimen was the trochlear nerve adherent to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Cases showing the trochlear nerve entering the cavernous sinus after the crossing of the two margins of tentorium cerebelli and the splitting and branching of the trochlear nerve in the cavernous sinus have not hitherto been reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3248970

  16. Purinergic nerves and receptors.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, G

    1980-01-01

    The presence of a non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic component in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is now well established. Evidence that ATP is the transmitter released from some of these nerves (called "purinergic') includes: (a) synthesis and storage of ATP in nerves: (b) release of ATP from the nerves when they are stimulated; (c) exogenously applied ATP mimicking the action of nerve-released transmitter; (d) the presence of ectoenzymes which inactivate ATP; (e) drugs which produce similar blocking or potentiating effects on the response to exogenously applied ATP and nerve stimulation. A basis for distinguishing two types of purinergic receptors has been proposed according to four criteria: relative potencies of agonists, competitive antagonists, changes in levels of cAMP and induction of prostaglandin synthesis. Thus P1 purinoceptors are most sensitive to adenosine, are competitively blocked by methylxanthines and their occupation leads to changes in cAMP accumulation; while P2 purinoceptors are most sensitive to ATP, are blocked (although not competitively) by quinidine, 2-substituted imidazolines, 2,2'-pyridylisatogen and apamin, and their occupation leads to production of prostaglandin. P2 purinoceptors mediate responses of smooth muscle to ATP released from purinergic nerves, while P1 purinoceptors mediate the presynaptic actions of adenosine on adrenergic, cholinergic and purinergic nerve terminals. PMID:6108568

  17. Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M J; Babyak, J W; Kartush, J M

    1987-02-01

    Neurogenic neoplasms of the intraparotid facial nerve are uncommon and are usually diagnosed intraoperatively by tissue biopsy. Fifty-six cases of primary neurogenic neoplasms involving the facial nerve have been reported. The majority of these have been schwannomas. A case of a solitary neurofibroma involving the main trunk of the facial nerve is presented. Schwannomas and neurofibromas have distinct histological features which must be considered prior to the management of these tumors. The management of neurogenic tumors associated with normal facial function is a particularly difficult problem. A new approach for the diagnosis and management of neurogenic neoplasms is described utilizing electroneurography. PMID:3807626

  18. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  19. Cranial morphometry of early hominids: facial region.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, A; Wood, B A

    1988-05-01

    We report here on early hominid facial diversity, as part of a more extensive morphometric survey of cranial variability in Pliocene and early Pleistocene Hominidae. Univariate and multivariate techniques are used to summarise variation in facial proportions in South and East African hominids, and later Quaternary groups are included as comparators in order to scale the variation displayed. The results indicate that "robust" australopithecines have longer, broader faces than the "gracile" form, but that all australopithecine species show comparable degrees of facial projection. "Robust" crania are characterised by anteriorly situated, deep malar processes that slope forwards and downwards. Smaller hominid specimens, formally or informally assigned to Homo (H. habilis, KNM-ER 1813, etc.), have individual facial dimensions that usually fall within the range of Australopithecus africanus, but which in combination reveal a significantly different morphological pattern; SK 847 shows similarly hominine facial proportions, which differ significantly from those of A. robustus specimens from Swartkrans. KNM-ER 1470 possesses a facial pattern that is basically hominine, but which in some respects mimics that of "robust" australopithecines. Early specimens referred to H. erectus possess facial proportions that contrast markedly with those of other Villafranchian hominids and which suggest differing masticatory forces, possibly reflecting a shift in dietary niche. Overall the results indicate two broad patterns of facial proportions in Hominidae: one is characteristic of Pliocene/basal Pleistocene forms with opposite polarities represented by A. boisei and H. habilis; the other pattern, which typifies hominids from the later Lower Pleistocene onwards, is first found in specimens widely regarded as early representatives of H. erectus, but which differ in which certain respects from the face of later members of that species.

  20. Cranial morphometry of early hominids: facial region.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, A; Wood, B A

    1988-05-01

    We report here on early hominid facial diversity, as part of a more extensive morphometric survey of cranial variability in Pliocene and early Pleistocene Hominidae. Univariate and multivariate techniques are used to summarise variation in facial proportions in South and East African hominids, and later Quaternary groups are included as comparators in order to scale the variation displayed. The results indicate that "robust" australopithecines have longer, broader faces than the "gracile" form, but that all australopithecine species show comparable degrees of facial projection. "Robust" crania are characterised by anteriorly situated, deep malar processes that slope forwards and downwards. Smaller hominid specimens, formally or informally assigned to Homo (H. habilis, KNM-ER 1813, etc.), have individual facial dimensions that usually fall within the range of Australopithecus africanus, but which in combination reveal a significantly different morphological pattern; SK 847 shows similarly hominine facial proportions, which differ significantly from those of A. robustus specimens from Swartkrans. KNM-ER 1470 possesses a facial pattern that is basically hominine, but which in some respects mimics that of "robust" australopithecines. Early specimens referred to H. erectus possess facial proportions that contrast markedly with those of other Villafranchian hominids and which suggest differing masticatory forces, possibly reflecting a shift in dietary niche. Overall the results indicate two broad patterns of facial proportions in Hominidae: one is characteristic of Pliocene/basal Pleistocene forms with opposite polarities represented by A. boisei and H. habilis; the other pattern, which typifies hominids from the later Lower Pleistocene onwards, is first found in specimens widely regarded as early representatives of H. erectus, but which differ in which certain respects from the face of later members of that species. PMID:3136656

  1. A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Angel; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; James, Aaron W.

    2013-01-01

    During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The HH family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Desert Hedgehog (DHH), of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH). Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly (HPE), hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of IHH deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development. PMID:23565096

  2. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  3. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:20056364

  5. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    PubMed

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation.

  7. From autoantibody research to standardized diagnostic assays in the management of human diseases - report of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, K; Andrade, L E C; Chan, E K L; Mahler, M; Meroni, P L; Pruijn, G J M; Steiner, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2016-07-01

    Testing for autoantibodies (AABs) is becoming more and more relevant, not only for diagnosing autoimmune diseases (AIDs) but also for the differentiation of defined AID subtypes with different clinical manifestations, course and prognosis as well as the very early diagnosis for adequate management in the context of personalized medicine. A major challenge to improve diagnostic accuracy is to harmonize or even standardize AAB analyses. This review presents the results of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies that focused on several aspects of improving autoimmune diagnostics. Topics that are addressed include the International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) and the International Autoantibody Standardization (IAS) initiatives, the optimization of diagnostic algorithms, the description and evaluation of novel disease-specific AABs as well as the development and introduction of novel assays into routine diagnostics. This review also highlights important developments of recent years, most notably the improvement in diagnosing and predicting the course of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and of autoimmune neurological, gastrointestinal and liver diseases; the potential diagnostic role of anti-DFS70 antibodies and tumor-associated AABs. Furthermore, some hot topics in autoimmunity regarding disease pathogenesis and management are described. PMID:27252254

  8. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  10. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. PMID:27094893

  11. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other facial reconstructive options were considered. These three cases illustrate some of the major controversies in facial nerve neuroma management. We discuss our decision-making plan and report our results. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171043

  12. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  14. Sacral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M

    2004-01-01

    The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited.

  15. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  16. Damaged axillary nerve (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches. Other causes include systemic disorders that cause neuritis (inflammation of ...

  17. Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed Central

    London, J.; London, N. J.; Kay, S. P.

    1996-01-01

    Accessory nerve injury produces considerable disability. The nerve is most frequently damaged as a complication of radical neck dissection, cervical lymph node biopsy and other surgical procedures. The problem is frequently compounded by a failure to recognise the error immediately after surgery when surgical repair has the greatest chance of success. We present cases which outline the risk of accessory nerve injury, the spectrum of clinical presentations and the problems produced by a failure to recognise the deficit. Regional anatomy, consequences of nerve damage and management options are discussed. Diagnostic biopsy of neck nodes should not be undertaken as a primary investigation and, when indicated, surgery in this region should be performed by suitably trained staff under well-defined conditions. Awareness of iatrogenic injury and its consequences would avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. Images Figure 2 PMID:8678450

  18. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Craig EJ, Clinchot DM. Femoral neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ...

  19. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  20. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Intracranial Nonacoustic Schwannomas Including Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Abo, Daisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Furuta, Yasushi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Masayori; Fukuda, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Although the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery for nonacoustic schwannomas is currently being assessed, there have been few studies on the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for these tumors. We investigated the long-term outcome of SRT for nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were treated between July 1994 and December 2006. Of these patients, 7 had schwannomas located in the jugular foramen, 5 in the trigeminal nerve, 4 in the facial nerve, and 1 in the oculomotor nerve. Radiotherapy was used as an initial treatment without surgery in 10 patients (59%) and after initial subtotal resection in the remaining patients. The tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 31.3 mL (mean, 8.2 mL). The treatment dose was 40 to 54 Gy in 20 to 26 fractions. The median follow-up period was 59.5 months (range, 7.4-122.6 months). Local control was defined as stable or decreased tumor size on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Tumor size was decreased in 3 patients, stable in 13, and increased in 1 after SRT. Regarding neurologic symptoms, 8 patients (47%) had improvement and 9 patients were unchanged. One patient had an increase in tumor size and received microsurgical resection at 32 months after irradiation. No patient had worsening of pre-existing neurologic symptoms or development of new cranial nerve deficits at the last follow-up. Conclusions: SRT is an effective alternative to surgical resection for patients with nonacoustic intracranial nerve schwannomas with respect to not only long-term local tumor control but also neuro-functional preservation.

  1. Experimental Comparison of Cranial Particulate Bone Graft, rhBMP-2, and Split Cranial Bone Graft for Inlay Cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Rafael A; Kurek, Kyle C; Rogers, Gary F; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2013-05-01

    Background :  Particulate bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are options for inlay cranioplasty in children who have not developed a diploic space. The purpose of this study was to determine whether particulate bone graft or rhBMP-2 has superior efficacy for inlay cranioplasty and to compare these substances to split cranial bone. Methods :  A 17 mm × 17 mm critical-sized defect was made in the parietal bones of 22 rabbits and managed in four ways: Group I (no implant; n=5), Group II (particulate bone graft; n=5), Group III (rhBMP-2; n=7), and Group IV (split cranial bone graft; n=5). Animals underwent microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis 16 weeks after cranioplasty. Results :  Defects without an implant (Group I) demonstrated inferior ossification (41.4%; interquartile range [IQR], 28.9% to 42.5%) compared to those treated with particulate bone graft (Group II: 99.5%; IQR, 97.8% to 100%), rhBMP-2 (Group III: 99.6%; IQR, 99.5% to 100%), or split cranial bone (Group IV: 100%) (P < .0001). There was no difference between Groups II, III, and IV (P = .1). Defects treated with rhBMP-2 exhibited thinner bone (0.90 mm; IQR, 0.64 to 0.98) than particulate bone graft (1.95 mm; IQR, 1.09 to 2.83) or split cranial bone (1.72 mm; IQR, 1.54 to 1.88) (P = .006); particulate and split cranial bone grafted defects had a similar thicknesses (P = .6). Conclusions :  Particulate bone graft, rhBMP-2, and split cranial bone close inlay calvarial defect areas equally, although the thickness of bone healed with rhBMP-2 is inferior. Clinically, particulate bone graft or split cranial bone graft may be superior to rhBMP-2 for inlay cranioplasty.

  2. Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly treatment with cranial orthosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schreen, Gerd; Matarazzo, Carolina Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The number of cranial deformities has increased considerably since international efforts of pediatricians to recommend parents putting their babies to sleep in the supine position as a strategy to reduce sudden death syndrome of the newborn. On the one hand, this program has demonstrated very efficient results at reducing deaths and, on the other hand, such recommendation has increased the incidence of cranial asymmetries. In addition, infants are kept too long in one position, much of this due to abusive use of strollers, baby carriers, car seats, swings and other devices. Among resulting asymmetries, the most frequently found are plagiocephaly (parallelogram shaped skull, with posterior unilateral flattening with the opposite frontal area also flattened) and brachycephaly (occipital bilateral flattening). The present study is a case report of a patient with brachycephaly associated with deformational plagiocephaly treated with cranial orthosis. The same physician clinically evaluated the patient before and after treatment using photographic recording and a laser scanning device, which allows the accurate measurement of variables determining asymmetries. It became clear during treatment that there was significant improvement in cranial symmetry documented by decrease in the cephalic index, diagonal difference and volume gain in the quadrant that was flattened. The authors conclude that orthotic therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for position cranial asymmetries. PMID:23579755

  3. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis: Evolution of Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J.; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

  4. Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly treatment with cranial orthosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schreen, Gerd; Matarazzo, Carolina Gomes

    2013-01-01

    The number of cranial deformities has increased considerably since international efforts of pediatricians to recommend parents putting their babies to sleep in the supine position as a strategy to reduce sudden death syndrome of the newborn. On the one hand, this program has demonstrated very efficient results at reducing deaths and, on the other hand, such recommendation has increased the incidence of cranial asymmetries. In addition, infants are kept too long in one position, much of this due to abusive use of strollers, baby carriers, car seats, swings and other devices. Among resulting asymmetries, the most frequently found are plagiocephaly (parallelogram shaped skull, with posterior unilateral flattening with the opposite frontal area also flattened) and brachycephaly (occipital bilateral flattening). The present study is a case report of a patient with brachycephaly associated with deformational plagiocephaly treated with cranial orthosis. The same physician clinically evaluated the patient before and after treatment using photographic recording and a laser scanning device, which allows the accurate measurement of variables determining asymmetries. It became clear during treatment that there was significant improvement in cranial symmetry documented by decrease in the cephalic index, diagonal difference and volume gain in the quadrant that was flattened. The authors conclude that orthotic therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for position cranial asymmetries. PMID:23579755

  5. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos.

    PubMed

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-03-01

    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved.

  6. Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

  7. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (12th, Portland, Oregon, June 23-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lyn, Ed.; Bradley, Jennifer, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The 12th Annual Building on Family Strengths Conference was held from June 23rd through June 25th 2005 in Portland, Oregon. Highlights included: (1) An information-packed keynote address by Dr. Richard M. Lerner on promoting positive youth development through enhancing the assets of communities; (2) An exciting research plenary panel session that…

  8. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  9. Documentation of Assessment Instrumentation--The NORC/CRESST 12th Grade Science Assessment, Item Databases, and Test Booklets. Project 2.6: Analytic Models To Monitor Status & Progress of Learning & Performance & Their Antecedents: The School Science Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, H. Darrell

    The hardware and software system used to create the National Opinion Research Center/Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (NORC/CRESST) item databases and test booklets for the 12th-grade science assessment are described. A general description of the capabilities of the system is given, with some specific information…

  10. Comparison of the Lumbosacral Plexus Nerves Formation in Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and Crab-Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) in Relationship to Plexus Model in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Lorenzão, Caio José; Zimpel, Aline Veiga; Novakoski, Eduardo; da Silva, Aline Alves; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) were dissected in two species of South American wild canids (pampas fox-Pseudalopex gymnocercus, and crab-eating fox-Cerdocyon thous). The nerves origin and distribution in the pelvic limb were examined and compared with the LSP model of the dog described in the literature. The LSP was formed by whole ventral branches of L5 at L7 and S1, and a contribution of a one branch from S2, divided in three trunks. The trunk formed by union from L5-6 and S1 was divided into the cranial (cutaneus femoris lateralis nerve) medial (femoralis nerve) and lateral branches (obturatorius nerve). At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadicus plexus, was formed by contributions from L6-7 and S1-2. This root gives rise to the nerve branches which was disseminated to the pelvic limb (nerves gluteus cranial and gluteus caudal, cutaneus femoris caudalis and ischiadicus). The ischiadicus nerve was divided into fibularis communis and tibialis nerves. The tibialis nerve emits the cutaneus surae caudalis. The fibularis communis emits the cutaneus surae lateralis, fibularis superficialis and fibularis profundus. The pudendus nerve arises from S2 with contributions of one branch L7-S1 and one ramus of the cutaneus femoris lateralis. Still, one branch of S2 joins with S3 to form the rectales caudales nerve. These data provides an important anatomical knowledge of a two canid species of South American fauna, besides providing the effective surgical and clinical care of these animals. PMID:26692361

  11. Fate of the mammalian cranial neural crest during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Y; Jiang, X; Ito, Y; Bringas, P; Han, J; Rowitch, D H; Soriano, P; McMahon, A P; Sucov, H M

    2000-04-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial neural crest during tooth and mandible development. In the first mouse line, Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of the Wnt1 promoter as a transgene. Significantly, Wnt1 transgene expression is limited to the migrating neural crest cells that are derived from the dorsal CNS. The second mouse line, the ROSA26 conditional reporter (R26R), serves as a substrate for the Cre-mediated recombination. Using this two-component genetic system, we have systematically followed the migration and differentiation of the cranial neural crest (CNC) cells from E9.5 to 6 weeks after birth. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that CNC cells contribute to the formation of condensed dental mesenchyme, dental papilla, odontoblasts, dentine matrix, pulp, cementum, periodontal ligaments, chondrocytes in Meckel's cartilage, mandible, the articulating disc of temporomandibular joint and branchial arch nerve ganglia. More importantly, there is a dynamic distribution of CNC- and non-CNC-derived cells during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis. These results are a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of neural crest cell migration and differentiation during mammalian craniofacial development. Furthermore, this transgenic model also provides a new tool for cell lineage analysis and genetic manipulation of neural-crest-derived components in normal and abnormal embryogenesis. PMID:10725243

  12. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    PubMed

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  13. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  14. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  15. An analysis of 12th-grade students' reasoning styles and competencies when presented with an environmental problem in a social and scientific context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    This study examined reasoning and problem solving by 182 12th grade students in Taiwan when considering a socio-scientific issue regarding the use of nuclear energy. Students' information preferences, background characteristics, and eleven everyday scientific thinking skills were scrutinized. It was found most participants displayed a willingness to take into account both scientific and social information in reasoning the merits of a proposed construction of a nuclear power plant. Students' reasoning scores obtained from the "information reasoning style" test ranged from -0.5 to 1.917. And, the distribution was approximately normal with mean and median at around 0.5. For the purpose of categorization, students whose scores were within one standard deviation from the mean were characterized as having a "equally disposed" reasoning style. One hundred and twenty-five subjects, about 69%, belonged to this category. Students with scores locating at the two tails of the distribution were assigned to either the "scientifically oriented" or the "socially oriented" reasoning category. Among 23 background characteristics investigated using questionnaire data and ANOVA statistical analysis, only students' science performance and knowledge about nuclear energy were statistically significantly related to their information reasoning styles (p < 0.05). The assessed background characteristics addressed dimensions such as gender, academic performances, class difference, future education, career expectation, commitment to study, assessment to educational enrichment, family conditions, epistemological views about science, religion, and the political party preference. For everyday scientific thinking skills, interview data showed that both "scientifically oriented" students and those who were categorized as "equally disposed to using scientific and social scientific sources of data" displayed higher frequencies than "socially oriented" ones in using these skills, except in the use of

  16. TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake (M=6.2) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 9 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th of October 2013, Which occur in western of Crete, Greece. In accordance to the results of similar analysis on the occasion of earthquakes in the area (Contadakis et al 2008, 2012a,2012b) the main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Key words: GPS network, ionospheric total electron content, wavelet analysis References Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N. G. Asteriadis, S.D. Spatalas and Ch. Pikridas, 2008. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276 M.E. Contadakis, D.N. Arabelos, Ch. Pikridas and S.D. Spatalas, 2012a,TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, Vol.55,1, p.83-93 M.E.Contadakis, D.N.Arabelos, and G.Vergos, 2012b, TEC variations over North-western Balkan peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009, EGU GA, Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 14, EGU2012-2319-2

  17. Initial innervation of embryonic rat tongue and developing taste papillae: nerves follow distinctive and spatially restricted pathways.

    PubMed

    Mbiene, J P; Mistretta, C M

    1997-01-01

    The rat tongue has an extensive, complex innervation from four cranial nerves. However, the precise developmental time course and spatial routes of these nerves into the embryonic tongue are not known, although this knowledge is crucial for studying mechanisms that regulate development and innervation of the lingual taste organs, gustatory papillae and resident taste buds. We determined the initial spatial course of nerves in the developing tongue and papillae, and tested the hypothesis that sensory nerves first innervate the tongue homogeneously and then retract to more densely innervate papillae and taste buds. Antibodies to GAP-43 and neurofilaments were used to label nerve fibers in rat embryo heads from gestational day 11 through 16 (E11-E16). Serial sagittal sections were traced and reconstructed to follow paths of each nerve. In E11 rat, geniculate, trigeminal and petrosal ganglia were labeled and fibers left the ganglia and extended toward respective branchial arches. At E13 when the developing tongue is still a set of tissue swellings, the combined chorda/lingual, hypoglossal and petrosal nerves approached the lingual swellings from separate positions. Only the chorda/lingual entered the tongue base at this stage. At E14 and E15, the well-developed tongue was innervated by all four cranial nerves. However, the nerves maintained distinctive entry points and relatively restricted mesenchymal territories within the tongue, and did not follow one another in common early pathways. Furthermore, the chorda/lingual and glossopharyngeal nerves did not set up an obvious prepattern for gustatory papilla development, but rather seemed attracted to developing papillae which became very densely innervated compared to surrounding epithelium at E15. To effect this dense papilla innervation, sensory nerves did not first innervate the tongue in a homogeneous manner with subsequent retraction and/or extensive redirection of fibers into the taste organs. Results contribute to

  18. Oculomotor Nerve Palsy as a Rare Presentation and First Sign of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Panda, Bijnya Birajita; Parija, Sucheta; Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Pujahari, Susanta

    2016-05-01

    Acquired oculomotor nerve palsy has varied aetiologies like vascular (diabetes, heart disease, atherosclerosis and posterior communicating artery aneurysm), space occupying lesions or tumours, inflammation, infection, trauma, demyelinating disease like Multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disorders such as Myasthenia gravis, postoperatively as a complication of neurosurgery, cavernous sinus thrombosis etc. Cranial Nerve palsies as one of the first symptoms of multiple myeloma have been reported sparsely in literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who developed sudden onset right-sided pupil sparing oculomotor nerve palsy along with a tender swelling at right sternoclavicular joint. Cranial and orbital magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated no abnormalities. Immunological investigations and histopathological analysis of sternoclavicular joint swelling confirmed the diagnosis of IgG type multiple myeloma. After confirmation of diagnosis we started her with appropriate chemotherapy, after which the palsy resolved within one month. The cause of the palsy was probably due to nerve ischemia due to hyper viscosity of the serum. PMID:27437257

  19. Oculomotor Nerve Palsy as a Rare Presentation and First Sign of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Sucheta; Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Pujahari, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    Acquired oculomotor nerve palsy has varied aetiologies like vascular (diabetes, heart disease, atherosclerosis and posterior communicating artery aneurysm), space occupying lesions or tumours, inflammation, infection, trauma, demyelinating disease like Multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disorders such as Myasthenia gravis, postoperatively as a complication of neurosurgery, cavernous sinus thrombosis etc. Cranial Nerve palsies as one of the first symptoms of multiple myeloma have been reported sparsely in literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who developed sudden onset right-sided pupil sparing oculomotor nerve palsy along with a tender swelling at right sternoclavicular joint. Cranial and orbital magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated no abnormalities. Immunological investigations and histopathological analysis of sternoclavicular joint swelling confirmed the diagnosis of IgG type multiple myeloma. After confirmation of diagnosis we started her with appropriate chemotherapy, after which the palsy resolved within one month. The cause of the palsy was probably due to nerve ischemia due to hyper viscosity of the serum. PMID:27437257

  20. Craniofacial Resection for Cranial Base Malignancies Involving the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Bilsky, Mark H.; Bentz, Brandon; Vitaz, Todd; Shah, Jatin; Kraus, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cranial base malignancies involving the infratemporal fossa have been considered unresectable. Advanced operative techniques have made tumor resection feasible in an en bloc fashion with negative histological margins, but there are limited data regarding outcome analysis in patients who have undergone resection of malignant tumors in this area. METHODS At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 25 patients underwent anterolateral cranial base resections for tumors that involved the infratemporal fossa during a 7-year period. The most common tumors were sarcoma (n = 9), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 6), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3). The median size of the tumors was 6 cm, and 12 tumors involved the anterior cranial base and/or orbit. Tumor resections were divided into three types. Twelve patients underwent Type 1 dissection for tumors involving only the infratemporal fossa and maxillary sinus; 2 patients underwent Type 2 dissections involving the infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial base; and 11 patients underwent Type 3 dissection, which included the infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base, and orbit. All patients required free flap reconstruction, 22 of which were rectus abdominis free flaps. RESULTS Complications occurred in seven patients, including a single mortality resulting from a myocardial infarction. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 69, 63, and 56%, respectively. The relapse-free survival rates were 47% at 2 and 3 years and 41% at 5 years. Recurrences were local in nine patients and distant in four patients. CONCLUSION Despite the extensive nature of many infratemporal fossa tumors, they can be resected with acceptable morbidity. Survival rates approach those of anterior cranial base malignancies without infratemporal fossa involvement. PMID:16234683

  1. Communications Between the Facial Nerve and the Vestibulocochlear Nerve, the Glossopharyngeal Nerve, and the Cervical Plexus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Song, Ju Sung; Yang, Su Cheol

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to elucidate the communications between the facial nerves or facial nerve and neighboring nerves: the vestibulocochlear nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the cervical plexus.In a PubMed search, 832 articles were searched using the terms "facial nerve and communication." Sixty-two abstracts were read and 16 full-text articles were reviewed. Among them, 8 articles were analyzed.The frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve was the highest (82.3%) and the frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve was the lowest (20%). The frequency of communication between the facial nerve and the cervical plexus was 65.2 ± 43.5%. The frequency of communication between the cervical branch and the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was 24.7 ± 1.7%.Surgeons should be aware of the nerve communications, which are important during clinical examinations and surgical procedures of the facial nerves such as those communications involved in facial reconstructive surgery, neck dissection, and various nerve transfer procedures.

  2. Evaluation of cranial capacity by mustard seed technique.

    PubMed

    Howale, D S; Shah, J V; Iyer, K; Patel, V H; Patel, D C

    2011-12-01

    The volume of the cranium is used as a rough indicator of the size of the brain. In the present study Breitinger's mustard seeds technique was applied for the measurement of cranial capacity. Grossly normal 75 male skulls of Gujarat population were studied at Kesar SAL Medical College, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) in the year 2010. The mean cranial capacity among the study group was recorded to be 1256 cc with a minimum of 1110 cc and maximum of 1430 cc. The results were compared with the similar studies by different authors from different geographical areas. PMID:23469572

  3. An annotated history of craniofacial surgery and intentional cranial deformation.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J T; Tutino, M

    2001-01-01

    The history of craniofacial surgery and the use of intentional cranial deformation is a long and varied one. Researching some of the earliest medical writings and reviews of early terracotta and stone figures from throughout the world clearly revealed that these two forms of treatment were widely extant. Intentional cranial deformation was used for a number of reasons including beautification, tribal identification, and social stature. The development of craniofacial surgery is a more modern practice and its historical evolution is reviewed in the context of techniques and the personalities involved.

  4. Endovascular Management of Anterior Cranial Fossa Dural Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Mack, W.J; Gonzalez, N.R.; Jahan, R.; Vinuela, F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) of the anterior cranial fossa have traditionally been treated by open surgical disconnection. Safe navigation through the ophthalmic artery or fragile cortical veins has historically provided a barrier to effective endovascular occlusion of these lesions. Using current microcatheter technology and embolic materials, safe positioning within the distal ophthalmic artery, beyond the origin of the central retinal artery, is achievable. We describe two cases in which anterior cranial fossa dAVFs were treated by exclusively endovascular strategies, and highlight the pertinent technical and anatomic considerations. We discuss the clinical symptoms resulting from the differing venous drainage patterns. PMID:21561565

  5. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging: A guide and atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas provides a clinical guide to interpreting cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images. The book includes coverage of the cerebrum, temporal bone, and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, with more than 400 scan images depicting both normal anatomy and pathologic findings. Introductory chapters review the practical physics of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer guidelines for interpreting cranial MR scans, and provide coverage of each anatomic region of the cranium and spine. For each region, scans accompanied by captions, show normal anatomic sections matched with MR images. These are followed by MR scans depicting various disease states.

  6. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (<1%), mild, and self-limiting, consisting mainly of skin irritation under the electrodes and headaches. Often used as a stand-alone therapy, because results are usually seen from the first treatment, cranial electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy.

  7. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests. PMID:25023222

  8. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  9. Abducens nerve palsy in a patient with scrub typhus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, B; Panda, P; Revannasiddaiah, S; Bhardwaj, H

    2013-12-01

    Abducens nerve palsy is a known but rare complication of a few bacterial and viral infections like Mycoplasma pneumonia, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Hanta virus, herpes zoster, and measles. Abducens nerve palsy due to scrub typhus is extremely rare and so far only one case has been reported in the literature. Scrub typhus is a febrile illness caused by rickettsia, Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram negative intracellular obligate parasite which is endemic in Asia. This disease can present with wide range of clinical manifestations with involvement of any organ system, alone or in combination. Central nervous system involvement is very common and includes meningism, altered sensorium to focal neurological deficits. We present a rare manifestation of Scrub typhus in the form of sixth cranial nerve involvement which responded to the treatment with doxycycline.

  10. Fully Endoscopic Vascular Decompression of the Facial Nerve for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Joseph B.; Cha, Sung Tae; Shahinian, Hrayr K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm is an uncommon disorder manifesting as a unilateral, involuntary, sporadic contraction of the musculature innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. Although debated, the etiology of hemifacial spasm is generally accepted as compression of the facial nerve by vessels of the posterior circulation. Early surgical techniques were ineffective and fraught with morbidity. Over the past 25 years microvascular decompression surgery has allowed the safe and effective treatment of hemifacial spasm. Recent reports combining microsurgical and endoscopic techniques have documented the advantages of the endoscope in exposing the anatomy of this region. Enhanced visualization allows a less traumatic dissection and increases the surgeon's ability to locate nerve-vessel conflicts often difficult to identify through the limited view of the microscope. This article reviews the history of hemifacial spasm and describes the first three cases of fully endoscopic vascular decompression for hemifacial spasm, emphasizing the advantages of this novel surgical approach. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17167620

  11. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their... Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories (a) Identification. Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4305 - Powered compound cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered compound cranial drills, burrs, trephines... Surgical Devices § 882.4305 Powered compound cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories. (a) Identification. Powered compound cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting...

  13. [Cranial analysis for early treatment and the biodynamic concept of cranio-facial morphogenesis].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, M J; Desvignes, M; Romaniuk, B; Robialle, J; Revenu, M; Deshayes, B

    2002-12-01

    The understanding of the background of a malocclusion is essential especially in the cranial field. Statistics reinforce the choice of our cranial landmarks and the main lines of our cranial biometry which is really 3D. It marks the relationships between the cranium and the face. It expresses the relevance of diagnosing and treating under 6 years of age.

  14. Increased cranial capacity in hominid evolution and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chaline, Jean

    2003-08-01

    One of the major trends in primate evolution generally and hominid evolution in particular, is cranio-facial contraction accompanied by an increase in cranial capacity. Landmark-based morphometric methods are applied to adult skulls of great apes (Gorilla, Pan), australopithecines (Australopithecus and Paranthropus), and humans (Homo eragster, erectus, neanderthalensis, and sapiens). Morphological changes quantified by vector fields (Procrustes methods) indicate that these skull plans are characterized by distinctive degrees of cranio-facial contraction. These suggest the existence of three discrete skull organization plans: "great ape", "australopithecine" and "Homo". This paper focuses on the "Homo" skull bauplan and discusses the possible relationships between greatly increased cranial capacity and preeclampsia. The earliest species of the human lineage exhibit less cranio-facial contraction and smaller cranial capacity than Homo neanderthalensis and modern Homo sapiens. Neandertalization introduces a posterior elongation of the skull and leads to a large increase in cranial capacity in the last Neandertals, with values as large as in present-day H. sapiens. Consequently, a new biological hypothesis is proposed to account for the unexplained disappearance of H. neanderthalensis some 30000 years ago related to the possible appearance of preeclampsia as a factor affecting the survival of the species. PMID:12896818

  15. Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Rereddy, Shruthi K; Mattox, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and the posterior cranial fossa are exceedingly rare. Patients with these lesions may have a lower BMI compared to those with middle cranial fossa encephaloceles, but are otherwise demographically similar. This study recommends repair via a transtemporal approach to allow for examination of the entire posterior face of the temporal bone. Objective To describe cases of spontaneous posterior cranial fossa defects. Methods This study reviewed all cases of spontaneous posterior fossa defects presenting to a tertiary referral center over the last decade and described clinical presentation, imaging, operative findings, and outcomes. We also compared these lesions to those previously reported in the literature as well as the more common spontaneous encephaloceles of the middle cranial fossa. Results This study identified five cases with a mean age of 61.4 years, female-to-male ratio of 4:1, and a mean BMI of 31. Three cases presented with spontaneous pneumocephalus, one with CSF otorrhea, and one as an incidental imaging finding. Four defects were found medial to the sigmoid sinus and one was in the lateral retrosigmoid air cells.

  16. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Corey S; Jantz, Richard L

    2002-11-12

    In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology. PMID:12374854

  17. Developmental Regulation of the Growth Plate and Cranial Synchondrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Hu, M; Mishina, Y; Liu, F

    2016-10-01

    Long bones and the cranial base are both formed through endochondral ossification. Elongation of long bones is primarily through the growth plate, which is a cartilaginous structure at the end of long bones made up of chondrocytes. Growth plate chondrocytes are organized in columns along the longitudinal axis of bone growth. The cranial base is the growth center of the neurocranium. Synchondroses, consisting of mirror-image growth plates, are critical for cranial base elongation and development. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in determining the roles of the parathyroid hormone-related protein, Indian hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and Wnt signaling pathways in various aspects of skeletal development. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates the important role of the primary cilia signaling pathway in bone elongation. Here, we review the development of the growth plate and cranial synchondrosis and the regulation by the above-mentioned signaling pathways, highlighting the similarities and differences between these 2 structures. PMID:27250655

  18. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  19. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Corey S.; Jantz, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology. PMID:12374854

  20. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Corey S; Jantz, Richard L

    2002-11-12

    In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology.

  1. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  2. Evolution of the Cranial Computed Tomography Scan in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical charts for 34 children with a diagnosis of child abuse, who had cranial computed tomography scans performed, revealed that some scans initially interpreted as normal were subsequently reinterpreted as abnormal, and some children's repeat scannings were interpreted as abnormal, modifying the medical and legal…

  3. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  4. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  5. Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, E.

    2009-04-01

    The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are

  6. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education: STEM Graduate Students Bring Current Research into 7th-12th Grade Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Jackson, B. S.; Walker, R. M.; Schmitz, D.; Pierce, D.; Funderburk, W. K.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE), a NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) program at Mississippi State University, pairs STEM graduate students with local K-12 teachers to bring new inquiry and technology experiences to the classroom (www.gk12.msstate.edu). The graduate fellows prepare lessons for the students incorporating different facets of their research. The lessons vary in degree of difficulty according to the content covered in the classroom and the grade level of the students. The focus of each lesson is directed toward the individual research of the STEM graduate student using inquiry based designed activities. Scientific instruments that are used in STEM research (e.g. SkyMaster weather stations, GPS, portable SEM, Inclinometer, Soil Moisture Probe, Google Earth, ArcGIS Explorer) are also utilized by K-12 students in the activities developed by the graduate students. Creativity and problem solving skills are sparked by curiosity which leads to the discovery of new information. The graduate students work to enhance their ability to effectively communicate their research to members of society through the creation of research linked classroom activities, enabling the 7-12th grade students to connect basic processes used in STEM research with the required state and national science standards. The graduate students become respected role models for the high school students because of their STEM knowledge base and their passion for their research. Sharing enthusiasm for their chosen STEM field, as well as the application techniques to discover new ideas, the graduate students stimulate the interests of the classroom students and model authentic science process skills while highlighting the relevance of STEM research to K-12 student lives. The measurement of the student attitudes about science is gathered from pre and post interest surveys for the past four years. This partnership allows students, teachers, graduate students, and the public to

  7. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001). Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with the South American

  8. Cranial Anatomy and Palaeoneurology of the Archosaur Riojasuchus tenuisceps from the Los Colorados Formation, La Rioja, Argentina.

    PubMed

    von Baczko, Maria Belen; Desojo, Julia Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Riojasuchus tenuisceps Bonaparte 1967 is currently known from four specimens, including two complete skulls, collected in the late 1960s from the upper levels of the Los Colorados Formation (Late Triassic), La Rioja, Argentina. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the skulls of the holotype and a referred specimen of Riojasuchus tenuisceps and the repreparation of the latter allows recognition of new features for a detailed analysis of its cranial anatomy and its comparison with a wide variety of other archosauriform taxa. The diagnosis of Riojasuchus tenuisceps is emended and two autapomorphies are identified on the skull: (1) a deep antorbital fossa with its anterior and ventral edges almost coinciding with the same edges of the maxilla itself and (2) a suborbital fenestra equal in size to the palatine-pterygoid fenestra. Also, the first digital 3D reconstruction of the encephalon of Riojasuchus tenuisceps was carried out to study its neuroanatomy, showing a shape and cranial nerve disposition consistent to that of other pseudosuchians.

  9. Cranial Anatomy and Palaeoneurology of the Archosaur Riojasuchus tenuisceps from the Los Colorados Formation, La Rioja, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    von Baczko, Maria Belen; Desojo, Julia Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Riojasuchus tenuisceps Bonaparte 1967 is currently known from four specimens, including two complete skulls, collected in the late 1960s from the upper levels of the Los Colorados Formation (Late Triassic), La Rioja, Argentina. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the skulls of the holotype and a referred specimen of Riojasuchus tenuisceps and the repreparation of the latter allows recognition of new features for a detailed analysis of its cranial anatomy and its comparison with a wide variety of other archosauriform taxa. The diagnosis of Riojasuchus tenuisceps is emended and two autapomorphies are identified on the skull: (1) a deep antorbital fossa with its anterior and ventral edges almost coinciding with the same edges of the maxilla itself and (2) a suborbital fenestra equal in size to the palatine-pterygoid fenestra. Also, the first digital 3D reconstruction of the encephalon of Riojasuchus tenuisceps was carried out to study its neuroanatomy, showing a shape and cranial nerve disposition consistent to that of other pseudosuchians. PMID:26849433

  10. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations.

  11. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.

  12. Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Extended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa. Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings Cranial histology, morphology and computer tomography reveal patterns of internal skull development that show the purported diagnostic characters for the pachycephalosaurids Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are ontogenetically derived features. Coronal histological sections of the frontoparietal dome of an adult Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reveal a dense structure composed of metaplastic bone with a variety of extremely fibrous and acellular tissue. Coronal histological sections and computer tomography of a skull and frontoparietal dome of Stygimoloch spinifer reveal an open intrafrontal suture indicative of a subadult stage of development. These dinosaurs employed metaplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in extreme cranial alterations during late stages of growth. We propose that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon and represent an ontogenetic series united by shared morphology and increasing skull length. Conclusions/Significance Dracorex hogwartsia (juvenile) and Stygimoloch spinifer (subadult) are reinterpreted as younger growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (adult). This synonymy reduces the number of pachycephalosaurid taxa from the Upper Cretaceous of North America

  13. Incidence of Intracranial Hemorrhage After a Cranial Operation

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Robert; Sparrow, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of patients who underwent a cranial operation and postoperatively suffered an intracranial hemorrhage significant enough to require evacuation. Materials & methods  3,109 cranial operations were performed at Houston Methodist Hospital (Texas Medical Center campus) between January 2009 and December 2013. Of these, 59 cases required a second operation for evacuation of an intracranial hemorrhage. The information gathered included the patients’ age, gender, past medical history, medications and laboratory data, initial diagnosis, date/type of first and second operations, duration of hospitalization, discharge condition, and discharge destination. Results The study found a 1.90% rate of a postoperative hemorrhage significant enough to require evacuation after a cranial operation. The average age in the cohort requiring reoperation was 63 +/- 14 years with 42 male and 17 female. Hematoma evacuations were performed at various time intervals depending on the pathology treated at the initial operation. The time to second operation was 2.7 days after intraparenchymal hematoma evacuation, 6.0 days after cerebrovascular surgery, 6.2 days after tumor surgery and 9.7 days after subdural hematoma evacuation. The rate of postoperative hematoma development was 9.1% after a subdural hematoma evacuation, while it was only 1.1% in all other operations. Overall, those requiring hematoma evacuation had a 15% mortality rate, 64% were non-ambulatory, and 54% were discharged to long-term acute care facility, skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation facility or hospice. Conclusions  Neurological outcomes were poor in patients who underwent a cranial operation and required a second operation to remove a hematoma. This study suggests close observation of elderly males after a cranial operation, especially after subdural hematoma evacuation, and longer observation time for patients undergoing subdural hematoma evacuation than intraparenchymal

  14. Peripheral nerve response to injury.

    PubMed

    Steed, Martin B

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons caring for patients who have sustained a nerve injury to a branch of the peripheral trigeminal nerve must possess a basic understanding of the response of the peripheral nerves to trauma. The series of events that subsequently take place are largely dependent on the injury type and severity. Regeneration of the peripheral nerve is possible in many instances and future manipulation of the regenerative microenvironment will lead to advances in the management of these difficult injuries.

  15. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  16. Optic Nerve Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire. What is optic nerve ... nystagmus. In older patients, peripheral vision and color vision assessment ... around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic ...

  17. Intra-operative electrooculographic monitoring to prevent post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Veena; Bharadwaj, Suparna; Chandramouli, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intra-operative identification and preservation of extraocular motor nerves is one of the main goals of surgeries for skull base tumours and this is done by monitoring the extraocular movement (EOM). Intra-operative electromyographic monitoring has been reported, but it is a complex and skilful process. Electrooculography (EOG) is a simple and reliable technique for monitoring EOMs. We aimed to assess the utility of EOG monitoring in preventing extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, intra-operative EOG recordings were obtained using disposable needle electrodes placed on the periorbital skin and the polarity of the waves noted for interpretation. Triggered as well as continuous EOG responses were recorded after monopolar electrode stimulation of cranial nerve (CN) during tumour removal which helped the surgeon with careful dissection and avoiding potential nerve injuries. Results: Of the 11 cases monitored, oculomotor and abducent nerves were identified in all cases, but the trochlear nerve could not be definitively identified. Six patients had no pre- or post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction. The other five patients had pre-existing deficits before surgery, which recovered completely in two, significantly in one, and did not improve in two patients at 3–6 months follow-up. Conclusions: EOG was found to be a simple and reliable method of monitoring extraocular motor nerves (CNs III and VI) intraoperatively. PMID:27601738

  18. Intra-operative electrooculographic monitoring to prevent post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Veena; Bharadwaj, Suparna; Chandramouli, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intra-operative identification and preservation of extraocular motor nerves is one of the main goals of surgeries for skull base tumours and this is done by monitoring the extraocular movement (EOM). Intra-operative electromyographic monitoring has been reported, but it is a complex and skilful process. Electrooculography (EOG) is a simple and reliable technique for monitoring EOMs. We aimed to assess the utility of EOG monitoring in preventing extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, intra-operative EOG recordings were obtained using disposable needle electrodes placed on the periorbital skin and the polarity of the waves noted for interpretation. Triggered as well as continuous EOG responses were recorded after monopolar electrode stimulation of cranial nerve (CN) during tumour removal which helped the surgeon with careful dissection and avoiding potential nerve injuries. Results: Of the 11 cases monitored, oculomotor and abducent nerves were identified in all cases, but the trochlear nerve could not be definitively identified. Six patients had no pre- or post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction. The other five patients had pre-existing deficits before surgery, which recovered completely in two, significantly in one, and did not improve in two patients at 3–6 months follow-up. Conclusions: EOG was found to be a simple and reliable method of monitoring extraocular motor nerves (CNs III and VI) intraoperatively.

  19. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  20. National Society of Black Physicists XXV Annual Day of Scientific Lectures and 21st Annual Meeting - NSBP '98: The Next Generation/12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students - NCPBS '98: Physics/Life in Motion

    SciTech Connect

    MacKellar, Alan

    1999-02-28

    The 12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) March 4-8, 1998 in Lexington, Ky. The Proceedings consists of scientific talks and abstracts given by NSBP members and students attending the NCBPS meeting. One joint session of general scientific interest was held, with NCBPS students, NSBP members, and about 75 high school students from the state of Kentucky present. NCBPS session included ''How to get into Graduate School'', ''How to Survive in Graduate School'', and a Panel on ''Opportunities for Physics Graduates.'' The report by AIP: ''Survey of Participants of the 12th Annual NCBPS'' is included in the Proceedings.