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Sample records for 12th rib fat

  1. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  2. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  3. Early weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance of angus x simmental heifers and the relationship of 12th rib fat and marbling score to feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wertz, E; Berge, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S

    2001-07-01

    Early-weaned Angus x Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effects of postweaning nutritional management on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition to the feed efficiency among heifers fed for a high-quality market. Sixteen heifers were weaned at 73+/-5.5 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 18 mo before entering the feedlot (early-weaned-P). Eighty heifers from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 71+/-5.5 d of age and allowed either ad libitum access to a 25% concentrate diet (early-weaned-25C) or limit-fed a 90% concentrate diet (early-weaned-90C) to achieve a similar ADG. Following a 119-d growing period, 16 early-weaned-90C and 16 early-weaned-25C calves were paired based on BW and growth rate and individually fed during the finishing period along with the early-weaned-P heifers. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat were recorded at approximately 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Feed efficiency was regressed against s.c. and i.m. fat, and i.m. fat was regressed on s.c. fat. Despite a similar ADG, early-weaned-90C calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.05) in the feedlot than early-weaned-25C calves. Heifers finished as yearlings tended (P < or = 0.10) to gain faster but gained less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than early-weaned-90C heifers finished as calves. The rate of s.c. and i.m. fat deposition was similar between early-weaned-90C and early-weaned-25C heifer calves. The calves were grouped together for comparison to yearlings. Feed efficiency decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.01) as s.c. fat cover increased. The rate at which feed efficiency decreased relative to increasing s.c. fat cover was similar regardless of age at feedlot entry. However, heifers finished as calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than yearlings at any given fat thickness. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as i.m. fat increased

  4. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  5. Fractured Ribs and the CT Funky Fat Sign of Diaphragmatic Rupture.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Iclal; Strollo, Diane C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and surgeons. In recent years, multidetector CT has markedly improved the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury in polytrauma patients. Herein, we describe two cases of subacute presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture from a penetrating rib fracture and subsequent intrathoracic herniation of omental fat, representing the CT "funky fat" sign. PMID:27429823

  6. Fractured Ribs and the CT Funky Fat Sign of Diaphragmatic Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Diane C.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and surgeons. In recent years, multidetector CT has markedly improved the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury in polytrauma patients. Herein, we describe two cases of subacute presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture from a penetrating rib fracture and subsequent intrathoracic herniation of omental fat, representing the CT “funky fat” sign. PMID:27429823

  7. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  8. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10th rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10th rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9th rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9th rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9th and 10th intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10th rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9th rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10th rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10th rib to impinge on the 9th intercostal nerves, causing pain. PMID:27413484

  9. Association of pig UCP3 gene mutations and back fat thickness in the sixth and seventh rib.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Brahi, Olafemi Hermann Dave; Zhao, Xingbo; Xu, Ningying; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2012-02-01

    Accumulated studies have documented extensive links between UCP3 polymorphisms and pig productive traits, and quantitative trait loci linkage results, on the other hand, provided extensive evidences showing that UCP3 was in the core of several QTLs for carcass and meat quality traits. In this research, we screened two substitutions in coding sequence and one 9-base continuous mutated site in 3'UTR of pig UCP3 gene using the reference population of 293 pigs which were F (2) generation of hybrids between Chinese native Jinhua pigs and European Pietrain. The two missense mutations of G1406A in Exon 3 and T3602C in Exon 5 which led to changes in the G150R and M259T, respectively, were digested by SmaI and introduced Tth111I separately for genotype analysis, and the 9-base continuous mutated site in the 3'UTR was analyzed by an AvaI cleavage. As a result, the 9-base continuous mutated site of 3'UTR manifested significantly close association with the backfat thickness at the sixth and seventh rib, but the polymorphisms of G1406A and T3602C were not associated significantly with any of the seven carcass traits. The same results were shown by RT-qPCR and western blotting. These findings inferred that UCP3 probably has tissue-specific effects on pig carcass traits.

  10. Random regression models for the prediction of days to weight, ultrasound rib eye area, and ultrasound back fat depth in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Speidel, S E; Peel, R K; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2016-02-01

    Genetic evaluation research designed to reduce the required days to a specified end point has received very little attention in pertinent scientific literature, given that its economic importance was first discussed in 1957. There are many production scenarios in today's beef industry, making a prediction for the required number of days to a single end point a suboptimal option. Random regression is an attractive alternative to calculate days to weight (DTW), days to ultrasound back fat (DTUBF), and days to ultrasound rib eye area (DTUREA) genetic predictions that could overcome weaknesses of a single end point prediction. The objective of this study was to develop random regression approaches for the prediction of the DTW, DTUREA, and DTUBF. Data were obtained from the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada. Data consisted of records on 1,324 feedlot cattle spanning 1999 to 2007. Individual animals averaged 5.77 observations with weights, ultrasound rib eye area (UREA), ultrasound back fat depth (UBF), and ages ranging from 293 to 863 kg, 73.39 to 129.54 cm, 1.53 to 30.47 mm, and 276 to 519 d, respectively. Random regression models using Legendre polynomials were used to regress age of the individual on weight, UREA, and UBF. Fixed effects in the model included an overall fixed regression of age on end point (weight, UREA, and UBF) nested within breed to account for the mean relationship between age and weight as well as a contemporary group effect consisting of breed of the animal (Angus, Charolais, and Charolais sired), feedlot pen, and year of measure. Likelihood ratio tests were used to determine the appropriate random polynomial order. Use of the quadratic polynomial did not account for any additional genetic variation in days for DTW ( > 0.11), for DTUREA ( > 0.18), and for DTUBF ( > 0.20) when compared with the linear random polynomial. Heritability estimates from the linear random regression for DTW ranged from 0.54 to 0

  11. 12th International CHARGE syndrome conference proceedings.

    PubMed

    Martin, Donna M; Salem-Hartshorne, Nancy; Hartshorne, Timothy S; Scacheri, Peter C; Hefner, Margaret A

    2016-04-01

    The CHARGE Syndrome Foundation holds an International conference for families and professionals every other summer. In July, 2015, the 12th meeting was held in Schaumburg, Illinois, at the Renaissance Schaumburg Hotel. Day one of the 4-day conference was dedicated to professionals caring for and researching various aspects of CHARGE, including education, medical management, animal models, and stem cell-based approaches to understanding and treating individuals with CHARGE. Here, we summarize presentations from the meeting, including a synopsis of each of the three different breakout sessions (Medical/Clinical, Basic Science/CHD7, and Education), followed by a list of abstracts and authors for both platform and poster presentations. PMID:26754144

  12. Ribbed Swimsuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Langley Research Center's turbulent-drag reduction technology, as applied to airplanes and the winning yacht in America's Cup, finds another application: swimwear. The Strush SR swimsuit features silicon ribbing or "riblets" at the chest and buttocks, reducing friction in the water. Combined with innovations by its manufacturer, Arena North America, the company says the technology makes the suit 10 to 15 percent faster than any other world class swimsuit. The publicity for the Strush SR is handled by Suter Communications, Inc. *Company no longer exists (12/5/96).

  13. Panel Recommends State-Level NAEP for 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    A national commission formed to review the future of the 12th grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has recommended that the nation's primary barometer of student performance should expand dramatically to provide mandatory state results on the achievement of 12th graders and to measure their readiness for college, employment,…

  14. Determining the critical size of a rabbit rib segmental bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengzhen; Chen, Kun; Hou, Lei; Li, Keyi; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    In order to establish and standardize the rabbit rib segmental bone defect model, it is of vital importance to determine rabbit rib critical size defect (CSD). According to the general time needed for spontaneous long-bone regeneration, three-month observation period was set to determine the CSD. The rabbit rib segmental bone defects with different sizes from 1 to 5 cm with or without periosteum were performed in the eighth rib of 4-month-old male New Zealand rabbits and underwent X-ray examinations at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks postoperatively. The gross and histological examinations at postoperative week 12 were evaluated, which showed that the critical sizes in the rabbit rib models with and without periosteum were 5 and 2 cm, respectively. This study provides prerequisite data for establishing rabbit rib CSD model and evaluating bone materials using this model.

  15. Determining the critical size of a rabbit rib segmental bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengzhen; Chen, Kun; Hou, Lei; Li, Keyi; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    In order to establish and standardize the rabbit rib segmental bone defect model, it is of vital importance to determine rabbit rib critical size defect (CSD). According to the general time needed for spontaneous long-bone regeneration, three-month observation period was set to determine the CSD. The rabbit rib segmental bone defects with different sizes from 1 to 5 cm with or without periosteum were performed in the eighth rib of 4-month-old male New Zealand rabbits and underwent X-ray examinations at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks postoperatively. The gross and histological examinations at postoperative week 12 were evaluated, which showed that the critical sizes in the rabbit rib models with and without periosteum were 5 and 2 cm, respectively. This study provides prerequisite data for establishing rabbit rib CSD model and evaluating bone materials using this model. PMID:27699063

  16. Intraosseous Angiolipoma of the Rib.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ali; Sezen, Celal Bugra; Ertunc, Onur; Tastepe, Abdullah Irfan

    2015-12-01

    Angiolipomas are a subgroup of lipomas and are rarely observed benign tumours in which mature fat tissue and angiomatous elements exist jointly. Costa-induced angiolipomas are rarer. A male patient aged 46 years consulted our clinic due to severe pain in his left side. The patient's X-ray showed a lobulated area with increased density (bone mass) in the left upper zone of the lung. A lesion in the fourth rib was excised with a left thoracotomy. Pathological diagnosis was reported as angiolipoma.

  17. Making New Links, 12th Grade and beyond: Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research, convened by the Governing Board, consists of seven members with expertise in a variety of measurement and policy areas related to preparedness. The purpose of the Panel was to assist the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) in planning research and validity studies that will enable the…

  18. The Future of 12th Grade NAEP: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for NAEP 12th Grade Assessments in 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The task of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for the the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 12th Grade Assessments in 2009 addresses three policy areas: (1) Conducting assessment at the state level in 12th grade; (2) Reporting on 12th grade student preparedness for college-credit coursework, training for employment and entrance…

  19. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult.

    PubMed

    Pezowicz, Celina; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of thoracic biomechanics is important for complete examination and control of chest behaviour under conditions of physiological and pathological work, and under the impact of external forces leading to traumatic loading of the chest. The purpose of the study was to analyse the mechanical properties of human ribs obtained from individuals under the age of 25 with scoliosis deformation and to correlate them with geometric properties of ribs. Thirty three fragments of ribs (9th to 12th) were tested in three-point bending. Rib fragments were collected intraoperatively from female patients treated for scoliosis in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. The results were used to determine the maximum failure force, stiffness, and Young's modulus. A significant relationship was found between the age and elastic modulus of the ribs. The analysis was carried out for two age groups, i.e., between the ages of 10 and 15 and between the ages of 16 and 22, and statistically significant differences were obtained for Young's modulus (p = 0.0001) amounting to, respectively, 2.79 ± 1.34 GPa for the first group and 7.44 ± 2.85 GPa for the second group. The results show a significant impact of age on the mechanical properties of ribs.

  20. A novel method for the 3-D reconstruction of scoliotic ribs from frontal and lateral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Seoud, Lama; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert; Dansereau, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Among the external manifestations of scoliosis, the rib hump, which is associated with the ribs' deformities and rotations, constitutes the most disturbing aspect of the scoliotic deformity for patients. A personalized 3-D model of the rib cage is important for a better evaluation of the deformity, and hence, a better treatment planning. A novel method for the 3-D reconstruction of the rib cage, based only on two standard radiographs, is proposed in this paper. For each rib, two points are extrapolated from the reconstructed spine, and three points are reconstructed by stereo radiography. The reconstruction is then refined using a surface approximation. The method was evaluated using clinical data of 13 patients with scoliosis. A comparison was conducted between the reconstructions obtained with the proposed method and those obtained by using a previous reconstruction method based on two frontal radiographs. A first comparison criterion was the distances between the reconstructed ribs and the surface topography of the trunk, considered as the reference modality. The correlation between ribs axial rotation and back surface rotation was also evaluated. The proposed method successfully reconstructed the ribs of the 6th-12th thoracic levels. The evaluation results showed that the 3-D configuration of the new rib reconstructions is more consistent with the surface topography and provides more accurate measurements of ribs axial rotation.

  1. Ribbed electrode substrates

    DOEpatents

    Breault, Richard D.; Goller, Glen J.

    1983-01-01

    A ribbed substrate for an electrochemical cell electrode is made from a mixture of carbon fibers and carbonizable resin and has a mean pore size in the ribs which is 60-75% of the mean pore size of the web portions of the substrate which interconnect the ribs. Preferably the mean pore size of the web portion is 25-45 microns; and, if the substrate includes edge seals parallel to the ribs, the edge seals preferably have a mean pore size no greater than about ten microns. Most preferably the substrate has the same ratio of carbon fibers to polymeric carbon in all areas, including the ribs, webs, and edge seals. A substrate according to the present invention will have better overall performance than prior art substrates and minimizes the substrate thickness required for the substrate to perform all its functions well.

  2. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  3. PREFACE: 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    This special issue presents a collection of refereed plenary and review papers presented at the 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics held in Nice, France, 25 29 October, 2004 (ICPP2004). The primary aims of ICPPs are: To advance all fields of plasma physics worldwide. To promote strong linkage with other areas of science in order to highlight the interdisciplinary character of the field. To strongly encourage participation by all members of the plasma physics community, in particular by young plasma physicists, women plasma physicists and plasma physicists from developing countries. The 12th ICPP was organized on behalf of the International Advisory Committee (IAC). About 330 papers (invited and contributed) were presented. These papers covered the four topics: Plasma applications Space and astrophysical plasmas Fundamental plasma physics Fusion plasmas Most of the contributions are available online at the following address: http://hal.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ICPP2004/en/. The Congress was underwritten by the Association Euratom CEA. The organizers wish to thank the main sponsors: the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, the Region Provence Alpes Côtes d'Azur, the city of Nice and the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For this special issue, the Programme Committee selected 41 speakers from about 100 proposals received from the IAC, to present invited talks. Some of them provided a written paper. Refereeing of these papers was conducted by the guest editors, following the normal refereeing standards of the journal.

  4. 12th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    The Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) had its 12th annual meeting in Villa Clythia, Fréjus, France, from 16th to 18th January 2013. This series of meetings is a collaboration between the Physical Acoustics Group (PAG) of the Institute of Physics and the Groupe d'Acoustique Physique, Sous-marine et UltraSonore (GAPSUS) of the Société Française d'Acoustique. This year, attendees got the opportunity to see the French Riviera with its Mediterranean vegetation covered by a nice thick snow layer. The participants heard 34 excellent oral presentations and saw 3 posters covering an exciting and diverse range of subjects and of frequencies, from ultrasonic wave propagation in chocolate to metamaterials applied to seismic waves for protecting buildings. Among them, invited talks were given by Pr F A Duck ( Enhanced healing by ultrasound: clinical effects and mechanisms), Pr. J-C Valiére, who actually gave two invited talks ( 1. Measurement of audible acoustic particle velocity using laser: Principles, signal processing and applications, 2. Acoustic pots in ancient and medieval buildings: Literary analysis of ancient texts and comparison with recent observations in French churches), Dr P Huthwaite ( Ultrasonic imaging through the resolution of inverse problems), Dr X Lurton ( Underwater acoustic systems on oceanographic research vessels: principles and applications), Dr S Guenneau ( From platonics to seismic metamaterials). For the fifth consecutive year AFPAC is followed by the publication of its proceedings with 12 peer-reviewed papers which cover the most recent research developments in the field of Physical Acoustics in the UK and France. Alain Lhémery (CEA, France) and Nader Saffari (UCL, United Kingdom) French Riviera 12th AFPAC — Villa Clythia, Fréjus (French Riviera), the 17th of January 2013

  5. Chondrosarcoma of a rib

    PubMed Central

    Sangma, Mima Maychet B.; Dasiah, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of a rib is a very rare malignant tumor of the bone. Most patients were present with an enlarging painful anterior chest wall tumor. We present a case of an asymptomatic 29-years old female with a tumor size of 10 cm × 12 cm on the left anterior chest wall involving the 8th rib. CT scan with intravenous contrast is the gold standard for radiological imaging and planning for surgery. Since chondrosarcoma is less sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgical treatment with extensive resection with a sufficient margin is considered first line treatment. PMID:25841154

  6. The Mars 6 Landing, 12th March 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    The Soviet Union sent five landers to Mars: 2MV3 in 1962; Mars 2 and 3 in 1971 and Mars 6 and 7 in 1973. Influenced by astrobiologist Gavril Tikhov, early Soviet designers believed that it would be possible to reach the surface of Mars using large parachutes. When the atmosphere was found to be much thinner than anticipated, the landers were redesigned to incorporate rockets. The Mars 2 and 3 missions were impeded by a poor level of navigational knowledge, making it difficult to achieve precise entry trajectories for the subsequent touchdowns. Despite that, Mars 3 achieved the first soft landing on Mars in 1971 and a brief surface transmission. Two years later, the Soviet Union achieved the first temperature and pressure profile of the atmosphere of Mars down to the surface when Mars 6 landed in the Mare Erythraeum on 12th March 1974. Because of internal debates within the Soviet space programme and the nature of news management at the time, the achievement of Mars 6 has been obscured.

  7. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  8. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  9. The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Cushion, Melanie T; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2013-01-01

    The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms.

  10. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  11. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  12. 78 FR 24069 - Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port Canaveral Harbor; Port Canaveral, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port... Canaveral, Florida during the 12th Annual Saltwater Classic. The event is scheduled to take place...

  13. The diagnostic utility of rib series in assessing rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Tiwana, Muhammad Hamza; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Maddu, Kiran Kumar; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-04-01

    Rib series rarely add information to the posteroanterior (PA) film for the diagnosis of rib fractures. In this investigation, we evaluated the utility of rib X-rays using turnaround time (TAT), radiation exposure, and cost-efficiency as the key parameters. This investigation was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. We included patients who had rib series performed for suspected rib fractures. TAT for patients was calculated from the time exam was ordered by the emergency department (ED) physician/staff to time the report was finalized by the attending radiologist. Effective radiation dose for rib series was calculated as a summation of radiation dose from the standard rib series images for each patient. Cost-efficiency was determined based on the number of interventions that took place as a result of a complicated study. Our investigation consisted of 422 patients, 208 females aged (57 ± 20.8) and 214 males aged (48 ± 17.3). A total of 74(17.5 %) abnormal findings were noted, out of which only 1(0.23 %) underwent management change. The mean turnaround time for patients undergoing rib series had a value of 133.5 (±129.8) min as opposed to a single chest PA of 61.8(± 64) min. Average effective radiation dose for a rib series was 0.105 (±0.04) mSv, whereas average effective radiation dose of a single chest PA was 0.02 mSv. Dedicated rib series has a low-yield diagnostic value as it pertains to management change. The overall impact on patient care based on our findings is small when compared to the risks associated with prolonged TAT, repeated exposure to radiation, and extensive medical costs.

  14. Highlights of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Anastasia; Dorbala, Sharmila; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2015-09-01

    The 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT was held from 3 to 5 May 2015 in Madrid, Spain. In this article, the three Congress Program Committee Chairs summarize selected highlights of the presented abstracts.

  15. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  16. Rebound rib: stress-induced first rib fracture.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A D; Beswick, D R; Morse, S D

    1983-03-01

    Reported are two cases of stress-induced fracture of the first rib in young, healthy basketball players. Presumably the fractures resulted from violent contraction of the scalene musculature. This is the usual method of production of stress-induced first rib fracture, but basketball-related cases have not been reported previously. This entity probably is underdiagnosed, and is amenable to conservative outpatient management in most cases.

  17. Environmental Education in High School 9th-12th Biology Course Curricula Started to Be Implemented in 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula started to be implemented in 2007 with regard to concepts and attainments addressing to environmental education. In this regard, 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula were analyzed using content-analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods. 9th-12th grade…

  18. An unexpected complication of titanium rib clips.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Surgical stabilization of the rib fractures has been successfully performed for the management of pain in multiple rib fractures, fixation of chronically painful nonunion, reduction of overriding ribs, and flail chest cases. Herein we report a patient who was treated with titanium rib clips after a motor vehicle accident leading to pulmonary parenchymal laceration and multiple painful rib fractures. Three of the rib clips were broken 4 months after the operation. The patient underwent the second operation for restabilization of the broken ribs. We review the relevant literature, with particular emphasis on the management of this complication.

  19. Pleuropulmonary melioidosis with osteomyelitis rib

    PubMed Central

    Neliyathodi, Suhail; Thazhathethil, Abdul Nazar; Pallivalappil, Lisha; Balakrishnan, Deepu

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a multiorgan infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Few cases have been reported from south India. This is a case report of pleuropulmonary melioidosis with rib osteomyelitis. PMID:25624602

  20. Development and evaluation of a regression equation of prediction for fat-free soft tissue in heterogenous populations of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Leymaster, K A; MacNeil, M D

    1995-12-01

    Regression equations to predict kilograms of fat-free soft tissue (the sum of water and protein from chemical analyses) were developed from data collected on 526 steers and heifers. Straightbred animals representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds of cattle contributed to the data set. Cattle ranged in slaughter weight and age from approximately 350 to 575 kg and from 13 to 23 mo, respectively. Diets (100% ground alfalfa, 67% ground alfalfa and 33% ground corn or 33% ground alfalfa and 67% ground corn) were cross-classified with breed and sex. Estimative traits included in the equation were warm carcass weight, fat depth at the 12th rib, and body impedance. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. The prediction equation accounted for 94% of the variation in fat-free soft tissue of the carcass. Adjusting for breed-sex-diet contemporary groups increased the R2 value by 2% units. The prediction model was evaluated using data collected on 65 steers sired by Charolais or by Hereford bulls at the Ft Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT). Postweaning feeding strategies and slaughter ages varied among these animals. Carcass weight, back fat depth, and resistive impedance measures were recorded. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. Values of estimator variables recorded at Ft. Keogh were used in the regression equation to predict fat-free soft tissue for each animal. The values for kilogram of fat-free soft tissue determined from chemical analysis were regressed on predicted fat-free soft tissue. the results indicate that fat-free soft tissue of carcasses can be accurately predicted using estimative traits that do not diminish carcass value. PMID:8655437

  1. Development and evaluation of a regression equation of prediction for fat-free soft tissue in heterogenous populations of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Leymaster, K A; MacNeil, M D

    1995-12-01

    Regression equations to predict kilograms of fat-free soft tissue (the sum of water and protein from chemical analyses) were developed from data collected on 526 steers and heifers. Straightbred animals representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds of cattle contributed to the data set. Cattle ranged in slaughter weight and age from approximately 350 to 575 kg and from 13 to 23 mo, respectively. Diets (100% ground alfalfa, 67% ground alfalfa and 33% ground corn or 33% ground alfalfa and 67% ground corn) were cross-classified with breed and sex. Estimative traits included in the equation were warm carcass weight, fat depth at the 12th rib, and body impedance. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. The prediction equation accounted for 94% of the variation in fat-free soft tissue of the carcass. Adjusting for breed-sex-diet contemporary groups increased the R2 value by 2% units. The prediction model was evaluated using data collected on 65 steers sired by Charolais or by Hereford bulls at the Ft Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT). Postweaning feeding strategies and slaughter ages varied among these animals. Carcass weight, back fat depth, and resistive impedance measures were recorded. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. Values of estimator variables recorded at Ft. Keogh were used in the regression equation to predict fat-free soft tissue for each animal. The values for kilogram of fat-free soft tissue determined from chemical analysis were regressed on predicted fat-free soft tissue. the results indicate that fat-free soft tissue of carcasses can be accurately predicted using estimative traits that do not diminish carcass value.

  2. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    PubMed

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  3. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    PubMed

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout. PMID:26613906

  4. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  5. Why 12th Grade Must Be Redesigned Now--and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This first report in a new series by Jobs For the Future (JFF) provides the rationale for restructuring 12th grade and tying it more tightly to the first year of college through new high school and college partnerships. The paper proposes a new common benchmark of readiness that high schools and colleges can work together to meet to ensure…

  6. Crime and the Law: A 12th Grade Social Studies Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Education, Madison.

    The document outlines a semester-long 12th grade study of criminal law which is accomplished through an examination of Wisconsin and constitutional law. Six sections comprise the teaching outline. Section I, The Legislative Process, considers the legislature, various statutes and terminologies, revision of legislation, and penalties. Section II,…

  7. Engaging the Learner. Annual Instructional Technology Conference (12th, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 1-3, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carter F.; Schneider, Gary F.; Kontos, George; Kuzat, Hanan; Janossy, James; Thurmond, Karen; Moore, Beth; Whitledge, Lynn; Speer, Priscilla; Harber, Annette; Bailey, Kathrine; Penney, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    The following is a collection of papers presented at the 12th annual Instructional Technology Conference at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This conference is an opportunity for higher-education professionals from across the country to discuss opportunities and challenges presented by instructional technology. The…

  8. Analysis of rib dielectric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagli, N.; Fonstad, C. G.

    1985-04-01

    It is noted in the present analysis of rib dielectric waveguides on the basis of a mode-matching technique that, when the constituent slab guides support only one guided mode, the cutoff condition for the higher-order modes is the same as the result yielded by the effective dielectric constant method. When the rib region is thick enough to support two guided slab modes, however, the cutoff conditions are significantly different. Universal design curves are obtained for this case, and the results obtained are compared with the Marcatili (1974) theory for such structures.

  9. An uncommon congenital anomaly of the ribs

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Zunimol, Mohamed Puthiyaveettil

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic rib is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the ribs. Here, we present the case of a 10-year-old boy with asthma who, on routine evaluation, was found to have this anomaly. PMID:27051123

  10. Radial rib antenna surface deviation analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed which analyzes any radial rib antenna with ribs radiating from a central hub. The program has the capability for calculating the antenna surface contour (reversed pillowing effect), the optimum rib shape for minimizing the rms surface error, and the actual rms surface error. Rib deflection due to mesh tension and catenary cable tension can also be compensated for, and the pattern from which the mesh gores are cut can be determined.

  11. Technical note: Prediction of chemical rib section composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Zebu beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Amaral, P M; Mariz, L D S; Sathler, D F T; Filho, S C Valadares; Silva, F F; Silva, B C; Pacheco, M C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-06-01

    It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure. For the proposed models, 93 ribs were randomly selected to calculate the new regression equations, and 23 different ribs were randomly selected to validate the regressions. The rib from left carcasses were taken from Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls from 3 different studies and scanned using DXA equipment (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in the Health Division at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, Brazil). The outputs of the DXA report were DXA lean (g), DXA fat free mass (g), DXA fat mass (g), and DXA bone mineral content (BMC; g). After being scanned, the rib were dissected, ground, and chemically analyzed for total ether extract (EE), CP, water, and ash content. The predictions of rib fat and protein from previous published equations were different ( < 0.01) from the observed composition. New equations were established through leave-one-out cross-validation using the REG procedure in SAS. The equations were as follows: lean (g) = 37.082 + 0.907× DXA lean ( = 0.95); fat free mass (g) = 103.224 + 0.869 × DXA fat free mass ( = 0.93); EE mass (g) = 122.404 + 1.119 × DXA fat mass ( = 0.86); and ash mass (g) = 18.722 + 1.016 × DXA BMC ( = 0.39). The equations were validated using Mayer's test, the concordance correlation coefficient, and the mean square error of prediction for decomposition. For both equations, Mayer's test

  12. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  13. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  14. Rib forming tool for tubing

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  15. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  16. The tagged RIBs facility of LNS

    SciTech Connect

    De Napoli, M.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Calabretta, L.; Sfienti, C.

    2007-11-30

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) are produced In-Flight at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by projectile fragmentation on light targets at intermediate energies. RIBs rates up to 10{sup 5} ions/sec have been measured and about 95% of secondary beam has been transported up to one of the experimental caves. The {delta}E-ToF identification method was successfully applied to tag, event-by-event, the RIBs before the interaction with a secondary reaction target.

  17. Turbine bucket natural frequency tuning rib

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; Norton, Paul Francis; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Jacala, Ariel Caesar-Prepena

    2002-01-01

    A tuning rib is added preferably in the aft cavity of a cored turbine bucket to alter the bucket's natural frequencies. The tuning rib may be a solid rib or a segmented rib and is particularly suited for altering high order frequency modes such as 2T, 4F and 1-3S. As such, detrimental crossings of natural bucket frequencies and gas turbine stimuli can be avoided to thereby improve the reliability of a gas turbine without impacting other features of the bucket that are important to the performance of the gas turbine.

  18. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Levinsohn, E.M.; Sternick, A.; Echeverria, T.S.; Yuan, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    Two cases of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the rib are presented. In one case the etiologic agent was Staphylococcus aureus coagulase-positive and in the other it was Bacteroides corrodens. Although an uncommon disease, hematogenous osteomyelitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of destructive lesions of the rib. Anaerobic and aerobic cultures should be obtained for bacteriologic analysis.

  19. Jet flow on ribbed curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, Iu. A.; Sokolova, I. N.; Shumilkina, E. A.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of using microribbing to reduce turbulent friction in Coanda flows over curved surfaces. It is shown that ribs make it possible to reduce the effect of a jet impinging on an obstacle and to prevent the Coanda effect when jet attachment is undesirable. The optimal rib parameters are determined.

  20. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  1. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, a

  2. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  3. A rib-specific multimodal registration algorithm for fused unfolded rib visualization using PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Jens N.; Kopaczka, Marcin; Wimmer, Andreas; Platsch, Günther; Declerck, Jérôme

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory motion affects the alignment of PET and CT volumes from PET/CT examinations in a non-rigid manner. This becomes particularly apparent if reviewing fine anatomical structures such as ribs when assessing bone metastases, which frequently occur in many advanced cancers. To make this routine diagnostic task more efficient, a fused unfolded rib visualization for 18F-NaF PET/CT is presented. It allows to review the whole rib cage in a single image. This advanced visualization is enabled by a novel rib-specific registration algorithm that rigidly optimizes the local alignment of each individual rib in both modalities based on a matched filter response function. More specifically, rib centerlines are automatically extracted from CT and subsequently individually aligned to the corresponding bone-specific PET rib uptake pattern. The proposed method has been validated on 20 PET/CT scans acquired at different clinical sites. It has been demonstrated that the presented rib- specific registration method significantly improves the rib alignment without having to run complex deformable registration algorithms. At the same time, it guarantees that rib lesions are not further deformed, which may otherwise affect quantitative measurements such as SUVs. Considering clinically relevant distance thresholds, the centerline portion with good alignment compared to the ground truth improved from 60:6% to 86:7% after registration while approximately 98% can be still considered as acceptably aligned.

  4. WRAP-RIB antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Garcia, N. F.; Iwamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The wrap-rib deployable antenna concept development is based on a combination of hardware development and testing along with extensive supporting analysis. The proof-of-concept hardware models are large in size so they will address the same basic problems associated with the design fabrication, assembly and test as the full-scale systems which were selected to be 100 meters at the beginning of the program. The hardware evaluation program consists of functional performance tests, design verification tests and analytical model verification tests. Functional testing consists of kinematic deployment, mesh management and verification of mechanical packaging efficiencies. Design verification consists of rib contour precision measurement, rib cross-section variation evaluation, rib materials characterizations and manufacturing imperfections assessment. Analytical model verification and refinement include mesh stiffness measurement, rib static and dynamic testing, mass measurement, and rib cross-section characterization. This concept was considered for a number of potential applications that include mobile communications, VLBI, and aircraft surveillance. In fact, baseline system configurations were developed by JPL, using the appropriate wrap-rib antenna, for all three classes of applications.

  5. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio. PMID:22054706

  6. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio.

  7. Delayed complication of a rib fracture.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, J; O'Kane, E; Marquet, J

    1998-04-01

    A 48-year-old man who was kneed in the chest while playing basketball was diagnosed as having an occult rib fracture. Five days after the injury, he was taken to the emergency room with severe midsternal and left upper quadrant and pleuritic chest pain. Left-side chest radiographs and CT scans revealed a pleural effusion, compression atelectasis, and a minimally displaced fracture of the sixth rib. A tube thoracostomy was performed, the pleural cavity was drained, and the patient recovered. His case illustrates the need to be alert for serious complications in apparently ordinary sports-related rib fractures.

  8. [Spinal cord compression disclosing rib hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Ousehal, A; Adil, A; El Azhari, A; Kadiri, R

    1995-12-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of spinal compression following an isolate rib hydatidosis. The CT scan has suspected the diagnosis. The authors recall the anatomoclinic features and specify the radiologic aspects of the osseous hydatidosis, especially the rib's localization which is very rare. MR imaging in addition of its diagnosis role showing a very evocative cyst images, is the exam of choice in order to appreciate the disease's extent and the degree of medular sufferance. PMID:8676297

  9. Supersonic Wing Optimization Using SpaRibs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locatelli, David; Mulani, Sameer B.; Liu, Qiang; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the advantages of using curvilinear spars and ribs, termed SpaRibs, to design a supersonic aircraft wing-box in comparison to the use of classic design concepts that employ straight spars and ribs. The objective is to achieve a more efficient load-bearing mechanism and to passively control the deformation of the structure under the flight loads. Moreover, the use of SpaRibs broadens the design space and allows for natural frequencies and natural mode shape tailoring. The SpaRibs concept is implemented in a new optimization MATLAB-based framework referred to as EBF3SSWingOpt. This optimization scheme performs both the sizing and the shaping of the internal structural elements, connecting the optimizer with the analysis software. The shape of the SpaRibs is parametrically defined using the so called Linked Shape method. Each set of SpaRibs is placed in a one by one square domain of the natural space. The set of curves is subsequently transformed in the physical space for creating the wing structure geometry layout. The shape of each curve of each set is unique; however, mathematical relations link the curvature in an effort to reduce the number of design variables. The internal structure of a High Speed Commercial Transport aircraft concept developed by Boeing is optimized subjected to stress, subsonic flutter and supersonic flutter constraints. The results show that the use of the SpaRibs allows for the reduction of the aircraft's primary structure weight without violating the constraints. A weight reduction of about 15 percent is observed.

  10. RIB Production at LNL: the EXOTIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Mazzocco

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear reactions involving radioactive isotopes are extremely relevant in several astrophysical scenarios, from the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis to Supernovae explosions. In this contribution the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) by means of the in-flight technique is reviewed. In particular, the use of direct reactions in inverse kinematics for the production of light weakly-bound RIBs by means of the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL (Italy) will be described in detail.

  11. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, and non-profit organizations. In this regard, this conference has wide-ranging support and participation among private and public entities involved in the science and management of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.

  12. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  13. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  14. PREFACE: 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsson, M. L.; Chadwick, A. V.; Jackson, R. A.; McCabe, E. E.

    2015-04-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe

  15. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  16. PREFACE: 12th International Conference on Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, N.; Landl, N.; Bogdan, A.; Yudin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference ''Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications'' (GDP 2015) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 6-11, 2015. GDP 2015 represents a continuation of the conferences on physics of gas discharge held in Russia since 1984 and seminars and conferences on the technological applications of low temperature plasmas traditionally organized in Tomsk. The six-day Conference brought together the specialists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussions on the topics that are of interest to the Conference participants. The selected papers of the Conference cover a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of the physical processes in the generators of low-temperature plasma, the low and high-pressure discharges, the pulsed plasma sources, the surface modification, and other gas-discharge technologies. The Conference was hosted by Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Scientific Center, and Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building.

  17. Bilateral cervical ribs in a Dobermann Pinscher.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Gernone, F; Giannuzzi, P

    2015-01-01

    An 11-year-old intact female Doberman Pinscher was presented with the complaint of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Clinical and neurological examination revealed a caudal cervical spinal cord disfunction (C6-T2 spinal cord segments). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic (CT) findings of the cervical spine were consistent with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). During the diagnostic work-up for the cervical spine, bilateral bone anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs were found on radiographs and CT examination. The rib anomalies found in this dog appear similar to cervical ribs widely described in human medicine. In people, cervical ribs are associated with a high rate of stillbirth, early childhood cancer, and can cause the thoracic outlet syndrome, characterized by neurovascular compression at level of superior aperture of the chest. In dogs, only some sporadic anatomopathological descriptions of cervical ribs exist. In this report the radiographic and CT findings of these particular vertebral and rib anomalies along with their relationships with adjacent vasculature and musculature are shown intravitam in a dog. Specific radiographic and CT findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this anomaly. Finally, their clinical and evolutionary significance are discussed.

  18. Sliding Couette flow in a ribbed annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H. V.; Floryan, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The flow in an annulus driven by the axial movement of one of the cylinders has been studied. The stationary cylinder has been fitted with axisymmetric ribs resulting in the appearance of the centrifugal-force-driven instability which leads to the formation of axial vortices. The critical stability conditions have been determined for a wide range of geometries of practical interest; these conditions include the critical Reynolds number as well as the best vortex packing. It has been shown that a sufficiently large increase of the ribs' wavelength leads to a flow stabilization as the flow becomes nearly rectilinear, thus reducing the strength of the centrifugal force field. It has also been demonstrated that a sufficiently large decrease of the ribs' wavelength similarly results in the flow stabilization as the stream lifts up above the ribs' peaks and becomes more rectilinear. Reduction of the annulus' radius leads to qualitatively different flow responses depending on the position of the moving cylinder. The critical Reynolds number is reduced and the range of the ribs' wave numbers capable of inducing the instability is increased when the outer cylinder drives the flow. The trend is reversed when the inner cylinder drives the flow. Conditions when the ribbed cylinder is unable to induce any instability and, thus, behaves as a hydraulically smooth cylinder have been identified.

  19. The Consistency of the Opinions of 12th-Grade Biology Pupils on the Desirability of Biotechnologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Roth, Zvi

    1986-01-01

    This study examined 12th-grade biology students' opinions and beliefs on the desirability of the use and/or development of various biotechnologies. Describes the development of and presents results from the three questionnaires employed in the study. Includes a listing of the 15 biotechnology topics investigated in the study. (ML)

  20. Examining the Alignment of Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and 12th-Grade Exit Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Yuan, Haiquan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of the 2002 Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and the alignment between the curriculum guidelines and two most recent provincial-level 12th-grade exit examinations in China. Both curriculum guidelines and test content were represented using two-dimensional matrices (i.e., topic by level of…

  1. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (12th, Atlanta, Georgia, December 12-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Camille, Ed.

    This proceedings includes 62 papers presented at the 12th annual International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) conference. Topics of papers include: electronic undergraduate courses; software for teaching change management; cooperative projects; experiential learning; World Wide Web applications; internationalization of the information…

  2. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  3. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  4. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Huffmyer for her preparation of the manuscript. The nutritionists from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Women’s Health ... med pc = 1 oz) 1 pc Ribs, pork, country style: no fat added trimmed 3 oz untrimmed ...

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Proximity to Commercial Physical Activity Facilities Among 12th Grade Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Lobelo, Felipe; Porter, Dwayne E.; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between proximity to commercial physical activity facilities and cardiorespiratory fitness of 12th grade girls. Methods Adolescent girls (N=786, 60% African American, mean age=17.6 ± 0.6 years) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170). Commercial physical activity facilities were mapped and counted within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer around girls’ homes using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Sedentary activities and vigorous physical activity (VPA, greater or equal to 6 METs) were determined by the average number of 30-minute blocks reported per day on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Mixed model regressions were calculated using school as a random variable. Results Girls had higher weight-relative PWC170 scores if there was a commercial physical activity facility (n=186, 12.4±4.2 kg·m/min/kg) within 0.75-mile street-network buffer of home as compared to girls without a nearby facility (n=600, 11.2±3.6 kg·m/min/kg). After adjusting for demographic variables, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and VPA, having one or more commercial physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of homes was significantly related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions Both with and without adjustment for covariates, the presence of a commercial physical activity facility within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of a girl’s home was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22525114

  6. PREFACE: 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ondřej; Punčochář, Ivo; Duník, Jindřich

    2015-11-01

    The 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015) took place at the Research Centre NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic, on November 19 - 20, 2015. The annual European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis has been organized since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and Denmark to bring together senior and junior academics and engineers from diverse fields of automatic control, fault detection, and signal processing. The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers and developers to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, or even open problems. It also offers a great opportunity for industrial partners to express their needs and priorities and to review the current activities in the fields. A total of 74 papers have been submitted for ACD 2015. Based on the peer reviews 48 papers were accepted for the oral presentation and 10 papers for the poster presentation. The accepted papers covered areas of control theory and applications, identification, estimation, signal processing, and fault detection. In addition, four excellent plenary lectures were delivered by Prof. Fredrik Gustafsson (Automotive Sensor Mining for Tire Pressure Monitoring), Prof. Vladimír Havlena (Advanced Process Control for Energy Efficiency), Prof. Silvio Simani (Advanced Issues on Wind Turbine Modelling and Control), and Prof. Robert Babuška (Learning Control in Robotics). The ACD 2015 was for the first time in the workshop history co-sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC). On behalf of the ACD 2015 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who prepared and submitted papers, participated in the peer review process, supported, and attended the workshop.

  7. Fecal fat

    MedlinePlus

    Quantitative stool fat determination; Fat absorption ... This test evaluates fat absorption to tell how well the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestines are working. Fat malabsorption can cause a change in your ...

  8. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and

  9. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    Continuing the 24 year old tradition, one of the Greek relativistic groups, this time the Relativity Group of the Physics Department of the University of Athens, organized the 12th Conference of the series "Recent Developments in Gravity" (NEB XII). This time NEB took place at Nafplio, Greece, from Thursday 29 June to Sunday 2 July, 2006. The Conference was attended by more than 100 participants, more than 50% of whom were relativists from abroad (both Greek and other nationalities). This signifies a tendency of the last few Conferences to open up the Greek Relativity Conference to the international scientific community. Actually, many notable members of the relativistic community all over the globe showed particular interest in coming to Nafplio, and spend four relaxed days in a nice sunny and historical place, presenting the results of their more recent work and discussing it with colleagues and students from Greece. The NEB XII Conference covered various aspects of gravitational physics: Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, Quantum Gravity, and Cosmology. Although the program was rather heavy and for the first time we had parallel sessions running in the afternoons, the wonderful weather (apart from the last afternoon when it rained heavily) and the beauty of Nafplio helped the organizers offer the participants a warm, pleasant, and creative time. According to most attendees, their impression was more than good, not only with respect to the hospitable environment, but with respect to the high level of talks as well. We hope the next Conference, which will be organized by the Relativity Group of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the summer of 2008, will raise the standards of the Conference even higher, thus further establishing our Conference as a notable Conference in the Relativistic community all over the world. Finally, we would like to thank the Gravitational Physics Section of the European Physical Society (GPS/EPS), ILIAS

  10. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  11. Rib for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Structural ribs for providing structural support for a structure, such as the pressure cabin of a blended-wing body aircraft. In a first embodiment, the ribs are generally Y-shaped, being comprised of a vertical web and a pair of inclined webs attached to the vertical web to extend upwardly and outwardly from the vertical web in different directions, with only the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to a structural element. In a second embodiment, the ribs are generally trident-shaped, whereby the vertical web extends upwardly beyond the intersection of the inclined webs with the vertical web, with the upper edge of the vertical web as well as the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to the same structural element.

  12. 12. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING CLOSEUP OF ORIGINAL RIBS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING CLOSEUP OF ORIGINAL RIBS OF THE VESSEL NEXT TO THE MORE MASSIVE NEW' RIBS - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  13. Inherited thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur after 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Gorana; Kovac, Mirjana; Povazan, Ljubica; Magic, Zvonko; Djordjevic, Valentina; Salatic, Iva; Mitic, Igor; Novakov-Mikic, Aleksandra

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent fetal loss (RFL) is a significant clinical problem, occurring in 1% to 5% of reproductive females. Inherited or acquired thrombophilia has been diagnosed in 50% to 65% of women with history of unexplained fetal loss. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of thrombophilia in women with unexplained RFL in Serbian population and to find out whether the presence of thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur later than 12th gestational week. We have examined 147 women with unexplained RFL or intrauterine fetal death and 128 healthy women with at least 1 uncomplicated pregnancy. The antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V (FV) G1691A, factor II (FII) G20210A, and MTHFR C677T were determined. At least 1 inherited thrombophilic defect was found in 54 (36.7%) of 147 women with repeated fetal losses and in 11 (8.59%) of 128 controls (P < .001, OR 6.17, 95% CI 3.06-12.48). The most common thrombophilic abnormalities were homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT, FV Leiden, and FII G20210A. Deficiency of natural anticoagulants occurred in 10 patients, with protein S deficiency being the most frequent one. Thrombophilia was found in 46 of 94 women with RFL that occurred later than the 12th gestational week and in only 8 of 53 with RPL earlier than 12th week (P = .001). Our study has shown the association between the hereditary thrombophilia and RFL that occurred after the 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

  14. Superbugs and Superdrugs-SMi's 12th annual conference--Overcoming resistance. 17-18 March 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adekemi

    2010-05-01

    The 12th Annual Superbugs and Superdrugs conference, held in London, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antimicrobial research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on antimicrobial peptides, addressing bacterial resistance, and new treatments for bacterial infections. Investigational drugs discussed include DPK-060 (DermaGen AB), DAV-132 (Da Volterra), PF-4287881, PNU-100480 and PF-02538084 (all Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) and lanbiotics from Novacta.

  15. Sequencing human ribs into anatomical order by quantitative multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Henneberg, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focussed on methods to anatomically sequence ribs. Correct anatomical sequencing of ribs assists in determining the location and distribution of regional trauma, age estimation, number of puncture wounds, number of individuals, and personal identification. The aim of the current study is to develop a method for placing fragmented and incomplete rib sets into correct anatomical position. Ribs 2-10 were used from eleven cadavers of an Australian population. Seven variables were measured from anatomical locations on the rib. General descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA with Bonferroni statistics. Considerable overlap was observed between ribs for univariate methods. Bivariate and multivariate methods were then applied. Results of the ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni statistics show that ratios of various dimensions of a single rib could be used to sequence it within adjacent ribs. Using multiple regression formulae, the most accurate estimation of the anatomical rib number occurs when the entire rib is found in isolation. This however, is not always possible. Even when only the head and neck of the rib are preserved, a modified multivariate regression formula assigned 91.95% of ribs into correct anatomical position or as an adjacent rib. Using multivariate methods it is possible to sequence a single human rib with a high level of accuracy and they are superior to univariate methods. Left and right ribs were found to be highly symmetrical. Some rib dimensions were greater in males than in females, but overall the level of sexual dimorphism was low.

  16. Characterization of the centroidal geometry of human ribs.

    PubMed

    Kindig, Matthew W; Kent, Richard W

    2013-11-01

    While a number of studies have quantified overall ribcage morphology (breadth, depth, kyphosis/lordosis) and rib cross-sectional geometry in humans, few studies have characterized the centroidal geometry of individual ribs. In this study, a novel model is introduced to describe the centroidal path of a rib (i.e., the sequence of centroids connecting adjacent cross-sections) in terms of several physically-meaningful and intuitive geometric parameters. Surface reconstructions of rib levels 2-10 from 16 adult male cadavers (aged 31-75 years) were first extracted from CT scans, and the centroidal path was calculated in 3D for each rib using a custom numerical method. The projection of the centroidal path onto the plane of best fit (i.e., the "in-plane" centroidal path) was then modeled using two geometric primitives (a circle and a semiellipse) connected to give C1 continuity. Two additional parameters were used to describe the deviation of the centroidal path from this plane; further, the radius of curvature was calculated at various points along the rib length. This model was fit to each of the 144 extracted ribs, and average trends in rib size and shape with rib level were reported. In general, upper ribs (levels 2-5) had centroidal paths which were closer to circular, while lower ribs (levels 6-10) tended to be more elliptical; further the centroidal curvature at the posterior extremity was less pronounced for lower ribs. Lower ribs also tended to exhibit larger deviations from the best-fit plane. The rib dimensions and trends with subject stature were found to be consistent with findings previously reported in the literature. This model addresses a critical need in the biomechanics literature for the accurate characterization of rib geometry, and can be extended to a larger population as a simple and accurate way to represent the centroidal shape of human ribs.

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes of French and Israeli 12th Graders in Agricultural or Rural Secondary Schools about Water and Irrigation Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Jacobi, Daniel; Mazouz, Yossef; Lacroix, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge and attitudes of 154 Israeli 12th graders, expected to be very aware of water-related agricultural issues, and of 447 French 12th graders were compared, focusing on possibilities of change of existing situations. Israeli students put much greater emphasis on the role of scientific knowledge and the authorities in water control issues.…

  18. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed. PMID:25790340

  19. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed.

  20. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  1. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  2. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  3. Four accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prados, Jose; Archilla, Francisco; Melguizo, Consolación; Aranega, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    Accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs are a very rare congenital disorder. Here, we present the first case of multiple supernumerary intrathoracic ribs in an adult, which are present consecutively between ribs 1 and 4 and without articulation with the vertebrae. Despite this, anatomical variation is usually silent and accidentally discovered; its knowledge can prevent confusion with other structures during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic pathologies.

  4. Sonographic patterns of ribs with tumor involvement.

    PubMed

    Yang, G G; Wu, H D; Yang, P C; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T

    1991-02-01

    We analyzed the sonographic appearance of the ribs when there was tumor involvement in 16 patients (12 men and 4 women). The tumors included 11 carcinomas, 3 nonepithelial malignancies and 2 benign tumors. Three sonographic patterns on the cross section of abnormal ribs were identified. Pattern I was an eccentrical hyperechoic plate-like shadow inside a hypoechoic tumor. Pattern II was a round hyperechoic shadow or ring in the center of a hypoechoic tumor. Pattern III was a hypoechoic tumor only. The Pancoast tumor manifested pattern I. Metastatic cancer, mostly squamous cell carcinoma, manifested pattern II, and both malignant and benign tumors could manifest pattern III. In sonography, the margin and shape of the tumors, the change in the acoustic shadow of the rib and the pleural line did not differentiate the malignant tumors from benign tumors. When we routinely took a biopsy of these tumors under sonar guidance, the diagnostic yield was 100% without any complications. We conclude that the rib should be evaluated in chest sonography, and that pattern recognition and biopsy under sonar guidance are most useful.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring the thickness of a coal rib during rib formation

    DOEpatents

    Mowrey, Gary L.; Ganoe, Carl W.; Monaghan, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring the position of a mining machine cutting a new entry in a coal seam relative to an adjacent, previously cut entry to determine the distance between a near face of the adjacent previously cut entry and a new face adjacent thereto of a new entry being cut by the mining machine which together define the thickness of a coal rib being formed between the new entry and the adjacent previously cut entry during the new entry-cutting operation. The monitoring apparatus; includes a transmit antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly from the new face of the coal rib for transmitting radio energy towards the coal rib so that one portion of the radio energy is reflected by the new face which is defined at an air-coal interface between the new entry and the coal rib and another portion of the radio energy is reflected by the near face of the coal rib which is defined at an air-coal interface between the coal rib and the adjacent previously cut entry. A receive antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly of the new face of the coal rib receives the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face and also receives the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face. A processor determines a first elapsed time period equal to the time required for the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and also determines a second elapsed time period equal to the time required for the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and thereafter calculates the thickness of the coal rib being formed as a function of the difference between the first and second elapsed time periods.

  6. Using real-time ultrasound and carcass measurements to estimate total internal fat in beef cattle over different breed types and managements.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F R B; Tedeschi, L O

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to re-evaluate our previously published technique of estimating total physically separable internal fat (IFAT) in beef cattle using real-time ultrasound (RTU) and carcass measurements from live animals by including more breed types and genders under different management scenarios. We expanded the original database and performed additional analyses. The database was gathered from 4 studies and contained 110 animals (16 bulls, 16 heifers, and 78 steers), being Angus (n = 56), Angus× 5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore (n = 18), and Angus crossbreds (n = 36). Ultrasound measurements were obtained 7 d before slaughter, including the 12th to 13th rib fat thickness (uBF) and ultrasound kidney fat depth (uKFd). The uKFd was measured in a cross-sectional image collected between the first lumbar and 13th rib as previously published. Carcass data were collected 48 h post-mortem and consisted of backfat thickness (cBF), kidney fat depth (cKFd) and KPH weight, live BW, and HCW. Whole gastrointestinal tracts were removed and dissected to obtain IFAT weights. Weight of IFAT was highly correlated with KPH weight (0.88) and cKFd (0.81) and moderately correlated with uKFd (0.71). Prediction equations were developed for estimating IFAT, KPH weight, and cKFd with the PROC REG of SAS using the stepwise statement. The best predictors of IFAT were KPH weight or cKFd and cBF (r(2) = 0.84 and 0.83 and root mean square errors (RMSE) of 4.23 and 4.33 kg, respectively). Ultrasound measurements of uKFd and uBF had an r(2) of 0.65 and RMSE of 6.07 kg when both were used to predict IFAT. The results of cross-validation analyses indicated that equations developed either with KPH weight or cKFd weight and cBF had greater precision than the equation developed with uKFd and uBF. Most of the errors associated with the mean square error of prediction were due to random, uncontrolled variation. These results were consistent with previously published evaluation of this technique

  7. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls. PMID:22061533

  8. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  9. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Deimel, Jay F.; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. Purpose: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians’ experiences. Results: Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Clinical Relevance: Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of

  10. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  11. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival in 2015.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.

  12. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the second rib.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Absher, Kimberly J; Draus, John M

    2013-06-01

    Chondromyxoid fibromas are benign tumors which are found most frequently in the metaphyses of long bones. They comprise less than 1% of primary bone neoplasms and display a hypermetabolic appearance on PET imaging. Oftentimes, they are misdiagnosed as chondrosarcomas and are excised due to concern for malignancy. We present a case of a condromyxoid fibroma originating from the second rib of a 15-year-old girl. PMID:23845646

  13. Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2007-07-27

    Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207

  14. Automatic three-dimensional rib centerline extraction from CT scans for enhanced visualization and anatomical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sowmya; Alvino, Christopher; Grady, Leo; Kiraly, Atilla

    2011-03-01

    We present a complete automatic system to extract 3D centerlines of ribs from thoracic CT scans. Our rib centerline system determines the positional information for the rib cage consisting of extracted rib centerlines, spinal canal centerline, pairing and labeling of ribs. We show an application of this output to produce an enhanced visualization of the rib cage by the method of Kiraly et al., in which the ribs are digitally unfolded along their centerlines. The centerline extraction consists of three stages: (a) pre-trace processing for rib localization, (b) rib centerline tracing, and (c) post-trace processing to merge the rib traces. Then we classify ribs from non-ribs and determine anatomical rib labeling. Our novel centerline tracing technique uses the Random Walker algorithm to segment the structural boundary of the rib in successive 2D cross sections orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the ribs. Then the rib centerline is progressively traced along the rib using a 3D Kalman filter. The rib centerline extraction framework was evaluated on 149 CT datasets with varying slice spacing, dose, and under a variety of reconstruction kernels. The results of the evaluation are presented. The extraction takes approximately 20 seconds on a modern radiology workstation and performs robustly even in the presence of partial volume effects or rib pathologies such as bone metastases or fractures, making the system suitable for assisting clinicians in expediting routine rib reading for oncology and trauma applications.

  15. Detection and labeling ribs on expiration chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mira; Jin, Jesse S.; Wilson, Laurence S.

    2003-06-01

    Typically, inspiration is preferred when xraying the lungs. The x-ray technologist will ask a patient to be still and to take a deep breath and to hold it. This not only reduces the possibility of a blurred image but also enhances the quality of the image since air-filled lungs are easier to see on x-ray film. However, inspiration causes low density in the inner part of lung field. That means that ribs in the inner part of lung field have lower density than the other parts nearer to the border of the lung field. That is why edge detection algorithms often fail to detect ribs. Therefore to make rib edges clear we try to produce an expiration lung field using a 'hemi-elliptical cavity.' Based on the expiration lung field, we extract the rib edges using canny edge detector and a new connectivity method, called '4 way with 10-neighbors connectivity' to detect clavicle and rib edge candidates. Once the edge candidates are formed, our system selects the best candidates using knowledge-based constraints such as a gradient, length and location. The edges can be paired and labeled as superior rib edge and inferior rib edge. Then the system uses the clavicle, which is obtained in a same method for the rib edge detection, as a landmark to label all detected ribs.

  16. Universal design curves for rib waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagli, Nadir; Fonstad, Clifton G.

    1988-06-01

    A method of analysis which results in a modular microwave equivalent circuit representation for open guided-wave structures is applied to the analysis of rib guides. Accurate design information valid over the range of parameters typically encountered in integrated optics is plotted in a universal format. Analytical design rules which are valid over certain ranges of parameters are also given. Commonly used approximate analysis techniques are considered for comparison purposes, and the shortcomings of these techniques and the ranges over which they can be used satisfactorily are pointed out.

  17. Cantilever rib grafting in salvage rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Shubailat, Ghaith F

    2003-01-01

    Loss of nasal skeletal support, whether congenital, following trauma or secondary to multiple failed surgeries, calls for reconstruction aiming at restoring rigid dorsal stability, maintaining tip projection, and restoring respiratory function. Where septal and conchal grafts are inadequate to be used as building blocks, our procedure of choice has been the cantilever osseocartilagenous rib graft with microscrew fixation. In the past 10 years, 48 patients were candidates for this salvage procedure. Long-term functional and cosmetic results have been highly satisfactory. PMID:15058550

  18. Husbandry of Spanish ribbed newts (Pleurodeles waltl).

    PubMed

    Joven, Alberto; Kirkham, Matthew; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Research on urodele amphibians, such as newts, is constantly contributing to our understanding of fundamental biological processes. In the present chapter, we present detailed husbandry protocols for the Spanish ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl ). We describe the main phases of their life cycle, with emphasis on the progressive development of sensory, motor, and integration systems, which lead to the acquisition of specific stereotyped (and conditioned) behaviors. The methods are outlined to manage housing, feeding, handling, captive breeding, health monitoring, and euthanasia in this species under laboratory conditions. With minor changes, these protocols can also be applied to other species of urodele amphibians commonly used in laboratory research.

  19. Study of wrap-rib antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. D.; Sinha, A.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric design study conducted to develop the significant characteristics and technology limitations of space deployable antenna systems with aperture sizes ranging from 50 up to 300 m and F/D ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 are presented. Wrap/rib type reflectors of both the prime and offset fed geometry and associated feed support structures were considered. The significant constraints investigated as limitations on achievable aperture were inherent manufacturability, orbit dynamic and thermal stability, antenna weight, and antenna stowed volume. A data base, resulting in the defined maximum achievable aperture size as a function of diameter, frequency and estimated cost, was formed.

  20. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  1. 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

    1997-01-01

    The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

  2. Tapered rib fiber coupler for semiconductor optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert Edward

    2001-01-01

    A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.

  3. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  4. The use of a multi-method approach to identify the pigments in the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneckere, A.; De Reu, M.; Martens, M. P. J.; De Coene, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Vandenabeele, P.; Moens, L.

    2011-10-01

    A selection of illuminations of the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus was analysed with Raman spectroscopy (in situ and laboratory measurements), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-fluorescence photography and infrared reflectography (IRR). The aim of this study is to determine the pigments used, in order to search for anachronisms. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy (molecular information) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (elemental information) following pigments could be identified: ultramarine (Na 8-10Al 6Si 6O 24S 2-4), azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), caput mortuum (Fe 2O 3), vermilion (HgS), orpiment (As 2S 3) and lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2). Moreover, two synthetic red pigments, PR4 and PR176, and a degradation product, gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), were present in the manuscript. To establish the origin of the modern materials UV-fluorescence photography was used. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was applied to visualise the underdrawing of the investigated folios.

  5. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  6. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  7. Nuclear Physics with RIB's: How it all started

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    2016-04-01

    Neutron halos were discovered through measurements of interaction cross sections and fragmentation cross sections of nuclei near the neutron drip line. Such measurements became possible with the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) produced though projectile fragmentations of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. RIBs were invented 30 years ago at the Bevalac facility in Berkeley. In this article, I describe how they were invented and how neutron halos were discovered. What happened at that time was a series of small serendipities guiding us to the present prosperous field of RIB science.

  8. Influence of Skip Patterns on Item Non-Response in a Substance Use Survey of 7th to 12th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Olds, R. Scott; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective case study assessed the influence of item non-response error on subsequent response to questionnaire items assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Post-hoc analyses were conducted on survey results obtained from 4,371 7th to 12th grade students in Ohio in 2005. A skip pattern design in a conventional questionnaire…

  9. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  10. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smoking, Drinking and Illicit Drug Use among American 8th, 10th and 12th Grade Students, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2003-01-01

    Paper examines ethnic differences in licit and illicit drug use among American 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular focus on girls. Across ethnic groups, drug use is highest among Native American girls and lowest among black and Asian American girls. Trend data suggest that girls' and boys' drug use patterns are converging.…

  11. Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Use by 9th-12th Grade Students: Results from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…

  12. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  13. Effect of rib angle on local heat/mass transfer distribution in a two-pass rib-roughened channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P. R.; Han, J. C.; Lau, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    The naphthalene sublimation technique is used to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a two-pass channel. A test section that resembles the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils is employed. The local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were found to be 1.5-6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. Depending on the rib angle-of-attack and the Reynolds number, the average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than the fully developed values.

  14. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  15. Foreword: The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) (Erice, 20 26 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca

    2008-06-01

    The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19

  16. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  17. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  18. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  19. [The 12th amendment to the German Drug Law. Chances and obstacles for investigator-initiated clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Dreier, G; Marx, C; Schmoor, C; Maier-Lenz, H

    2005-04-01

    The European Union's so called Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC was implemented in national law in Germany in August 2004, leading to the 12th amendment of the German Drug Law (Arzneimittelgesetz). The directive is intended to harmonize the clinical trial's regulatory environment across the European Union and to improve protection of human subjects. It lays down the principles and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice (GCP). As the regulation applies to all clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, and as only non-interventional studies are excluded, academic, investigator-initiated clinical trials will also have to comply with the EU clinical trials directive implemented in the German Drug Law. In an investigator-initiated trial in which the investigator takes the responsibility of a sponsor, the investigator-sponsor must take total legal and financial responsibility for the clinical trial. Since publicly funded clinical trials make a large contribution to improved care, concern has been expressed that non-commercial research projects will be reduced and the vital medical research conducted at academic institutions curtailed. Nonetheless GCP ensures a valid study design, qualified data management, analysis and monitoring of the trial and thereby promotes more valid data and protection of study participants. The trials are more likely to lead to reliable results leading to new therapies, strategies or a better understanding of diseases. What is needed, therefore, is an increase in public funding and the establishment of clinical trial units/organizations associated with the universities or hospitals where independent researchers have the possibility to obtain theoretical advice and practical help, professional training and support. In the end, the directive may serve as a stimulus to build a better national research environment and to promote public funding, and may lead to fewer but more valid clinical trials. PMID:15830256

  20. 11. DETAIL OF WEST WEB, FROM STREAMBANK, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF WEST WEB, FROM STREAMBANK, SHOWING ARCH RIB, HANGERS, FLOOR BEAMS AND GUARDRAIL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  1. 9. DETAIL OF EAST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF EAST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ARTICULATED HANGER AND GUARDRAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  2. 12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT, FROM BENEATH, SHOWING ARCH RIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT, FROM BENEATH, SHOWING ARCH RIB AND FLOOR BEAM. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  3. 10. DETAIL OF WEST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF WEST ARCH, FROM ROADWAY, SHOWING ARCH RIB, HANGERS AND GUARDRAIL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  4. 7. FF. Note vertical ribs indicating storage bin inside; conveyor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FF. Note vertical ribs indicating storage bin inside; conveyor to left brings pulverized coal from GG to FF; 8 sisters in background. Looking northeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  5. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 4. VIEW LOOKING ENE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING RIBS AND BEAMS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING ENE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING RIBS AND BEAMS. NOTE SPALLING ON NORTHERN EDGE AND EXPOSED REBAR. - Morris Run Bridge, Rickert Road (TR 417) spanning Morris Run in Hilltown Township, Dublin, Bucks County, PA

  7. Nonunion of a first rib fracture in a gymnast.

    PubMed

    Proffer, D S; Patton, J J; Jackson, D W

    1991-01-01

    Isolated fracture of the first rib is uncommon, but has been reported to occur in sports such as basketball, baseball, and dancing. It has not been reported to occur in gymnasts. Usually, these fractures heal with an adequate period of rest. Rarely do first rib fractures become nonunions. They have been felt to be asymptomatic and are usually found incidentally on routine chest roentgenograms. Symptomatic nonunion of a first rib fracture has not been reported previously. Our patient did not respond to nonoperative treatment and required surgical intervention to alleviate her symptoms. We agree that most fractures of this type heal without complications. However, if a persistently symptomatic nonunion ensues, we suggest transaxillary resection of 90% or more of the first rib.

  8. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  9. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  10. Rib fractures in coronary bypass patients: radionuclide detection

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, L.V.; Baisden, C.E.; Symbas, P.N.

    1983-08-01

    Sternal retraction can cause the first rib to be fractured posteriorly, injuring the brachial plexus. The authors conducted bone scans of 24 consecutive open-heart surgery patients and found an unexpectedly high number of rib fractures which in all but one case had not been seen on the chest radiograph. Bone scans are recommended whenever there is unexplained non-incisional pain in a patient who has undergone sternal retraction.

  11. Harvesting Rib Cartilage in Primary and Secondary Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Christopher Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Satisfactory and consistent long-term results in primary and secondary rhinoplasty rely on adequately resupporting or reconstructing the nasal osseocartilagenous framework. Autogenous rib cartilage has been our graft material of choice for major nasal reconstruction when sufficient septal cartilage is not available. The rib provides the most abundant source of cartilage for graft fabrication and is the most reliable when structural support is needed. PMID:26616707

  12. Ultrasonic focusing through the ribs using the DORT method.

    PubMed

    Cochard, E; Prada, C; Aubry, J F; Fink, M

    2009-08-01

    Thermal ablation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound has produced promising clinical results to treat hepatocarcinoma and other liver tumors. However skin burns have been reported due to the high absorption of ultrasonic energy by the ribs. This study proposes a method to produce an acoustic field focusing on a chosen target while sparing the ribs using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT method). The idea is to apply an excitation weight vector to the transducers array which is orthogonal to the subspace of emissions focusing on the ribs. A linear array of transducers has been used to measure the set of singular vectors associated with a chest phantom, made of three human ribs immersed in water, and to produce the desired acoustic fields. The resulting propagating fields have been measured both in the focal plane and in the plane of the ribs using a needle hydrophone. The ratio of the energies absorbed at the focal point and on the ribs has been enhanced up to 100-fold, as demonstrated by the measured specific absorption rates.

  13. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to <1.7 μm, without sacrificing either SM operation or low propagation loss. This makes micron-scale Si waveguides particularly well-suited for spectroscopy and extensive wavelength division multiplexing. However, rib waveguides require large bending radii, which lead to large circuit sizes. There are two solutions for this. So-called Euler bends in Si strip waveguides enable low-loss bends down to 1 μm bending radius with less than 0.1 dB/90° loss for both polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  14. Segmentation of individual ribs from low-dose chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of individual ribs and other bone structures in chest CT images is important for anatomical analysis, as the segmented ribs may be used as a baseline reference for locating organs within a chest as well as for identification and measurement of any geometric abnormalities in the bone. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the individual ribs from low-dose chest CT scans. The proposed algorithm consists of four main stages. First, all the high-intensity bone structure present in the scan is segmented. Second, the centerline of the spinal canal is identified using a distance transform of the bone segmentation. Then, the seed region for every rib is detected based on the identified centerline, and each rib is grown from the seed region and separated from the corresponding vertebra. This algorithm was evaluated using 115 low-dose chest CT scans from public databases with various slice thicknesses. The algorithm parameters were determined using 5 scans, and remaining 110 scans were used to evaluate the performance of the segmentation algorithm. The outcome of the algorithm was inspected by an author for the correctness of the segmentation. The results indicate that over 98% of the individual ribs were correctly segmented with the proposed algorithm.

  15. Automatic detection of rib metastasis in chest CT volume data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong; Ma, Limin; Kafer, Johannes; Naicich, David P.

    2007-03-01

    We describe a system for the automatic detection of rib metastasis in thoracic CT volume. Rib metastasis manifest itself as alterations of bone intensities or shapes, and the detection of these alterations is the goal of the algorithm. According to the tubular shape of the rib structures, the detection is based on the construction of 2D cross-sections planes along the full lengths of each of the individual ribs. The set of planes is orthogonal to the rib centerline, with is extracted by a previously developed segmentation algorithm based on recursive tracing. On each of these planes, a 2D image is constructed by interpolation in the region of interest around the centerline intersection and the plane. From this image the cortical and trabecular bones are segmented separately. The appearance and geometric properties of the bone structures are analyzed and categorized according to a set of rules that summarize the possible variation types due to metastasis. The features extracted from the cross-sections along a short length of the centerline are jointly evaluated. A positive detection is accepted only if the alteration of shape and appearance is consistent with a number of consecutive cross-sections along the rib centerline.

  16. Delivering multiple independent RIB simultaneously: Technical and operational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    ISAC is an ISOL-type facility at which RIB are produced by direct reactions of 480 MeV protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron on thick targets. Like other ISOL-type facilities, ISAC is limited to the production and delivery of a single RIB at any given time. ARIEL, the Advanced Rare-IsotopE Laboratory, will provide for the production and delivery of, ultimately, two additional RIB, the first produced by photofission on actinide targets using electrons from a new superconducting electron linac and the second by direct and indirect reactions with protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron. This will allow for the simultaneous delivery of three independent RIB to experimental areas at ARIEL and ISAC. The shift from single-user to multi-user operation will introduce significant technical and operational challenges that RIB facilities have not yet had to address. Almost all aspects of facility operation will become more complex as the first RIB from ARIEL targets become available.

  17. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  18. Occult rib fractures and brachial plexus injury following median sternotomy for open-heart operations.

    PubMed

    Baisden, C E; Greenwald, L V; Symbas, P N

    1984-09-01

    The incidence and the sites of rib fractures during open-heart operations through a median sternotomy incision were studied in 36 consecutive patients divided into two groups. In Group 1 (24 patients), a conventional Ankeney retractor was used to expose the heart, and in Group 2 (12 patients), a similar retractor was used but with its uppermost pair of blades removed. Thorough physical examinations and preoperative and postoperative chest roentgenograms were obtained, and postoperative bone scans were done in all patients. No rib fractures were detected on the routine chest roentgenograms in patients in either group. Bone scans, however, showed 44 rib fractures (15 of the first rib, 13 of the second rib, 4 of the third rib, 6 of the fourth rib, 3 of the fifth rib, and 3 of the sixth rib) in 16 patients in Group 1. Six patients in Group 2 had 9 rib fractures (2 of the first rib, 4 of the second rib, and 1 each of the third, fifth, and sixth ribs). None of the patients in Group 2 had brachial plexus injury and neither of the first rib fractures in this group were located posteriorly, whereas 3 patients in Group 1 had both brachial plexus injury and posterior first rib fractures.

  19. Hybrid rib-slot-rib plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength mode confinement and long propagation length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kai; Zheng, Xin; Dai, Qi; Song, Zuxun

    2016-08-01

    We propose a hybrid plasmonic waveguide where a combined rib-slot-rib structure is added on the metal substrate within a low-index gap region. The optical properties of the quasi-TM fundamental mode are numerically calculated using the finite element method. Compared to the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide, our designed waveguiding structure can support modes with tighter confinement and longer propagation length, by properly adjusting the geometry of the rib-slot-rib structure and the gap height. In details, it can provide the hybrid mode with mode area λ2/12000 and reasonable propagation distance 23.78 μm, simultaneously. Its excellent optical performance can facilitate potential applications in ultra-compact nanophotonic devices and circuits.

  20. Characteristics of rib cartilage calcification in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Woong Sang; Choi, Hyo Geun; Kim, Dae Woo; Jin, Hong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rib cartilage from the sixth, seventh, and eighth ribs offers a long cartilaginous curvature, making the material reliable for grafting. Calcification of cartilage causes unexpected absorption, difficult manipulation, and donor site morbidity. Most studies of calcification were performed in Western countries. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence, degree, and pattern of rib cartilage calcification in Asian patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of computed tomographic scans of the chest in 120 patients (60 male and 60 female). The incidence, degree, and pattern of cartilage calcification of the sixth through eighth ribs were noted. The patients were stratified into 6 age groups, and 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) were selected for each group. The degree of calcification was assessed as 0%, 1% to 25%, 26% to 50%, 51% to 75%, and 76% to 100%. Meaningful calcification was defined as 26% or greater. The pattern of calcification was classified as marginal, granular, and central. EXPOSURE Computed tomographic scans of the chest. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Degree of calcification, presence of meaningful calcification, and calcification pattern. RESULTS Overall, 50.8% of cartilage was calcified, and female patients showed more frequent calcification than male patients (59.4% vs 42.2% [P < .001]). Calcification rates of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage were higher than those of the eighth rib cartilage in all age groups except teenagers, who had a similar rate for all 3 ribs. Calcification of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage significantly increased with age. A meaningful calcification rate was very low in males younger than 60 years, whereas the rate was relatively higher in females than males for all age groups. Males predominantly had the marginal type of calcification, whereas females predominantly had a granular type. The rate and pattern of calcification had no relationship to age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In Asian

  1. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  2. Experimental investigation of impingement heat transfer from a round rib-roughened surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isman, Mustafa Kemal; Can, Muhiddin

    2016-09-01

    An experimental investigation on impingement heat transfer from a rib-roughened surface is performed. Single, double, and triple rib configurations are tested. The rib is also located at three different positions for a single rib case. The Reynolds number is varied from 10,000 to 50,000 whereas the dimensionless jet-to-surface distance (z/D) is kept constant as 8. Results show that, the Nusselt number decreases just before a rib. After the rib, however, the Nusselt number decreases by a larger amount. Since ribs cause a reincreasing in the Nusselt number after the stagnation point and since the stagnation point Nusselt number is not affected by ribs, they can be used to enhance heat transfer especially for spot cooling applications. It is also obtained that using ribs is more useful for low speed impinging jets, when heat transfer from the whole surface is considered.

  3. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  4. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  5. The Association of Employment and Physical Activity among Black and White 10th and 12th Grade Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams. Methods We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n=12073) and 12th grade students (n=5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study. Results Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise. Conclusions Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research. PMID:20231752

  6. Emerging from the rib: resolving the turtle controversies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ritva; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F; Cebra-Thomas, Judith

    2015-05-01

    Two of the major controversies in the present study of turtle shell development involve the mechanism by which the carapacial ridge initiates shell formation and the mechanism by which each rib forms the costal bones adjacent to it. This paper claims that both sides of each debate might be correct-but within the species examined. Mechanism is more properly "mechanisms," and there is more than one single way to initiate carapace formation and to form the costal bones. In the initiation of the shell, the rib precursors may be kept dorsal by either "axial displacement" (in the hard-shell turtles) or "axial arrest" (in the soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus), or by a combination of these. The former process would deflect the rib into the dorsal dermis and allow it to continue its growth there, while the latter process would truncate rib growth. In both instances, though, the result is to keep the ribs from extending into the ventral body wall. Our recent work has shown that the properties of the carapacial ridge, a key evolutionary innovation of turtles, differ greatly between these two groups. Similarly, the mechanism of costal bone formation may differ between soft-shell and hard-shell turtles, in that the hard-shell species may have both periosteal flattening as well as dermal bone induction, while the soft-shelled turtles may have only the first of these processes.

  7. Age assessment by rib phase analysis in Turks.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, M F; Işcan, M Y; Cöloğlu, A S

    1998-11-30

    The Işcan's phase method for the estimation of adult age at death from the sternal extremity of the fourth rib was introduced in 1983. Over the years, numerous tests have confirmed the reliability of this technique on varied samples. However, no large scale study has been conducted to test the application of this method on a modern white sample geographically, genetically, and culturally diverse from the American white database. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to apply rib phase standards to a Turkish sample to test if the progression of morphological changes follow the same age sequence. Using a sample of 150 males and 144 females of known age at death, each rib was phased using the standards developed by Işcan and associates in 1984 and 1985. The phase estimations were then subject to an analysis of variance. The results of the study indicated that Turkish ribs show the same morphological characteristics that define the phases at nearly identical ages. Variation as measured by the standard deviation increased from phase 5 on in both sexes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the rib phase standards can be accurately applied to Turks. Investigations of this nature are vital because one cannot assume that a method developed from one group is applicable to a distant population, especially in medicolegal proceedings.

  8. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Han, In-taek; Kim, Jong-min

    2003-01-01

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  9. Free rib graft reconstruction of the mandible: a forgotten option?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A. R.; Westmore, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven patients underwent primary mandibular reconstruction following resection of a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Reconstruction consisted of a free rib graft and a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. One rib graft failed and one graft, although successful, required removal during a wider resection for tumour recurrence. A further three patients have died since operation, two from tumour recurrence and one from unrelated medical causes. Six patients have undergone long-term follow-up of between 22 and 78 months with a mean of 51 months. They have oral continence, take a normal or semisolid diet, and have satisfactory cosmesis. We present the first long-term follow-up of a series of patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with a free rib graft and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7574320

  10. Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles

    DOEpatents

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.; Smith, J. Harold

    1984-01-01

    A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

  11. Numerical investigations of rib fracture failure models in different dynamic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Jikuang; Miller, Karol; Li, Guibing; Joldes, Grand R; Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Rib fracture is one of the most common thoracic injuries in vehicle traffic accidents that can result in fatalities associated with seriously injured internal organs. A failure model is critical when modelling rib fracture to predict such injuries. Different rib failure models have been proposed in prediction of thorax injuries. However, the biofidelity of the fracture failure models when varying the loading conditions and the effects of a rib fracture failure model on prediction of thoracic injuries have been studied only to a limited extent. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of three rib failure models on prediction of thoracic injuries using a previously validated finite element model of the human thorax. The performance and biofidelity of each rib failure model were first evaluated by modelling rib responses to different loading conditions in two experimental configurations: (1) the three-point bending on the specimen taken from rib and (2) the anterior-posterior dynamic loading to an entire bony part of the rib. Furthermore, the simulation of the rib failure behaviour in the frontal impact to an entire thorax was conducted at varying velocities and the effects of the failure models were analysed with respect to the severity of rib cage damages. Simulation results demonstrated that the responses of the thorax model are similar to the general trends of the rib fracture responses reported in the experimental literature. However, they also indicated that the accuracy of the rib fracture prediction using a given failure model varies for different loading conditions.

  12. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  13. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts. PMID:26443218

  14. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts.

  15. The Diverging Sphere and the Rib in Prompt Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; McGuire, E; Garza, R; Roeske, F; Vitello, P

    2002-05-03

    Steady state corner-turning in the rib is possible if R{sub 0}/R{sub 1} << 0.15, where R{sub 0} is the half-width and R{sub 1} the inner radius. For thicker ribs, the kinetics will further slow the turn. A steady state turn will have a symmetrical detonation front. The inverse radius relation appears to hold for the diverging sphere, at least for large radii. The reaction zone lengths for diverging spheres and ratesticks increase with the radius of curvature and are comparable.

  16. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  17. 21. Detail of steel ribs at south wall, T18; Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of steel ribs at south wall, T-18; Note composition of ribs--two steel channels welded together - Advance Base Depot Davisville, Building T-17, Ninth Street southeast of Davisville Road, Davisville, Washington County, RI

  18. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  19. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  20. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  1. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  2. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ...

  3. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... packaged foods have a nutrition label that includes fat content. Reading food labels can help you keep track of how ... of fats. Some have higher amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats ...

  4. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Stein, D R; Desilva, U; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Fifty-five normal-weaned Angus steers (268 ± 22 kg; 265 ± 16 d of age) were used to evaluate the effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements for stocker cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range on growth performance, body composition, and adipose tissue development of different fat depots. Steers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments: 1.02 kg·steer(-1)·d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement (CON), corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (CORN), soybean hull/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (SBH), or dried distillers grains with solubles fed at 1% of BW (DDGS). All supplements were individually fed 5 d/wk during the 121-d winter grazing phase. After winter grazing, 3 steers per treatment were harvested to determine body composition and carcass characteristics, and collect subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue samples. The remaining steers grazed cool-season grass pastures for 74 d without supplementation before finishing. Steers were fed a common finishing diet for 113 d before harvest, at which time carcass characteristics were collected at a commercial abattoir. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) winter grazing ADG compared with CON steers, and CORN steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than SBH and DDGS steers. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.04) mesenteric/omental fat mass but did not influence (P > 0.13) 12th rib fat thickness or marbling score at intermediate harvest compared with CON steers. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and markers of adipogenesis were greater (P < 0.05) in PR adipose tissue of energy-supplemented steers compared with CON steers but not in SC adipose tissue. Fiber-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.01) mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding protein 4 compared with CORN steers in PR adipose tissue but not SC adipose tissue. At final harvest, energy-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.05) KPH and yield grade

  5. Repair of lung herniation with titanium prosthetic ribs and Prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gülay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-03-01

    We present a rare case of intercostal lung herniation due to blunt trauma. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with lung herniation due to falling off a donkey. Computed tomography demonstrated a fracture of the 8th left rib, a comminuted fracture of the 9th rib, and lung herniation into the 8th intercostal space. The herniation was repaired using a titanium prosthetic rib, a rib plate, and Prolene mesh via a thoracotomy. PMID:26612961

  6. Repair of lung herniation with titanium prosthetic ribs and Prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gülay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-03-01

    We present a rare case of intercostal lung herniation due to blunt trauma. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with lung herniation due to falling off a donkey. Computed tomography demonstrated a fracture of the 8th left rib, a comminuted fracture of the 9th rib, and lung herniation into the 8th intercostal space. The herniation was repaired using a titanium prosthetic rib, a rib plate, and Prolene mesh via a thoracotomy.

  7. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  8. Rib fracture patterns predict thoracic chest wall and abdominal solid organ injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassani, Ammar; Abdulrahman, Husham; Afifi, Ibrahim; Almadani, Ammar; Al-Den, Ahmed; Al-Kuwari, Abdulaziz; Recicar, John; Nabir, Syed; Maull, Kimball I

    2010-08-01

    Blunt trauma patients with rib fractures were studied to determine whether the number of rib fractures or their patterns were more predictive of abdominal solid organ injury and/or other thoracic trauma. Rib fractures were characterized as upper zone (ribs 1 to 4), midzone (ribs 5 to 8), and lower zone (ribs 9 to 12). Findings of sternal and scapular fractures, pulmonary contusions, and solid organ injures (liver, spleen, kidney) were characterized by the total number and predominant zone of ribs fractured. There were 296 men and 14 women. There were 38 patients with scapular fracture and 19 patients with sternal fractures. There were 90 patients with 116 solid organ injuries: liver (n = 42), kidney (n = 27), and spleen (n = 47). Lower rib fractures, whether zone-limited or overlapping, were highly predictive of solid organ injury when compared with upper and midzones. Scapular and sternal fractures were more common with upper zone fractures and pulmonary contusions increased with the number of fractured ribs. Multiple rib fractures involving the lower ribs have a high association with solid organ injury, 51 per cent in this series. The increasing number of rib fractures enhanced the likelihood of other chest wall and pulmonary injuries but did not affect the incidence of solid organ injury. PMID:20726423

  9. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Chest Radiography in the Detection of Rib Fractures in Abused Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Walton, John W.; Rosas, Angela J.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Rogers, Kristen K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chest radiographs (CXR) are the standard method for evaluating rib fractures in abused infants. Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive method to detect rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare CT and CXR in the evaluation of rib fractures in abused infants. Methods: This retrospective study included all 12 abused infants…

  10. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  11. Unveiling the gating mechanism of ECF Transporter RibU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jianing; Ji, Changge; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-12-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are responsible for uptake of micronutrients in prokaryotes. The recently reported crystal structure of an ECF transporter RibU provided a foundation for understanding the structure and transport mechanism of ECF transporters. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) was carried out to study the conformational changes of the S component RibU upon binding by riboflavin. Our result and analysis revealed a critically important gating mechanism, in which part of loop5 (L5') (eleven residues, missing in the crystal structure) between TM5 and TM6 is dynamically flexible and serves as a gate. Specifically, the L5' opens a large cavity accessible to riboflavin from the extracellular space in Apo-RibU and closes the cavity upon riboflavin binding through hydrophobic packing with riboflavin. Thus, L5'is proposed to be the gate for riboflavin binding. In addition, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation is employed to investigate the translocation dynamics of RibU during riboflavin transport. The simulation result does not show evidence that the S component alone can carry out the transport function. Since loop regions are very flexible and therefore could not be resolved by crystallography, their dynamics are hard to predict based on crystal structure alone.

  12. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  13. Snapping scapular syndrome secondary to rib intramedullary fixation device

    PubMed Central

    Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E.; Rossi, Luciano A.; Bongiovanni, Santiago L.; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gaston; Ranalletta, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Background Scapulo-thoracic joint disorders, including bursitis and crepitus, are commonly misdiagnosed problems and can be a source of persistent pain and dysfunction Presentation of the case This article describes an unusual case of a snapping scapula syndrome secondary to a migration through the lateral cortex of a rib splint intramedullary fixation device into the scapulothoracic joint. Discussion Recently, the operative fixation of multiple ribs fractures with intramedullary fixation devices has become popular. Despite the good outcomes with new rib splint designs, concern remains about the potential complications related to potential loss of fracture reduction with migration of the wire resulting in pain or additional injury to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion Surgeons should pay attention to any protrusion of intramedullary rib implants, especially in the evaluation of routine X-rays following surgical treatment. We should be aware of the possibility of this rare cause of snapping scapula syndrome to avoid delayed diagnosis and consider removing the implant will resolve the pain. PMID:26629853

  14. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  15. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  16. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  17. Analysis of Single and Coupled Dielectric Rib Waveguides and Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, M. N.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis considers the theoretical analysis of the rib waveguide, a waveguiding structure most favoured for integrated optics and in millimetre waves. The work begins by considering the application of the Transverse Resonance Diffraction method (TRD) to the rib waveguide in the pure LSE/LSM polarizations. In solving the TRD problem, a variational method of order one, i.e. that assumes at the transverse step discontinuity a single function 'trial field', which takes into explicit account the singularities at the dielectric corners, is used. The formulation leads to a scalar dispersion equation and a simple transverse equivalent network. Theoretical results for discrete bound mode propagation constant are compared with the vector finite element method. The agreement is found to be excellent and, hence, LSE/LSM provide an accurate approximation. The investigation is completed by considering a full hybrid rigorous analysis of the structure. The analysis of a single guide is extended to cover multiple coupled waveguides. The approach adopted to analyse this structure is to represent the uniform section of the coupled structure by its equivalent two-port network. In this way, the problem of multiple coupled guides is turned into a cascade of equivalent networks, which can be tackled by simple network method. The theory is applied to analyse directional couplers, three guide couplers, non symmetrical coupled waveguides and waveguide arrays. In order to complete the characterization of the modal spectrum of the rib waveguide, the continuum portion of the spectrum is derived. The approach adopted uses an eigenfunction in a manner analogous to the bound mode description of the guided fields. Finally, with knowledge of the complete spectrum, the problem of abruptly terminated rib waveguide and discontinuities between two rib waveguides are addressed. To avoid excessive computational effort a number of

  18. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest.

  19. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef prime rib following searing, cooking, and holding under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Luchansky, John B

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of commercial times and temperatures for searing, cooking, and holding on the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) within mechanically tenderized prime rib. Boneless beef ribeye was inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of ECOH and then passed once through a mechanical tenderizer with the fat side facing upward. The inoculated and tenderized prime rib was seared by broiling at 260°C for 15 min in a conventional oven and then cooked in a commercial convection oven at 121.1°C to internal temperatures of 37.8, 48.9, 60.0, and 71.1°C before being placed in a commercial holding oven maintained at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. After searing, ECOH levels decreased by ca. 1.0 log CFU/g. Following cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 to 71.1°C, pathogen levels decreased by an additional ca. 2.7 to 4.0 log CFU/g. After cooking to 37.8, 48.9, or 60.0°C and then warm holding at 60.0°C for 2 h, pathogen levels increased by ca. 0.2 to 0.7 log CFU/g. However, for prime rib cooked to 37.8°C, pathogen levels remained relatively unchanged over the next 6 h of warm holding, whereas for those cooked to 48.9 or 60.0°C pathogen levels decreased by ca. 0.3 to 0.7 log CFU/g over the next 6 h of warm holding. In contrast, after cooking prime rib to 71.1°C and holding for up to 8 h at 60.0°C, ECOH levels decreased by an additional ca. 0.5 log CFU/g. Our results demonstrated that to achieve a 5.0-log reduction of ECOH in blade tenderized prime rib, it would be necessary to sear at 260°C for 15 min, cook prime rib to internal temperatures of 48.9, 60.0, or 71.1°C, and then hold at 60.0°C for at least 8 h. PMID:23462076

  20. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    PubMed

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation. PMID:26733094

  1. Topological and sizing optimization of reinforced ribs for a machining centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Wang, C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The topology optimization technique is applied to improve rib designs of a machining centre. The ribs of the original design are eliminated and new ribs are generated by topology optimization in the same 3D design space containing the original ribs. Two-dimensional plate elements are used to replace the optimum rib topologies formed by 3D rectangular elements. After topology optimization, sizing optimization is used to determine the optimum thicknesses of the ribs. When forming the optimum design problem, multiple configurations of the structure are considered simultaneously. The objective is to minimize rib weight. Static constraints confine displacements of the cutting tool and the workpiece due to cutting forces and the heat generated by spindle bearings. The dynamic constraint requires the fundamental natural frequency of the structure to be greater than a given value in order to reduce dynamic deflection. Compared with the original design, the improvement resulting from this approach is significant.

  2. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  3. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  4. Rib lesions in a prehistoric Puebloan sample from southwestern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Patricia M

    2002-04-01

    An unusually high frequency of periosteal lesions of visceral rib surfaces was observed in a small, prehistoric skeletal series from southwestern Colorado. Lesions of this type have been concordant with pulmonary tuberculosis in three studies of human skeletal collections with known cause of death, and in a recent clinical investigation of rib dimensions in living patients with lung disorders. Diseases such as pneumonia and actinomycosis have also been found to cause these lesions, but in much lower frequencies. Archaeological evidence suggests that Puebloan farmers of Sleeping Ute Mountain's southern piedmont, from which the sample is drawn, endured unusually harsh environmental conditions punctuated by severe drought and exacerbated by escalating warfare. It is argued here that these environmental stressors increased susceptibility to an opportunistic respiratory infection reminiscent of tuberculosis, and possibly also some form of pneumonia, resulting in high rates of active disease previously noted only in historic Puebloan peoples.

  5. BILATERAL FIRST RIB FRACTURE IN A DIVE WITH LIFE VEST

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Pietro de Almeida; de Almeida, Joelmar César; Sandri, João Luiz

    2015-01-01

    First-rib fractures are uncommon and are generally related to major thoracic trauma: so much so that they serve to indicate the severity of the trauma. Isolated bilateral first-rib fractures without major thoracic trauma are rarely described in the literature. The symptoms may go unnoticed and be minimized, thus making this condition difficult to diagnose. The present report presents a case of direct trauma on the supraclavicular region with symptoms of contusion of the brachial plexus, caused by a fall from a jet ski while a life vest was being used. The literature was reviewed to show the various facets of the problem and the treatment for this condition was discussed. PMID:27022557

  6. Autopsy observations in lethal short-rib polydactyly syndromes.

    PubMed

    Okiro, Patricia; Wainwright, Helen; Spranger, Jürgen; Beighton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The short rib-polydactyly syndromes are a heterogeneous group of lethal autosomal recessive disorders (SRP I-IV), which result from cellular ciliary dysfunction during embryogenesis. Diagnosis is conventionally based on radiographic imaging. Since 1976, postmortem investigations of 5 affected fetuses or stillbirths have been undertaken and the visceral abnormalities have been documented. These anomalies are discussed in the context of prenatal differential diagnosis and prognostication following imaging in pregnancy and at autopsy following miscarriage or stillbirth.

  7. Autologous Rib Grafts in the Management of the Crooked Nose.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul; Kriet, J David; Humphrey, Clinton D

    2015-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is arguably one of the most challenging procedures a facial plastic surgeon performs. Numerous techniques have been developed since the inception of rhinoplasty to aid in correction of aesthetic and functional issues. Congenital, iatrogenic, and traumatic etiologies can all lead to a crooked nose. Autologous rib or costal cartilage grafting is a powerful tool that can aid the surgeon in successful correction of the crooked nose. PMID:26126219

  8. Stress fracture of the ipsilateral first rib in a pitcher.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, R; Pavlov, H; Torg, J S

    1985-01-01

    This stress fracture of the left first rib in a 17-year-old, left-handed high school baseball pitcher represents the first of its type reported in the literature. Two similar cases have been reported in pitchers, but the fracture was on the nondominant side in both cases. In contrast to most cases of this rare lesion, the stress fracture we report occurred acutely and was documented roentgenographically from onset to complete healing 9 months later.

  9. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  10. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with trans fat . These fats are most often solid at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and ... products (butter, ice cream, pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm ...

  11. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when food makers turn liquid oils into solid fats, like shortening or margarine. Trans fats can ... list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. Manufacturers can show 0 grams ...

  12. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  13. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  14. Osteochondroma of the Rib: a rare radiological apeareance

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vikram V; Saindane, K A; Goghate, Ninad; Goghate, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Osteochondromas (exostosis) are the most common neoplasm of bone and arise from the metaphysis of bones. Tumors of the chest wall comprise approximately 2% of all tumors of the body and may be primary or metastatic, benign or malignant. Osteochondroma is a common bone tumor but a rare tumor in the rib. It is often asymptomatic and observed incidentally. The tumors typically begin to grow before puberty and continue until bone maturation is reached. Surgery is required in childhood if these lesions are painful or disfiguring, while those arising in adulthood should always be resected. Case Report: 9 yr old boy presented to OPD with swelling over right chest. Radiograph showed bony outgrowth on the lateral aspect of the 6th rib. The patient was kept under closed observation and was treated conservatively. Three years follow-up didn’t show any increase in the size of the swelling and the patient did not have any complaints. Conclusion: Though various studies have shown that the surgical resection of osteochondroma is necessary to avoid further complications of Haemothorax, pneumothorax or intercostal neuralgia, we concluded that osteochondroma of the ribs can even be conserved if not associated with complications and patient does not need to undergo unnecessary surgery. PMID:27299024

  15. The effect of spacer ribs on Ledinegg type flow instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1993-09-09

    An experimental program has been completed which evaluated the effect of a flow obstruction in a heated channel on the onset of flow instability (OBI). The test channel was rectangular (80 {times} 3 mm), heated on one surface, and equipped with view ports. Tests were conducted in a flow controlled mode at heat fluxes of 370 kW/M{sup 2}, and 610 kW/m{sup 2}. Direct comparisons were made between the demand curve minimum for the unobstructed channel and a channel equipped with a 2.07 mm wide rib that was parallel to the flow and in contact with the heated surface. Data at OFI is presented in the nondimensional terms Of Q{sub ratio} (ratio of heat flux applied to heat flux required to achieve saturated liquid conditions at the exit), and the local Stanton number at the channel exit for each channel arrangement. The Q{sub ratio} and Stanton number values for the unobstructed channel and the rib equipped channel are then compared to produce an estimate of the rib effect.

  16. Non-diffuseness of vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Chung, Hyuck

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of structural intensity in a rib-reinforced plate, investigating the diffuseness. Many prediction models of building and structural acoustics, such as statistical energy analysis or energy flow methods, assume the vibrational wave fields to be diffuse. However, the diffuseness assumption is not always valid. One such example is a rib-reinforced plate typically found in a lightweight floor with wooden joists. Other examples can be found in aircraft and ship structures. The structural intensity of a ribbed plate is computed at low to mid frequencies using the Fourier sine expansion of the transverse displacement of the plate. Hamilton's principle is used in combination with thin plate theory and Euler beam theory. The model takes into account interactions between components. The Fourier sine modes are re-formulated as plane waves in a radial coordinate system, which can express the structural intensity in terms of the angular component of the modes. In the simulations, ensemble averages and rain-on-the-roof excitations are used. The numerical results show that the structural intensity varies significantly as the angle of propagation changes and cannot be assumed to form a diffuse field.

  17. Non-diffuseness of vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Chung, Hyuck

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of structural intensity in a rib-reinforced plate, investigating the diffuseness. Many prediction models of building and structural acoustics, such as statistical energy analysis or energy flow methods, assume the vibrational wave fields to be diffuse. However, the diffuseness assumption is not always valid. One such example is a rib-reinforced plate typically found in a lightweight floor with wooden joists. Other examples can be found in aircraft and ship structures. The structural intensity of a ribbed plate is computed at low to mid frequencies using the Fourier sine expansion of the transverse displacement of the plate. Hamilton's principle is used in combination with thin plate theory and Euler beam theory. The model takes into account interactions between components. The Fourier sine modes are re-formulated as plane waves in a radial coordinate system, which can express the structural intensity in terms of the angular component of the modes. In the simulations, ensemble averages and rain-on-the-roof excitations are used. The numerical results show that the structural intensity varies significantly as the angle of propagation changes and cannot be assumed to form a diffuse field. PMID:21428497

  18. Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti

    2006-05-01

    Characteristics of ribbed moraines, the dominating moraine type in southern Finnish Lapland, have been studied in detail. The ridges are composed of several till units, of which the bottommost units consist of mature basal tills and the surficial parts are enriched with local, short-transport rock fragments and boulders in till and at the surface of ridges. As a result of this re-examination a two-step model of the formation process of ribbed moraines is presented. In the first stage, while cold-based conditions prevailed, both the bottommost part of the ice sheet and the frozen, substrate fractured under compressive ice flow. Following glacial transport of fractured blocks and formation of the transverse ridge morphology, erosion between the ridges continued owing to freeze-thaw process under variable pressure conditions. In the areas with a low pre-existing till sheet, the process caused quarrying of the bedrock surface and subsequent deposition of rock fragments and boulders under high pressure on the next ridge. The most suitable conditions for ribbed moraine formation existed during Late Weichselian deglaciation, after the Younger Dryas when the climate warmed very quickly, leading to an imbalance between a warm glacier surface and a cold base. Copyright

  19. Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia of the Rib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Asha; Patel, Sapna; Ravishankar, Sunila; Manjunath, Gubbanna V.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a noninherited bone disease in which abnormal differentiation of osteoblasts leads to replacement of normal marrow and cancellous bone by immature bone with fibrous stroma. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia accounts for 28% in the ribs. It is often asymptomatic and incidentally detected on radiographs. As with many bone abnormalities, it can be superimposed by the formation of aneurysmal bone cysts. We report a case of a 70-year-old lady who presented with swelling on the chest wall of 20-ear duration and sudden increase in size for 8 months. Radiologically, X-ray and CT scan showed an expansible lesion of the medullary cavity with a ground-glass centre and thinning of cortex of the 5th rib. The resected lesion was a firm, well-defined solid, grey-white expansile mass replacing the medullary cavity. Histopathologically, benign fibrous spindle areas with disorganized irregular bony trabeculae were seen. Hemorrhagic spaces lined by osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells were also noted. The diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia with aneurysmal bone cyst changes. Although fibrous dysplasia with aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, it should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of the rapidly growing solitary rib lesion. PMID:23304592

  20. Reconstruction of the nasal dorsum with autologous rib cartilage.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, V; Bottini, D J; Gentile, P; Fantozzi, L; Arpino, A; Cannatà, C; Fiumara, L; Casciani, C U

    2006-03-01

    The authors present their experience with the correction of deformities of the nasal saddleback using rib cartilage grafts. They present a review of international literature on this topic, analyzing 33 patients selected from 452 cases of rhinoplasties performed between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata." Nasal saddleback is one of the most complicated defects to correct surgically. It can be a consequence of nasoethmoid-orbital fractures and is in this case associated with other evident signs like telecanthus, teleorbitism, or orbital dystopia. It can be also a consequence of surgical procedures in the nasal area where a loss of bone or septal cartilaginous support has occurred. They compare the techniques employed in the reconstruction and describe the advantage of the use of cartilage from the 11th rib and evaluate the results of an engineering analysis of tension forces on the rib cartilage. Of the total number of patients treated, good cosmetic results were obtained in 84% of the cases and excellent functional results in almost all of the cases (94%). PMID:16508354

  1. Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes with Two-Dimensional Rib Roughness

    1994-01-24

    A commonly used internal enhancement for single-phase forced-convective turbulent flow applications is tranverse and/or near tranverse ribs. These enhanced surfaces consist of a uniform inside diameter with periodic and discrete disruption of ribs. Enhanced tubes of this type are made by an extrusion process and are used in some condensers and evaporators in refrigeration systems. Tubes of this type fall into an enhancement category called separation and reattachment that has been identified as one ofmore » the most energy efficient. Lacking are prediction methods that are mechanistic based that can be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factors for tubes with this enhancement type. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor for enhanced tubes with tranverse, rectangular ribs with a spacing exceeding the reattachment length. The input quantities are the enhancement height, spacing, and the width. The Nusselt number and friction factor are calculated for a specific Reynolds number or for a range of Reynolds numbers. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods. The manufacturers of refrigeration heat exchangers and enhanced tube suppliers are potential users of this software.« less

  2. Circulation, bone scans, and tetracycline labeling in microvascularized and vascular bundle implanted rib grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, D.H.; Williams, H.B.; Rosenthall, L.; Viloria, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    The circulation in microvascularized rib grafts has been compared with that in conventional rib grafts and in those augmented by a direct vascular bundle implantation into the bone grafts. A new experimental model has been designed to correlate vascular perfusion, bone scan patterns, tetracycline labeling, and histological findings in these bone grafts. Posterior microvascularized rib grafts were found to have a circulatory pattern identical to that of the normal rib. Failed microvascularized rib grafts were revascularized more slowly than conventional rib grafts. Vascular bundles implanted into rib grafts remained patent and increased the rate of revascularization. The stripping or preservation of periosteum had no observable effects on the rate or pattern of conventional rib graft revascularization. The circulation in rib grafts was accurately reflected in technetium 99 bone scans, as was the patency of the anastomoses of microvascularized rib grafts and of implanted vascular bundles. In contrast, tetracycline labeling was repeatedly observed in avascular areas of bone grafts and, therefore, is not a reliable indicator of bone graft circulation.

  3. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  4. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer in a Rib Roughened Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-11-08

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and frictional losses in a rib roughened channel combined with detached pin-fins. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=[1/4]E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin-tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/O=0, 1, 2, respectively. The rib height-to-channel height ratio is 0.0625. Two newly proposed cross ribs, namely the broken rib and full rib are evaluated in this effort. The broken ribs are positioned in between two consecutive rows of pin-fins, while the full ribs are fully extended adjacent to the pin-fins. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all pin elements. The presence of ribs enhances local heat transfer coefficient on the endwall substantially by approximately 20% to 50% as compared to the neighboring endwall. In addition, affected by the rib geometry, which is a relatively low profile as compared to the overall height of the channel, the pressure loss seems to be insensitive to the presence of the ribs. However, from the overall heat transfer enhancement standpoint, the baseline cases (without ribs) outperform cases with broken ribs or full ribs.

  5. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground.

    PubMed

    Beck, Inken M; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-02-01

    The 12th Transgenic Technology meeting was held in Edinburgh on 6th-8th October 2014 and interest to participate in the meeting overcame all expectations. The TT2014 was the largest meeting ever with more than 540 scientists, technicians, and students from all over the world. The meeting had an excellent scientific program that brought information on the latest ground-breaking technologies for gene targeting and genome editing using programmable nucleases into the foreground. These presentations were well balanced with several highlights over viewing topics in embryonic stem cell research, embryogenesis, disease models, and animals in agriculture. Ample space was reserved also for short talks presenting technical development and for highlighting posters contributions. A highlight of the meeting was the award of the 10th International Society of Transgenic Technologies Prize to Janet Rossant for her outstanding contributions in the field of mouse embryogenesis.

  6. Prediction of fat percentage within marbling score on beef longissimus muscle using 3 different fat determination methods.

    PubMed

    Dow, D L; Wiegand, B R; Ellersieck, M R; Lorenzen, C L

    2011-04-01

    Consumers are concerned with fat consumption from meat products, and the ability to determine fat has changed with recent technological advances. The objective of this study was to predict fat percentage within marbling scores and compare 3 fat analysis procedures. Steaks (n = 119) were selected by USDA grading system using an E + V Vision Grading camera at a commercial beef plant during 1 d. Two samples per carcass were cut from the 13th rib, both sides, and transported to the University of Missouri meat laboratory. The sample from the right side of the carcass was allotted to Warner-Bratzler shear force, and the sample from the left side, which was graded by the camera, was allotted to fat extraction. Warner-Bratzler shear force samples were cut into 2.54-cm steaks and aged for 14 d. Steaks allotted to fat extraction were trimmed of all external fat and twice ground using 8- and 4-mm grinding plates. The finely ground beef was then split into its allotted fat-extraction methods. The 3 methods used in fat extraction were 2:1 chloroform/methanol (Folch), ether-extractable fat (ether), and microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (CEM). Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not different between marbling scores (P > 0.05). Regardless of fat extraction method, fat percentage increased as marbling score increased (P < 0.05). All regression equations for fat percentage, regardless of extraction method, were linear. Prediction equation for fat percentage using CEM was -3.46 + 0.016 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.824 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using ether was -3.08 + 0.017 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.859 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using Folch was -3.42 + 0.019 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.816 (P < 0.0001). When the CEM, Folch, and ether methods were compared, CEM and Folch regression lines had different slopes (P < 0.05). The slope of the regression line for ether was not different (P > 0.05) from CEM or Folch

  7. Current status and future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution during the 12th FYP period in Guiyang city of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hezhong; Qiu, Peipei; Cheng, Ke; Gao, Jiajia; Lu, Long; Liu, Kaiyun; Liu, Xingang

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate the future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution in Guiyang city of China, the MM5/CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system is applied to assess the effects of air pollution improvement that would result from reduction targets for SO2 and NOx emissions during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). Three scenarios are established for the objective year 2015 based on the reference emissions in base year 2010. Scenario analysis and modeling results show that emissions are projected to increase by 26.5% for SO2 and 138.0% for NOx in 2015 Business-As-Usual (BAU) relative to base year 2010, respectively, which will lead to a substantial worsening tendency of SO2 and NOx pollution. In comparison, both the 2015 Policy Reduction (PR) and 2015 Intensive Policy Reduction (IPR) scenarios would contribute to improve the urban air quality. Under 2015 PR scenario, the maximum annual average concentration of SO2 and NOx will reduce by 54.9% and 31.7%, respectively, relative to the year 2010, with only 2.1% of all individual gridded receptors exceed the national air quality standard limits; while the maximum annual average concentrations of SO2 and NOx can reduce further under 2015 IPR scenario and comply well with standards limits. In view of the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness, the emission reduction targets set in the 2015 PR scenario are regarded as more reasonable in order to further improve the air quality in Guiyang during the 12th FYP period and a series of comprehensive countermeasures should be effectively implemented.

  8. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among U.S. 12th-grade students: Prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Meghan E.; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Methods Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) following alcohol consumption. Results Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and White students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors, and other substance use. Conclusions AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. PMID:25907654

  9. Climate Change and the Water Cycle: A New Southwest Regional Climate Hub Curriculum Unit for 6th-12th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, S.; Haan-Amato, S.; Deswood, H.; Rango, A.; Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and scientifically rigorous education unit for 6th -12th grade students. The unit is aligned with Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Nine activities can be conducted over 10 instruction hours. Each activity can also stand alone. In partnership with SWRCH, the Asombro Institute for Science Education developed the unit. Each activity was reviewed by an educator for educational practices and by a scientist for scientific accuracy. The unit was pilot tested with 524 students in 2014, and pre- and post-tests were administered. Ninety-one percent of students were able to name a greenhouse gas on the post-test, compared to only 48% on the pre-test. On the post-test, 86% of students identified the relationship between average global temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, compared to only 52% on the pre-test. A student commented: "I loved all of the activities! They are fun and help us understand about what goes on in the world." Educators who participated in pilot testing said: "the entire curriculum is great, but I was particularly impressed with the progression of ideas and the variety of lessons," and "students could see the relevance and importance of these real life issues." Anyone interested in using the unit to host workshops for teachers in southwestern states should contact Asombro for more information (information@asombro.org). The Climate Change and the Water Cycle 6th-12th grade curriculum unit is available online: www.swclimatehub.info/education/climate-change-and-water-cycle

  10. Detection of disseminated cancer cells in rib marrow of patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Tomotaka; Fumoto, Shoichi; Sato, Tetsuro; Uchida, Yuzo; Daa, Tsutomu; Yokoyama, Shigeo; Gabbert, Helmut E; Mueller, Wolfram; Takeno, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, micrometastasis in the rib marrow of 24 patients with esophageal cancer was examined using RT-PCR. RT-PCR was done using primers corresponding to cytokeratin 18 (CK18), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In 18 cases, CK18 was also detected in the rib marrow. Only one patient exhibited CEA amplification in the rib marrow. No cases demonstrated SCC amplification as a marker of micrometastasis in the rib marrow. The information from micrometastasis detected in the rib marrow using RT-PCR is useful in deciding whether or not adjuvant therapy is necessary after surgery. However, combined analysis using plural markers should be required since sensitivity or specificity of each marker may vary. Further follow-up of the patients is necessary to clarify the clinical impact of micrometastasis in rib marrow.

  11. Serratus anterior-rib composite flap: anatomic studies and clinical application to hand reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hui, K C; Zhang, F; Lineaweaver, W C; Moon, W; Buncke, G M; Buncke, H J

    1999-02-01

    Because of its relative ease of dissection, increased length of the vascular pedicle, and excellent diameter for anastomosis, the serratus anterior-rib composite flap has been used to reconstruct bony and soft-tissue defects in the face and lower extremities. However, no data are available on optimal rib level or harvest location. The authors report the results of the vascular anatomy of this flap in 6 fresh cadavers and 2 clinical patients using this flap to reconstruct a defect in the hand. Arteriograms were performed through the thoracodorsal artery, and microscopic dissections were done at the rib periosteum. The sixth through the ninth ribs showed consistent filling of their respective intercostal vessels. The rib segments near the anterior axillary line had the most abundant communicating vessels between the serratus and the periosteum. In two patients, the serratus-rib composite free flap provided excellent bone and muscle length for reconstructing the first metacarpal defect. PMID:10029475

  12. Evaluation of intensity based beam-shaping method with Rib-phantom HIFU sonications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max; Koskela, Julius; Ylihautala, Mika

    2012-11-01

    The relation between rib bone heating during HIFU therapy and incident intensity on the bone surface was examined using an experimental setup and simulations with ray-tracer. The relation was found to be linear yet the data had large variance. The result was successfully applied to an intensity-based beam-shaping algorithm, which was fast enough for online therapy planning, and used to protect the ribs from overheating during intercostal sonications to a HIFU phantom containing two porcine rib bones.

  13. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes.

  14. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes. PMID:26596531

  15. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  16. First rib stress fracture in a sidearm baseball pitcher: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Takeshi; Kimura, Yasunobu; Hida, Toshiko

    2005-06-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site. Key PointsMost Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib.We report the case of a young male baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the first rib located uncommonly at the posterior portion of the rib.In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site.

  17. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  18. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-10-15

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called 'Hoover's sign', has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (∆Ppl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ∆Ppl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ∆Ppl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm.

  19. Plasmacytoma presenting as missing rib on chest film: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Terrell; Foy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with chief complaint of chest pain, persisting for approximately one year. Chest X-ray revealed he was missing the right posterior fifth rib. Physical examination showed no surgical scars, and he reported no history of chest trauma. A CT of his chest demonstrated a mass involving the posterior aspect of the right fifth rib, and subsequent biopsy revealed plasma cells. Laboratory results indicated the tumor was a solitary plasmacytoma of the rib. He was referred to oncology and treated with radiation therapy. This case report illustrates an unusual presentation of a solitary plasmacytoma of the rib.

  20. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides.

  1. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  2. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes

    PubMed Central

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called ‘Hoover's sign’, has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (ΔPpl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ΔPpl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ΔPpl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm. PMID:25063819

  3. Non-intubated simultaneous en bloc resection of pulmonary nodule and rib chondrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Wang, Heng; Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Dong; Li, Min; Hu, Zhengqun

    2016-01-01

    Adequate surgical resection was required for patients with rib chondrosarcoma. A 61-year-old woman was presented with a palpable chest wall mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed an isolated pulmonary nodule about 0.9 cm, and a giant rib tumor about 12 cm × 9 cm which penetrated through the 7th rib into thorax. CT reconstruction and simulated surgery was utilized for disease-free surgical margin (R0 resection), then a simultaneous en bloc resection of pulmonary nodule and rib tumor was performed along with chest wall reconstruction under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation without endotracheal intubation. And the recovery was encouragingly uneventful. PMID:27761448

  4. A potential association between the BM 1500 microsatellite and fat deposition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, C J; Schmutz, S M; Bergen, R D; McKinnon, J J

    1998-06-01

    The obese gene was hypothesized as a candidate gene for fat characteristics in beef cattle. The BM 1500 microsatellite, near the obese gene, was characterized in 158 purebred beef bulls for which carcass trait information was available. Four breeds were included in the analyses-Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Simmental. Four alleles were found. Lengths were approximately 138, 147, 149, and 140 bp with genotypic frequencies of 0.47, 0.44, 0.09, and 0.003 respectively. The carcass traits %rib fat, %rib lean, average fat, and grade fat were found to be significantly associated with the different alleles. The presence of the 138-bp allele in the genotype of an animal is correlated with higher levels of fat, whereas the 147-bp allele has the opposite effect. The 149-bp allele was found in low numbers, and a homozygote was never identified. Hereford and Angus bulls had the greatest frequencies of 138-bp alleles (Hereford = 0.57, Angus = 0.59), while Charolais and Simmental had a greater proportion of 147-bp alleles (Charolais = 0.54, Simmental = 0.58). This information may aid cattle producers in selecting cattle for markets that differ in the amount of fat required. PMID:9585429

  5. Supercontinuum generation in dispersion-managed tapered-rib waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K

    2013-10-20

    We have designed a tapered-rib waveguide and numerically studied the generation of supercontinuum using such waveguides. The Air-SF57 glass-SiO(2) waveguide is 3 cm long, with a varying etched depth to manage the total dispersion. Numerical simulations are conducted for input pulses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with a width of 150 fs and peak power of 5 kW. The proposed waveguide geometry greatly broadens the output spectrum, extending from ∼1 to ∼6  μm, caused by the continuous modification of the phase-matching condition for the generated waves.

  6. Cold plate with combined inclined impingement and ribbed channels

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-12-22

    Heat transfer devices and methods for making the same that include a first enclosure having at least one inlet port; a second enclosure having a bottom plate and one or more dividing walls to establish channels, at least one internal surface of each channel having rib structures to create turbulence in a fluid flow; and a jet plate connecting the first enclosure and the second enclosure having impinging jets that convey fluid from the first enclosure to the channels, said impinging jets being set at an angular deviation from normal to cause local acceleration of fluid and to increase a local heat transfer rate.

  7. Supercontinuum generation in dispersion-managed tapered-rib waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K

    2013-10-20

    We have designed a tapered-rib waveguide and numerically studied the generation of supercontinuum using such waveguides. The Air-SF57 glass-SiO(2) waveguide is 3 cm long, with a varying etched depth to manage the total dispersion. Numerical simulations are conducted for input pulses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with a width of 150 fs and peak power of 5 kW. The proposed waveguide geometry greatly broadens the output spectrum, extending from ∼1 to ∼6  μm, caused by the continuous modification of the phase-matching condition for the generated waves. PMID:24216588

  8. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  9. The RIB production target for the SPES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monetti, Alberto; Andrighetto, Alberto; Petrovich, Carlo; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossetto, Francesco; Martinez Dominguez, Fernando; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Calderolla, Michele; Silingardi, Roberto; Mozzi, Aldo; Borgna, Francesca; Vivian, Gianluca; Boratto, Enrico; Ballan, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco; Meneghetti, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Facilities making use of the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) attract interest because they can be used for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research and interdisciplinary applications. The ISOL technique is based on the fast release of the nuclear reaction products from the chosen target material together with their ionization into short-lived nuclei beams. Within this context, the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility is now under construction in Italy at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare — Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). The SPES facility will produce RIBs mainly from n-rich isotopes obtained by a 40 MeV cyclotron proton beam (200 μA) directly impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe and update, from a comprehensive point of view, the most important results obtained by the analysis of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. In particular an improved target configuration has been studied by comparing different codes and physics models: the thermal analyses and the isotope production are re-evaluated. Then some consequent radioprotection aspects, which are essential for the installation and operation of the facility, are presented.

  10. Ribbing disease: Uncommon cause of a common symptom

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Patnecha, Manish; Kumar, Praveen; Gadodia, Ankur; Subbarao, Kiran; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare form of sclerosing dysplasia characterized by benign endosteal and periosteal bone growth confined to the diaphyses of the long bones, usually the tibiae and femora. It occurs after puberty and is more commonly seen in women. The most common presenting symptom is pain that is usually self-limited; however, progression is known. The etiology and optimal treatment for the disease are as yet undefined. We present here the case of a 31-year-old woman with clinical, radiological and bone scan manifestations of Ribbing disease corroborated by bone biopsy. Radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening of the diaphyses of both tibiae. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed intense irregular uptake in diaphyseal region of both tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical thickening with bone marrow edema in bilateral tibial diaphysis with minimal adjacent soft tissue edema. Bone biopsy revealed predominantly dense lamellar bone with irregular sized and spaced haversian systems. Serum and urine markers of bone metabolism were within normal limits. The patient was treated with analgesics, and had partial relief from pain. Medullary rimming is the next treatment option in case pain progresses. This report emphasizes the role of bone scan in the diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:21969779

  11. Prediction of Moisture Distribution in Closed Ribbed Panel for Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukule, A.; Rocens, K.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays one of the possibilities to improve energy efficiency is the use of building elements with low air permeability, for example, sandwich panels with steel sheeting. However, these panels have one important disadvantage - a relatively small load-bearing capacity. This can be prevented by reinforcing the panel with antiseptized birch plywood ribs. For wood-based materials prediction of hygrothermal performance is important to avoid rot. Currently the methodology of ISO 13788:2012 is widely used assuming that moisture flux passes through the building envelope of any material. This assumption is not completely accurate with regard to a closed structure where no penetration of ambient humidity is possible. Therefore, in order to predict the distribution of moisture in such structure with the surfaces exposed to different temperatures and to assess the hazards of rot for plywood ribs, a methodology for closed building envelope is presented. To provide insight into expected results according to both methodologies, estimation for individual case with constant environmental conditions is given. According to the methodology for the closed building envelope no free water will occur. Therefore, it is believable that also no rot will be observed. This is contrary to the assessment according to the methodology of ISO 13788:2012, which predicts condensation.

  12. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  13. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:20056364

  15. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    PubMed

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation.

  17. From autoantibody research to standardized diagnostic assays in the management of human diseases - report of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, K; Andrade, L E C; Chan, E K L; Mahler, M; Meroni, P L; Pruijn, G J M; Steiner, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2016-07-01

    Testing for autoantibodies (AABs) is becoming more and more relevant, not only for diagnosing autoimmune diseases (AIDs) but also for the differentiation of defined AID subtypes with different clinical manifestations, course and prognosis as well as the very early diagnosis for adequate management in the context of personalized medicine. A major challenge to improve diagnostic accuracy is to harmonize or even standardize AAB analyses. This review presents the results of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies that focused on several aspects of improving autoimmune diagnostics. Topics that are addressed include the International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) and the International Autoantibody Standardization (IAS) initiatives, the optimization of diagnostic algorithms, the description and evaluation of novel disease-specific AABs as well as the development and introduction of novel assays into routine diagnostics. This review also highlights important developments of recent years, most notably the improvement in diagnosing and predicting the course of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and of autoimmune neurological, gastrointestinal and liver diseases; the potential diagnostic role of anti-DFS70 antibodies and tumor-associated AABs. Furthermore, some hot topics in autoimmunity regarding disease pathogenesis and management are described. PMID:27252254

  18. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  19. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  20. Effects of the insertional and appositional forces of the canine diaphragm on the lower ribs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Theodore A; De Troyer, André

    2013-07-15

    The diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, and current conventional wisdom maintains that this action is the result of two mechanisms, namely, the force applied by the muscle fibres on the ribs into which they insert (insertional force) and the transmission of abdominal pressure through the zone of apposition (appositional force). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic force and the relative contributions of the insertional and appositional components, however, are unknown. To assess these forces, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces were severed in anaesthetized dogs, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration, and the displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes were measured during quiet breathing, during occluded breaths and during passive lung inflation. From these data, the isolated effects of pleural pressure and transdiaphragmatic pressure on rib displacement were determined. Then external forces were applied to the ribs in the cranial and the lateral direction to simulate, respectively, the effects of the insertional and appositional forces, and the rib trajectories for these external forces were used as the basis for a vector analysis to obtain the relative magnitudes of the insertional and appositional contributions to the rib displacement driven by transdiaphragmatic pressure. The results show that, per unit pressure, the inspiratory effect of the diaphragmatic force on the lower ribs is equal to the expiratory effect of pleural pressure, and that the insertional force contributes 60% of that inspiratory effect.

  1. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  2. An unusual cause of rib fracture following a road traffic accident.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, R J; Fulcher, R A

    1997-01-01

    A case is presented which is thought to be the first described example of rib fracture occurring as a result of airbag inflation. It would appear that the propellant cartridge came loose during deployment to form a missile, striking the patient on his chest and fracturing a rib. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9132187

  3. Osteomyelitis of sternum and rib after breast prosthesis implantation: A rare or underestimated infection?

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Piseth; Alliez, Antoine; Honnorat, Estelle; Menard, Amelie; Casanova, Dominique; Stein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sternum and rib osteomyelitis complicated from breast implant infection is rare. We report a case of early sternum and rib osteomyelitis occurred during breast implant infection managed in an inter-regional referral center for bone/joint infections in the south of France. PMID:26793446

  4. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  5. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  6. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  7. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. 75.202 Section 75.202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  8. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2013-10-01

    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a simplified prediction model for ribbed plates. PMID:24116410

  9. Lateral Thoracic Osteoplastic Rib-Sparing Technique Used for Lateral Spine Surgery: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Fisahn, Christian; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Rice, Richard; Paulson, David; Kazemi, Noojan; Hanscom, David; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    Of patients who have undergone lateral approaches to the thoracic spine, surgical site postoperative pain appears to be greater among those who have undergone transection and removal of a rib segment than those who have not. Therefore, techniques that conserve anatomical position and minimize tissue disruption would theoretically result in less pain and a quicker recovery. Herein, we describe a rib-sparing osteoplastic technique used when rib segments need to be displaced in order to create an unobscured corridor to the operative target. Our approach minimizes soft tissue disruption and restores the anatomical function of the rib. Based on our experience, these patients report less pain, mobilize earlier, and are discharged sooner than those who have had rib segments sacrificed as part of a lateral approach to the spine. PMID:27551648

  10. [The osteometric method for the determination of sequential localization and sex characteristics of the ribs using discriminate analysis].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Permiakova, E Iu; Galitskaia, O I

    2009-01-01

    The study material was ribs of the Caucasoid carcasses from the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Department of Personality Identification, Russian Centre of Forensic Medical Examination. Each rib was measured as stipulated by the 13 point program of A.I. Turovtsev (1972). The results were analysed with the use of the SPSS statistical packet. Diagnostic models were calculated for the purpose of forensic medicine practice based on step-by-step discriminative analysis. It is recommended to perform expert evaluation in two stages. The aim of the first stage, is to establish the group affiliation of a concrete rib. Group 1 comprises III-V ribs, group 2--ribs VI--VIII, and group 3--ribs IX-XI. Determination of the sequential localization of I, II, and XII ribs encounters practically no difficulty due to their unique anatomical structure. The accuracy of classication of group localization of the ribs amounts to 99.6%. At the second stage, individual number of a concrete rib within a group is determined. The accuracy of classification of ribs belonging to groups 1 and 3 is 80.2% and 85.7% respectively and that of ribs in group 2 is lightly lower (41.7-69%). Sexual identity of the ribs was determined by means of multidimensional discriminative analysis. The accuracy of diagnosis is directly related to the integrity of the study material; in other words, it depends on the amount of ribs available for the analysis. It is shown that sexual identity is best established for rib VI followed by ribs VIII, II, IV, and I respectively. The main discriminative features include the total arch length, costal plane curvature, and height-width dimension. Diagnostic equations are derived for the determination of sexual identity of individual ribs for the practical purposes of forensic medical examination.

  11. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons.

  12. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    PubMed Central

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; #, ||

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% versus 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue mimicking phantoms, and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infra-red camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at ± 10–15 mm off and ± 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting due to the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue. PMID:20510186

  13. Traumatic Vertebral Fractures and Concomitant Fractures of the Rib in Southwest China, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Ou, Lan; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To our knowledge, the clinical characteristics of traumatic vertebral fractures and concomitant fractures of the rib (TVF-RF) have not been described in previous studies. To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients managed for TVF-RF. A retrospective study of 3142 patients who presented with traumatic vertebral fractures was performed. Two hundred twenty-six patients (7.2%) suffered from TVF-RF. Incidence rate ratios were then calculated with respect to the level of injury to the spine, the ASIA classification of neurological deficits and age. There were 171 male (75.7%) and 55 female (24.3%) patients with a mean age of 43.8 years. The most common mechanisms were falls from high heights in 81 cases and road traffic crashes in 67 cases. Right-sided rib injury occurred in 106 cases, left-sided injury occurred in 76 cases, and bilateral injury occurred in 44 cases. The most frequent location of the rib fractures was from the fourth rib to the ninth rib (70.3%, 510/725). Initial pulmonary complications (IPC) after trauma occurred in 116 cases (51.3%). The mortality rate for the entire group was 1.3% (3/226). The patients with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients (P < 0.05). With the increased number of rib fractures, the frequency of IPC and mean intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay also increased. The rates of complications for patients with rib fractures were significantly different from those without rib fractures. We should pay much attention to the patients who presented with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits for minimizing further complications and mortality in such patients who had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients. PMID:26554809

  14. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  15. Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

  16. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (12th, Portland, Oregon, June 23-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lyn, Ed.; Bradley, Jennifer, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The 12th Annual Building on Family Strengths Conference was held from June 23rd through June 25th 2005 in Portland, Oregon. Highlights included: (1) An information-packed keynote address by Dr. Richard M. Lerner on promoting positive youth development through enhancing the assets of communities; (2) An exciting research plenary panel session that…

  17. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  18. Documentation of Assessment Instrumentation--The NORC/CRESST 12th Grade Science Assessment, Item Databases, and Test Booklets. Project 2.6: Analytic Models To Monitor Status & Progress of Learning & Performance & Their Antecedents: The School Science Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, H. Darrell

    The hardware and software system used to create the National Opinion Research Center/Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (NORC/CRESST) item databases and test booklets for the 12th-grade science assessment are described. A general description of the capabilities of the system is given, with some specific information…

  19. An analysis of 12th-grade students' reasoning styles and competencies when presented with an environmental problem in a social and scientific context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    This study examined reasoning and problem solving by 182 12th grade students in Taiwan when considering a socio-scientific issue regarding the use of nuclear energy. Students' information preferences, background characteristics, and eleven everyday scientific thinking skills were scrutinized. It was found most participants displayed a willingness to take into account both scientific and social information in reasoning the merits of a proposed construction of a nuclear power plant. Students' reasoning scores obtained from the "information reasoning style" test ranged from -0.5 to 1.917. And, the distribution was approximately normal with mean and median at around 0.5. For the purpose of categorization, students whose scores were within one standard deviation from the mean were characterized as having a "equally disposed" reasoning style. One hundred and twenty-five subjects, about 69%, belonged to this category. Students with scores locating at the two tails of the distribution were assigned to either the "scientifically oriented" or the "socially oriented" reasoning category. Among 23 background characteristics investigated using questionnaire data and ANOVA statistical analysis, only students' science performance and knowledge about nuclear energy were statistically significantly related to their information reasoning styles (p < 0.05). The assessed background characteristics addressed dimensions such as gender, academic performances, class difference, future education, career expectation, commitment to study, assessment to educational enrichment, family conditions, epistemological views about science, religion, and the political party preference. For everyday scientific thinking skills, interview data showed that both "scientifically oriented" students and those who were categorized as "equally disposed to using scientific and social scientific sources of data" displayed higher frequencies than "socially oriented" ones in using these skills, except in the use of

  20. TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake (M=6.2) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 9 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th of October 2013, Which occur in western of Crete, Greece. In accordance to the results of similar analysis on the occasion of earthquakes in the area (Contadakis et al 2008, 2012a,2012b) the main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Key words: GPS network, ionospheric total electron content, wavelet analysis References Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N. G. Asteriadis, S.D. Spatalas and Ch. Pikridas, 2008. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276 M.E. Contadakis, D.N. Arabelos, Ch. Pikridas and S.D. Spatalas, 2012a,TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, Vol.55,1, p.83-93 M.E.Contadakis, D.N.Arabelos, and G.Vergos, 2012b, TEC variations over North-western Balkan peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009, EGU GA, Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 14, EGU2012-2319-2

  1. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  2. Structural efficiency study of composite wing rib structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gary D.; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A series of short stiffened panel designs which may be applied to a preliminary design assessment of an aircraft wing rib is presented. The computer program PASCO is used as the primary design and analysis tool to assess the structural efficiency and geometry of a tailored corrugated panel, a corrugated panel with a continuous laminate, a hat stiffened panel, a blade stiffened panel, and an unstiffened flat plate. To correct some of the shortcomings in the PASCO analysis when shear is present, a two step iterative process using the computer program VICON is used. The loadings considered include combinations of axial compression, shear, and lateral pressure. The loading ranges considered are broad enough such that the designs presented may be applied to other stiffened panel applications. An assessment is made of laminate variations, increased spacing, and nonoptimum geometric variations, including a beaded panel, on the design of the panels.

  3. Development of new Hopkinson's device dedicated to rib's bone characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeur, O.; Haugou, G.; Chaâri, F.; Delille, R.; Drazetic, P.; Markiewicz, E.

    2012-08-01

    This study presents an original approach for the design of adapted Hopkinson device dedicated to the characterisation of human ribs' cortical bone. The quasi-static study carried out on flat samples coming from this anatomical part highlighted the importance of the critical effect of sample shape and location on the accuracy of identify mechanical behaviour. The access to higher rates of strains, Hopkinson bars technique are classically required whatever compression or tension loadings. Classical designs of measurement bars are not suitable for this purpose due to the complexity of specimen's geometry (thickness variation). In this context, a new design of SHTB is studied here on the basis on a Finite Element approach of the set measurement bars/biological coupon. Finite Element simulations have been conducted using Abaqus explicit code by varying the design configuration. The comparison on input and output elastic waves suggests a set of small diameter bars in polyamide 66 for a better signal measurement.

  4. Interactive Simulation of Diaphragm Motion Through Muscle and Rib Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Pierre-Frédéric; Bourne, Wesley; Bello, Fernando

    Modeling of diaphragm behaviour is of relevance to a number of clinical procedures such as lung cancer radiotherapy and liver access interventions. The heterogeneity in tissue composition of the diaphragm, as well as the various physiological phenomena influencing its behaviour, requires a complex model in order to accurately capture its motion. In this chapter we present a novel methodology based on a heterogenous model composed of mass-spring and tensegrity elements. The physiological boundary conditions have been carefully taken into account and applied to our model. Thus, it incorporates the influence of the rib kinematics, the muscle natural contraction/relaxation and the motion of the sternum. Initial validation results show that the behaviour of the model closely follows that of a real diaphragm.

  5. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, P<.0001) and Vol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  6. Physical mechanisms of active control of sound transmission through rib stiffened double-panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiyue; Chen, Kean; Ding, Shaohu; Yu, Haoxin

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation on physical mechanisms of actively controlling sound transmission through a rib stiffened double-panel structure using point source in the cavity. The combined modal expansion and vibro-acoustic coupling methods are applied to establish the theoretical model of such active structure. Under the condition of minimizing radiated power of the radiating ribbed plate, the physical mechanisms are interpreted in detail from the point of view of modal couplings similar as that used in existed literatures. Results obtained demonstrate that the rule of sound energy transmission and the physical mechanisms for the rib stiffened double-panel structure are all changed, and affected by the coupling effects of the rib when compared with the analytical results obtained for unribbed double-panel case. By taking the coupling effects of the rib into considerations, the cavity modal suppression and rearrangement mechanisms obtained in existed investigations are modified and supplemented for the ribbed plate case, which gives a clear interpretation for the physical nature involved in the active rib stiffened double-panel structure.

  7. Non-destructive assessment of human ribs mechanical properties using quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mitton, David; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Ellouz, Rafaa; Rongieras, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine

    2014-04-11

    Advanced finite element models of the thorax have been developed to study, for example, the effects of car crashes. While there is a need for material properties to parameterize such models, specific properties are largely missing. Non-destructive techniques applicable in vivo would, therefore, be of interest to support further development of thorax models. The only non-destructive technique available today to derive rib bone properties would be based on quantitative computed tomography that measures bone mineral density. However, this approach is limited by the radiation dose. Bidirectional ultrasound axial transmission was developed on long bones ex vivo and used to assess in vivo health status of the radius. However, it is currently unknown if the ribs are good candidates for such a measurement. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ex vivo ultrasonic measurements (axial transmission) and the mechanical properties of human ribs to determine if the mechanical properties of the ribs can be quantified non-destructively. The results show statistically significant relationships between the ultrasonic measurements and mechanical properties of the ribs. These results are promising with respect to a non-destructive and non-ionizing assessment of rib mechanical properties. This ex vivo study is a first step toward in vivo studies to derive subject-specific rib properties.

  8. Rib Composite Flap With Intercostal Nerve and Internal Thoracic Vessels for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Li, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Li-Cheng; Meng, Zhen; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Zhu, Ying-Nan; Wu, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present the outcome and discuss the feasibility of rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels for reconstructing mandibular defect. Methods: Rib composite flaps have been used in 82 patients for reconstructing benign tumor-caused large mandibular defects: 66 of the 82 patients were reconstructed using rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels, whereas the other 16 patients were reconstructed using rib composite flap with internal thoracic vessels, without intercostal nerve. After operation, clinical observation, imageological examination, and sensory detection were used to evaluate the effect of reconstruction. Results: All rib composite flaps with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels were successfully harvested and transplanted. Both immediate and long-term examination showed good appearance reconstruction. All followed-up patients conveyed good satisfaction degree with function and appearance reconstruction. Postoperative panoramic x-ray examination showed new bone formation between the transplanted rib and mandibular stump. Good recoveries of mandibular nerve sensory were observed when followed up after reconstruction surgery. Conclusions: Rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels could be a promising method for reconstruction of mandibular defects. PMID:27564074

  9. Morphometric study of the scapular free flap and the free rib osteomyocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Prescher, Andreas; Kanatas, Anastasios; Zaker Shahrak, Arash; Gerressen, Marcus; Knobe, Matthias; Altuntas, Selman Hakki; Modabber, Ali; Steiner, Timm Walter; Smeets, Ralf; Ghassemi, Alireza; Hölzle, Frank

    2014-04-01

    The scapula free flap is often the first choice for reconstruction of bony defects of the facial skeleton. However, the vascularised rib as part of a free rib osteomyocutaneous flap may be a suitable second choice. We have investigated the morphology and clinical dimensions of the 7th rib and the scapula, and the ability of the available bone to carry dental implants. The age and sex of the cadaver, and the donor side, were also recorded. The dimensions of the scapulas and 7th ribs (n=130 of each) from 65 cadavers were measured at 4 different points using osteometric methods. Examination showed that bone from the scapula and 7th rib were sufficient for placement of implants. The 7th rib gave reliable measurements for both height and width, and a consistent relation between compact and cancellous bone. Although the scapula provided adequate compact and cancellous bone, there were variations depending on the segment of bone chosen. Bones from male cadavers were more suitable for implantation. In both the scapula and the 7th rib ageing had a significant adverse effect in only one dimension. Most points of measurement have satisfactory bony dimensions for insertion of dental implants. PMID:24485051

  10. Controversies in fat perception.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  11. The action of the canine diaphragm on the lower ribs depends on activation.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André

    2011-11-01

    Conventional wisdom maintains that the diaphragm lifts the lower ribs during isolated contraction. Recent studies in dogs have shown, however, that supramaximal, tetanic stimulation of the phrenic nerves displaces the lower ribs caudally and inward. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that the action of the canine diaphragm on these ribs depends on the magnitude of muscle activation. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the C5 and C6 phrenic nerve roots were selectively stimulated in 6 animals with the airway occluded, and the level of diaphragm activation was altered by adjusting the stimulation frequency. In the second experiment, all the inspiratory intercostal muscles were severed in 7 spontaneously breathing animals, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration, and neural drive was increased by a succession of occluded breaths. The changes in airway opening pressure and the craniocaudal displacements of ribs 5 and 10 were measured in each animal. The data showed that 1) contraction of the diaphragm causes the upper ribs to move caudally; 2) during phrenic nerve stimulation, the lower ribs move cranially when the level of diaphragm activation is low, but they move caudally when the level of muscle activation is high and the entire rib cage is exposed to pleural pressure; and 3) during spontaneous diaphragm contraction, however, the lower ribs always move cranially, even when neural drive is elevated and the change in pleural pressure is large. It is concluded that the action of the diaphragm on the lower ribs depends on both the magnitude and the mode of muscle activation. These findings can reasonably explain the apparent discrepancies between previous studies. They also imply that observations made during phrenic nerve stimulation do not necessarily reflect the physiological action of the diaphragm.

  12. Flow and heat transfer in the wake of a surface-mounted rib with a slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Andallib; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2004-11-01

    An experimental study of flow and heat transfer downstream of a surface-mounted rib with a slit is reported. The open area ratios of the slit rib considered are 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with respect to the total projected rib area. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel, mostly at a hydraulic diameter based Reynolds number of 32,100. The surface Nusselt number distribution was determined by liquid crystal thermography. Results show that the slit inside the rib enhances heat transfer and reduces pressure penalty, with an optimum performance seen at an open area ratio of 20%. To explain this result, a qualitative picture of the flow field behind the rib was obtained by smoke visualization. Time averages and turbulent statistics of the velocity and temperature fluctuations were measured in detail, using hotwire anemometry and cold wire anemometry respectively. For open area ratios less than 30%, measurements show that the flow through the slit modifies the reattaching shear layer from the top of the rib. The resulting reattachment length is smaller, the peak in Nusselt number is higher, and the average heat transfer from the heated surface is enhanced. For the rib with an open area ratio greater than 40%, the lower portion behaves as an independent small rib with its own reattachment region. Simultaneously, the flow downstream of the upper rectangular part shows characteristics of vortex shedding. Thus, the size of the slit is seen to be an additional parameter that can be used to control heat transfer from the solid surface, in comparison to the solid rib.

  13. Short rib-polydactyly syndrome and pericentric inversion of chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Urioste, M.; Martinez-Frias, M.L.; Bermejo, E.; Villa, A.; Jimenez, N.; Romero, D.; Nieto, C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a newborn infant with clinical and radiological manifestations of some type of short rib-polydactyly syndrome who died soon after birth. Chromosomal studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes and chondrocytes demonstrated an apparently balanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 (present in the mother also). This association may have occurred by chance but, if not, the chromosomal breakpoints could interrupt the gene responsible for short rib-polydactyly syndromes, or else be related to the mechanism of short rib-polydactyly syndromes. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Multiple Rib Exostoses in a Boy: A Rare Case Resulting in Surgery Secondary to Cosmetic Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Masoum, Seyed Hosein Fattahi; Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    A seven year-old boy with several painless masses on the ribs and shoulder was referred to our hospital. The masses were so prominent that they prevented the child’s sleep. Since the patient had been ridiculed by his friends due to the rib prominences, he had refused to attend school. After clinical and radiological evaluations, the masses were diagnosed as hereditary multiple exostoses of the shoulder and ribs. He underwent surgery for cosmetic reasons resulting in the patient’s return to a normal life. PMID:25386591

  15. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Rib in an Adult: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Moon Young

    2016-01-01

    Single-site, single-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the rib is one of the rarest causes of bone tumor in adults. Herein, we report a case of a healthy 35-year-old male who presented with upper back pain that was attributed to a solitary osteolytic lesion at the posterolateral aspect of his sixth rib. For diagnostic confirmation and treatment, partial resection of the sixth rib was performed and pathologic finding was consistent with LCH. At the final follow-up after 2 years, no local recurrence or metastasis was observed. PMID:26933424

  16. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microfluidic heat sink with variously-shaped ribs for chip cooling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-04-22

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types.

  17. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microfluidic heat sink with variously-shaped ribs for chip cooling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351

  18. Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of the Microfluidic Heat Sink with Variously-Shaped Ribs for Chip Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351

  19. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  20. Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, E.

    2009-04-01

    The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are

  1. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education: STEM Graduate Students Bring Current Research into 7th-12th Grade Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Jackson, B. S.; Walker, R. M.; Schmitz, D.; Pierce, D.; Funderburk, W. K.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE), a NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) program at Mississippi State University, pairs STEM graduate students with local K-12 teachers to bring new inquiry and technology experiences to the classroom (www.gk12.msstate.edu). The graduate fellows prepare lessons for the students incorporating different facets of their research. The lessons vary in degree of difficulty according to the content covered in the classroom and the grade level of the students. The focus of each lesson is directed toward the individual research of the STEM graduate student using inquiry based designed activities. Scientific instruments that are used in STEM research (e.g. SkyMaster weather stations, GPS, portable SEM, Inclinometer, Soil Moisture Probe, Google Earth, ArcGIS Explorer) are also utilized by K-12 students in the activities developed by the graduate students. Creativity and problem solving skills are sparked by curiosity which leads to the discovery of new information. The graduate students work to enhance their ability to effectively communicate their research to members of society through the creation of research linked classroom activities, enabling the 7-12th grade students to connect basic processes used in STEM research with the required state and national science standards. The graduate students become respected role models for the high school students because of their STEM knowledge base and their passion for their research. Sharing enthusiasm for their chosen STEM field, as well as the application techniques to discover new ideas, the graduate students stimulate the interests of the classroom students and model authentic science process skills while highlighting the relevance of STEM research to K-12 student lives. The measurement of the student attitudes about science is gathered from pre and post interest surveys for the past four years. This partnership allows students, teachers, graduate students, and the public to

  2. Effects of rib size and arrangement on forced convective heat transfer in a solar air heater channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skullong, Sompol; Thianpong, Chinaruk; Promvonge, Pongjet

    2015-10-01

    The article presents an experimental investigation on turbulent heat transfer and friction loss behaviors of airflow through a constant heat-fluxed solar air heater channel fitted with rib turbulators. The experiment was conducted for the airflow rate in terms of Reynolds numbers based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel in a range of 5000-24,000. In the present work, a comparative study between square and thin ribs (90°-rib) with three rib arrangements, namely, one ribbed wall (or single rib), in-line and staggered ribs on two opposite walls was first introduced. The study shows a significant effect of the presence of the ribs on the heat transfer rate and friction loss over the smooth wall channel. The comparison made at a single rib pitch and height also revealed that the thin rib performs better than the corresponding square one. Among the three arrangements, the in-line rib array provides higher heat transfer and friction loss than the staggered and the single one. However, the staggered thin rib provides the highest thermal performance. With this reason, only the staggered thin ribs at four different relative heights (BR = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and three relative pitches (PR = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.33) are investigated further. It is found that the staggered rib at BR = 0.4 and PR = 0.5 yields the highest heat transfer and friction factor but the maximum thermal performance is at BR = 0.2 and PR = 0.75.

  3. A note on the muscle, fat and bone contents of Portuguese light lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Simões, J A; Mendes, I A

    1998-09-01

    A total of 72 lambs weighing between 10.1-13.0 kg (category C of the European Union grading for light lambs) from the Bragançano, Campaniço, Merino Branco, Merino Preto e Serra da Estrela breeds were studied. These breeds represent 66.8% of the Portuguese sheep population. Evaluations were made at the same subcutaneous fat contents in the carcass (88.5 g kg(-1)). Small, significant (p < 0.05) differences in the range of muscle and bone contents were found; the ranges being 30 and 25 g kg(-1), respectively. These variations led to significant diferences in the muscle:bone ratios, the highest value being 3.30 and the lowest 2.73. Significant differences were also found in the content of higher-priced joints (leg + chump, loin + ribs and anterior ribs) and in the proportion of kkcf (9 g kg(-1)). No significant differences were found in the content of total fat [subcutaneous, intermuscular and kidney knob and channel fat (kkcf)] and in the muscle: total fat ratios.

  4. [Age estimation based on sternal rib ends changes in Bosnian male population].

    PubMed

    Sarajlić, Nermin

    2006-01-01

    One of the methods used for age estimation of exhumed remains of the missing persons from the recent war in Bosnia and Herzegovina is Iscan et al. rib phase analysis method, developed o n American population. Several researches have tested this method on other populations and proposed modifications for age estimation in a certain population. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the mentioned method for age assessment on Bosnian male population. The sample consistS of ribs from 410 identified deceased persons, from the recent war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Whenever possible, the 4th rib has been used. In other cases 3rd, 5th or 6th rib has been used. Adjusted age ranges for each phase were developed specifically for the Bosnian male population. Up to the phase 7 Bosnians reach and finish each phase a little later t han Americans. However phases 7 and 8 were achieved andended earlier in Bosnian population.

  5. Molecular-Flow Properties of RIB Type Vapor-Transport Systems Using a Fast-Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, Gerald D; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the fast-valve device, described previously, permits measurement of molecular-flow times of chemically active or inactive gaseous species through radioactive ion beam (RIB) target ion source systems, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. Thus, decay losses of short-half-life RIBs can be determined for a given target/vapor-transport system in advance of on-line operation, thereby ascertaining the feasibility of the system design for successful processing of a given isotope. In this article, molecular-flow-time theory and experimentally measured molecular-flow time data are given for serial- and parallel-coupled Ta metal RIB vapor-transport systems similar to those used at ISOL based RIB facilities. In addition, the effect of source type on the molecular-flow time properties of a given system is addressed, and a chemical passivation method for negating surface adsorption enthalpies for chemically active gaseous species on Ta surfaces is demonstrated.

  6. SEASONAL VARIABILTIY LIPIDS, LIPID CLASSES AND PCBS IN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the seasonal variability of total lipids, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. One population was located in a highly c...

  7. Schlieren visualization of water natural convection in a vertical ribbed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossa, M.; Misale, M.; Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Schlieren techniques are valuable tools for the qualitative and quantitative visualizations of flows in a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. A large number of schlieren systems have been developed and documented in the literature; majority of applications involve flows of gases, typically air. In this work, a schlieren technique is applied to visualize the buoyancy-induced flow inside vertical ribbed channels using water as convective fluid. The test section consists of a vertical plate made of two thin sheets of chrome-plated copper with a foil heater sandwiched between them; the external sides of the plate are roughened with transverse, square-cross-sectioned ribs. Two parallel vertical walls, smooth and unheated, form with the heated ribbed plate two adjacent, identical and asymmetrically heated, vertical channels. Results include flow schlieren visualizations with colour-band filters, reconstructions of the local heat transfer coefficient distributions along the ribbed surfaces and comparisons with past experiments performed using air as working fluid.

  8. Vibroacoustics of orthotropic plates ribbed in both directions: Application to stiffened rectangular wood panels.

    PubMed

    Trévisan, Benjamin; Ege, Kerem; Laulagnet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the vibroacoustic behavior of a rectangular ribbed wood panel. This is done by developing an analytical model based on a variational approach, taking into account the kinetic and strain energies of a special orthotropic plate, 11 ribs oriented in a first direction and 1 other strong stiffener oriented in the perpendicular direction, which are considered as beams tied to the plate. A modal decomposition is adopted on the basis of the simply supported orthotropic plate. This allows calculating the modes of the wood panel (ribbed modes) in the frequency range 0-5000 Hz. The acoustical radiation of the baffled panel is also calculated. The radiation coefficients of the ribbed modes are presented and compared, when possible, to similar unribbed plate modes. Finally, the vibroacoustic analysis of the structure shows that an excitation placed on the hard point makes the panel particularly radiative and decreases the apparent critical frequency. PMID:26827020

  9. Behavior of streamwise rib vortices in a three-dimensional mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, J. M.; Bulbeck, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The structure and behavior of a streamwise rib vortex in a direct numerical simulation of a time-developing three-dimensional incompressible plane mixing layer is examined. Where the rib vortex is being stretched, the vorticity vector is primarily directed in the vortex axial direction and the radial and azimuthal velocity distribution is similar to that of a Burger's vortex. In the region where the vortex stretching is negative, there is a change in the local topology of the vortex. The axial flow is decelerated and a negative azimuthal component of vorticity is induced. These features are characteristic of vortex breakdown. The temporal evolution of the rib vortex is similar to the evolution of an axisymmetric vortex in the early stages of vortex breakdown. The effect of vortex breakdown on other parts of the flow is, however, not as significant as the interaction between the rib vortex and other vortices.

  10. 13. Detail of steel ribs of T18, showing connectin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of steel ribs of T-18, showing connectin to concrete foundation wall - Advance Base Depot Davisville, Building T-17, Ninth Street southeast of Davisville Road, Davisville, Washington County, RI

  11. Expanded-mode semiconductor laser with tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.; Hou, H.; Wendt, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    A new diode laser using a Tapered-Rib Adiabatic-Following Fiber Coupler to achieve 2D mode expansion and narrow, symmetric far-field emission without epitaxial regrowth or sharply-defined tips on tapered waveguides is presented.

  12. Vibro-acoustics of ribbed structures: A compact modal formulation for SEA models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, Paul G.

    Rib-stiffening of plates and shells is a structurally-efficient construction technique common to aerospace, shipbuilding, automotive, and many other industries. Engineers need to be able to design the vibro-acoustic behavior of these panel systems. That is, the panel vibration response to excitation by a sound pressure field and the sound radiated by panel vibration. The effect of adding rib-stiffeners to a uniform thickness, isotropic panel is to cause scattering of the panel free bending waves. The superposition of these wavefields can also be described by modal methods, if the panel has finite dimensions. The effect of rib stiffening is shown to be the re-distribution of resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the panel, which can significantly alter its noise and vibration character. This paper describes a compact modal method for description of the vibro-acoustics of ribbed panels which is currently implemented in the Statistical Energy Analysis modeling package AutoSEA.

  13. Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nicole; Christian, Andreas; Sander, P Martin

    2012-12-23

    The histology of cervical ribs of Sauropoda reveals a primary bone tissue, which largely consists of longitudinally oriented mineralized collagen fibres, essentially the same tissue as found in ossified tendons. The absence of regular periosteal bone and the dominance of longitudinal fibres contradict the ventral bracing hypothesis (VBH) postulated for sauropod necks. The VBH predicts histologically primary periosteal bone with fibres oriented perpendicular to the rib long axis, indicative of connective tissue between overlapping hyperelongated cervical ribs. The transformation of the cervical ribs into ossified tendons makes the neck more flexible and implies that tension forces acted mainly along the length of the neck. This is contrary to the VBH, which requires compressive forces along the neck. Tension forces would allow important neck muscles to shift back to the trunk region, making the neck much lighter. PMID:23034173

  14. Effect of adiabatic square ribs on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi-Saad, Aissa; Kadja, Mahfoud; Popa, Catalin; Polidori, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    A 2-D numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of two adiabatic square ribs on laminar flow and heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated channel. The two ribs are symmetrically located on each wall, exactly above the heating zone. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady bi-dimensional continuity, momentum and energy equations with the finite volume method. The investigations focused more specifically on the influence of ribs sizes on the flow structure and heat transfer enhancement. The results showed that the variation of ribs sizes significantly alters the heat transfer and fluid flow distribution along the channel, especially in the vicinity of protrusions. Also, the results show that streamlines, isotherms, and the number, sizes and formation of vortex structures inside the channel strongly depend on the size of protrusions. The changes in heat transfer parameters have also been presented.

  15. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  16. National Society of Black Physicists XXV Annual Day of Scientific Lectures and 21st Annual Meeting - NSBP '98: The Next Generation/12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students - NCPBS '98: Physics/Life in Motion

    SciTech Connect

    MacKellar, Alan

    1999-02-28

    The 12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) March 4-8, 1998 in Lexington, Ky. The Proceedings consists of scientific talks and abstracts given by NSBP members and students attending the NCBPS meeting. One joint session of general scientific interest was held, with NCBPS students, NSBP members, and about 75 high school students from the state of Kentucky present. NCBPS session included ''How to get into Graduate School'', ''How to Survive in Graduate School'', and a Panel on ''Opportunities for Physics Graduates.'' The report by AIP: ''Survey of Participants of the 12th Annual NCBPS'' is included in the Proceedings.

  17. Adaptive projection method applied to three-dimensional ultrasonic focusing and steering through the ribs.

    PubMed

    Cochard, E; Aubry, J F; Tanter, M; Prada, C

    2011-08-01

    An adaptive projection method for ultrasonic focusing through the rib cage, with minimal energy deposition on the ribs, was evaluated experimentally in 3D geometry. Adaptive projection is based on decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT method) and projection on the "noise" subspace. It is shown that 3D implementation of this method is straightforward, and not more time-consuming than 2D. Comparisons are made between adaptive projection, spherical focusing, and a previously proposed time-reversal focusing method, by measuring pressure fields in the focal plane and rib region using the three methods. The ratio of the specific absorption rate at the focus over the one at the ribs was found to be increased by a factor of up to eight, versus spherical emission. Beam steering out of geometric focus was also investigated. For all configurations projecting steered emissions were found to deposit less energy on the ribs than steering time-reversed emissions: thus the non-invasive method presented here is more efficient than state-of-the-art invasive techniques. In fact, this method could be used for real-time treatment, because a single acquisition of back-scattered echoes from the ribs is enough to treat a large volume around the focus, thanks to real time projection of the steered beams.

  18. A comparison of methods for focusing the field of a HIFU array transducer through human ribs.

    PubMed

    Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N

    2014-06-21

    A forward model, which predicts the scattering by human ribs of a multi-element high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer, was used to investigate the efficacy of a range of focusing approaches described in the literature. This forward model is based on the boundary element method and was described by Gélat et al (2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 5553-81; 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 8471-97). The model has since been improved and features a complex surface impedance condition at the surface of the ribs. The inverse problem of focusing through the ribs was implemented on six transducer array-rib topologies and five methods of focusing were investigated, including spherical focusing, binarized apodization based on geometric ray tracing, phase conjugation and the decomposition of the time-reversal operator method. The excitation frequency was 1 MHz and the array was of spherical-section type. Both human and idealized rib topologies were considered. The merit of each method of focusing was examined. It was concluded that the constrained optimization approach offers greater potential than the other focusing methods in terms of maximizing the ratio of acoustic pressure magnitudes at the focus to those on the surface of the ribs whilst taking full advantage of the dynamic range of the phased array.

  19. Detection and registration of ribs in MRI using geometric and appearance models.

    PubMed

    Samei, Golnoosh; Székely, Gábor; Tanner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a new type of minimally invasive therapy for treating malignant liver tissues. Since the ribs on the beam path can compromise an effective therapy, detecting them and tracking their motion on MR images is of great importance. However, due to poor magnetic signal emission of bones, ribs cannot be entirely observed in MR. In the proposed method, we take advantage of the accuracy of CT in imaging the ribs to build a geometric ribcage model and combine it with an appearance model of the neighbouring structures of ribs in MR to reconstruct realistic centerlines in MRIs. We have improved our previous method by using a more sophisticated appearance model, a more flexible ribcage model, and a more effective optimization strategy. We decreased the mean error to 2.5 mm, making the method suitable for clinical application. Finally, we propose a rib registration method which conserves the shape and length of ribs, and imposes realistic constraints on their motions, achieving 2.7mm mean accuracy.

  20. Rib Bone Graft Adjusted to Fit the Facial Asymmetry: A Frame Structure Graft.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Ho; Choi, Jong Hwan; Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-10-01

    The authors introduce the concept of a "frame structure graft" in which a harvested rib bone was adjusted to fit facial asymmetry. On the costochondral junction of the sixth or seventh rib, a 5 cm incision was made. Through a subperiosteal dissection, the rib bone was harvested. Using a reciprocating saw, the harvested rib was scored on its anterior surface as well as its posterior surface with a partial depth at different intervals. The harvested rib bone was placed on the skin surface of the unaffected side of the face and a curvature was created exactly matching that of the unaffected side by bending the bone using a greenstick fracture. Thereafter, the graft was adjusted to conceal the asymmetry of the deficient side. The adjusted "frame structure" was transferred to the defect through the incisions on the affected side, and the "frame structure" graft was placed on the mandible or zygoma. The graft fixation was done externally with at least 2 Kirschner wires (K-wires). From January 2005 to August 2013, a total of 30 patients (13 men, 17 women, mean age 25.6 years) received a frame structure graft. All 30 patients achieved good healing at the operation site without complications. Donor-site morbidity as pneumothorax from the rib bone harvest was not found. Merits of this frame structure graft, the authors think, are that this method could allow a similar curvature to the normal side. In addition, the procedure itself is easy. PMID:26468802

  1. Possible Function of the ribT Gene of Bacillus subtilis: Theoretical Prediction, Cloning, and Expression.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, A P; Seregina, T A; Kholodnyak, A A; Kreneva, R A; Mironov, A S; Perumov, D A; Timkovskii, A L

    2014-07-01

    The complete decipherment of the functions and interactions of the elements of the riboflavin biosynthesis operon (rib operon) of Bacillus subtilis are necessary for the development of superproducers of this important vitamin. The function of its terminal ribT gene has not been established to date. In this work, a search for homologs of the hypothetical amino acid sequence of the gene product through databases, as well as an analysis of the homolgs, was performed; the distribution of secondary structure elements was theoretically predicted; and the tertiary structure of the RibT protein was proposed. The ribT gene nucleotide sequence was amplified and cloned into the standard high-copy expression vector pET15b and then expressed after induction with IPTG in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain cells containing the inducible phage T7 RNA polymerase gene. The ribT gene expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The protein product of the expression was purified by affinity chromatography. Therefore, the real possibility of RibT protein production in quantities sufficient for further investigation of its structure and functional activity was demonstrated. PMID:25349719

  2. A Study on the Performance of the Split Reaction Water Turbine with Guide Ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deuel H.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2015-09-01

    The development of technologies that make use of renewable energy is of great significance presently. A new kind of turbine called Split Reaction Water Turbine (SRWT) using PVC pipes as material is a major contribution towards harnessing the energy potentials of small stream low head water resources. SRWTs of diameter to height ratio (D/H = 110 cm/160 cm) were tested at the MSU-IIT College of Engineering Fluid Engineering Laboratory. Data on volumetric flow and pressure head at the turbine inlet of the SRWT were recorded using National Instrument Data Processing System using LabView software. In later experiments, guide ribs were installed at the vane of the exit nozzles in order to determine the difference in the performance of the ribbed and the non-ribbed SRWT. Simulations of the running SRWT were conducted using SOLIDWORKS software. Results of the simulations aided in the thorough analyses of the data from the experimental runs. A comparison of data from the ribbed and non-ribbed SRWT shows that guide ribs were effective in directing the momentum of the exiting water to improve the speed of rotation. In this study, the increase in the speed of the Split Reaction Water Turbine was as much as 46%.

  3. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    PubMed

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration.

  4. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The post-natal fate of supernumerary ribs in rat teratogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wickramaratne, G A

    1988-04-01

    A common occurrence in rat teratology studies, supernumerary ribs, have been considered to be indicative of teratogenicity by some authors but not to be so indicative by others. As a teratogenic event is, by definition a permanent change, a study to follow the fate of supernumerary ribs in the development of adulthood of the rat was undertaken. An established teratogen in the rat, aspirin, was used to increase the frequency of supernumerary ribs. Even though aspirin treatment of the dams doubled the initial frequency of supernumerary ribs the results show that over the first 60 days post-partum their frequency in both control and treated groups decline to essentially zero. This decline in frequency of supernumerary ribs is complemented by an increase in the proportion of foetuses with a fully developed transverse process on the first lumbar vertebra. The proposal that supernumerary ribs in the rat are a result of developmental delays in a labile region of the axial skeleton and not a manifestation of a teratogenic event is presented.

  6. Belt-rib concept for variable-camber airfoils: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanile, Lucio F.; Seack, Oliver; Sachau, Delf

    2000-06-01

    The belt-rib concept for lifting surfaces with variable camber evolved at DLR recently as one of the most promising solutions for the adaptive wing. With the belt-rib idea the adaptive wing issue is approached in a new way: instead of a 'mechatronic' solution with hinges or linear bearings a 'structronic' solution is chosen, where defined, distributed flexibility allow the desired shape changes. The new concept evolves from the classical wing structure. The classical rib, which is in charge of the wing section's stiffness, is replaced by a 'belt rib,' which allows camber changes within given limits while leaving the remaining in-plane stiffness properties of the section widely unchanged. The evolution of the belt-rib concept was accompanied by experimental tests on different prototypes. The last developments concern the construction of a model with solid-state hinges, realized as hybrid glass fiber -- carbon-fiber reinforced composite structure. The model is actuated mechanically by Bowden cables, which can be replaced by shape memory wires in the next development stage. In this paper, the fundamentals of the concept and the most relevant results of the first developments are reported. A description of the new belt-rib design follows, which was implemented in a new prototype. The description of the experimental strength proof and an outline of further development work conclude the paper.

  7. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer ({phi}{approximately} = 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to {phi} {approximately} = 1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of Cs to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB{sub 6} while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for RIB applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the HRIBF The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report.

  8. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, C. B.; Hayek, S. I.; Hallander, J. E.; Bostian, D. A.

    1984-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells were made on the NUSC Transducer Calibration Platform (TCP) in Lake Seneca, NY. Six different types of mechanical drives were used at each of three locations inside the inner shell. Measurements of the shell vibration and acoustic radiation were made with and without outer shells installed around the inner shell structure. For two types of drives, measurements were made with a pressure release layer installed between the inner and outer shell surfaces. Acoustic radiation measurements were made as a function of frequency from 20 to 5,000 Hz and as a function of observation direction at several frequencies for each shell and drive measurement configuration. Measured acoustic radiation data as a function of frequency have been processed. Analysis of the processed data is presented and discussed. It is shown that the location of the drive had a significant effect on the acoustic radiation. The outer shell reduced the acoustic radiation at shell resonant frequencies, but had little effect on other frequencies. The pressure release layer in the double shell had little effect on the acoustic radiation.

  10. Mutiple Spontaneous Rib Fractures in Patient with Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Je, Ji Hye; Seo, Ji Hye; Na, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin

    2014-11-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess, including Cushing's syndrome, is a common cause of secondary osteoporosis. Thirty to fifty percent of Cushing's syndrome patients experience non-traumatic fractures, which is often the presenting manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. However, there have been rare cases of Cushing's syndrome diagnosed only based upon bone manifestations. We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome that was diagnosed in a 44-year-old woman who initially visited our hospital due to multiple non-traumatic rib fractures. She did not exhibit any other manifestations of Cushing's syndrome such as moon face, buffalo hump or abdominal striae. Initially, we evaluated her for bone metastases from a cancer of unknown origin, but there was no evidence of metastatic cancer. Instead, we found a left adrenal incidentaloma. As a result of the hormone study, she was diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome. Interestingly, her bony manifestation of Cushing's syndrome, which was evident in the bone scan and bone mineral densitometry, completely recovered after a left adrenalectomy. Therefore, the possibility of Cushing's syndrome as a cause of secondary osteoporosis should be considered in young patients with non-traumatic multiple fractures, with or without any other typical features of Cushing's syndrome.

  11. Mutiple Spontaneous Rib Fractures in Patient with Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Je, Ji Hye; Seo, Ji Hye; Na, Young Ju

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess, including Cushing's syndrome, is a common cause of secondary osteoporosis. Thirty to fifty percent of Cushing's syndrome patients experience non-traumatic fractures, which is often the presenting manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. However, there have been rare cases of Cushing's syndrome diagnosed only based upon bone manifestations. We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome that was diagnosed in a 44-year-old woman who initially visited our hospital due to multiple non-traumatic rib fractures. She did not exhibit any other manifestations of Cushing's syndrome such as moon face, buffalo hump or abdominal striae. Initially, we evaluated her for bone metastases from a cancer of unknown origin, but there was no evidence of metastatic cancer. Instead, we found a left adrenal incidentaloma. As a result of the hormone study, she was diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome. Interestingly, her bony manifestation of Cushing's syndrome, which was evident in the bone scan and bone mineral densitometry, completely recovered after a left adrenalectomy. Therefore, the possibility of Cushing's syndrome as a cause of secondary osteoporosis should be considered in young patients with non-traumatic multiple fractures, with or without any other typical features of Cushing's syndrome. PMID:25489577

  12. The riboflavin transporter RibU in Lactococcus lactis: molecular characterization of gene expression and the transport mechanism.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Catherine M; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Geertsma, Eric R; Duurkens, Ria H; Poolman, Bert; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-04-01

    This study describes the characterization of the riboflavin transport protein RibU in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000. RibU is predicted to contain five membrane-spanning segments and is a member of a novel transport protein family, not described in the Transport Classification Database. Transcriptional analysis revealed that ribU transcription is downregulated in response to riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), presumably by means of the structurally conserved RFN (riboflavin) element located between the transcription start site and the start codon. An L. lactis strain carrying a mutated ribU gene exhibits altered transcriptional control of the riboflavin biosynthesis operon ribGBAH in response to riboflavin and FMN and does not consume riboflavin from its growth medium. Furthermore, it was shown that radiolabeled riboflavin is not taken up by the ribU mutant strain, in contrast to the wild-type strain, directly demonstrating the involvement of RibU in riboflavin uptake. FMN and the toxic riboflavin analogue roseoflavin were shown to inhibit riboflavin uptake and are likely to be RibU substrates. FMN transport by RibU is consistent with the observed transcriptional regulation of the ribGBAH operon by external FMN. The presented transport data are consistent with a uniport mechanism for riboflavin translocation and provide the first detailed molecular and functional analysis of a bacterial protein involved in riboflavin transport.

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Combined with Pre- and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Result in Lowered Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance in Offspring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Du, Jing-Xia; Li, Yan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Shou-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult metabolic syndrome may in part have origins in fetal or early life. This study was designed to explore the effect of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and high-fat diet on metabolic syndrome in offspring rats. Methods 32 pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, including Control group; LPS group (pregnant rats were injected with LPS 0.4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the 8th, 10th and 12th day of pregnancy); High-fat group (maternal rats had high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation period, and their pups also had high-fat diet up to the third month of life); LPS + High-fat group (rats were exposed to the identical experimental scheme with LPS group and High-fat group). Results Blood pressure elevated in LPS group and High-fat group, reduced in LPS+High-fat group, accompanied by the increase of serum leptin level in LPS and High-fat group and increase of serum IL-6, TNF-a in High-fat group; both serum insulin and cholesterol increased in High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, as well as insulin in LPS group. HOMA-IR value increased in LPS, High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, and QUICKI decreased in these groups; H-E staining showed morphologically pathological changes in thoracic aorta and liver tissue in the three groups. Increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase suggest impaired liver function in LPS+High-fat group. Conclusion/Significance Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure, insulin resistance and impaired liver function in three-month old offspring rats. The lowered blood pressure might benefit from the predictive adaptive response to prenatal inflammation. PMID:24498431

  14. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  15. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  16. The ribB FMN riboswitch from Escherichia coli operates at the transcriptional and translational level and regulates riboflavin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pedrolli, Danielle; Langer, Simone; Hobl, Birgit; Schwarz, Julia; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Mack, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    FMN riboswitches are genetic elements that, in many bacteria, control genes responsible for biosynthesis and/or transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). We report that the Escherichia coli ribB FMN riboswitch controls expression of the essential gene ribB coding for the riboflavin biosynthetic enzyme 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (RibB; EC 4.1.99.12). Our data show that the E. coli ribB FMN riboswitch is unusual because it operates at the transcriptional and also at the translational level. Expression of ribB is negatively affected by FMN and by the FMN analog roseoflavin mononucleotide, which is synthesized enzymatically from roseoflavin and ATP. Consequently, in addition to flavoenzymes, the E. coli ribB FMN riboswitch constitutes a target for the antibiotic roseoflavin produced by Streptomyces davawensis.

  17. Characterization of Human Rib Biomechanical Responses due to Three-Point Bending.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Anil; Saif, Tal; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Feng; Begeman, Paul; Yang, King H; Millis, Scott

    2015-11-01

    In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender. It was found that, in comparison to males, females had significantly lower values for maximum bending moments, slopes of bending moment-angle curves, and average cortical-bone thickness (p<0.05). Samples of ribs taken from elderly specimens failed at lower values of fracture moments than those from younger specimens, and had lower slopes of bending moment-angle curves, both in males and females (p<0.05). The generalized estimated equations were developed to predict the values of biomechanical response and average cortical thickness based on age, gender, height and weight of individual specimens. Results from the current study illustrate that biomechanical responses and rib cortical thicknesses are functions of age, gender, height and weight. However, the current study is limited to a quasi-static loading scheme, which is different from real crash conditions. Hence, rib-material properties, which are dependent on strain rate, and are needed for wholebody finite element models representing different populations, still require more research. PMID:26660742

  18. The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bemelman, Michael; van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke

    2016-02-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950's, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has become available suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation.

  19. The Role of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Rib Fixation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bemelman, Michael; van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke

    2016-01-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950’s, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Since the introduction of plate fixation for fractures, several plates and screws have been developed, all with their own characteristics. To accomplice more fracture stability, it was thought the bigger the plate, the better. The counter side was a compromised blood supply of the bone, often resulting in bone necrosis and ultimately delayed or non-union. With the search and development of new materials and techniques for fracture fixation, less invasive procedures have become increasingly popular. This resulted in the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for fracture fixation. With the MIPO technique, procedures could be performed with smaller incisions and thus with less soft tissue damage and a better preserved blood supply. The last 5 years rib fixation has become increasingly popular, rising evidence has become available suggesting that surgical rib fixation improves outcome of patients with a flail chest or isolated rib fractures. Many surgical approaches for rib fixation have been described in the old literature, however, most of these techniques are obscure nowadays. Currently mostly large incisions with considerable surgical insult are used to stabilize rib fractures. We think that MIPO deserves a place in the surgical treatment of rib fractures. We present the aspects of diagnosis, preoperative planning and operative techniques in regard to MIPO rib fixation. PMID:26889439

  20. Video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of fractured ribs to prevent descending aorta injury in patient with chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Funaki, Soichiro; Inoue, Masayoshi; Minami, Masato; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2014-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma frequently leads to various complications such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, and lung contusion. Since neighboring organ injury caused by a rib fracture with chest trauma could be fatal when a great vessel is involved, immediate diagnosis and treatment including surgery are important. Here, we present a case of chest trauma, in which we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic rib resection to prevent injury to the descending aorta by the fractured rib tip.

  1. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.; Acharya, S.; Chen, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  2. Convective heat transfer and fluid flow physics in some ribbed ducts using liquid crystal thermography and PIV measuring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundén, Bengt

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of forced convection is important in several engineering applications. Surface modifications like rib-roughening are commonly used in applications such as compact heat exchangers and internal cooling of gas turbine blades and vanes. This paper gives a brief summary of convective heat transfer and fluid flow in some ribbed ducts using liquid crystal thermography and PIV measuring techniques. Details of the flow pattern and the influence of rib configuration and arrangement on the heat transfer are presented. Nevertheless, the understanding of the flow and thermal physics in ribbed ducts is not yet complete and further studies are needed.

  3. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D.

    1995-10-01

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  4. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  5. Brief communication: Reevaluating osteoporosis in human ribs: the role of intracortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Stout, Sam D

    2012-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern in modern society and is continually being evaluated in past populations by quantifying bone loss. Cortical area measures are commonly used in anthropological analyses to assess bone loss in the ribs, but these values are typically based on endosteal expansion and do not account for intracortical bone loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using absolute cortical area, compared to traditional cortical area measures to describe global bone loss in elderly ribs. Transverse sections were prepared from sixth ribs of ten elderly subjects, and bone area measurements were made from 100× magnification composites of each rib for calculation of cortical area (Ct.Ar) and percent cortical area (% C/T). In addition, all areas of intracortical porosity were measured and percent porosity area (% Po.Ar) calculated. Absolute cortical area (Ct.Ar(A)) was calculated by subtracting porosity area from cortical area, and a percent absolute cortical area (% C(A)/T) calculated. ANOVA results reveal significant interindividual variation in percent porosity area (% Po.Ar). Percent cortical area and percent absolute cortical area values were compared and results show a mean difference of 4.08% exists across all subjects, with a range of 1.19-11.73%. This suggests that intracortical porosity is variable and does play a role in age-associated bone loss in the rib. All future investigations of osteoporosis should account for intracortical porosity in bone loss.

  6. Early intravenous ibuprofen decreases narcotic requirement and length of stay after traumatic rib fracture.

    PubMed

    Bayouth, Lilly; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P; Birrer, Kara L; Promes, John T

    2013-11-01

    Pain control after traumatic rib fracture is essential to avoid respiratory complications and prolonged hospitalization. Narcotics are commonly used, but adjunctive medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial. Twenty-one patients with traumatic rib fractures treated with both narcotics and intravenous ibuprofen (IVIb) (Treatment) were retrospectively compared with 21 age- and rib fracture-matched patients who received narcotics alone (Control). Pain medication requirements over the first 7 hospital days were evaluated. Mean daily IVIb dose was 2070 ± 880 mg. Daily intravenous morphine-equivalent requirement was 19 ± 16 vs 32 ± 24 mg (P < 0.0001). Daily narcotic requirement was significantly decreased in the Treatment group on Days 3 through 7 (P < 0.05). Total weekly narcotic requirement was significantly less among Treatment patients (P = 0.004). Highest and lowest daily pain scores were lower in the Treatment group (P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was 4.4 ± 3.4 versus 5.4 ± 2.9 days (P = 0.32). There were no significant complications associated with IVIb therapy. Early IVIb therapy in patients with traumatic rib fractures significantly decreases narcotic requirement and results in clinically significant decreases in hospital length of stay. IVIb therapy should be initiated in patients with traumatic rib fractures to improve patient comfort and reduce narcotic requirement.

  7. IGRT/ART phantom with programmable independent rib cage and tumor motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Olivier C. L.; Mills, John A.; Land, Imke; Mulholl, Pete; Menary, Paul; Crichton, Robert; Wilson, Adrian; Sage, John; Anna, Morenc; Depuydt, Tom

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of the Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radiation Oncology (MAESTRO) thorax phantom, a new anthropomorphic moving ribcage combined with a 3D tumor positioning system to move target inserts within static lungs. Methods: The new rib cage design is described and its motion is evaluated using Vicon Nexus, a commercial 3D motion tracking system. CT studies at inhale and exhale position are used to study the effect of rib motion and tissue equivalence. Results: The 3D target positioning system and the rib cage have millimetre accuracy. Each axis of motion can reproduce given trajectories from files or individually programmed sinusoidal motion in terms of amplitude, period, and phase shift. The maximum rib motion ranges from 7 to 20 mm SI and from 0.3 to 3.7 mm AP with LR motion less than 1 mm. The repeatability between cycles is within 0.16 mm root mean square error. The agreement between CT electron and mass density for skin, ribcage, spine hard and inner bone as well as cartilage is within 3%. Conclusions: The MAESTRO phantom is a useful research tool that produces programmable 3D rib motions which can be synchronized with 3D internal target motion. The easily accessible static lungs enable the use of a wide range of inserts or can be filled with lung tissue equivalent and deformed using the target motion system.

  8. Holographic interferometry as a method to detect welding failures on ribbed iron structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Freyre, C.; Spector, M.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.; Yañez Casal, A.

    2013-11-01

    Metallic structures made of ribbed iron bars (ADN-420) are of common use in sheds and supporting structures. Usually, trusses are constructed with many pieces of ribbed iron bars, combined together through a welding process. Although ribbed iron manufacturers do not recommend this type of structure it is still frequently used. The main weakness of these trusses is the welding point because ribbed iron is not a material suitable for welding. This work presents results obtained from an analysis of welding points between ribbed iron bars extracted from a collapsed truss, by means of conventional (optical) and digital holographic interferometry (HI and DHI, respectively). The experiments were divided in two different series of studies. The first series were performed by HI on metallographic samples while the second series were done by DHI on different welding points. These results were complemented by metallographic analysis made in an external laboratory. DHI indicated that the bars did not have important failures but evidenced defects in one of the welding points under analysis. This information together with metallographic results allowed inferring that the collapse was probably due to an error in the design of the structure, since the iron bars were out of standard compliance.

  9. Effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on formation of coagulative necrosis in goat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqi; Gong, Xiaobo; Hu, Kai; Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2006-05-01

    The motives of the work are to explore the effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on HIFU ablation goat liver. A model-JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System was used. A 0.75 MHz focused transducer with 150mm aperture and 120mm focal length was used in all experiment. Acoustical power can be adjusted. 30 goats were divided into control group (HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU alone), experiment group 1(HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU combined with microbubble) and experiment group 2(Ribs in HIFU beam path were surgically removed, HIFU alone). 20 targeted regions at 5cm away from skin surface were applied for creating necrosis with linear scanning of 15mm length using HIFU in 3 groups. All animals were sacrificed two days later and exposed organs were dissected. After obtaining the maximal section, the volumes of the necrotic regions were measured, then to calculate Energy Efficiency Factor (EEF). Researched results showed that Ribs in HIFU beam path affected the formation of coagulative necrosis and enhanced EEF in control group. HIFU combined with microbubble could enhance the formation of coagulative necrosis and decrease EEF.

  10. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  11. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such ... flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower ...

  12. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  13. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  14. Nuclear astrophysics with RIBs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bardayan, D.W. |

    1998-11-01

    The Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS) and Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR) have been installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform measurements of reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest using radioactive ions beams (RIBs). For example radioactive {sup 17}F beams will be used to determine the {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F and {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne stellar reaction rates--both of which are important reactions in the Hot-CNO cycle. The first reactions studied will be {sup 1}H({sup 17}F,p){sup 17}F and {sup 1}H({sup 17}F,{alpha}){sup 14}O. These experiments will require {sup 17}F beams with intensities of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} ions per second in conjunction with the SIDAR. The {sup 1}H({sup 17}F,p){sup 17}F reaction will be used to probe resonances in {sup 18}Ne which contribute to the {sup 17}F(p,{gamma}){sup 18}Ne stellar reaction rate, while {sup 1}H({sup 17}F,{alpha}){sup 14}O will be used to determine the stellar reaction rate of the inverse reaction {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F. In preparation for these experiments, measurements have been made of the {sup 1}H({sup 17}O,p){sup 17}O and {sup 1}H({sup 17}O,{alpha}){sup 14}N reaction cross sections. When higher beam currents of {sup 17}F become available, a direct measurement of the {sup 1}H({sup 17}F, {sup 18}Ne) resonance strength will be made using the DRS. To test the performance of the DRS for measuring capture reaction cross sections, the well-known {sup 1}H({sup 12}C, {sup 13}N) cross section has been measured at an energy similar to those proposed for radioactive beam experiments. Results from these stable beam experiments are discussed.

  15. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  16. Turbulent-Heat-Flux and Temperature-Variance Budgets in a Single-Rib Mounting Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takahiro; Matsubara, Koji; Sakurai, Atsushi

    Heat transfer and fluid flow in a single-rib mounting channel were investigated by directly solving Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The flow and thermal fields were considered to be fully developed at the inlet of the channel, and the simulation was made for spatial advancement of turbulent heat transfer. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity at the inlet and the channel half width was 150. The Prandtl number was 0.71. The budgets for turbulent heat fluxes and temperature variance at various sections were presented and were investigated, which would be useful for testing and developing turbulence models. Near a circular vortex in front of the rib, pressure diffusion terms made an important contribution. Remarkable production terms were generated near a reattachment point. Production and dissipation terms were not dominant in front of and above the rib, and a time scale ratio exceeded 2.0 in the region.

  17. Critical study of observation of the sternal end of the right 4th rib.

    PubMed

    Fanton, Laurent; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Paultre, Ulysse; Schrag, Bettina; Malicier, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Studies of the method of estimating age at death by the 4th rib exclusively concerned the phase method without fundamentally challenging the method as such. The present study analyzed observation of the variables on which the Işcan method is based. Ten observers made two assessments of the stage of pit depth, pit shape, rim and wall configurations of 59 right 4th ribs harvested from males (mean age: 49 years; range: 47-94 years). Observation showed poor reproducibility and repeatability for all three variables (Wilcoxon test, kappa-coefficient). Analysis of problem ribs revealed difficulty in measuring and imprecision in describing pit depth and failure to take account of continual aging for the other two variables. Despite these results, Işcan's variables provide objective information on age at death. It is recommended that the method be improved by better description of the variables and use of multivariate statistical analysis.

  18. Glued Joint Behavior of Ribs for Wood-Based Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolovs, G.; Rocens, K.; Sliseris, J.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of composite sandwich plywood plates with cell type core and their connections between skin layers of birch plywood and a core of straight and curved plywood honeycomb-type ribs. This shape of core ribs provides several improvements for these plates in the manufacturing process as well as improves the mechanical properties of plywood plates. This specific form of ribs allows simplifying the manufacturing of these plates although it should be detailed and improved. The most typical cases (series of specimens) were compared to the results obtained from FEM (ANSYS) simulations. All thicknesses of elements are chosen according to plywood supplier assortment. Standard birch plywood (Riga Ply) plates were used - three layer plywood was chosen for skin elements (Surfaces) and three or five layer plywood was chosen for edge elements. Different bond pressures were taken to compare their influence on joint strength and stiffness.

  19. Early secondary bone grafting of alveolar cleft defects. A comparison between chin and rib grafts.

    PubMed

    Borstlap, W A; Heidbuchel, K L; Freihofer, H P; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    1990-07-01

    Since 1981 in cleft lip and palate patients a combined surgical-orthodontic procedure has been performed to eliminate the residual alveolar cleft. For early secondary bone grafting (before the eruption of the canine tooth) initially the graft tissue of choice was rib. Since 1984 chin bone has also been used. Sixty one patients with complete unilateral clefts were reviewed (mean age 9.5 years). 15.7% of the rib graft cases showed resorption of the graft of 50% and more. Such resorption was not found in any of the chin graft cases. No complications such as wound dehiscence, sequestration, excessive resorption of bone or recurrence of an oro-nasal fistula were found in the chin graft group. This leads to the conclusion that if enough bone is available in the chin region to bridge the defect, this graft is preferable to a rib graft.

  20. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu; Zou, Donghua; Li, Zhengdong; Wan, Lei; Qin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ningguo; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhong, Liangwei; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yijiu

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s). Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  1. Correlation of Near-Wall Turbulence Structures with Heat Transfer in Ribbed-Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hyungsu; Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo; Park, Doohyun

    2015-11-01

    Ribbed-pipe flow is one of the most commonly used flow configurations to enhance heat transfer, albeit, at the expense of increased pressure drop. The ribs mounted on the pipe wall differently alter the flow depending on the pitch, the distance between two neighboring ribs. When the pitch is short, fluid is trapped inside grooves, resulting in a low heat-transfer rate. When the pitch is long enough, however, the ribs disturb the flow by shedding vortices, resulting in heat-transfer enhancement. We aim at elucidating the correlation of near-wall turbulence induced by the shed vortices with the increased heat-transfer rate on the ribbed-pipe wall. Our analysis is based on our LES data base obtained for Re =24,000, Pr =0.71, PR(pitch ratio) =2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 18, BR(blockage ratio) =0.0625. Here, the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter are used as the velocity and length scales, respectively. Our presentation focuses on the near-wall distributions of the higher-order turbulence statistics including but not limited to rms of temperature fluctuation, cross-correlations, rms of vorticity, and turbulent heat fluxes. Octants and JPDF are also presented in order to clarify the prevailing heat-transfer mechanism in the immediate vicinity of the ribbed-pipe wall. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A01002981).

  2. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression.

  3. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression. PMID:27310573

  4. Blunt Liver Injury with Intact Ribs under Impacts on the Abdomen: A Biomechanical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengdong; Wan, Lei; Qin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ningguo; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhong, Liangwei; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yijiu

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s). Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance. PMID:23308111

  5. The effect of age on the structural properties of human ribs.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Schafman, Michelle; Moorhouse, Kevin; White, Susan E; Kang, Yun-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury from motor vehicle crashes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The thorax is particularly at risk in motor vehicle crashes and is studied extensively by the injury biomechanics community. Unfortunately, most samples used in such research generally do not include children or the very elderly, despite the common occurrence of thorax injuries at both ends of the age spectrum. Rib fractures in particular, are one of the most common injuries, especially in the elderly, and can greatly affect morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. As the proportion of older adults in the population increases, such age-related fragility fractures will continually grow as a worldwide problem. Additionally, the risk of rib fracture significantly increases with age with confounding deleterious effects. Studies on elderly ribs are not uncommon, however very few studies exist which explore the mechanical properties and behavior of immature human bone, especially of ribs. Previous research identifying rib properties has provided useful information for numerous applications. However, no study has included a comprehensive sample of all ages (pediatric through elderly) in which ribs are tested in the same repeatable set-up. The goal of this study is to characterize differences in rib structural response across the age spectrum. One-hundred forty excised ribs from 70 individuals were experimentally tested in a custom-built pendulum fixture simulating a dynamic frontal impact. The sample includes individuals of ages ranging from six to 99 years old and includes 58 males and 12 females. Reported data include fracture location, displacement in the X and Y directions at fracture (δX, δY), force at fracture (FX), and linear structural stiffness (K). δX and K exhibit a statistically significant linear decrease with age (p<0.0001). FX reveals a trend in which a peak is reached in the young adult years (25-40). Detailed mechanical property data, as

  6. RIB in-flight production and the facility EXOTIC at LNL

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, Marco

    2014-05-09

    The production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) via the In-Flight technique is reviewed. This separation method typically employs four main production mechanisms: (i) Projectile Fragmentation; (ii) Projectile Fission; (iii) Nuclear Fusion and (iv) Direct Processes in Inverse Kinematics. We will concentrate particularly on the last mechanism, the one used by the facility EXOTIC at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) for the production of light RIBs. An extensive description of the facility and a brief overview of the most recent scientific achievements with {sup 7}Be and {sup 17}F are given.

  7. Superior subluxation of an anterior end of the first rib in a trauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Jakub; Dillon, Marianne; Hilton, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a young man with a superior subluxation of an anterior end of the first rib following a road traffic accident. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has so far been described in the literature. The patient presented with headache, backache and pain in the right anterior chest wall. After initial assessment, a chest radiograph was performed and it showed no abnormalities. A CT of the chest revealed an isolated hypermobile first rib at the anterior end owing to superior subluxation. The patient was treated conservatively. PMID:22669858

  8. High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Kiyat, Isa; Aydinli, Atilla; Dagli, Nadir

    2005-03-21

    In this work, detailed design and realization of high quality factor (Q) racetrack resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides are presented. Aiming to achieve critical coupling, suitable waveguide geometry is determined after extensive numerical studies of bending loss. The final design is obtained after coupling factor calculations and estimation of propagation loss. Resonators with quality factors (Q) as high as 119000 has been achieved, the highest Q value for resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides to date with extinction ratios as large as 12 dB.

  9. Radiation properties of the optimized offset-fed radial rib umbrella reflector antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A., Jr.; Rusch, Willard V. T.

    1987-08-01

    The properties of the offset-fed radial rib umbrella reflector are analyzed. A simple formula for positioning the feed to maximize the gain is given. The best aim point for the feed is numerically determined to be very close to the rib center. The exponent of a cos exp n alpha feed pattern, evaluated for maximum gain, and the loss due to the gores is presented. It is shown that the offset configuration exhibits the same behavior and position of the gore-related sidelobe as the front-fed umbrella reflector.

  10. Coordination Between Ribs Motion and Thoracoabdominal Volumes in Swimmers During Respiratory Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Sarro, Karine J.; Silvatti, Amanda P.; Barros, Ricardo M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if swimmers present better chest wall coordination during breathing than healthy non-athletes analyzing the correlation between ribs motion and the variation of thoracoabdominal volumes. The results of two up-to-date methods based on videogrammetry were correlated in this study. The first one measured the volumes of 4 separate compartments of the chest wall (superior thorax, inferior thorax, superior abdomen and inferior abdomen) as a function of time. The second calculated the rotation angle of the 2nd to the 10th ribs around the quasi-transversal axis also in function of time. The chest wall was represented by 53 markers, attached to the ribs, vertebrae, thorax and abdomen of 15 male swimmers and of 15 non- athletes. A kinematical analysis system equipped with 6 digital video cameras (60Hz) was used to obtain the 3D coordinates of the markers. Correlating the curves of ribs rotation angles with the curves of the separate volumes, swimmers presented higher values than non-athletes when the superior and inferior abdomen were considered and the highest correlation values were found in swimmers for the inferior thorax. These results suggest a better coordination between ribs motion and thoracoabdominal volumes in swimmers, indicating the prevalent and coordinated action of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to inflate and deflate the chest wall. The results further suggest that swimming practice leads to the formation of an optimized breathing pattern and can partially explain the higher lung volumes found in these athletes reported in literature. Key pointsThe study revealed that swimmers present higher correlation between the ribs motion and the variation of abdominal volumes than non-swimmers, suggesting that swimming practice might lead to the formation of an optimized breathing pattern, increasing the coordination between the thoracoabdominal volumes and the ribs motion.No previous work was found in the literature reporting this

  11. Refining genomewide association for growth and fat deposition traits in an F pig population.

    PubMed

    Duarte, J L Gualdrón; Cantet, R J C; Rubio, Y L Bernal; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Raney, N E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Steibel, J P

    2016-04-01

    The identification of genomic regions that affect additive genetic variation and contain genes involved in controlling growth and fat deposition has enormous impact in the farm animal industry (e.g., carcass merit and meat quality). Therefore, a genomewide association study was implemented in an F pig population using a 60,000 SNP marker panel for traits related to growth and fat deposition. Estimated genomic EBV were linearly transformed to calculate SNP effects and to identify genomic positions possibly associated with the genetic variability of each trait. Genomic segments were then defined considering the markers included in a region 1 Mb up- and downstream from the SNP with the smallest -value and a false discovery rate < 0.05 for each trait. The significance for each 2-Mb segment was tested using the Bonferroni correction. Significant SNP were detected on SSC2, SSC3, SSC5, and SSC6, but 2-Mb segment significant effects were observed on SSC3 for weight at birth (wt_birth) and on SSC6 for 10th-rib backfat and last-rib backfat measured by ultrasound at different ages. Furthermore, a 6-Mb segment on SSC6 was also considered because the 2-Mb segments for 10 different fat deposition traits were overlapped. Although the segment effects for each trait remain significant, the proportion of additive variance explained by this larger segment was slightly smaller in some traits. In general, the results confirm the presence of genetic variability for wt_birth on SSC3 (18.0-20.2 Mb) and for fat deposition traits on SSC6 (133.8-136.0 Mb). Within these regions, fibrosin () and myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle () genes could be considered as candidates for the wt_birth signal on SSC3, and the SERPINE1 mRNAbinding protein 1 gene () may be a candidate for the fat deposition trait signals on SSC6. PMID:27135998

  12. Comparing and determining the causes of ribbed mussel nitrogen isotope signatures in three New England sub-watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geukensia demissa, the ribbed mussel, is a useful indicator of sources of nitrogen input into coastal watersheds as it possesses a slow tissue turnover rate and is a common salt marsh species. During the summer of 2016, we sampled ribbed mussels from three New England sub-watersh...

  13. Microbiological safety of commercial prime rib preparation methods: thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in mechanically tenderized beef roasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of food service operations in a medium-size Midwestern city was conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of prime rib preparation methods relative to survival of Salmonella spp. in both intact and tenderized (non-intact) product. All six restaurants visited seared rib eye roasts (ai...

  14. The influence of the rib width on the performance of tubes with the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Arman, B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents numerically predicted turbulent heat-transfer and friction-factor results for tubes with transverse, rectangular ribs for different width-to-height ratios. The rib spacing was maintained at values where the separated flow over the rib reattached between adjacent ribs (i.e. the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism). The mean Nusselt number was found to decrease slightly with an increase in the width to height ratio for low Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 0.71). However, the trend is more complex for higher Prandtl number fluids. The mean Nusselt number can either increase or decrease depending on the magnitude of the Prandtl number and rib spacing. The friction factors decreased with an increase in the width to height ratio and the magnitude of this decrease was somewhat Reynolds number dependent.

  15. The influence of the rib width on the performance of tubes with the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Arman, B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents numerically predicted turbulent heat-transfer and friction-factor results for tubes with transverse, rectangular ribs for different width-to-height ratios. The rib spacing was maintained at values where the separated flow over the rib reattached between adjacent ribs (i.e. the separation and reattachment enhancement mechanism). The mean Nusselt number was found to decrease slightly with an increase in the width to height ratio for low Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 0.71). However, the trend is more complex for higher Prandtl number fluids. The mean Nusselt number can either increase or decrease depending on the magnitude of the Prandtl number and rib spacing. The friction factors decreased with an increase in the width to height ratio and the magnitude of this decrease was somewhat Reynolds number dependent.

  16. Measurement of Visceral Fat: Should We Include Retroperitoneal Fat?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Hung-Ren; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Mao-Shin; Liu, Pi-Hua; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wei, Jung-Nan; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Methods We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women) in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. Results Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 5.651, p<0.05) and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05). Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r = −0.244, P<0.05), and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05), but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94±0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR) 1.62, p = 0.003) and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009), but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14) were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. Conclusions Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human. PMID:25401949

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by synostosis of the first and second thoracic ribs: 2 case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reidler, Jay S; Das De, Soumen; Schreiber, Joseph J; Schneider, Darren B; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    We present 2 cases of combined arterial and neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome triggered by trauma in patients with congenital synostoses of the first and second ribs. These patients were successfully treated with supraclavicular resection of the first and second ribs and scalenectomy. We review these cases and the associated literature on thoracic outlet syndrome and rib synostosis.

  18. 13. Detail of abutment/arch rib juncture. Northeast end of bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of abutment/arch rib juncture. Northeast end of bridge, looking east to west. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  19. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results.

  20. Chest Wall Reconstruction Using a Methyl Methacrylate Neo-Rib and Mesh.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Park, Bernard J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rizk, Nabil P; Huang, James; Jones, David R; Bains, Manjit S

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction of the chest wall after oncologic resection is performed by means of various techniques using different materials. We describe a new technique of chest wall reconstruction that includes the use of Marlex mesh and the creation of a neo-rib from a Steinmann pin and methyl methacrylate. PMID:26234861

  1. Chest Wall Reconstruction Using a Methyl Methacrylate Neo-rib and Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kei; Park, Bernard J.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Rizk, Nabil P.; Huang, James; Jones, David R.; Bains, Manjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction of the chest wall after oncologic resection is performed by means of various techniques using different materials. We describe a new technique of chest wall reconstruction that includes the use of Marlex mesh and the creation of a neo-rib from a Steinmann pin and methyl methacrylate. PMID:26234861

  2. Shape optimization of staggered ribs in a rotating equilateral triangular cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Mi-Ae; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2014-04-01

    A rotating equilateral triangular cooling channel with staggered square ribs inside the leading edge of a turbine blade has been optimized in this work based on surrogate modeling. The fluid flow and heat transfer in the channel have been analyzed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations under uniform heat flux condition. Shear stress transport turbulence model has been used as a turbulence closure. Computational results for area-averaged Nusselt number have been validated compared to the experimental data. The objectives related to the heat transfer rate and pressure drop has been linearly combined with a weighting factor to define the objective function. The angle of the rib, the rib pitch-to-hydraulic diameter ratio, and the rib width-to-hydraulic diameter ratio have been selected as the design variables. Twenty-two design points have been generated by Latin Hypercube sampling, and the values of the objective function have been calculated by the RANS analysis at these points. The surrogate model for the objective function has been constructed using the radial basis neural network method. Through the optimization, the objective function value has been improved by 21.5 % compared to that of the reference geometry.

  3. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that…

  4. Sonography of Occult Rib and Costal Cartilage Fractures: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Ross; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E.; Welk, Aaron B.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the detection of occult rib and costal cartilage fractures presenting as chest wall pain to a chiropractic clinic. Clinical features Three patients presented with chest wall pain and tenderness. Two of the patients presented with acute chest wall injury and 1 carried a previous diagnosis of rib fracture after trivial trauma 2 months earlier. Intervention and outcomes Diagnostic US was selected as a non-ionizing imaging tool for these patients after negative digital radiography studies. All fractures were considered isolated as there was no associated injury, such as pneumothorax. Both of the acute cases were followed up to complete healing (evidence of osseous union) using US. All patients eventually achieved pain-free status. Conclusion In these cases, US was more sensitive than radiography for diagnosing these cases of acute rib and costal cartilage fractures. Early recognition of rib injury could avoid potential complications from local manipulative therapy. PMID:25685124

  5. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  6. Automatic segmentation of lung parenchyma based on curvature of ribs using HRCT images in scleroderma studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. N.; Brown, M. S.; Ahmad, S.; Abtin, F.; Allen, J.; da Costa, I.; Kim, H. J.; McNitt-Gray, M. F.; Goldin, J. G.

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of lungs in the setting of scleroderma is a major challenge in medical image analysis. Threshold based techniques tend to leave out lung regions that have increased attenuation, for example in the presence of interstitial lung disease or in noisy low dose CT scans. The purpose of this work is to perform segmentation of the lungs using a technique that selects an optimal threshold for a given scleroderma patient by comparing the curvature of the lung boundary to that of the ribs. Our approach is based on adaptive thresholding and it tries to exploit the fact that the curvature of the ribs and the curvature of the lung boundary are closely matched. At first, the ribs are segmented and a polynomial is used to represent the ribs' curvature. A threshold value to segment the lungs is selected iteratively such that the deviation of the lung boundary from the polynomial is minimized. A Naive Bayes classifier is used to build the model for selection of the best fitting lung boundary. The performance of the new technique was compared against a standard approach using a simple fixed threshold of -400HU followed by regiongrowing. The two techniques were evaluated against manual reference segmentations using a volumetric overlap fraction (VOF) and the adaptive threshold technique was found to be significantly better than the fixed threshold technique.

  7. SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

  8. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results. PMID:26698389

  9. Fully automatic lung segmentation and rib suppression methods to improve nodule detection in chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Soleymanpour, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid Reza; Ansaripour, Emad; Yazdi, Mehri Sadooghi

    2011-07-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in several diagnostic tasks. Lung segmentation is one of the mandatory steps for initial detection of lung cancer in Posterior-Anterior chest radiographs. On the other hand, many CAD schemes in projection chest radiography may benefit from the suppression of the bony structures that overlay the lung fields, e.g. ribs. The original images are enhanced by an adaptive contrast equalization and non-linear filtering. Then an initial estimation of lung area is obtained based on morphological operations and then it is improved by growing this region to find the accurate final contour, then for rib suppression, we use oriented spatial Gabor filter. The proposed method was tested on a publicly available database of 247 chest radiographs. Results show that this method outperformed greatly with accuracy of 96.25% for lung segmentation, also we will show improving the conspicuity of lung nodules by rib suppression with local nodule contrast measures. Because there is no additional radiation exposure or specialized equipment required, it could also be applied to bedside portable chest x-rays. In addition to simplicity of these fully automatic methods, lung segmentation and rib suppression algorithms are performed accurately with low computation time and robustness to noise because of the suitable enhancement procedure.

  10. RIBBED MUSSEL NITROGEN ISOTOPE SIGNATURES REFLECT NITROGEN SOURCES IN COASTAL MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in tissue of the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Initially, mussels were fed a diet of 15N-enriched algae in the laboratory to determine how the tissue n...

  11. Evolution of the respiratory system in nonavian theropods: evidence from rib and vertebral morphology.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Lyson, Tyler R; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Recent reports of region-specific vertebral pneumaticity in nonavian theropod dinosaurs have brought attention to the hypothesis that these animals possessed an avian-style respiratory system with flow-through ventilation. This study explores the thoracic rib and vertebral anatomy of Sinraptor, Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Deinonychus; four nonavian theropods that all show well-preserved thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Comparisons to the osteology and soft tissue anatomy of extant saurians provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis of flow-through ventilation in nonavian theropods. Analyses of diapophyseal and parapophyseal position and thoracic rib morphology suggest that most nonavian theropods possessed lungs that were deeply incised by the adjacent bicapitate thoracic ribs. This functionally constrains the lungs as rigid nonexpansive organs that were likely ventilated by accessory nonvascularized air sacs. The axial anatomy of this group also reveals that a crocodilian-like hepatic-piston lung would be functionally and biomechanically untenable. Taken together with the evidence that avian-like air sacs were present in basal theropods, these data lead us to conclude that an avian-style pulmonary system was likely a universal theropod trait.

  12. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  13. Friction Factor for Flow in Rectangular Ducts with One Side Rib-Roughened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youn, B.; Yuen, C.; Mills, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of incompressible turbulent flow through rectangular ducts with one side rib-roughened were performed to determine pressure drop. The "PHOENICS " software package was used for the computations, which required provision of a wall function for transverse rib-roughened surfaces. The present study was conducted in the range of 10(exp 5) less than or equal to Reynolds number less than or equal to 10(exp 7), 0.01 less than or equal to rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio less than or equal to 0.04, 10 less than or equal to pitch to rib height ratio less than or equal to 40. Using the numerical results, friction factor charts for various aspect ratios were generated. The numerical results agreed well with experimental data that was obtained for 10(exp 5) less than Reynolds less than 2 x 10(exp 5). In addition, a scheme for predicting friction factor using existing correlations for smooth and rough walls was developed.

  14. Treatment of severe osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow using osteochondral grafts from a rib.

    PubMed

    Oka, Y; Ikeda, M

    2001-07-01

    We treated a patient with extensive osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow by an osteochondral graft from a rib. It had consolidated seven months after operation. When seen at follow-up, after seven years and eight months, the elbow was free from pain with an improvement in the range of movement of 24 degrees.

  15. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  16. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-12-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  17. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 [times] l0[sup [minus]4] m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  18. Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Tung

    2001-01-09

    A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN 0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified.

  19. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, Pierre; ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  20. HIFU scattering by the ribs: constrained optimisation with a complex surface impedance boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2014-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localised, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more established treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionising radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element (BE) approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. Dissipative mechanisms inside the propagating medium have since been implemented, together with a complex surface impedance condition at the surface of the ribs. A reformulation of the boundary element equations as a constrained optimisation problem was carried out to determine the complex surface velocities of a multi-element HIFU array which generated the acoustic pressure field that best fitted a required acoustic pressure distribution in a least-squares sense. This was done whilst ensuring that an acoustic dose rate parameter at the surface of the ribs was kept below a specified threshold. The methodology was tested at an

  1. Effect of position on the mechanical interaction between the rib cage and abdomen in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M R; Greenspan, J S; Deoras, K S; Allen, J L; Shaffer, T H

    1992-03-01

    To determine the influence of body position on chest wall and pulmonary function, we studied the ventilatory, pulmonary mechanics, and thoracoabdominal motion profiles in 20 preterm infants recovering from respiratory disease who were positioned in both the supine and prone position. Thoracoabdominal motion was assessed from measurements of relative rib cage and abdominal movement and the calculated phase angle (an index of thoracoabdominal synchrony) of the rib and abdomen Lissajous figures. The ventilatory and pulmonary function profiles were assessed from simultaneous measurements of transpulmonary pressure, airflow, and tidal volume. The infants were studied in quiet sleep, and the order of positioning was randomized across patients. The results demonstrated no significant difference in ventilatory and pulmonary function measurements as a function of position. In contrast, there was a significant reduction (-49%) in the phase angle of the Lissajous figures and an increase (+66%) in rib cage motion in prone compared with the supine position. In addition, the degree of improvement in phase angle in the prone position was correlated to the severity of asynchrony in the supine position. We speculate that the improvement in thoracoabdominal synchrony in the prone position is related to alterations of chest wall mechanics and respiratory muscle tone mediated by a posturally related shift in the area of apposition of the diaphragm to the anterior inner rib cage wall and increase in passive tension of the muscles of the rib cage. This study suggests that the mechanical advantage associated with prone positioning may confer a useful alternative breathing pattern to the preterm infant in whom elevated respiratory work loads and respiratory musculoskeletal immaturity may predispose to respiratory failure. PMID:1533209

  2. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Pierre; Ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  3. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  4. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  5. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  6. De Novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism in a patient with beemer-langer type short rib-polydactyly syndrome with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Mirkin, D.; Yang, S.

    1994-11-01

    A de novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism is detected in a fetus with type IV short rib (polydactyly) syndrome (Beemer-Langer). The cytogenetic finding in our case suggests a possible location of the gene or cluster of linked genes responsible for SR (P) S type IV to 17q21 or 17q23. Since this chromosome abnormality has not been described in short rib polydactyly syndromes and the existence of type IV SR (P) S has been controversial, the literature of this entity is reviewed with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.G.; Acharya, S.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D.E.; Myrum, T.A.

    1998-07-01

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two-pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are nonparticipating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected interrib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5000 to 40,000 pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55 and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise-averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators lead to substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the interrib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  8. The rib1 Mutant Is Resistant to Indole-3-Butyric Acid, an Endogenous Auxin in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as an endogenous auxin in Arabidopsis has been recently demonstrated. However, the in vivo role of IBA remains to be elucidated. We present the characterization of a semi-dominant mutant that is affected in its response to IBA, but shows a wild-type response to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant and most studied form of auxin. We have named this mutant rib1 for resistant to IBA. Root elongation assays show that rib1 is specifically resistant to IBA, to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and to auxin transport inhibitors. rib1 does not display increased resistance to IAA, to the synthetic auxin naphthalene acetic acid, or to other classes of plant hormones. rib1 individuals also have other root specific phenotypes including a shortened primary root, an increased number of lateral roots, and a more variable response than wild type to a change in gravitational vector. Adult rib1 plants are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants. These phenotypes suggest that rib1 alters IBA activity in the root, thereby affecting root development and response to environmental stimuli. We propose models in which RIB1 has a function in either IBA transport or response. Our experiments also suggest that IBA does not use the same mechanism to exit cells as does IAA and we propose a model for IBA transport. PMID:11115890

  9. The vascular pattern and viability of microvascularized rib grafts based on periosteal circulation--an experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Papanastasiou, V.W.; Lalonde, D.H.; Williams, H.B.

    1984-11-01

    Previous reports have stressed the importance of the nutrient blood supply in rib grafts transferred by microvascular anastomoses. In the present experimental study, we have demonstrated that a rib graft transferred by microvascular anastomoses based on periosteal vessels can survive; vascular clearing studies demonstrated that the vascularity of these grafts extends not only into the cortex but the medulla as well. The relative facility of harvesting these grafts (compared with those based on nutrient vessels) should make them the favored choice. Technetium bone scintigraphy proved accurate in the assessment of both vascular pattern and microanastomotic patency. Tetracycline labeling did not correlate well with the patency of a rib graft's pedicle blood supply.

  10. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  11. [Subcutaneous fat necrosis and persistent hypercalcaemia in a newborn treated with therapeutic neonatal hypothermia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, José M; Laliena Aznar, Sara; Corella Aznar, Elena; Cuadrado Piqueras, Laura; Oliván del Cacho, María J; Pinillos Pisón, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the current standard treatment in newborns with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, changing the outcome of these children. It is considered a safe technique with almost no side effects. A possible adverse side event is subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is an acute self-limiting panniculitis that develops during the first weeks of life. We report a case of a newborn at term suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a generalized multiform erythematous rash and firm and indurated plaques over the back, buttocks and extremities on his 12th day of life after being treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Histopathological study after skin punchbiopsy confirmed the suspicion of subcutaneous fat necrosis. The infant developed asymptomatic moderate hypercalcaemia within the first month of life, which was treated with intravenous fluids and diuretics. Serum calcium levels decreased and normalized in 3 months, with progressive disappearance of skin lesions.

  12. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  13. Comparison of transverse and longitudinal real-time ultrasound scans for prediction of lean cut yields and fat-free lean content in live pigs.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, F; Ellis, M; Miller, K D; Novakofski, J; Wilson, E R; McKeith, F K

    1996-11-01

    Live animal real-time ultrasound scans and carcass measures were taken on 80 pigs comprising two sexes (42 barrows; 38 gilts) and two halothane genotypes (40 carriers and 40 negatives) that were slaughtered between 108 and 148 kg live weight. Transverse scans (TRUS), at right angles to the midline, were taken on right (RS) and left (LS) sides at the last rib. Longitudinal scans (LON) were taken 6.5 cm off the midline immediately anterior (ANT) and posterior (PST) to the last rib on both the RS and LS. Longissimus muscle depth and area and backfat thickness over the longissimus muscle were measured on TRUS. Backfat thickness and longissimus muscle depth were measured at each end of the LON. Backfat thickness and longissimus muscle measurements were taken at the 10th and last rib on the RS of the carcass. Carcasses were fabricated using standard techniques to establish lean cut yields and carcass soft tissue was chemically analyzed to determine fat-free lean contents. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to develop equations to predict the weights and percentages of lean cuts and fat-free lean. Fat and muscle measures taken from ultrasound scans were generally less accurate than last rib carcass measures at predicting composition. There was little difference in R2 for equations based on either TRUS or ANT/LON; however, PST/LON, generally, were less accurate than ANT/LON. Combining measurements from more than one scan gave little improvement in R2 compared with the best single scan. Estimates of sex bias for carcass composition prediction were small. Halothane genotype and carcass lean content biases were detected; equations derived from the pooled data tended to overestimate the lean content of negative pigs and fatter carcasses and underestimate the lean content of carrier animals and leaner carcasses.

  14. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  15. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  17. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  18. Dynamic Stability of a Cylindrical Shell Reinforced by Longitudinal Ribs and a Hollow Cylinder Under the Action of Axial Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Volkov, E. N.; Nedbai, A. Ya.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamic stability of a cylindrical orthotropic shell reinforced by longitudinal ribs and a hollow cylinder under the action of axial forces changing harmonically with time was investigated with regard for the axial contact interaction of the shell with the ribs. A solution of the differential equations defining this process has been obtained in the form of trigonometric series in the angular and time coordinates. A two-term approximation of the Mathieu-Hill equations of motion was used for construction of the main region of instability of the shell. As a result, the problem was reduced to a system of algebraic equations for components of displacements of the shell at the locations of the ribs. The problem for uniformly spaced ribs was solved in the explicit form. A numerical example of this solution is presented.

  19. Estimating age at death using the sternal end of the fourth ribs from Mexican males.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Román, Jessica Inés; Hernández Espinoza, Patricia Olga

    2014-03-01

    The indicators proposed by İşcan et al. (1984) are said to reflect age changes that occur in the sternal end of the fourth rib. These indicators have been used to estimate age-at-death in adult skeletal samples. However, Isçan et al. developed their methods using a forensic sample from Florida (U.S.A.). In order to test the reproducibility of those methods we evaluate its accuracy for the fourth ribs by applying it to a sample of known age and sex but of different biological affinity: modern males from Mexico City. We found that the method developed by İşcan et al. underestimates age-at-death in the Mexican sample.

  20. Left Second Rib Exostosis, Spinal Cord Compression and Left Upper Thoracic Scoliosis: A Rare Triad

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Krishnan; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

    2012-01-01

    Exostosis of the rib with neural foraminal extension as a cause of spinal cord compression and scoliosis has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We describe a young male with hereditary multiple exostosis who presented with a spastic gait, lower limb weakness and a deformity of the upper back. Radiographic imaging revealed a lesion arising from the left second rib which was encroaching the spinal canal and a scoliotic deformity of the upper thoracic spine. Through a single T shaped posterior approach he underwent a decompressive laminectomy of T1 and T2 vertebra and excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of osteochondroma was confirmed by histopathological studies. He was followed up at one year when his neurological condition had returned to normal however the scoliosis had increased. PMID:22977702

  1. Sound absorption of a rib-stiffened plate covered by anechoic coatings.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinyi; Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong

    2015-03-01

    Underwater vehicles are often equipped with anechoic coatings to absorb the sound waves of active sonar and attenuate the noise emitted from the vessels. Rubber layers with periodically distributed air cavities are widely used as anechoic coatings. In this paper, the sound absorption of anechoic coatings embedded with doubly periodic cavities and backed with periodically rib-stiffened plates is investigated using a finite element method (FEM) with Bloch-periodic boundary conditions. Numerical results given by the FEM are compared with those of a simplified transfer impedance approach to explain the shifting of the main absorption peak. Further a simplified FEM approach, which reduces calculation time significantly and maintains the reasonable accuracy, is proposed for a comparison. The results indicate that the plate and the ribs can have significant impacts on the absorption performance of anechoic coatings, especially at low frequencies. PMID:25786965

  2. Recent results from the TwinSol low-energy RIB facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Kolata, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report on some of the recent developments and experimental work done at the twin-solenoid low-energy radioactive-ion-beam (RIB) facility TwinSol installed at the U Notre Dame 10 MV FN tandem accelerator. The TwinSol facility is a joint project of the University of Michigan (UM) and the University of Notre Dame (UND), and includes several U.S. and foreign collaborators. A number of significant experiments including RIB-induced transfer reactions, elastic scattering, resonant scattering, and fusion at energies near and well below the Coulomb barrier have been performed with this facility. Several of these as well as future work and upgrades planned will be described.

  3. Flutter of a sandwich cylindrical shell supported with annular ribs and loaded with axial forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Volkov, E. N.; Nedbaj, A. Ya.

    2015-08-01

    The supersonic flutter of a sandwich cylindrical shell supported from within with annular ribs and loaded with axial forces on the end faces is investigated. The shell motion is described by the equations of the theory of sandwich orthotropic shells. The solution of the equations is sought as a trigonometric series with respect to the axial coordinate. With the help of the Bubnov—Galerkin method, this problem is reduced to the set of algebraic equations for the analysis of the stability of which one uses the Routh—Hurwits criterion. By a numerical example, the effect of the number and the heights of the ribs on the critical velocity of the flow around the shell is shown.

  4. Performance of a non-tapered 3D morphing wing with integrated compliant ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, F.; Ermanni, P.

    2012-05-01

    Morphing wings have a high potential for improving the performance and reducing the fuel consumption of modern aircraft. Thanks to its simplicity, the compliant belt-rib concept is regarded by the authors as a promising solution. Using the compliant rib designed by Hasse and Campanile as a starting point, a compliant morphing wing made of composite materials is designed. Innovative methods for optimal placing of the actuation and for the quantification of the morphing are used. The performance of the compliant morphing wing in terms of three-dimensional (3D) structural behaviour and aerodynamic properties, both two- and three-dimensional, is presented and discussed. The fundamental importance of considering 3D coupling effects in the determination of the performance of morphing aerofoils is shown.

  5. A Rare Case of Dacron Graft Rupture due to Friction against a Rib.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Katsuhiko; Kuinose, Masahiko; Koizumi, Nobusato; Iwahashi, Toru; Toguchi, Kayo; Ogino, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old man underwent aortic repair for the infected thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a woven Dacron graft (Vascutek, Renfrewshire, Scotland) treated with gentian violet. Four months later, he complained of sudden back pain, resulting in preshock status. Computed tomographic scans showed massive hematoma around the Dacron graft, suggesting graft rupture. Initially, emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed, which was subsequently followed by open repair. The Dacron graft had a small hole, which was completely compatible with the site contacting with the rib. The graft rupture was considered due to its friction against the rib. We report on a rare event of mechanical Dacron graft rupture after the thoracoabdominal aortic replacement. PMID:25798369

  6. Heat transfer measurements to a gas turbine cooling passage with inclined ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Kohler, S.T.; Chew, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The local heat transfer coefficient distribution over all four walls of a large-scale model of a gas turbine cooling passage have been measured in great detail. A new method of determining the heat transfer coefficient to the rib surface has been developed and the contribution of the rib, at 5% blockage, to the overall roughened heat transfer coefficient was found to be considerable. The vortex-dominated flow field was interpreted from the detailed form of the measured local heat transfer contours. Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations support this model of the flow and yield friction factors that agree with measured values. Advances in the heat transfer measuring technique and data analysis procedure that confirm the accuracy of the transient method are described in full.

  7. Nose and Midface Augmentation by Rib Cartilage Grafts: Methods and Outcome in 32 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahiem, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Recession of the midface is a relatively common condition that can have a negative impact on facial and nasal aesthetic appearance, and it poses a challenge to plastic surgeons. In cases with generalized maxillary retrusion and/or malocclusion, bone advancement surgery is required, but in localized cases, mostly seen in cleft lip patients, the quest is for an ideal material and a proper technique that would be used to augment the receding area. Throughout a period of seven years, thirty-two patients with nose and midface retrusion were managed by a construct of rib cartilage grafts designed to compensate the deficiency at the maxillary, piriform, and premaxillary areas. Results were satisfactory for most patients in terms of improved fullness of malar area, improved nasal tip projection and rotation, and improvement of upper lip. The presented technique of rib cartilage grafting is a safe and effective method for nose and midface augmentation. PMID:26858843

  8. Sound absorption of a rib-stiffened plate covered by anechoic coatings.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinyi; Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong

    2015-03-01

    Underwater vehicles are often equipped with anechoic coatings to absorb the sound waves of active sonar and attenuate the noise emitted from the vessels. Rubber layers with periodically distributed air cavities are widely used as anechoic coatings. In this paper, the sound absorption of anechoic coatings embedded with doubly periodic cavities and backed with periodically rib-stiffened plates is investigated using a finite element method (FEM) with Bloch-periodic boundary conditions. Numerical results given by the FEM are compared with those of a simplified transfer impedance approach to explain the shifting of the main absorption peak. Further a simplified FEM approach, which reduces calculation time significantly and maintains the reasonable accuracy, is proposed for a comparison. The results indicate that the plate and the ribs can have significant impacts on the absorption performance of anechoic coatings, especially at low frequencies.

  9. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  10. Calculated Coupling Efficiency Between an Elliptical-Core Optical Fiber and a Silicon Oxynitride Rib Waveguide [Corrected Copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    The effective-index method and Marcatili's technique were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of a rib channel waveguide. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between a single-mode optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral. Perfect alignment was assumed and the coupling efficiency calculated. The coupling efficiency calculation was then repeated for a range of transverse offsets.

  11. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-08-28

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10(-6) RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things.

  12. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10−6 RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things. PMID:26343678

  13. The experimental set-up of the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.; Tortone, G.; Anastasio, A.; Bettini, M.; Cassese, C.; Castellani, L.; Corti, D.; Costa, L.; De Fazio, B.; Galet, G.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Pontoriere, G.; Rocco, R.; Romoli, M.; Roscilli, L.; Sandoli, M.; Stroe, L.; Tessaro, M.; Zatti, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the experimental set-up of the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) in-flight facility EXOTIC consisting of: (a) two position-sensitive Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs), dedicated to the event-by-event tracking of the produced RIBs and to time of flight measurements and (b) the new high-granularity compact telescope array EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System), designed for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments employing low-energy light RIBs. EXPADES consists of eight ΔE -Eres telescopes arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target. Each telescope is made up of two Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) with a thickness of 40/60 μm and 300 μm for the ΔE and Eres layer, respectively. Additionally, eight ionization chambers were constructed to be used as an alternative ΔE stage or, in conjunction with the entire DSSSD array, to build up more complex triple telescopes. New low-noise multi-channel charge-sensitive preamplifiers and spectroscopy amplifiers, associated with constant fraction discriminators, peak-and-hold and Time to Amplitude Converter circuits were developed for the electronic readout of the ΔE stage. Application Specific Integrated Circuit-based electronics was employed for the treatment of the Eres signals. An 8-channel, 12-bit multi-sampling 50 MHz Analog to Digital Converter, a Trigger Supervisor Board for handling the trigger signals of the whole experimental set-up and an ad hoc data acquisition system were also developed. The performance of the PPACs, EXPADES and of the associated electronics was obtained offline with standard α calibration sources and in-beam by measuring the scattering process for the systems 17O+58Ni and 17O+208Pb at incident energies around their respective Coulomb barriers and, successively, during the first experimental runs with the RIBs of the EXOTIC facility.

  14. Mechanical analysis of the human cadaveric thoracic spine with intact rib cage.

    PubMed

    Mannen, Erin M; Anderson, John T; Arnold, Paul M; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the overall in-plane and basic coupled motion of a cadaveric human thoracic spine with intact true ribs. Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in the thoracic spine due to both the high prevalence of injury and pain in the region and also innovative surgical techniques that utilize the rib cage. Computational models can be useful tools to predict loading patterns and understand effects of surgical procedures or medical devices, but they are often limited by insufficient cadaveric input data. In this study, pure moments to ±5 Nm were applied in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to seven human cadaveric thoracic spine specimens (T1-T12) with intact true ribs to determine symmetry of in-plane motion, differences in neutral and elastic zone motion and stiffness, and significance of out-of-plane rotations and translations. Results showed that lateral bending and axial rotation exhibited symmetric motion, neutral and elastic zone motion and stiffness values were significantly different for all modes of bending (p<0.05), and out-of-plane rotations and translations were greater than zero for most rotations and translations. Overall in-plane rotations were 7.7±3.4° in flexion, 9.6±3.7° in extension, 23.3±8.4° in lateral bending, and 26.3±12.2° in axial rotation. Results of this study could provide inputs or validation comparisons for computational models. Future studies should characterize coupled motion patterns and local and regional level biomechanics of cadaveric human thoracic spines with intact true ribs.

  15. Numerical simulation of effective efficiency of a discrete multi V-pattern rib solar air channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Saini, R. P.; Saini, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    The use of artificial roughness in the form of repeated ribs has been found to be an efficient method of improving the heat transfer to fluid flowing in the channel. In this study, performance of solar air channel as a function of discrete multi V-pattern rib shapes has been investigated. The e/D was varied from 0.022 to 0.043, Gd/Lv was varied from 0.24 to 0.80, g/e was varied from 0.5 to 1.5, α was varied from 30° to 75°, P/e was varied from 6.0 to 12.0 and W/w was varied from 1.0 to 10.0. A methodology has been developed for the prediction of effective efficiency. Based on the values of effective efficiency, an optimization has been carried out to determine the set of data of roughness shapes parameters that correspond to better effective efficiency for given values of operating parameters of the air channel. Design plots have been represent to depict the data of individual roughness shapes parameters that characterize the optimum condition as a function of performance parameter and intensity of radiation. It was observed that the maximum values of effective efficiency for e/D of 0.043, Gd/Lv of 0.69, g/e of 1.0, α of 60°, P/e of 8.0 and W/w of 6.0. Discrete multi v-rib shape has been found to be better thermohydraulic performance (effective efficiency) as comparison to other rib shapes solar air channels.

  16. Spontaneous intercostal lung herniation complicated by rib fractures: a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wani, Adil S; Kalamkar, Prachi; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Farrell, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Lung herniation has been defined as a protrusion of lung tissue through its bounding structure. We present a case of spontaneous intercostal lung herniation following bouts of cough, which was complicated by multiple rib fractures, in which we had to adopt a non-surgical approach due to the clinical circumstance. Its understanding in the field of internal medicine is important as appropriate therapeutic judgment, and long-term follow-up is essential for full recovery. PMID:26719812

  17. Turbulent flow in rib-roughened channel under the effect of Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Filippo; Jacono, David Lo; Cresci, Irene; Arts, Tony

    2014-04-01

    The turbulent flow inside a rotating channel provided with transverse ribs along one wall is studied by means of two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The measurement set-up is mounted on the same rotating disk with the test section, allowing to obtain the same accuracy and resolution as in a non-rotating rig. The Reynolds number is 15 000, and the rotation number is 0.38. As the ribbed wall is heated, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force play a role in the fluid dynamics. The mean velocity fields highlight the major impact of the rotational buoyancy (characterized by a buoyancy number of 0.31) on the flow along the leading side of the duct. In particular, since the flow is directed radially outward, the near-wall layers experience significant centripetal buoyancy. The recirculation area behind the obstacles is enlarged to the point of spanning the whole inter-rib space. Also the turbulent fluctuations are significantly altered, and overall augmented, with respect to the non-buoyant case, resulting in higher turbulence levels far from the rib. On the other hand the centrifugal force has little or no impact on the flow along the trailing wall. Vortex identification, proper orthogonal decomposition, and two-point correlations are used to highlight rotational effects, and in particular to determine the dominant scales of the turbulent unsteady flow, the time-dependent behavior of the shear layer and of the recirculation bubble behind the wall-mounted obstacles, the lifetime and advection velocity of the coherent structures.

  18. Transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures with cavity absorption.

    PubMed

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2011-04-01

    The transmission loss of sound through infinite orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures having cavity-filling fibrous sound absorptive materials is theoretically investigated. The propagation of sound across the fibrous material is characterized using an equivalent fluid model, and the motions of the rib-stiffeners are described by including all possible vibrations, i.e., flexural displacements, bending, and torsional rotations. The effects of fluid-structure coupling are account for by enforcing velocity continuity conditions at fluid-panel interfaces. By taking full advantage of the periodic nature of the double-panel, the space-harmonic approach and virtual work principle are applied to solve the sets of resultant governing equations, which are eventually truncated as a finite system of simultaneous algebraic equations and numerically solved insofar as the solution converges. To validate the proposed model, a comparison between the present model predictions and existing numerical and experimental results for a simplified version of the double-panel structure is carried out, with overall agreement achieved. The model is subsequently employed to explore the influence of the fluid-structure coupling between fluid in the cavity and the two panels on sound transmission across the orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structure. Obtained results demonstrate that this fluid-structure coupling affects significantly sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies and cannot be ignored when the rib-stiffeners are sparsely distributed. As a highlight of this research, an integrated optimal algorithm toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability is proposed, based on which a preliminary optimal design of the double-panel structure is performed. PMID:21476648

  19. RARE ASSOCIATION OF HYPER IgE SYNDROME WITH CERVICAL RIB AND NATAL TEETH

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B; Gomathy, N

    2009-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone. PMID:20101342

  20. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  1. Spontaneous intercostal lung herniation complicated by rib fractures: a therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Adil S.; Kalamkar, Prachi; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Farrell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Lung herniation has been defined as a protrusion of lung tissue through its bounding structure. We present a case of spontaneous intercostal lung herniation following bouts of cough, which was complicated by multiple rib fractures, in which we had to adopt a non-surgical approach due to the clinical circumstance. Its understanding in the field of internal medicine is important as appropriate therapeutic judgment, and long-term follow-up is essential for full recovery. PMID:26719812

  2. Does chemotherapy impair the bone healing and biomechanical stability of vascularized rib and fibula grafts?

    PubMed

    Eisenschenk, Andreas; Witzel, Christiane; Lautenbach, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Weber, Ulrich; Küntscher, Markus V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the impact of chemotherapy on the healing and biomechanical properties of vascularized bone grafts. Ten male beagle dogs were divided into two experimental groups: a chemotherapy group (CH) and control group (C). Group CH received adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Each animal of both groups underwent the following operative procedures. The 5th and 7th rib were removed and replaced by vascularized pedicle transfers of the adjacent 4th and 8th rib. Additionally, a free fibular flap was elevated and retransferred to the same anatomic position. The rate of bony union on plain x-ray was 100 percent in group C, 30 percent in the vascularized rib, and 80 percent in the fibula grafts of group CH. Microangiography demonstrated no avascular bone segments in group C and in the fibula flaps of group CH. The vascularized ribs of group CH presented with 20 percent avascular bone segments. Biomechanical tests focusing on the durability of the vascularized grafts against bending and torsion forces demonstrated a reduction of the average maximum bending times by 17 percent and 23.9 percent compared to the controls ( P < 0.05). The twisting times were reduced by 13.8 percent (n.s.) and 32.5 percent ( P < 0.05). The data demonstrated a clear worsening in bone healing and stability after simulated adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, a large animal model was established for the further determination of the effects of chemotherapy on different vascularized bone transfers.

  3. Pleural pressure from abdominal to pulmonary rib cage: sweep of the lung border.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, E; Zocchi, L; Agostoni, P G; Macklem, P T

    1989-01-01

    Pleural pressure was measured by a capsule placed in the superior part of right 8th or 9th intercostal space of dogs in left lateral posture. Transit of lung border was observed through endothoracic fascia at sides of the capsule. During inspiration the capsule membrane faced sequentially: diaphragm, lung border, lung; vice versa during expiration. Pressure on the diaphragm at end expiration was -5.3 +/- 0.5 cm H2O, reflecting outward recoil of the rib cage. At transit of lung border during inspiration (bor. I) a marked negative pressure spike occurred; a smaller spike occurred at expiratory transit (bor. E). These spikes should reflect pleural liquid pressure at lung border. At bor. I lung volume and radial displacement of rib 9 or 10 were greater during active than passive ventilation, whereas at bor. E they were similar under both conditions. Hence, during spontaneous inspiration displacement of lung border lags behind lung and rib expansion. Speed of lung border (assessed from duration of negative spike) ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 cm/sec during spontaneous breathing. On average it was similar at bor. I and bor. E, while air flow was greater at bor. I.

  4. Use of Ketorolac Is Associated with Decreased Pneumonia Following Rib Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yifan; Young, Jason B.; Schermer, Carol R.; Utter, Garth H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac in reducing pulmonary morbidity following rib fractures remains largely unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study spanning January, 2003 to June, 2011, comparing pneumonia within 30 days and potential adverse effects of ketorolac among all patients with rib fractures who received ketorolac within four days post-injury to a random sample of those who did not. Results Among 202 patients who received ketorolac and 417 who did not, ketorolac use was associated with decreased pneumonia [odds ratio 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.46)] and increased ventilator- and intensive care unit-free days [1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–2.5) and 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.3–3.0) days, respectively] within 30 days. The rates of acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and fracture non-union were not different. Conclusions Early administration of ketorolac to patients with rib fractures is associated with a decreased likelihood of pneumonia, without apparent risks. PMID:24112670

  5. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    PubMed Central

    Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  6. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.

    PubMed

    Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene.

  7. Simulation Analysis of Air Flow and Turbulence Statistics in a Rib Grit Roughened Duct

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I. I.; Denizopoulou, A. C.; Ntinas, G. K.; Fragos, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of variable artificial roughness patterns on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the ducts of solar air heaters. Different geometries of roughness elements investigated have demonstrated the pivotal role that vortices and associated turbulence have on the heat transfer characteristics of solar air heater ducts by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional, turbulent, unsteady flow around rectangular ribs of variable aspect ratios by directly solving the transient Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the finite elements method. Flow characteristics and several aspects of turbulent flow are presented and discussed including velocity components and statistics of turbulence. The results reveal the impact that different rib lengths have on the computed mean quantities and turbulence statistics of the flow. The computed turbulence parameters show a clear tendency to diminish downstream with increasing rib length. Furthermore, the applied numerical method is capable of capturing small-scale flow structures resulting from the direct solution of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. PMID:25057511

  8. Simulation analysis of air flow and turbulence statistics in a rib grit roughened duct.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, I I; Denizopoulou, A C; Ntinas, G K; Fragos, V P

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of variable artificial roughness patterns on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the ducts of solar air heaters. Different geometries of roughness elements investigated have demonstrated the pivotal role that vortices and associated turbulence have on the heat transfer characteristics of solar air heater ducts by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional, turbulent, unsteady flow around rectangular ribs of variable aspect ratios by directly solving the transient Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the finite elements method. Flow characteristics and several aspects of turbulent flow are presented and discussed including velocity components and statistics of turbulence. The results reveal the impact that different rib lengths have on the computed mean quantities and turbulence statistics of the flow. The computed turbulence parameters show a clear tendency to diminish downstream with increasing rib length. Furthermore, the applied numerical method is capable of capturing small-scale flow structures resulting from the direct solution of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations.

  9. Experimental methods in RIB target/ion source development and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Murray, S.N.; Cui, B.

    1997-11-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay-times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TISs) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular-injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies and a gas-flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test-stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow-rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this report, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay-times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam-plasma target/ion source (EBPTIS) developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive and negative ion extraction modes.

  10. Nasal dorsum reconstruction with 11th rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Cervelli, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of international literature on the topic of nasal dorsum reconstruction with 11th rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts, analyzing 123 patients selected from 653 cases of rhinoplasties performed between January 1990 and October 2007 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata." We present our experience with the correction of deformities of the nasal dorsum using rib cartilage and auricular cartilage grafts. The majority of the time, nasal dorsum deformities are complicated defects to correct surgically. They can be a consequence of naso-ethmoid-orbital fractures and of surgical procedures in the nasal area where a loss of bone or septal cartilaginous support has occurred. After a review of the techniques employed in the reconstruction, we describe the advantage of the use of rib cartilage and our experience using this procedure. In the sample examined, 84% of treated patients showed cosmetic improvements, with satisfactory results to both surgeon and patient. A functional improvement has been achieved in 94% of the operated cases. PMID:19131722

  11. Hybrid RANS/LES of turbulent flow in a rotating rib-roughened channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Qian-Qiu; Wang, Bing-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coriolis force on the flow field in a rib-roughened channel subjected to either clockwise or counter-clockwise system rotation using hybrid RANS/LES based on wall modelling. A simplified dynamic forcing scheme incorporating backscatter is proposed for the hybrid simulation approach. The flow is characterized by a Reynolds number of Re = 1.5 × 104 and a rotation number Ro ranging from -0.6 to 0.6. The mean flow speed and turbulence level near the roughened wall are enhanced under counter-clockwise rotation and suppressed under clockwise rotation. The Coriolis force significantly influences the stability of the wall shear layer and the free shear layers generated by the ribs. Consequently, it is interesting to observe that the classification of the roughness type relies not only on the pitch ratio, but also on the rotation number in the context of rotating rib-roughened flows. In order to validate the present hybrid approach, the first- and second-order statistical moments of the velocity field obtained from the simulations are thoroughly compared with the available laboratory measurement data.

  12. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.

    PubMed

    Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  13. Effects of mean flow on transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened aeroelastic plates.

    PubMed

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the sound transmission loss (STL) of aeroelastic plates reinforced by two sets of orthogonal rib-stiffeners in the presence of external mean flow. Built upon the periodicity of the structure, a comprehensive theoretical model is developed by considering the convection effect of mean flow. The rib-stiffeners are modeled by employing the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the torsional wave equation. While the solution for the transmission loss of the structure based on plate displacement and acoustic pressures is given in the form of space-harmonic series, the corresponding coefficients are obtained from the solution of a system of linear equations derived from the plate-beam coupling vibration governing equation and Helmholtz equation. The model predictions are validated by comparing with existing theoretical and experimental results in the absence of mean flow. A parametric study is subsequently performed to quantify the effects of mean flow as well as structure geometrical parameters upon the transmission loss. It is demonstrated that the transmission loss of periodically rib-stiffened structure is increased significantly with increasing Mach number of mean flow over a wide frequency range. The STL value for the case of sound wave incident downstream is pronouncedly larger than that associated with sound wave incident upstream. PMID:23742345

  14. The red-eared slider turtle carapace under fatigue loading: The effect of rib-suture arrangement.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Daniel Wagner, H

    2015-08-01

    Biological structures consisting of strong boney elements interconnected by compliant but tough collagenous sutures are abundantly found in skulls and shells of, among others, armadillos, alligators, turtles and more. In the turtle shell, a unique arrangement of alternating rigid (rib) and flexible (suture) elements gives rise to superior mechanical performance when subjected to low and high strain-rate loadings. However, the resistance to repeated load cycling - fatigue - of the turtle shell has yet to be examined. Such repeated loading could approximately simulate the consecutive high-stress bending loads exerted during (a predator) biting or clawing. In the present study flexural high-stress cyclic loads were applied to rib and suture specimens, taken from the top dorsal part of the red-eared slider turtle shell, termed carapace. Subsequently, to obtain a more complete and integrated fatigue behavior of the carapace, specimens containing a complex alternating rib-suture-rib-suture-rib configuration were tested as well. Although the sutures were found to be the least resistant to repeated loads, a synergistic effect was observed for the complex specimens, displaying improved fatigue durability compared to the individual (suture or even rib) constituents. This study may assist in the design of future high-stress fatigue-resistant materials incorporating complex assemblies of rigid and flexible elements. PMID:26042699

  15. The red-eared slider turtle carapace under fatigue loading: The effect of rib-suture arrangement.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Daniel Wagner, H

    2015-08-01

    Biological structures consisting of strong boney elements interconnected by compliant but tough collagenous sutures are abundantly found in skulls and shells of, among others, armadillos, alligators, turtles and more. In the turtle shell, a unique arrangement of alternating rigid (rib) and flexible (suture) elements gives rise to superior mechanical performance when subjected to low and high strain-rate loadings. However, the resistance to repeated load cycling - fatigue - of the turtle shell has yet to be examined. Such repeated loading could approximately simulate the consecutive high-stress bending loads exerted during (a predator) biting or clawing. In the present study flexural high-stress cyclic loads were applied to rib and suture specimens, taken from the top dorsal part of the red-eared slider turtle shell, termed carapace. Subsequently, to obtain a more complete and integrated fatigue behavior of the carapace, specimens containing a complex alternating rib-suture-rib-suture-rib configuration were tested as well. Although the sutures were found to be the least resistant to repeated loads, a synergistic effect was observed for the complex specimens, displaying improved fatigue durability compared to the individual (suture or even rib) constituents. This study may assist in the design of future high-stress fatigue-resistant materials incorporating complex assemblies of rigid and flexible elements.

  16. Osteometric sex discrimination from the sternal extremity of the fourth rib in a recent forensic sample from Southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, P James; Rico, Antonio; Santos, María; Lucena, Joaquín

    2012-11-30

    The discrimination of sex is central to the process of establishing a personal identification from human skeletal remains. Previous study has demonstrated that osteometric analysis of the sternal extremity of the fourth rib provides a reasonably accurate method for assessing this biological attribute in diverse human groups. As metric standards are generally population-specific, the purpose of the current research was to evaluate the degree of sexual dimorphism present in the fourth rib among contemporary Spaniards, a group thus far not investigated, and generate discriminant function equations which can be used to estimate the sex of unidentified remains in this population. Superior-inferior height and anterior-posterior breadth dimensions of the fourth rib were collected for a sample consisting of 60 males and 57 females derived from postmortem examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Seville, Spain. The results demonstrated that both rib dimensions were highly sexually dimorphic (p<0.0001) in this Spanish sample. Univariate discriminant function analyses yielded correct sex classification rates of 76.9% and 83.8% for breadth and height dimensions, respectively. Multivariate analysis incorporating both rib measurements improved the allocation accuracy to 86.3%, with an associated sex bias of only 0.7%. Therefore, the derived discriminant function equations, particularly those that incorporate rib height, can be effectively used in cases involving fragmentary remains in which more dimorphic elements such as the pelvis are not preserved, as well as complete skeletons to complement other metric and morphological sex assessment methods. PMID:23068090

  17. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Wang; Jiexing, Lin; Xiaozhou, Liu; Jiehui, Liu; Xiufen, Gong

    2016-04-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Fund from State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and SRF for ROCS, SEM.

  18. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Wang; Jiexing, Lin; Xiaozhou, Liu; Jiehui, Liu; Xiufen, Gong

    2016-04-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Fund from State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and SRF for ROCS, SEM.

  19. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  20. 12th Annual School Construction Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    School construction completed in 2006 totaled just more than $20 billion, a drop of seven percent from the record $21.6 billion put in place in 2005. Even so, it was the sixth year in the last seven that annual construction exceeded $20 billion. During the seven years of the present century, school districts have completed construction projects…

  1. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

  2. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  3. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  4. RibM from Streptomyces davawensis is a riboflavin/roseoflavin transporter and may be useful for the optimization of riboflavin production strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is not a natural riboflavin overproducer, has been converted into an excellent production strain by classical mutagenesis and metabolic engineering. To our knowledge, the enhancement of riboflavin excretion from the cytoplasm of overproducing cells has not yet been considered as a target for (further) strain improvement. Here we evaluate the flavin transporter RibM from Streptomyces davawensis with respect to improvement of a riboflavin production strain. Results The gene ribM from S. davawensis, coding for a putative facilitator of riboflavin uptake, was codon optimized (ribMopt) for expression in B. subtilis. The gene ribMopt was functionally introduced into B. subtilis using the isopropyl-β-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible expression plasmid pHT01: Northern-blot analysis of total RNA from IPTG treated recombinant B. subtilis cells revealed a ribMopt specific transcript. Western blot analysis showed that the his6-tagged heterologous gene product RibM was present in the cytoplasmic membrane. Expression of ribM in Escherichia coli increased [14C]riboflavin uptake, which was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Expression of ribMopt supported growth of a B. subtilis ΔribB::Ermr ΔribU::Kanr double mutant deficient in riboflavin synthesis (ΔribB) and also deficient with respect to riboflavin uptake (ΔribU). Expression of ribMopt increased roseoflavin (a toxic riboflavin analog produced by S. davawensis) sensitivity of a B. subtilis ΔribU::Kanr strain. Riboflavin synthesis by a model riboflavin B. subtilis production strain overproducing RibM was increased significantly depending on the amount of the inducer IPTG. Conclusions The energy independent flavin facilitator RibM could in principle catalyze riboflavin export and thus may be useful to increase the riboflavin yield in a riboflavin production process using a recombinant RibM overproducing B. subtilis strain

  5. Mechanisms of Fat Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Although more fat grafting procedures have been performed by plastic surgeons with the primary goal to restore soft tissue loss, the actual mechanism on how fat graft survives remains less completely understood. An established old theory on fat graft survival is still based on the cell survival theory proposed by Peer in the early 1950s. On the basis of his preliminary experimental study, he proposed that the mechanism of fat graft survival is based on established early blood circulation through anastomosis of the fat graft and host blood vessels. Recently, several investigators have demonstrated new concepts of the fat graft survival: One further advanced the old Peer cell survival theory and another based on new discovery and understanding of adipose-derived stem cells. This article serves as a scientific review on how fat graft survives after in vivo transplantation based on a number of well-conducted experimental studies. Both the graft survival and graft replacement theories on how fat graft survives are true based on the previously mentioned well-conducted experimental studies. Each theory may play a role in fat graft survival. It is possible that graft survival may be more dominant in some patients but the graft replacement may be more dominant in other patients.

  6. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  7. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  8. Estimation of broadband acoustic power due to rib forces on a reinforced panel under turbulent boundary layer-like pressure excitation. II. Applicability and validation.

    PubMed

    Rumerman, M L

    2001-02-01

    The previous paper showed that, when the attachment forces on a rib-reinforced panel subjected to turbulent boundary layer excitation can be considered to radiate independently, the rib-related acoustic power in a broad (e.g., one-third octave) frequency band can be estimated as the product of the average mean squared force, the real part of the radiation admittance of an attachment force, and the number of ribs. This paper shows that the radiation condition is always approximated when the acoustic wavelength is less than twice the rib spacing of a periodically reinforced panel, and generally applies at lower frequencies where the acoustic wavelength is less than four times the rib spacing. The procedure is used to estimate the broadband acoustic power radiated per rib of an infinite periodically reinforced membrane and plate in water, and the results are shown to agree with those of "exact" calculations.

  9. Broken ribs: paleopathological analysis of costal fractures in the human identified skeletal collection from the Museu Bocage, Lisbon, Portugal (late 19th to middle 20th centuries).

    PubMed

    Matos, Vítor

    2009-09-01

    Although rarely reported in the anthropological literature, rib fractures are commonly found during the analysis of human skeletal remains of past and modern populations. This lack of published data precludes comparison between studies and restricts an accurate understanding either of the mechanisms involved in thoracic injuries or their impact on past societies. The present study aimed: 1) to report rib fracture prevalence in 197 individuals, 109 males, and 88 females, with ages at death ranging from 13 to 88 years old, from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection, Museu Bocage, Portugal (late 19th-middle 20th centuries); 2) to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of rib stress fractures existed in the 133 individuals who died from respiratory diseases, in a period before antibiotics. The macroscopic analysis revealed 23.9% (n = 47) of individuals with broken ribs. 2.6% (n = 124) out of 4,726 ribs observed were affected. Males presented more rib fractures, and a significantly higher prevalence was noted for older individuals. Fractures were more frequently unilateral (n = 34), left sided (n = 19) and mainly located on the shaft of ribs from the middle thoracic wall. Nineteen individuals presented adjacent fractured ribs. Individuals who died from pulmonary diseases were not preferentially affected. However, a higher mean rate of fractures was found in those who died from pneumonia, a scenario still common nowadays. Since rib involvement in chest wall injury and its related outcomes are important issues both for paleopathology and forensic anthropology, further investigations are warranted.

  10. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  11. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  12. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  13. Heat transfer and fluid flow analysis of artificially roughened ducts having rib and groove roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharwal, K. R.; Pawar, C. B.; Chaube, Alok

    2014-06-01

    Artificially roughness is one of the well known methods of enhancing heat transfer from the heat transfer surface in the form of repeated ribs, grooves or combination of ribs and groove (compound turbulators). The artificial roughness produced on the heat transferring surface is used in cooling of gas turbine blades, nuclear reactor, solar air heating systems etc. Solar air heaters have wide applications in low to moderate temperature range, namely, drying of foods, agricultural crops, seasoning of wood and space heating etc. Solar air heaters have low value of convective heat transfer coefficient between the working fluid (air) and the heat transferring surface, due to the formation of thin laminar viscous sub-layer on its surface. The heat transfer from the surface can be increased by breaking this laminar viscous sub layer. Hence, in the present work compound turbulators in the form of integral wedge shaped ribs with grooves are used on the heat transfer surface, to study its effect on the heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number) and friction factor in the range of Reynolds number 3,000-18,000. The roughness produced on the absorber plate forms the wetted side of upper broad wall of the rectangular duct of solar air heater. The relative groove position ( g/p) was varied from 0.4 to 0.8 and the wedge angle (Φ) was varied from 10° to 25°, relative roughness pitch ( p/e) and relative roughness height ( e/D) was maintained as 8.0 and 0.033 respectively. The aspect ratio of the rectangular duct was maintained as 8. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the artificially roughened ducts were determined experimentally and the corresponding values were compared with that of smooth surface duct. It is observed that wedge-groove roughened surface shows more enhancement in heat transfer compared to only rib roughened surface arrangement. The investigation revealed that Nusselt number increases 1.5-3 times, while the friction factor increases two to three folds that

  14. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42). PMID:25349365

  15. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  16. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin allotransplantation model of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Nasir, Serdar; Zor, Fatih; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Siemionow, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cellular and vascularized bone marrow cells have been used to induce donor-specific chimerism in various models of composite tissue allotransplantation. Although thymus transplantation has been reported in the literature, the effect of thymus transplantation on chimerism levels in vascularized bone containing composite tissue allotransplantation has not been reported. In this study, a new method for composite vascularized sternal bone marrow transplant model is descried that can be applied to augment chimerism after transplantation. A total of seven composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin transplantations were performed in two groups. The first group (n = 5) was designed as an allotransplantation group and the second group (n = 2) was designed as an isotransplantation group. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, and pectoralis muscles allografts were harvested on the common carotid artery and external jugular vein and a heterotopic transplantation was performed to the inguinal region of the recipient rat. Cyclosporine A monotherapy was administered in order to prevent acute and chronic allograft rejection. Animals sacrificed when any sign of rejection occurred. The longest survival was 156 day post-transplant. Assessment of bone marrow cells within sternum bone component and flow cytometry analysis of donor-specific chimerism in the peripheral blood of recipients were evaluated. Our results showed that this composite allograft carried 7.5 × 10(6) of viable hematopoietic cells within the sternum component. At day 7 post-transplant chimerism was developed in T-cell population and mean level was assessed at 2.65% for RT1(n) /CD4 and at 1.0% for RT1(n) /CD8. In this study, a new osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscle, and skin allotransplantation model is reported which can be used to augment hematopoietic activity for chimerism induction after transplantation.

  17. Which is better to multiple rib fractures, surgical treatment or conservative treatment?

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Yi; Gao, Zong-Li; Zhao, Tian-Cheng; He, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To compare the surgery and conservative treatment of multiple fractured ribs, we designed a randomized controlled trial in the single center of thoracic surgery ward. After admission condition assessment (general clinical evaluation, operation condition assessment, the digital method of pain assessment), the selected multiple fractured rib patients were told to choose surgery or conservative treatment, according to the patient will undergo surgery or conservative treatment. In the acute phase, compared with conservative treatment, patients with mechanical ventilation in time (mechanical ventilation time MV) (3.7 ± 1.4 vs. 9.5 ± 4.3), ICU stay time (8.2 ± 4.3 vs. 14.6 ± 3.2), total hospitalization days (15.3 ± 6.4 vs. 26.5 ± 6.9), the incidence of pneumonia (6.7% vs. 19.1%), mortality (1.3% vs. 5.3%) and pain score on patients (3.3 vs. 5.8) of surgical treatment group were significant lower (P < 0.05). The number of tracheostomy in surgical patients with conservative treatment (4 vs. 7) was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). In chronic phase, the surgical patients compared with patients with conservative treatment in the chest wall pain (2.9 ± 1.2 vs. 5.6 ± 1.7), chest wall tension (13.3% vs. 57.3%), dyspnea (5.3% vs. 22.4%) and chest wall deformity rate (4% vs. 93.5%) were lower significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the surgical treatment of multiple fractured ribs could ease the acute chest pain, reduce the mechanical ventilation time and incidence of pneumonia, shorten the hospitalization days and total hospitalization days in the ICU and alleviate the forward chest wall discomfort. The speedy recovery and long-term quality of patients' life had improved significantly. PMID:26221350

  18. Which is better to multiple rib fractures, surgical treatment or conservative treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Yi; Gao, Zong-Li; Zhao, Tian-Cheng; He, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To compare the surgery and conservative treatment of multiple fractured ribs, we designed a randomized controlled trial in the single center of thoracic surgery ward. After admission condition assessment (general clinical evaluation, operation condition assessment, the digital method of pain assessment), the selected multiple fractured rib patients were told to choose surgery or conservative treatment, according to the patient will undergo surgery or conservative treatment. In the acute phase, compared with conservative treatment, patients with mechanical ventilation in time (mechanical ventilation time MV) (3.7 ± 1.4 vs. 9.5 ± 4.3), ICU stay time (8.2 ± 4.3 vs. 14.6 ± 3.2), total hospitalization days (15.3 ± 6.4 vs. 26.5 ± 6.9), the incidence of pneumonia (6.7% vs. 19.1%), mortality (1.3% vs. 5.3%) and pain score on patients (3.3 vs. 5.8) of surgical treatment group were significant lower (P < 0.05). The number of tracheostomy in surgical patients with conservative treatment (4 vs. 7) was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). In chronic phase, the surgical patients compared with patients with conservative treatment in the chest wall pain (2.9 ± 1.2 vs. 5.6 ± 1.7), chest wall tension (13.3% vs. 57.3%), dyspnea (5.3% vs. 22.4%) and chest wall deformity rate (4% vs. 93.5%) were lower significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the surgical treatment of multiple fractured ribs could ease the acute chest pain, reduce the mechanical ventilation time and incidence of pneumonia, shorten the hospitalization days and total hospitalization days in the ICU and alleviate the forward chest wall discomfort. The speedy recovery and long-term quality of patients’ life had improved significantly. PMID:26221350

  19. Short-Rib Polydactyly and Jeune Syndromes Are Caused by Mutations in WDR60

    PubMed Central

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R.; Leo, Paul J.; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D.; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A.; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J.; Beales, Philip L.; Brown, Matthew A.; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Duncan, Emma L.; Wicking, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I–V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. PMID:23910462

  20. Post‐traumatic fibro‐osseous lesion of the ribs: a relatively under‐recognised entity

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, S; Kerdraon, O; Conti, M; Buob, D; Petit, S; Leroy, X

    2006-01-01

    Aim To report the description of a rare benign osseous lesion affecting the ribs entitled post‐traumatic fibro‐osseous lesion (PTFOL). Methods Seven cases of PTFOLs were retrieved from the archives of the University Hospital of Lille. Histological slides were reviewed and lesions were classified according to the histological patterns described by McDermott et al. Clinical and follow‐up data were obtained from the patients' charts. Results PTFOLs occurred principally in men (mean age 31.8 years) with a known or suspected previous chest injury for four of them. No previous cancer was noted. Radiologically, PTFOLs readily presented as an isolated expansive lucency with a sclerotic rim located on the last five ribs. A constant increased uptake of radionucleotide was noted on bone scan. Microscopically, two fibro‐osseous, four xanthomatous and one mixed pattern were individualised. Lesions were characterised by a network of anastomosing bone trabeculae without osteoblast lining within a fibrous stroma. A zonal maturation from woven to peripheral lamellar bone was characterised. Central sheets of lipid‐laden histiocytes were conspicuous in the xanthomatous type. For each patient, clinical follow‐up was excellent, without any recurrence. Conclusions This is the second largest series of PTFOLs, which is considered to be a dysplastic healing process after trauma. It may be symptomatic or shown by imaging studies realised for unrelated reason. PTFOL is regularly misdiagnosed with other more common lesions of the ribs, such as fibro‐osseous dysplasia, osteoma osteoid and benign fibrous histiocytoma. Its recognition is of importance because no follow‐up is needed after resection. PMID:16467162

  1. Pressure Distribution over a Wing and Tail Rib of a VE-7 and of a TS Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the pressure distribution over a rib of the wing and over a rib of the horizontal tail surface of an airplane in flight and to obtain information as to the time correlation of the loads occurring on these ribs. Two airplanes, VE-7 and TS, were selected in order to obtain the information for a thin and a thick wing section. In each case the pressure distribution was recorded for the full range of angle of attack in level flight and throughout violent maneuvers. The results show: (a) that the present rib load specifications in use by the Army Air Corps and the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, are in fair agreement with the loads actually occurring in flight, but could be slightly improved; (b) that there appears to be no definite sequence in which wing and tail surface ribs reach their respective maximum loads in different maneuvers; (c) that in accelerated flight, at air speeds less than or equal to 60 per cent of the maximum speed, the accelerations measured agree very closely with the theoretically possible maximum accelerations. In maneuvers at higher air speeds the observed accelerations were smaller than those theoretically possible. (author)

  2. The 'Pro-Drug' RibCys Decreases The Mutagenicity of High LET Radiation in Cultured Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenarczyk, M.; Ueno, A.; Vannais, D. B.; Kraemer, S.; Kronenberg, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Tatsumi, K.; Hei, T. K.; Waldren, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    We have initiated studies aimed at reducing the mutational effects of high LET radiation such as Fe-56 ions and C-12 ions with certain drugs. The mutagenicity of high LET (143 keV/micrometer) Fe-56 or C-12 ions (LET = 100 keV/micrometer) was quantified at the CD59 locus of human-hamster hybrid AL cells. RibCys [2,S)-D-ribo-(1',2',3',4'- Tetrahydroxybutyl)-thiazolidine-4(R)-ca riboxylic acid], formed by condensation of L-cysteine with D-ribose, is designed so that the sulfhydryl amino acid L-cysteine is released intracellularly via nonenzymatic ring opening and hydrolysis leading to increased levels of glutathione (GSH). RibCys (4 or 10 mM), present during irradiation and a few hours post-irradiation, significantly decreased the yield of CD59(-) mutants induced by radiation. RibCys did not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, nor was it mutagenic itself. These results, together with the minimal side effects reported in mice and pigs, indicate that RibCys may be useful, perhaps even when used prophylactically, in reducing the load of mutations created by high LET radiation in astronauts or other exposed individuals. RibCys is an attractive drug that may reduce the risk of carcinogenesis in people exposed to high LET radiation.

  3. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  4. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

  5. The effects of feeding sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Sotak, K M; Houser, T A; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goehring, B L; Skaar, G R; Nelssen, J L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in grain sorghum– or corn-based diets on pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. A total of 288 finishing pigs (BW 58.8 ± 4.43 kg; Line TR 4 × 1050, PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used in a 73-d study. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 pens of 8 pigs per treatment. Treatments included grain sorghum–based diets with 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% sorghum DDGS (29.0% CP, 7.2% ether extract); a grain sorghum–based diet with 30% corn DDGS (25.7% CP, 8.7% ether extract); and a corn-based diet with 30% corn DDGS. The diets were formulated to 0.95%, 0.83%, and 0.71% standardized ileal digestible Lys in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and were not balanced for energy. On d 73, a subsample of 72 pigs (1 barrow and 1 gilt/pen) was harvested at Kansas State University’s Meats Laboratory. Carcass traits were calculated, as well as 10th-rib LM color, marbling and firmness, and fat color score. Fat samples from the 10th rib were collected and analyzed for fatty acid profile, which was used to calculate iodine value (IV). The remaining pigs were transported to a commercial packing plant (Triumph Foods, St. Joseph, MO) for carcass measurement and jowl IV determinations. Overall, increasing the dietary sorghum DDGS reduced (linear, P < 0.01) ADG and increased (linear, P < 0.01) back fat IV. Pigs fed increasing sorghum DDGS had decreased 10th-rib fat a* (less red) and b* (less yellow; P < 0.01 and 0.06, respectively). No differences were observed in growth performance or back fat IV among pigs fed corn- or grain sorghum–based diets with 30% corn DDGS. Pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% corn DDGS had fat color that was more yellow (b*; P < 0.03) than that of pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% sorghum DDGS. Pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% sorghum DDGS also had

  6. Giant congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation with extensive involvement of chest wall and ribs: surgical experience.

    PubMed

    Parashi, Hrishikesh Sukhadeo; Bhosle, Krishnarao Narayan; Thakare, Nitin Dashrath; Sharma, Ajay; Potwar, Sushrut Suhas

    2013-06-01

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions. Review of literature shows that most reported cases are secondary to trauma or iatrogenic in origin. Congenital intercostal AVMs are extremely rare. We believe that only 1 case report of congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation has been reported previously in the literature. We present an exceedingly rare case of giant congenital intercostal AVM in a young patient diagnosed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax and treated by surgical resection of the involved chest wall and ribs with reconstruction of the surgical defect.

  7. Fibrous dysplasia of rib presenting as a cystic mass in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zuber; Zubair, Ishma

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign skeletal disorder that can affect one bone (monostotic form) or multiple bones (polyostotic form). It is a non-inherited bone disease, in which abnormal differentiation of osteoblasts leads to replacement of normal marrow and cancellous bone by immature bone with fibrous stroma. It is often asymptomatic and incidentally detected on radiographs. We report this rare disorder in a 22-year-old lady who presented to us with cough and breathlessness. Her chest radiograph showed a cystic mass extending into the chest wall. On computed tomography scan, mass turned out to be FD of the second rib. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25988078

  8. Mode conversion in magneto-optic rib waveguide made by silica matrix doped with magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, Mounir; Hocini, Abdessalem

    2016-03-01

    The TE-TM mode conversion is an important requirement for magneto-optical waveguide devices. It has been analyzed by means of a full-vectorial beam propagation method. The present work is based on the study of the influence of diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the complex dielectric tensor on the conversion efficiency in magneto-optical rib waveguide. We have found that in the presence of the absorption (taking into account the imaginary part of diagonal tensor) the conversion efficiency is affected by the absorption and these latter increases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases.

  9. Recurrent atraumatic metatarsal, rib and sacral insufficiency fractures in a woman with the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiers, Joseph; Khamashta, Munther; Hepburn, Alastair

    2013-10-30

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterised by recurrent arterial and/or venous thromboses and recurrent late miscarriages in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and can be a hugely debilitating disorder. While the commonest thrombotic manifestations of this condition such as deep vein thrombosis and stroke are well documented, there has been increasing recognition of numerous less common complications in most organ systems. We present a female patient with APS and a lupus-like illness who had atraumatic sacral fractures as well as multiple spontaneous fractures affecting her ribs and the metatarsals in both her feet.

  10. Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.

  11. Selection of targets and ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, the authors describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications. A brief review of present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect fast and efficient diffusion release of the short-lived species is also given.

  12. Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rai, S; Gauba, K

    2007-01-01

    Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome involves multiple organ system. The most common findings include multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws and basal cell nevus on the skin that have an early age onset. These multiple odontogenic keratocysts warrant aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications associated with them. Recurrence in these lesions is the most characteristic feature that has to be taken in consideration while explaining the prognosis to the patient. A case report of a child affected with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome diagnosed, treated and followed at this hospital is presented here.

  13. Periosteal Osteosarcoma Arising from the Rib and Scapula: Imaging Features in Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Beom; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Periosteal osteosarcoma is an extremely rare chondroblastic osteosarcoma in the flat bone. There were authors reporting of two cases of periosteal osteosarcoma in the highly unusual sites. One of them arose from the rib, in a 17-year-old male, which appeared as a hypodense juxtacortical mass with periosteal reaction on CT. The other one arose from the scapula, in a 17-year-old female, which showed the intermediate signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted image (WI), heterogeneous high SI on T2WI, and rim-enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1WI with cortical destruction on MRI. PMID:24843242

  14. Mode-expanded semiconductor laser with tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.; Hou, H.; Wendt, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    Expanded-mode semiconductor lasers are of great interest due to the benefits of reduced far-field divergence and improved coupling efficiency to optical fiber. The authors present a new diode laser using a Tapered-Rib Adiabatic-Following Fiber Coupler (TRAFFiC) to achieve 2D mode expansion without epitaxial regrowth or sharply-defined tips on tapered waveguides. The expanded mode size would allow 0.25 to 1 dB coupling loss to standard telecommunications fiber making smaller-core specialty fibers unnecessary, increasing misalignment tolerance, and eliminating the need for coupling optics.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Turbulent Flow in a Ribbed Serpentine Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iaccarino, Gianluca; Kalitzin, Georgi; Elkins, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the turbulent flow in a serpentine with oblique ribs is investigated experimentally and by numerical simulations. The measurements are carried out by using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) and the simulations using the Immersed Boundary (IB) technique. A brief description of these two approaches is reported in following sections. The results are reported in terms of velocity distributions in various planes in the serpentine; differences between measurements and simulations are presented qualitatively and quantitatively. The study of the discrepancy allows us to identify areas of needed improvements in the turbulence modeling.

  16. Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of rib bone: Morphology, immunohistochemical evaluation and diagnostic dilemma in an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Pramod; Menon, Santosh; Patil, Asawari; Karimundakal, George; Jambhekar, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Myoepithelial tumors are most commonly seen as salivary gland tumors. Tumors of similar morphology and nomenclature are also seen rarely in soft tissue, skin, lungs and breast. Bone is an uncommon anatomical site for occurrence of myoepithelial tumors. Histologically, they have variable admixture of epithelial elements in a gamut of patterns with myxoid matricial background. Most of these are benign with very anecdotal reports of malignant counterpart, myoepithelial carcinoma. Herein we describe an extremely rare case of a malignant myoepithelial tumor arising from the rib which owing to unusual location and immunohistochemical profile was diagnostically challenging.

  17. Nd:Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} rib waveguide lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bayram; Tai, C.-Y.; Shepherd, David P.; Wilkinson, James S.; Perney, Nicolas M.B.; Netti, M. Caterina; Parker, Gregory J.

    2005-01-10

    Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} waveguides offer great potential for high-density active photonic crystal circuits and their combination with rare-earth dopants for active devices is of interest for increasing their potential functionality. To this end, neodymium-doped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} rib waveguide lasers have been fabricated on an oxidized silicon wafer by rf sputtering and argon ion-beam milling and laser action in this material has been demonstrated. Lasing was observed at wavelenghts between 1060 and 1080 nm and an absorbed pump power threshold of 87 mW was obtained.

  18. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between Parental Education and Substance Use Among U.S. 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students: Findings From the Monitoring the Future Project*

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Wallace, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Secondary school students' rates of substance use vary significantly by race/ethnicity and by their parents' level of education (a proxy for socioeconomic status). The relationship between students' substance use and race/ethnicity is, however, potentially confounded because parental education also differs substantially by race/ethnicity. This report disentangles the confounding by examining White, African American, and Hispanic students separately, showing how parental education relates to cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Method: Data are from the 1999-2008 Monitoring the Future nationally representative in-school surveys of more than 360,000 students in Grades 8, 10, and 12. Results: (a) High proportions of Hispanic students have parents with the lowest level of education, and the relatively low levels of substance use by these students complicates total sample data linking parental education and substance use. (b) There are clear interactions: Compared with White students, substance use rates among African American and Hispanic students are less strongly linked with parental education (and are lower overall). (c) Among White students, 8th and 1 0th graders show strong negative relations between parental education and substance use, whereas by 12th grade their heavy drinking and marijuana use are not correlated with parental education. Conclusions: Low parental education appears to be much more of a risk factor for White students than for Hispanic or African American students. Therefore, in studies of substance use epidemiology, findings based on predominantly White samples are not equally applicable to other racial/ethnic subgroups. Conversely, the large proportions of minority students in the lowest parental education category can mask or weaken findings that are clearer among White students alone. PMID:21388601

  20. The genetics of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Dorit; Böttcher, Yvonne; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. There is good evidence that body fat distribution (FD) is controlled by genetic factors. WHR, a surrogate measure of FD, shows significant heritability of up to ∼60%, even after adjusting for BMI. Genetic variants have been linked to various forms of altered FD such as lipodystrophies; however, the polygenic background of visceral obesity has only been sparsely investigated in the past. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for measures of FD revealed numerous loci harbouring genes potentially regulating FD. In addition, genes with fat depot-specific expression patterns (in particular subcutaneous vs visceral adipose tissue) provide plausible candidate genes involved in the regulation of FD. Many of these genes are differentially expressed in various fat compartments and correlate with obesity-related traits, thus further supporting their role as potential mediators of metabolic alterations associated with a distinct FD. Finally, developmental genes may at a very early stage determine specific FD in later life. Indeed, genes such as TBX15 not only manifest differential expression in various fat depots, but also correlate with obesity and related traits. Moreover, recent GWAS identified several polymorphisms in developmental genes (including TBX15, HOXC13, RSPO3 and CPEB4) strongly associated with FD. More accurate methods, including cardiometabolic imaging, for assessment of FD are needed to promote our understanding in this field, where the main focus is now to unravel the yet unknown biological function of these novel 'fat distribution genes'.