Science.gov

Sample records for 12th rib fat

  1. Early-weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of 12th-rib fat, marbling score, and feed efficiency among Angus and Wagyu heifers.

    PubMed

    Wertz, A E; Berger, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2002-01-01

    Twelve 3/4 Angus (Angus) and 12 Wagyu-cross (1/2 Wagyu x 1/2 Angus) (Wagyu) heifers were weaned at 180 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 16 mo before entering the feedlot as 2-yr-olds. Twelve 3/4 Angus heifer calves and 12 Wagyu-cross heifer calves from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 142 +/- 4.1 d of age, immediately adjusted to an 80% concentrate diet, and finished as calves. All heifers were fed a common finishing diet until an estimated 50% of their respective group would grade USDA low Prime or better based on ultrasound predictions. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat depots were recorded at 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Heifers finished as calves had higher (P = 0.02) marbling scores at any given fat thickness and gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) at any given marbling score than heifers finished as 2-yr-olds. Gain:feed decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.05) as 12th-rib fat thickness increased for Angus and Wagyu heifers. Gain:feed decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) for Wagyu calves and quadratically (P < or = 0.01) for Angus calves as 12th-rib fat thickness increased. However, these differences in slope were not different (P = 0.34) as a result of breed among heifers finished as calves. Marbling score increased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as 12th-rib fat thickness increased for Angus and Wagyu heifers finished as 2-yrolds or as calves. However, Wagyu heifers, regardless of age at feedlot entry, had a higher marbling score (P < or = 0.05) at any given 12th-rib fat thickness than Angus heifers. Finishing early-weaned heifers as calves as opposed to 2-yr-olds results in i.m. fat deposition during a period of more efficient growth. Additionally, including Wagyu genetics into the breeding of early-weaned heifers finished as calves or as 2-yr-olds results in higher marbling scores at any 12th-rib fat thickness.

  2. Mini-flank supra-12th rib incision for open partial nephrectomy for renal tumor with RENAL nephrometry score ≥10: an innovation of traditional open surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Sun, Li-an; Wang, Yiwei; Xiang, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Guomin

    2015-04-01

    The skill of supra-12th rib mini-flank approach for open partial nephrectomy (MI-OPN) provides an advanced operative method for renal tumor. Compared with laparoscopic and robotic surgery, it may be a feasible selection for the complex renal tumors. We describe our techniques and results of MI-OPN in complex renal tumors with high RENAL nephrometry score (RENAL nephrometry score ≥10). Fifty-five patients diagnosed with renal tumors between January 2009 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eligibility criteria comprised of patients with complex renal tumor (RENAL score ≥10) being candidates for partial nephrectomy (PN). All patients received MI-OPN and all surgeries were performed by a single urologist. The preoperative workup comprised of medical history, physical examination, and routine laboratory tests. Serum creatinine was recorded preoperatively and 2 to 3 months after operation. Operative time, ischemia time, blood loss, operative and postoperative complications, renal function, and pathology parameters were recorded. MI-OPN was successfully performed in all cases. Mean tumor size was 4.7 cm (range: 2.5-8.1). Mean warm ischemia time was 28.1 minutes (range: 21-39), mean operative time was 105 minutes (range: 70-150) and mean estimated blood loss was 68 mL (range: 10-400). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 5-12). Postoperative complications were found in 3 patients (5.5%). The mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine levels were 76.2 μmol/L (range: 47-132) and 87.1 μmol/L (range: 61-189) with significant difference (P = 0.004). The mean pre- and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were 91.5 (range: 34-133) and 82.5 (range: 22-126.5), respectively with significant difference (P = 0.024). In an average follow-up of 19.9 months (range: 8-50), no local recurrence or systemic progression occurred. In conclusion, MI-OPN can combine the benefits of both minimal invasive and traditional open

  3. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10th rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10th rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9th rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9th rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9th and 10th intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10th rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9th rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10th rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10th rib to impinge on the 9th intercostal nerves, causing pain. PMID:27413484

  5. Rib Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... From Brain Injury Additional Content Medical News Rib Fractures By Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH, Department of ... Hemothorax Injury to the Aorta Pulmonary Contusion Rib Fractures Tension Pneumothorax Traumatic Pneumothorax (See also Introduction to ...

  6. Random regression models for the prediction of days to weight, ultrasound rib eye area, and ultrasound back fat depth in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Speidel, S E; Peel, R K; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2016-02-01

    Genetic evaluation research designed to reduce the required days to a specified end point has received very little attention in pertinent scientific literature, given that its economic importance was first discussed in 1957. There are many production scenarios in today's beef industry, making a prediction for the required number of days to a single end point a suboptimal option. Random regression is an attractive alternative to calculate days to weight (DTW), days to ultrasound back fat (DTUBF), and days to ultrasound rib eye area (DTUREA) genetic predictions that could overcome weaknesses of a single end point prediction. The objective of this study was to develop random regression approaches for the prediction of the DTW, DTUREA, and DTUBF. Data were obtained from the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada. Data consisted of records on 1,324 feedlot cattle spanning 1999 to 2007. Individual animals averaged 5.77 observations with weights, ultrasound rib eye area (UREA), ultrasound back fat depth (UBF), and ages ranging from 293 to 863 kg, 73.39 to 129.54 cm, 1.53 to 30.47 mm, and 276 to 519 d, respectively. Random regression models using Legendre polynomials were used to regress age of the individual on weight, UREA, and UBF. Fixed effects in the model included an overall fixed regression of age on end point (weight, UREA, and UBF) nested within breed to account for the mean relationship between age and weight as well as a contemporary group effect consisting of breed of the animal (Angus, Charolais, and Charolais sired), feedlot pen, and year of measure. Likelihood ratio tests were used to determine the appropriate random polynomial order. Use of the quadratic polynomial did not account for any additional genetic variation in days for DTW ( > 0.11), for DTUREA ( > 0.18), and for DTUBF ( > 0.20) when compared with the linear random polynomial. Heritability estimates from the linear random regression for DTW ranged from 0.54 to 0

  7. Ribbed Swimsuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Langley Research Center's turbulent-drag reduction technology, as applied to airplanes and the winning yacht in America's Cup, finds another application: swimwear. The Strush SR swimsuit features silicon ribbing or "riblets" at the chest and buttocks, reducing friction in the water. Combined with innovations by its manufacturer, Arena North America, the company says the technology makes the suit 10 to 15 percent faster than any other world class swimsuit. The publicity for the Strush SR is handled by Suter Communications, Inc. *Company no longer exists (12/5/96).

  8. Panel Recommends State-Level NAEP for 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    A national commission formed to review the future of the 12th grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has recommended that the nation's primary barometer of student performance should expand dramatically to provide mandatory state results on the achievement of 12th graders and to measure their readiness for college, employment,…

  9. Evaluating the point of separation, during carcass fabrication, between the beef wholesale rib and the beef wholesale chuck.

    PubMed

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Shanks, B C; Maddock, R J

    2002-01-01

    This study determined whether there is a logical point of value change, related to either tenderness or consumer acceptance, at which to separate the beef carcass within the rib/chuck region. Rib/chuck rolls (RCR); (n = 30) consisting of the ribeye roll and chuck eye roll subprimals (2nd through 12th rib locations) were cut into 22 steaks each (two steaks per rib location), and Warner-Bratzler shear force and consumer purchase preference were evaluated for steaks at each rib location. Steaks from different locations of the RCR were composed of differing proportions of several muscles: longissimus muscle (LM), spinalis dorsi and multifidus dorsi (SM), and complexus (CO). The LM (4th to 12th rib) contained three tenderness regions: 7th through 12th rib, 5th and 6th ribs, and 4th rib regions (lowest, intermediate, and highest shear force values, respectively; P < 0.01). Shear force differed (P < 0.05) among rib locations for the SM (2nd to 9th rib), but no logical pattern was evident. The CO (2nd to 7th rib) was more tender toward the anterior end (P < 0.05). The region of the RCR represented by the 4th through 6th rib locations had steaks with higher weighted-average shear force (average shear force of each steak, weighted for surface area of each muscle) values than the remainder of the RCR (P < 0.05). Animal-to-animal variation in shear force was 36% greater than rib-to-rib variation in shear force; thus, statistically significant differences in tenderness among rib locations may be undetectable by consumers. Steaks (n = 330) were offered for sale at a retail supermarket and case time was monitored on each steak to determine consumer purchase preference. Steaks from the 2nd through 4th rib locations required more time to sell (P < 0.01) than steaks from the 5th through 12th rib locations. Two alternative locations for the rib/chuck separation point could be between the 6th and 7th ribs, yielding a ribeye subprimal useful in marketing a "premium quality" product, or

  10. Rib fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000539.htm Rib fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or ...

  11. Analysis of cervical ribs in a series of human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Bots, Jessica; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Delen, Sofie; Van Dongen, Stefan; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Galis, Frietson

    2011-09-01

    In humans, an increasing body of evidence has linked the frequency of cervical ribs to stillbirths, other malformations and early childhood cancers. However, the frequency of cervical ribs in a putatively healthy fetal population is not sufficiently known to assess the actual medical risks of these prenatal findings. We therefore analyzed the presence of skeletal anomalies in a series of 199 electively aborted fetuses, which were whole-mount stained with alizarin red specific for skeletal tissues. Results show that approximately 40% of the fetuses had cervical ribs, even though external congenital abnormalities such as craniofacial and limb defects were absent. A literature overview indicates that the observed frequency of cervical ribs is comparable to results previously obtained for deceased fetuses with no or minor congenital anomalies, and higher than expected for healthy fetuses. This unexpected result can probably in part be explained by a higher detection rate of small cervical ribs when using alizarin red staining instead of radiographs. Additionally, studies in the literature suggest that the size of a cervical rib may indicate the severity of abnormalities, but this possibility requires further research. Anomalies of the axial skeleton are known to be caused by a disturbance of early development, which alters Hox gene expression, but in this study the origin of the stress could not be verified as maternal medical data were not available. The co-occurrence of rudimentary or absent 12th ribs in 23.6% of the cases with cervical ribs indicates that in approximately 8% of the fetuses a homeotic shift occurred over a larger part of the vertebral column. This suggests that the expression of multiple Hox genes may have been affected in these fetuses. Together, the high incidence of cervical ribs and also their co-occurrence with rudimentary or absent 12th ribs suggests that there may have been a disturbance of early development such that the studied fetuses are

  12. Analysis of cervical ribs in a series of human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Bots, Jessica; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Delen, Sofie; Van Dongen, Stefan; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Galis, Frietson

    2011-01-01

    In humans, an increasing body of evidence has linked the frequency of cervical ribs to stillbirths, other malformations and early childhood cancers. However, the frequency of cervical ribs in a putatively healthy fetal population is not sufficiently known to assess the actual medical risks of these prenatal findings. We therefore analyzed the presence of skeletal anomalies in a series of 199 electively aborted fetuses, which were whole-mount stained with alizarin red specific for skeletal tissues. Results show that approximately 40% of the fetuses had cervical ribs, even though external congenital abnormalities such as craniofacial and limb defects were absent. A literature overview indicates that the observed frequency of cervical ribs is comparable to results previously obtained for deceased fetuses with no or minor congenital anomalies, and higher than expected for healthy fetuses. This unexpected result can probably in part be explained by a higher detection rate of small cervical ribs when using alizarin red staining instead of radiographs. Additionally, studies in the literature suggest that the size of a cervical rib may indicate the severity of abnormalities, but this possibility requires further research. Anomalies of the axial skeleton are known to be caused by a disturbance of early development, which alters Hox gene expression, but in this study the origin of the stress could not be verified as maternal medical data were not available. The co-occurrence of rudimentary or absent 12th ribs in 23.6% of the cases with cervical ribs indicates that in approximately 8% of the fetuses a homeotic shift occurred over a larger part of the vertebral column. This suggests that the expression of multiple Hox genes may have been affected in these fetuses. Together, the high incidence of cervical ribs and also their co-occurrence with rudimentary or absent 12th ribs suggests that there may have been a disturbance of early development such that the studied fetuses are

  13. The 12th Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Aitchison, Katherine J; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    The 12th Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting was held in Hollywood, Florida, from 31 May to 1 June 2013, in conjunction with the NCDEU meeting. It included a series of oral presentations as well as a poster session. This report summarizes the presentations at the conference.

  14. Reflections on the 12th International Transformative Learning Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapiro, Steven A.; Gallegos, Placida V.; Stashower, Keren; Clark, Donna F.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a reflective essay that explores the question: What can the content and experience of the conference tell us about the state of theory and practice in the field of TL; where is it today and where it may be going in the future? The 12th International Transformative Learning Conference (ITLC) held October 19-23 at Pacific Lutheran…

  15. Ribbed electrode substrates

    DOEpatents

    Breault, Richard D.; Goller, Glen J.

    1983-01-01

    A ribbed substrate for an electrochemical cell electrode is made from a mixture of carbon fibers and carbonizable resin and has a mean pore size in the ribs which is 60-75% of the mean pore size of the web portions of the substrate which interconnect the ribs. Preferably the mean pore size of the web portion is 25-45 microns; and, if the substrate includes edge seals parallel to the ribs, the edge seals preferably have a mean pore size no greater than about ten microns. Most preferably the substrate has the same ratio of carbon fibers to polymeric carbon in all areas, including the ribs, webs, and edge seals. A substrate according to the present invention will have better overall performance than prior art substrates and minimizes the substrate thickness required for the substrate to perform all its functions well.

  16. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult.

    PubMed

    Pezowicz, Celina; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of thoracic biomechanics is important for complete examination and control of chest behaviour under conditions of physiological and pathological work, and under the impact of external forces leading to traumatic loading of the chest. The purpose of the study was to analyse the mechanical properties of human ribs obtained from individuals under the age of 25 with scoliosis deformation and to correlate them with geometric properties of ribs. Thirty three fragments of ribs (9th to 12th) were tested in three-point bending. Rib fragments were collected intraoperatively from female patients treated for scoliosis in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. The results were used to determine the maximum failure force, stiffness, and Young's modulus. A significant relationship was found between the age and elastic modulus of the ribs. The analysis was carried out for two age groups, i.e., between the ages of 10 and 15 and between the ages of 16 and 22, and statistically significant differences were obtained for Young's modulus (p = 0.0001) amounting to, respectively, 2.79 ± 1.34 GPa for the first group and 7.44 ± 2.85 GPa for the second group. The results show a significant impact of age on the mechanical properties of ribs.

  17. A novel method for the 3-D reconstruction of scoliotic ribs from frontal and lateral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Seoud, Lama; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert; Dansereau, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Among the external manifestations of scoliosis, the rib hump, which is associated with the ribs' deformities and rotations, constitutes the most disturbing aspect of the scoliotic deformity for patients. A personalized 3-D model of the rib cage is important for a better evaluation of the deformity, and hence, a better treatment planning. A novel method for the 3-D reconstruction of the rib cage, based only on two standard radiographs, is proposed in this paper. For each rib, two points are extrapolated from the reconstructed spine, and three points are reconstructed by stereo radiography. The reconstruction is then refined using a surface approximation. The method was evaluated using clinical data of 13 patients with scoliosis. A comparison was conducted between the reconstructions obtained with the proposed method and those obtained by using a previous reconstruction method based on two frontal radiographs. A first comparison criterion was the distances between the reconstructed ribs and the surface topography of the trunk, considered as the reference modality. The correlation between ribs axial rotation and back surface rotation was also evaluated. The proposed method successfully reconstructed the ribs of the 6th-12th thoracic levels. The evaluation results showed that the 3-D configuration of the new rib reconstructions is more consistent with the surface topography and provides more accurate measurements of ribs axial rotation.

  18. Predicting carcass and body fat composition using biometric measurements of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Paula, N F; Tedeschi, L O; Paulino, M F; Fernandes, H J; Fonseca, M A

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop equations to predict carcass and body fat compositions using biometric measures (BM) and body postmortem measurements and to determine the relationships between BM and carcass fat and empty body fat compositions of 44 crossbred bulls under tropical grazing conditions. The bulls were serially slaughtered in 4 groups at approximately 0 d (n = 4), 84 d (n = 4), 168 d (n = 8), 235 d (n = 8), and 310 d (n = 20) of growth. The day before each slaughter, bulls were weighed, and BM were taken, including hook bone width, pin bone width, abdomen width, body length, rump height, height at withers, pelvic girdle length, rib depth, girth circumference, rump depth, body diagonal length, and thorax width. Others measurements included were total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CFp), empty body physical fat (EBFp), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib (FT), and 9th- to 11th-rib section fat (HHF). The stepwise procedure was used to select the variables included in the model. The r(2) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and variability. Our results indicated that lower rates of fat deposition can be attributed to young cattle and low concentration of dietary energy under grazing conditions. The BM improved estimates of TBS (r(2) = 0.999) and BV (r(2) = 0.997). The adequacy evaluation of the models developed to predict TBS and BV using theoretical equations indicated precision, but lower and intermediate accuracy (bias correction = 0.138 and 0.79), respectively, were observed. The data indicated that BM in association with shrunk BW (SBW) were precise in accounting for variability of SF (r(2) = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.94 kg), InF (r(2) = 0.984 and RMSE = 1.26 kg), CFp (r(2) = 0.981 and RMSE = 2.98 kg), EBFp (r(2) = 0.985 and RMSE = 3.99 kg), CFch (r(2) = 0.940 and RMSE = 2

  19. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  20. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciarán D.; Alken, Patrick; Aubert, Julien; Barrois, Olivier; Bertrand, Francois; Bondar, Tatiana; Boness, Axel; Brocco, Laura; Canet, Elisabeth; Chambodut, Aude; Chulliat, Arnaud; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Civet, François; Du, Aimin; Fournier, Alexandre; Fratter, Isabelle; Gillet, Nicolas; Hamilton, Brian; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Hulot, Gauthier; Jager, Thomas; Korte, Monika; Kuang, Weijia; Lalanne, Xavier; Langlais, Benoit; Léger, Jean-Michel; Lesur, Vincent; Lowes, Frank J.; Macmillan, Susan; Mandea, Mioara; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Olsen, Nils; Petrov, Valeriy; Ridley, Victoria; Rother, Martin; Sabaka, Terence J.; Saturnino, Diana; Schachtschneider, Reyko; Sirol, Olivier; Tangborn, Andrew; Thomson, Alan; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Vigneron, Pierre; Wardinski, Ingo; Zvereva, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, provide the spherical harmonic coefficients, and provide maps of the magnetic declination, inclination, and total intensity for epoch 2015.0 and their predicted rates of change for 2015.0-2020.0. We also update the magnetic pole positions and discuss briefly the latest changes and possible future trends of the Earth's magnetic field.

  1. 12th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    The Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) had its 12th annual meeting in Villa Clythia, Fréjus, France, from 16th to 18th January 2013. This series of meetings is a collaboration between the Physical Acoustics Group (PAG) of the Institute of Physics and the Groupe d'Acoustique Physique, Sous-marine et UltraSonore (GAPSUS) of the Société Française d'Acoustique. This year, attendees got the opportunity to see the French Riviera with its Mediterranean vegetation covered by a nice thick snow layer. The participants heard 34 excellent oral presentations and saw 3 posters covering an exciting and diverse range of subjects and of frequencies, from ultrasonic wave propagation in chocolate to metamaterials applied to seismic waves for protecting buildings. Among them, invited talks were given by Pr F A Duck ( Enhanced healing by ultrasound: clinical effects and mechanisms), Pr. J-C Valiére, who actually gave two invited talks ( 1. Measurement of audible acoustic particle velocity using laser: Principles, signal processing and applications, 2. Acoustic pots in ancient and medieval buildings: Literary analysis of ancient texts and comparison with recent observations in French churches), Dr P Huthwaite ( Ultrasonic imaging through the resolution of inverse problems), Dr X Lurton ( Underwater acoustic systems on oceanographic research vessels: principles and applications), Dr S Guenneau ( From platonics to seismic metamaterials). For the fifth consecutive year AFPAC is followed by the publication of its proceedings with 12 peer-reviewed papers which cover the most recent research developments in the field of Physical Acoustics in the UK and France. Alain Lhémery (CEA, France) and Nader Saffari (UCL, United Kingdom) French Riviera 12th AFPAC — Villa Clythia, Fréjus (French Riviera), the 17th of January 2013

  2. Effect of rate of body weight gain in steers during the stocker phase. I. Growth, partitioning of fat among depots, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; McMurphy, C P; Garmyn, A J; Pye, B J; Mafi, G G; Goad, C L; Phillips, W A; Starkey, J D; Krehbiel, C R; Horn, G W

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of growth rate to similar age or BW on fat deposition in stocker cattle grazing dormant native range (DNR) or winter wheat pasture (WP). In each experiment, fall-weaned Angus steers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 stocker production programs: 1) control, 1.02 kg/d of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement during grazing of DNR (CON); 2) corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW during grazing of DNR (CORN); 3) grazing WP at a high stocking rate to achieve a low rate of BW gain (LGWP); and 4) grazing WP at a low stocking rate to achieve a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). In Exp. 1, a subset of steers (3 steers per treatment) was harvested after winter grazing (138 d) at similar age. The remaining WP steers were transitioned into the finishing phase, whereas DNR steers were allowed to graze the same native range pastures for another 115 d without supplementation before entering the feedyard. In Exp. 2, steers grazed their respective pastures until each treatment reached an estimated HCW of 200 kg (262, 180, 142, and 74 d, respectively, for the CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments), at which time a subset of steers (4 steers per treatment) were selected for intermediate harvest before finishing. In both experiments, the remaining steers were fed a finishing diet to a common 12th-rib fat thickness of 1.27 cm. In Exp. 1, winter grazing ADG was 0.19, 0.52, 0.68, and 1.37 ± 0.03 kg/d; and in Exp. 2, winter/summer grazing ADG was 0.46, 0.61, 0.83, and 1.29 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively for CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments. At intermediate harvest in Exp. 1, HGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and marbling scores, compared with the other treatments. However, in Exp. 2, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) marbling scores compared with HGWP steers, which were greater than DNR steers. At final harvest in Exp. 1, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and smaller LM area

  3. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  4. The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Louis M.; Cushion, Melanie T.; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P.; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    2013-01-01

    The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms. PMID:23560871

  5. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  6. The diagnostic utility of rib series in assessing rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Tiwana, Muhammad Hamza; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Maddu, Kiran Kumar; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-04-01

    Rib series rarely add information to the posteroanterior (PA) film for the diagnosis of rib fractures. In this investigation, we evaluated the utility of rib X-rays using turnaround time (TAT), radiation exposure, and cost-efficiency as the key parameters. This investigation was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. We included patients who had rib series performed for suspected rib fractures. TAT for patients was calculated from the time exam was ordered by the emergency department (ED) physician/staff to time the report was finalized by the attending radiologist. Effective radiation dose for rib series was calculated as a summation of radiation dose from the standard rib series images for each patient. Cost-efficiency was determined based on the number of interventions that took place as a result of a complicated study. Our investigation consisted of 422 patients, 208 females aged (57 ± 20.8) and 214 males aged (48 ± 17.3). A total of 74(17.5 %) abnormal findings were noted, out of which only 1(0.23 %) underwent management change. The mean turnaround time for patients undergoing rib series had a value of 133.5 (±129.8) min as opposed to a single chest PA of 61.8(± 64) min. Average effective radiation dose for a rib series was 0.105 (±0.04) mSv, whereas average effective radiation dose of a single chest PA was 0.02 mSv. Dedicated rib series has a low-yield diagnostic value as it pertains to management change. The overall impact on patient care based on our findings is small when compared to the risks associated with prolonged TAT, repeated exposure to radiation, and extensive medical costs.

  7. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  8. Seven Destructive Seismic Crises in 12th Century Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, E.; Bernardini, F.

    2002-12-01

    the region bridging the present-day Syro-Turkish border. The long and devastating series of shakes in 1156-59 and the great earthquake of June 1170, affected a huge area within the current territories of north-western Syria, northern Lebanon and the region of inter Antioch (modern Antakya, in southern Turkey). The effects of the earthquakes in August 1110 and June 1117 have been attested to in southern Lebanon and Palestine. On the grounds of the detailed seismic scenarios of the 5 most documented earthquakes we have also been able to advance some hypotheses as to the seismogenic structures involved. In the first half of the 12th century the most intense seismicity seems to be concentrated in the zones bordering south-eastern Turkey and north-western Syria, suggesting a likely involvement both of the northernmost portion of the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS), and the south-western segment of the East-Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), as well as, perhaps, also the convergence structures present in south-eastern Turkey (Bitlis suture zone?). Beginning from around mid-1150 the greatest seismic activity seems to migrate more southwards, along the structures of the DSFS that cross western Syria (Ghab and Missyaf faults) and northern Lebanon (Akkar fault?). Lastly, for the great event of 1170, the sources we have retrieved and analysed contain information concerning damage or felt effects in slightly fewer than 30 Crusader and Arab locations, 15 of which new and never before identified. The detailed macroseismic picture that has been reconstructed has thus also allowed us to propose an estimate of the main shock parameters for this earthquake.

  9. Riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA reside in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    2001-06-15

    Nucleotide sequence of the riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA (GenBank Accession No. AF364106) resided in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the amino acid sequences of riboflavin synthetase (RibE), DHBP synthetase (RibB), lumazine synthetase (RibH), GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA) encoded by the riboflavin synthesis genes are deduced. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the ribE gene encodes the riboflavin synthetase responsible for converting lumazine to riboflavin, the ribB gene encodes the DHBP synthetase responsible for 3,4-dihydroxyl-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthesis, the ribH gene encodes the lumazine synthetase responsible for lumazine synthesis, and the ribA gene encodes the GTP cyclohydrolase II responsible for lumazine synthesis. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segments lay behind the ribH and ribA genes might form potential loops Omega(oT) and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII); Omega(oT) is functioned as mRNA stability loop or/and for subregulation by alternative modulation, and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII) could be the transcriptional terminator of the lux operon. The gene order of the ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA genes resided in the lux operon and linked to the lum operon is <--ter*-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-luxE-luxG-ribE-ribB-ribH-ribA-ter--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, and ter and ter* are the transcriptional terminators for the lux and lum operons.

  10. Pleuropulmonary melioidosis with osteomyelitis rib

    PubMed Central

    Neliyathodi, Suhail; Thazhathethil, Abdul Nazar; Pallivalappil, Lisha; Balakrishnan, Deepu

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a multiorgan infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Few cases have been reported from south India. This is a case report of pleuropulmonary melioidosis with rib osteomyelitis. PMID:25624602

  11. Highlights of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Anastasia; Dorbala, Sharmila; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2015-09-01

    The 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT was held from 3 to 5 May 2015 in Madrid, Spain. In this article, the three Congress Program Committee Chairs summarize selected highlights of the presented abstracts.

  12. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  13. Radial rib antenna surface deviation analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed which analyzes any radial rib antenna with ribs radiating from a central hub. The program has the capability for calculating the antenna surface contour (reversed pillowing effect), the optimum rib shape for minimizing the rms surface error, and the actual rms surface error. Rib deflection due to mesh tension and catenary cable tension can also be compensated for, and the pattern from which the mesh gores are cut can be determined.

  14. Engaging the Learner. Annual Instructional Technology Conference (12th, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 1-3, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carter F.; Schneider, Gary F.; Kontos, George; Kuzat, Hanan; Janossy, James; Thurmond, Karen; Moore, Beth; Whitledge, Lynn; Speer, Priscilla; Harber, Annette; Bailey, Kathrine; Penney, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    The following is a collection of papers presented at the 12th annual Instructional Technology Conference at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This conference is an opportunity for higher-education professionals from across the country to discuss opportunities and challenges presented by instructional technology. The…

  15. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  16. Why 12th Grade Must Be Redesigned Now--and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This first report in a new series by Jobs For the Future (JFF) provides the rationale for restructuring 12th grade and tying it more tightly to the first year of college through new high school and college partnerships. The paper proposes a new common benchmark of readiness that high schools and colleges can work together to meet to ensure…

  17. Within-District Effects of Catholic Schooling on 12th-Grade Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Vivien W.; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Using a propensity score matching method, and regression modeling based on the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, this study found a significant Catholic school, mathematics achievement effect among those 12th graders who were least likely to attend Catholic school. This result is evident within districts after we used the School District…

  18. Crime and the Law: A 12th Grade Social Studies Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Education, Madison.

    The document outlines a semester-long 12th grade study of criminal law which is accomplished through an examination of Wisconsin and constitutional law. Six sections comprise the teaching outline. Section I, The Legislative Process, considers the legislature, various statutes and terminologies, revision of legislation, and penalties. Section II,…

  19. The Design of Airplane Wing Ribs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newlin, J A; Trayer, George W

    1931-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information for use in the design of truss and plywood forms, particularly with reference to wing ribs. Tests were made on many designs of wing ribs, comparing different types in various sizes. Many tests were also made on parallel-chord specimens of truss and plywood forms in place of the actual ribs and on parts of wing ribs, such as truss diagonals and sections of cap strips. It was found that for ribs of any size or proportions, when they were designed to obtain a well-balanced construction and were carefully manufactured, distinct types are of various efficiencies; the efficiency is based on the strength per unit of weight. In all types of ribs the heavier are the stronger per unit of weight. Reductions in the weight of wing ribs are accompanied even in efficient designs by a much greater proportional reduction in strength.

  20. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  1. Rib forming tool for tubing

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  2. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  3. An Optimal Allocation of Recruiter and Facilities in the 12th Marine Corps District

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    county level In the 12th Marine Corps District. A production function is presented to model Marine Corps (POMA) and the number of recruiters. the...Each recruiting facility’s value Is determined by its number of recruiters and the PQMA in the county . A 10% recruiting facility reduction plan is...the location of aptitude category I-IlA individuals by using the county recruited allocation model, use the facility reduction model which maximizes

  4. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  5. The Impact of Gerontology Inclusion on 12th Grade Student Perceptions of Aging, Older Adults and Working with Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krout, John A.; McKernan, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of including lessons on aging in a 12th grade social studies course on student perceptions of aging and older adults, working with older persons, and knowledge of "facts" on aging. Pre/post-test data were collected from approximately 650 upstate New York 12th grade students enrolled in a government…

  6. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the ribs.

    PubMed

    Traibi, Akram; El Oueriachi, Faycal; El Hammoumi, Massine; Al Bouzidi, Abderahman; Kabiri, El Hassane

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a sporadic benign skeletal disorder that can affect one bone (monostotic form) or multiple bones (polyostotic bone). Around 6-20% of monostotic FD occurs in the ribs. The objective of this study was to report our experience in the management of the monostotic FD of the ribs. Between January 2004 and December 2009, seven cases of FD of the rib (six men and one woman, mean age 30.4 years, range 17-40 years) were operated on. The patients were evaluated with plain radiographs and computer tomography (CT). All our patients were symptomatic; two patients presented chest pain and swelling and other patients presented only chest pain. One rib was involved in all our patients (monostotic form): the site was fifth rib (four cases), sixth rib (two cases) or second rib (one case). Radiologically, plain films and CT showed an expansible lesion with a ground-glass centre and thinning of the cortex. Rib resection was performed in all patients; there were no postoperative complications and no recurrence in all cases at mean 43 month follow-up. In symptomatic monostotic FD of ribs, the involved segment of bone may be excised to rule out malignancy and for painful lesions.

  7. Turbine bucket natural frequency tuning rib

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; Norton, Paul Francis; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Jacala, Ariel Caesar-Prepena

    2002-01-01

    A tuning rib is added preferably in the aft cavity of a cored turbine bucket to alter the bucket's natural frequencies. The tuning rib may be a solid rib or a segmented rib and is particularly suited for altering high order frequency modes such as 2T, 4F and 1-3S. As such, detrimental crossings of natural bucket frequencies and gas turbine stimuli can be avoided to thereby improve the reliability of a gas turbine without impacting other features of the bucket that are important to the performance of the gas turbine.

  8. Asian Rhinoplasty with Rib Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ju; Song, Hyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    An Asian rhinoplasty is one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The anatomical characteristics of the Asian nose are quite different from those of other races, including low dorsum height, short columella, a thick soft tissue covering on the tip with flaccid lower lateral cartilage, and a sunken midface with relative protrusion of the mouth due to maxilla or premaxillary retrusion. For augmentation and lengthening of the nose, a silicone implant has been commonly used in Asian countries. However, many patients suffer from silicone-related complications, which induce soft tissue contraction and deform the already fragile nasal structure. Additionally, revision surgery is also increasing in frequency due to greater patient sophistication and higher expectation that the end rhinoplasty result to be more harmonious with the patient's overall facial structure. In these circumstances, a rhinoplasty using autologous rib cartilage, giving strong support and enough amount of the cartilage to correct deformed structure and midface skeletal retrusion. If properly performed with enough experience, a rib cartilage rhinoplasty will provide excellent and long-lasting results with low risk. PMID:26648806

  9. Jet flow on ribbed curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, Iu. A.; Sokolova, I. N.; Shumilkina, E. A.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of using microribbing to reduce turbulent friction in Coanda flows over curved surfaces. It is shown that ribs make it possible to reduce the effect of a jet impinging on an obstacle and to prevent the Coanda effect when jet attachment is undesirable. The optimal rib parameters are determined.

  10. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  11. Conference report: 12th Annual University of Wisconsin Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, James E; Briscoe, Chad; Amaravadi, Lakshmi; Arnold, Mark E; Clement, Robert P; Fluhler, Eric N; Ji, Qin C; Stubbs, R John

    2011-10-01

    This University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy bioanalytical conference is presented each year by the Extension Services in Pharmacy, the professional development department within the school. The purpose of this 4-day conference is to provide an educational forum to discuss issues and applications associated with the analysis of xenobiotics, metabolites, biologics and biomarkers in biological matrices. The conference is designed to include and encourage an open exchange of scientific and methodological applications for bioanalysis. To increase the interactive nature of the conference, the program was a mixture of lectures, poster sessions, round table discussions and workshops. This article summarizes the presentations at the 12th Annual Conference.

  12. Within-District Effects of Catholic Schooling on 12th Grad Math Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Using a propensity score matching method and regression modeling based on the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, this study found a significant Catholic school effect on mathematics achievement among those 12th graders who were least likely to attend Catholic school. This result is evident within-districts after we used the School District Demographics System map data to locate Catholic schools within school district boundaries. Furthermore, the Catholic school effects were statistically significant for students in districts that allowed publicly funded private education. PMID:25606028

  13. 12th international conference on human retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, Michael D; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, was held at the Half Moon Hotel in Montego Bay, Jamaica, from June 22nd to June 25th 2005. The scientific conference, sponsored by the International Retrovirology Association, is held biennially at rotating international venues around the world. The meeting brings together basic scientists, epidemiologists and clinical researchers to discuss findings to prevent HTLV infection or develop new therapies against HTLV-mediated diseases. The Association fosters the education and training of young scientists to bring new approaches to the complex problems of HTLV research, such as translational research to bring findings from the laboratory into clinical trials that benefit HTLV-infected patients. The breadth and quality of research presentations and workshops at the 12th International Conference indicate that these goals are being accomplished. As HTLV research enters its third decade a new generation of scientists face many challenges. However, HTLV scientists and clinicians displayed exciting new approaches and discoveries during plenary talks and poster sessions. The conference encouraged research in HTLV infections and disease, fostered collaborations, and stimulated new partnerships between clinicians and scientists to encourage clinical trials and novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:16202161

  14. A rib-specific multimodal registration algorithm for fused unfolded rib visualization using PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Jens N.; Kopaczka, Marcin; Wimmer, Andreas; Platsch, Günther; Declerck, Jérôme

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory motion affects the alignment of PET and CT volumes from PET/CT examinations in a non-rigid manner. This becomes particularly apparent if reviewing fine anatomical structures such as ribs when assessing bone metastases, which frequently occur in many advanced cancers. To make this routine diagnostic task more efficient, a fused unfolded rib visualization for 18F-NaF PET/CT is presented. It allows to review the whole rib cage in a single image. This advanced visualization is enabled by a novel rib-specific registration algorithm that rigidly optimizes the local alignment of each individual rib in both modalities based on a matched filter response function. More specifically, rib centerlines are automatically extracted from CT and subsequently individually aligned to the corresponding bone-specific PET rib uptake pattern. The proposed method has been validated on 20 PET/CT scans acquired at different clinical sites. It has been demonstrated that the presented rib- specific registration method significantly improves the rib alignment without having to run complex deformable registration algorithms. At the same time, it guarantees that rib lesions are not further deformed, which may otherwise affect quantitative measurements such as SUVs. Considering clinically relevant distance thresholds, the centerline portion with good alignment compared to the ground truth improved from 60:6% to 86:7% after registration while approximately 98% can be still considered as acceptably aligned.

  15. How different are the Kebara 2 ribs to modern humans?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Tara; Beyer, Benoît; Sholukha, Victor; Semal, Patrick; Feipel, Veronique; Louryan, Stéphane; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2017-03-10

    This study analyses rib geometric parameters of individual ribs of 14 modern human subjects (7 males and 7 females) in comparison to the reconstructed ribs of the Kebara 2 skeleton which was taken from the reconstruction of a Neandertal thorax by Sawyer & Maley (2005). Three-dimensional (3D) models were segmented from CT scans and each rib vertex cloud was placed into a local coordinate system defined from the rib principal axes. Rib clouds were then analysed using best fitting ellipses of the external contours of the cross-section areas. The centroid of each ellipse was then used to measure the centroidal pathway between each slice (rib midline). Curvature of the ribs was measured from the mid-line of the ribs as the sum of angles between successive centroids in adjacent cross sections. Distinct common patterns were noted in all rib geometric parameters for modern humans. The Kebara 2 reconstructed ribs also followed the same patterns. This study demonstrated that there are differences between the sexes in rib geometrical parameters, with females showing smaller rib width, chord length and arc length, but greater curvature (rib torsion, rib axial curvature, rib anterior-posterior bending) than males. The Kebara 2 reconstructed ribs were within the modern human range for the majority of geometrical parameters.

  16. Open rib biopsy guided by radionuclide technique

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Magoun, S.; Dillon, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    When abnormally increased radioactivity is seen in a rib or ribs by bone imaging in a patient with suspected or known malignancy, it frequently is difficult to differentiate fracture from metastatic disease. Histological examination of the lesion is crucial for diagnosis, staging, and planning of therapy. To assess the value of external localization of the site or sites of abnormal uptake in a rib as a guide for open rib biopsy, 10 patients (7 men, 3 women; age range, 34 to 68 years) with known or suspected malignancy were studied. With reference to the oscilloscope image, a cobalt 57 marker was placed on the skin overlying the focus of increased uptake, and the area of increased activity was marked on the skin as a guide to surgical resection. Of ten resected ribs, four showed metastatic disease and five had fractures. (One patient underwent two external marking procedures and two surgical procedures.) Rib biopsy was not performed in 1 patient because prior to the surgical procedure, a small subcutaneous nodule adjacent to the skin marker was excised and confirmed to be carcinoma. Appropriate courses of management (operation, irradiation, chemotherapy) were taken after the biopsies. The surgeon responsible for the biopsy should be present during the skin-marking procedure, and the area beneath the scapula and the region adjacent to the spine should be avoided. Our results indicate that the technique is a very useful aid for approaching open rib biopsies more precisely.

  17. Design of a rib impactor equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C. R.; García, G.; Aguilar, L. A.; Martínez, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human ribs must be analyzed as long and as curved bones, due to their physiology. For the development of an experimental equipment that simulate the application of loads, over the rib in the moment of a frontal collision in an automobile with seat belt, it was applied a methodology that constituted in the identification of needs and the variables which led the design of 3D model, from this it was used the technique of fused deposition modeling for the development of the equipment pieces. The supports that hold the rib ends were design with two and three degrees of freedom that allows the simulation of rib movement with the spine and the breastbone in the breathing. For the simulation of the seat belt, it was determined to applied two loads over the front part of the rib from the sagittal and lateral plane respectively, for this it was made a displacement through a lineal actuator with a speed of 4mm/s. The outcomes shown a design of an equipment able to obtain the load parameters required to generate fractures in rib specimens. The equipment may be used for the study of specimens with nearby geometries to the rib taken as a reference.

  18. WRAP-RIB antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Garcia, N. F.; Iwamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The wrap-rib deployable antenna concept development is based on a combination of hardware development and testing along with extensive supporting analysis. The proof-of-concept hardware models are large in size so they will address the same basic problems associated with the design fabrication, assembly and test as the full-scale systems which were selected to be 100 meters at the beginning of the program. The hardware evaluation program consists of functional performance tests, design verification tests and analytical model verification tests. Functional testing consists of kinematic deployment, mesh management and verification of mechanical packaging efficiencies. Design verification consists of rib contour precision measurement, rib cross-section variation evaluation, rib materials characterizations and manufacturing imperfections assessment. Analytical model verification and refinement include mesh stiffness measurement, rib static and dynamic testing, mass measurement, and rib cross-section characterization. This concept was considered for a number of potential applications that include mobile communications, VLBI, and aircraft surveillance. In fact, baseline system configurations were developed by JPL, using the appropriate wrap-rib antenna, for all three classes of applications.

  19. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P 12th-rib fat depth, LM area, KPH, and yield grade were not affected by treatment (P >or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  20. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  1. Supersonic Wing Optimization Using SpaRibs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locatelli, David; Mulani, Sameer B.; Liu, Qiang; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the advantages of using curvilinear spars and ribs, termed SpaRibs, to design a supersonic aircraft wing-box in comparison to the use of classic design concepts that employ straight spars and ribs. The objective is to achieve a more efficient load-bearing mechanism and to passively control the deformation of the structure under the flight loads. Moreover, the use of SpaRibs broadens the design space and allows for natural frequencies and natural mode shape tailoring. The SpaRibs concept is implemented in a new optimization MATLAB-based framework referred to as EBF3SSWingOpt. This optimization scheme performs both the sizing and the shaping of the internal structural elements, connecting the optimizer with the analysis software. The shape of the SpaRibs is parametrically defined using the so called Linked Shape method. Each set of SpaRibs is placed in a one by one square domain of the natural space. The set of curves is subsequently transformed in the physical space for creating the wing structure geometry layout. The shape of each curve of each set is unique; however, mathematical relations link the curvature in an effort to reduce the number of design variables. The internal structure of a High Speed Commercial Transport aircraft concept developed by Boeing is optimized subjected to stress, subsonic flutter and supersonic flutter constraints. The results show that the use of the SpaRibs allows for the reduction of the aircraft's primary structure weight without violating the constraints. A weight reduction of about 15 percent is observed.

  2. The role of rib infarcts in the acute chest syndrome of sickle cell diseases.

    PubMed

    Rucknagel, D L

    2001-01-01

    The acute chest syndrome is a generic term for pulmonary complications of sickle cell diseases with heterogeneous etiologies that include pneumonia, vaso-occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, rib infarction, and fat embolism syndrome. My review summarizes these etiologies, the evidence, and pathophysiology supporting the hypothesis that infarction of segments of ribs by the same vaso-occlusive process responsible for the acute episodes of pain (characteristic of the sickle cell diseases) is often involved in the acute chest structure. Inflammation associated with the infarct then causes splinting, hypoventilation, and hypoxia and further vaso-occlusion. The relationship with adult respiratory distress syndrome and fat embolism is also discussed. Use of the incentive spirometer combined with effective analgesia when chest pain is present is advocated for prevention of the pulmonary infiltrates. Newer understanding of the role of nitric oxide in regulating oxygen transport and its relationship to blood transfusions used in therapy of the acute chest syndrome are discussed.

  3. The Manchester Microlensing Conference: The 12th International Conference and ANGLES Microlensing Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerins, E.; Mao, S.; Rattenbury, N.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    The Manchester Microlensing Conference (M2C) was held at the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at Manchester University in the UK from 21st-25th January 2008. M2C comprised two elements: the ANGLES Microlensing Workshop and the 12th International Conference on gravitational microlensing. M2C began with the two-day Workshop, providing interactive Master Classes to around 60 researchers on selected hot topics in microlensing. The Master Classes were delivered by world-leading experts on each of the topics. The topics reflected the diverse techniques and applications of microlensing, such as crowded-field photometry, modelling of extra-solar planetary systems, and the use of microlensing in cosmology. The 12th International Conference on microlensing followed immediately after the Workshop and was attended by around 90 researchers. The Conference covered all aspects of current research in microlensing, including: Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds; Cosmological Microlensing; Stellar and Galactic Microlensing; Galactic Microlensing Surveys; Follow-up Programmes and Planetary Microlensing; M31 Microlensing; and Future Directions. The M2C Proceedings serve three functions. Through the expert master classes the M2C Proceedings provide a great starting point for those who wish to enter the field or who just wish to learn more about microlensing at a depth beyond that usually covered by a single review article. The M2C proceedings also provide a snapshot of the state-of-the art in microlensing observations and theory as of January 2008, in what is a rapidly developing field. Lastly, the M2C meeting and its Proceedings are dedicated to the memory of the late Bohdan Paczynski, a towering figure and founding father of modern day microlensing research.

  4. Bilateral cervical ribs in a Dobermann Pinscher.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Gernone, F; Giannuzzi, P

    2015-01-01

    An 11-year-old intact female Doberman Pinscher was presented with the complaint of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Clinical and neurological examination revealed a caudal cervical spinal cord disfunction (C6-T2 spinal cord segments). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic (CT) findings of the cervical spine were consistent with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). During the diagnostic work-up for the cervical spine, bilateral bone anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs were found on radiographs and CT examination. The rib anomalies found in this dog appear similar to cervical ribs widely described in human medicine. In people, cervical ribs are associated with a high rate of stillbirth, early childhood cancer, and can cause the thoracic outlet syndrome, characterized by neurovascular compression at level of superior aperture of the chest. In dogs, only some sporadic anatomopathological descriptions of cervical ribs exist. In this report the radiographic and CT findings of these particular vertebral and rib anomalies along with their relationships with adjacent vasculature and musculature are shown intravitam in a dog. Specific radiographic and CT findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this anomaly. Finally, their clinical and evolutionary significance are discussed.

  5. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Ribbed Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2012-11-01

    From the view point of heat transfer control, surface roughness is one of the popular ways adopted for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. Such a surface roughness is often modeled with a rib. In the current investigation, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically-mounted ribs at Reτ=700, Pr=0.71, and p / k =2, 4, and 8. Here, p and k represent the pitch and rib height, respectively. The rib height is fixed as one tenth of the pipe radius. The profiles of mean velocity components, mean temperature, root-mean-squares (rms) of temperature fluctuation are presented at the selected streamwise locations. In comparison with the smooth-pipe case at the same Re and Pr, the effects of the ribs are clearly identified, leading to overall enhancement of turbulent heat transfer in terms of Nu. The budget of temperature variance is presented in the form of contours. The results of an Octant analysis are also given to elucidate the dominant events. Our LES results shed light on a complete understanding of the heat-transfer mechanisms in turbulent ribbed-pipe flow which has numerous applications in engineering. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012013019).

  6. Angiomyolipoma of the rib: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUANG-XIANG; WANG, MAO-HUA; HU, CHANG-LIE; TANG, GUANG-CAI; HAN, FU-GANG

    2016-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma is a benign mesenchymal tumor, most commonly arising from the kidney. With the exception of the liver, extrarenal angiomyolipoma is an infrequent entity that may be misdiagnosed as other tumors. Angiomyolipoma occurring in the skeleton is an extremely rare occurrence and often difficult to differentiate from other bone diseases. We herein present a case of angiomyolipoma in the rib of a 44-year-old male patient, a highly unusual location for this type of tumor. Angiomyolipoma of the skeleton usually exhibits an infiltrative tendency. Although this clinical entity is rare, angiomyolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions, particularly in patients presenting with imaging findings of fat within the lesions. PMID:26870370

  7. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (P<0.01) G:F during the growing phase compared to coproducts. High-fat diets increased (P=0.05) BF in calves at d 112 compared to low-fat diets. High-protein diets decreased (P=0.02) ultrasound MS at d 112 compared to low-protein diets. Carcasses from cattle fed high-fat diets had greater (P=0.03) MS compared to those from cattle fed low-fat diets. No differences (P

  8. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, and non-profit organizations. In this regard, this conference has wide-ranging support and participation among private and public entities involved in the science and management of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.

  9. PREFACE: 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsson, M. L.; Chadwick, A. V.; Jackson, R. A.; McCabe, E. E.

    2015-04-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe

  10. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  11. The BGS magnetic field candidate models for the 12th generation IGRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Brian; Ridley, Victoria A.; Beggan, Ciarán D.; Macmillan, Susan

    2015-05-01

    We describe the candidate models submitted by the British Geological Survey for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field. These models are extracted from a spherical harmonic `parent model' derived from vector and scalar magnetic field data from satellite and observatory sources. These data cover the period 2009.0 to 2014.7 and include measurements from the recently launched European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm satellite constellation. The parent model's internal field time dependence for degrees 1 to 13 is represented by order 6 B-splines with knots at yearly intervals. The parent model's degree 1 external field time dependence is described by periodic functions for the annual and semi-annual signals and by dependence on the 20-min Vector Magnetic Disturbance index. Signals induced by these external fields are also parameterized. Satellite data are weighted by spatial density and by two different noise estimators: (a) by standard deviation along segments of the satellite track and (b) a larger-scale noise estimator defined in terms of a measure of vector activity at the geographically closest magnetic observatories to the sample point. Forecasting of the magnetic field secular variation beyond the span of data is by advection of the main field using core surface flows.

  12. Design Document for 12th Grade NAEP Preparedness Research Judgmental Standard Setting Studies: Setting Standards on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading and Mathematics for 12th Grade Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board adopted a Program of Preparedness Research in March 2009. Several categories of research studies were recommended to produce results for reporting 12th grade preparedness for the 2009 grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The categories included content…

  13. Rib for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Structural ribs for providing structural support for a structure, such as the pressure cabin of a blended-wing body aircraft. In a first embodiment, the ribs are generally Y-shaped, being comprised of a vertical web and a pair of inclined webs attached to the vertical web to extend upwardly and outwardly from the vertical web in different directions, with only the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to a structural element. In a second embodiment, the ribs are generally trident-shaped, whereby the vertical web extends upwardly beyond the intersection of the inclined webs with the vertical web, with the upper edge of the vertical web as well as the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to the same structural element.

  14. Clinical relevance of abnormal scintigraphic findings of adult equine ribs.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Jessica A; Ross, Michael W; Martin, Benson B; Davidson, Elizabeth J; Leitch, Midge

    2011-01-01

    Horses with cranial rib abnormalities may exhibit severe acute lameness and may have unusual gait deficits characterized by forelimb abduction during protraction at the walk. Horses with caudal rib abnormalities may resent being saddled and ridden. In a retrospective evaluation of 20 horses with a documented rib lesion, 25 sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were found in one or more ribs. Thirteen (52%) scintigraphic lesions involved the first rib; four were located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, eight were near the costochondral junction and one was at the costovertebral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved ribs 2-8; one was located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, three were at the costovertebral junction and two were near the costochondral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved the mid-portion (five) or costovertebral junction (one) of ribs 9-18. The 20 horses were divided into three groups based on the clinical relevance of the scintigraphic findings. Group 1 (n=3) horses had clinical signs attributed to a rib abnormality; Group 2 (n=6) horses had a rib abnormality that was a plausible explanation for clinical signs; Group 3 (n=11) horses had clinical signs that could not be attributed to a rib abnormality. For horses with cranial rib abnormalities, a modified lateral scintigraphic image with the ipsilateral limb pulled caudally and a left (right) 45° caudal-right (left) radiograph facilitated the diagnosis.

  15. Model localization experiments on a ribbed antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine-West, M. B.; Salama, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the model localization (ML) phenomenon is investigated experimentally and analytically to determine the influence of its parameters. For this purpose, a full-scale 12-rib loosely-coupled antenna testbed with small imperfections is dynamically tested for various levels of inter-rib coupling stiffness and excitation force. The experimental results are described herein. Using a simplified numerical model of the structure, a sensitivity analysis of the modal behavior is also performed. The numerical and experimental results are shown to agree remarkably well, thereby providing conclusive validation of the ML phenomenon on a testbed having the dynamic characteristics of space structures.

  16. The versatile autogenous rib graft in septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Kern, E B

    1998-01-01

    In the graft depleted revision rhinoplasty patient and the patient with major tissue needs, alternatives to septal and conchal cartilage grafts are needed. The costal cartilage graft and rib bone/costal cartilage combination graft are excellent alternatives. In this study 14 patients received 40 grafts from 20 autogenous ribs harvested during septorhinoplasty. Materials were harvested for use as septal replacement grafts, cantilevered grafts, dorsal onlay grafts, columellar struts, and tip grafts. Patient followup was 6 to 31 months, and no evidence of graft resorption or warpage was evident during that period. Complications of harvest were minimal, and harvest techniques are detailed.

  17. The 12th I. E. Melhus Graduate Student Symposium: host plant resistance and disease management, current status and future outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 12th I. E. Melhus Graduate Student Symposium was held on 6 August 2012 during the Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) in Providence, RI. The theme for this symposium was “Host Plant Resistance and Disease Management: Current Status and Future Outlook”. The APS Host R...

  18. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  19. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (12th, Atlanta, Georgia, December 12-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Camille, Ed.

    This proceedings includes 62 papers presented at the 12th annual International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) conference. Topics of papers include: electronic undergraduate courses; software for teaching change management; cooperative projects; experiential learning; World Wide Web applications; internationalization of the information…

  20. Adventuring with Books: A Booklist for Pre-K--Grade 6. 12th Edition. NCTE Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell, Ed.

    Books that expand children's horizons and stimulate their imaginations are the focus of this 12th edition, an annotated bibliography of selected children's books published between 1996 and 1998. The 20 chapters in the book contain traditional and nontraditional categories of literature: Stories of the Universe: From Questions and Observations to…

  1. Project Based Learning for Life Skill Building in 12th Grade Social Studies Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Daniele C.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the assumption that project based learning (PBL) in 12th grade social studies classrooms contributes to the development of life skills for high school seniors in this advanced and globalized time, this research will investigate student experiences with PBL methods for helping them acquire skills along with a case study of a successful PBL…

  2. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  3. PREFACE: 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ondřej; Punčochář, Ivo; Duník, Jindřich

    2015-11-01

    The 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015) took place at the Research Centre NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic, on November 19 - 20, 2015. The annual European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis has been organized since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and Denmark to bring together senior and junior academics and engineers from diverse fields of automatic control, fault detection, and signal processing. The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers and developers to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, or even open problems. It also offers a great opportunity for industrial partners to express their needs and priorities and to review the current activities in the fields. A total of 74 papers have been submitted for ACD 2015. Based on the peer reviews 48 papers were accepted for the oral presentation and 10 papers for the poster presentation. The accepted papers covered areas of control theory and applications, identification, estimation, signal processing, and fault detection. In addition, four excellent plenary lectures were delivered by Prof. Fredrik Gustafsson (Automotive Sensor Mining for Tire Pressure Monitoring), Prof. Vladimír Havlena (Advanced Process Control for Energy Efficiency), Prof. Silvio Simani (Advanced Issues on Wind Turbine Modelling and Control), and Prof. Robert Babuška (Learning Control in Robotics). The ACD 2015 was for the first time in the workshop history co-sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC). On behalf of the ACD 2015 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who prepared and submitted papers, participated in the peer review process, supported, and attended the workshop.

  4. Characterization of the centroidal geometry of human ribs.

    PubMed

    Kindig, Matthew W; Kent, Richard W

    2013-11-01

    While a number of studies have quantified overall ribcage morphology (breadth, depth, kyphosis/lordosis) and rib cross-sectional geometry in humans, few studies have characterized the centroidal geometry of individual ribs. In this study, a novel model is introduced to describe the centroidal path of a rib (i.e., the sequence of centroids connecting adjacent cross-sections) in terms of several physically-meaningful and intuitive geometric parameters. Surface reconstructions of rib levels 2-10 from 16 adult male cadavers (aged 31-75 years) were first extracted from CT scans, and the centroidal path was calculated in 3D for each rib using a custom numerical method. The projection of the centroidal path onto the plane of best fit (i.e., the "in-plane" centroidal path) was then modeled using two geometric primitives (a circle and a semiellipse) connected to give C1 continuity. Two additional parameters were used to describe the deviation of the centroidal path from this plane; further, the radius of curvature was calculated at various points along the rib length. This model was fit to each of the 144 extracted ribs, and average trends in rib size and shape with rib level were reported. In general, upper ribs (levels 2-5) had centroidal paths which were closer to circular, while lower ribs (levels 6-10) tended to be more elliptical; further the centroidal curvature at the posterior extremity was less pronounced for lower ribs. Lower ribs also tended to exhibit larger deviations from the best-fit plane. The rib dimensions and trends with subject stature were found to be consistent with findings previously reported in the literature. This model addresses a critical need in the biomechanics literature for the accurate characterization of rib geometry, and can be extended to a larger population as a simple and accurate way to represent the centroidal shape of human ribs.

  5. Sequencing human ribs into anatomical order by quantitative multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Henneberg, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focussed on methods to anatomically sequence ribs. Correct anatomical sequencing of ribs assists in determining the location and distribution of regional trauma, age estimation, number of puncture wounds, number of individuals, and personal identification. The aim of the current study is to develop a method for placing fragmented and incomplete rib sets into correct anatomical position. Ribs 2-10 were used from eleven cadavers of an Australian population. Seven variables were measured from anatomical locations on the rib. General descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA with Bonferroni statistics. Considerable overlap was observed between ribs for univariate methods. Bivariate and multivariate methods were then applied. Results of the ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni statistics show that ratios of various dimensions of a single rib could be used to sequence it within adjacent ribs. Using multiple regression formulae, the most accurate estimation of the anatomical rib number occurs when the entire rib is found in isolation. This however, is not always possible. Even when only the head and neck of the rib are preserved, a modified multivariate regression formula assigned 91.95% of ribs into correct anatomical position or as an adjacent rib. Using multivariate methods it is possible to sequence a single human rib with a high level of accuracy and they are superior to univariate methods. Left and right ribs were found to be highly symmetrical. Some rib dimensions were greater in males than in females, but overall the level of sexual dimorphism was low.

  6. The vertebrae and ribs of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; García-Martínez, Daniel; Bastir, Markus; Meyer, Marc R; Nalla, Shahed; Hawks, John; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2017-03-01

    Hominin evolution featured shifts from a trunk shape suitable for climbing and housing a large gut to a trunk adapted to bipedalism and higher quality diets. Our knowledge regarding the tempo, mode, and context in which these derived traits evolved has been limited, based largely on a small-bodied Australopithecus partial skeleton (A.L. 288-1; "Lucy") and a juvenile Homo erectus skeleton (KNM-WT 15000; "Turkana Boy"). Two recent discoveries, of a large-bodied Australopithecus afarensis (KSD-VP-1/1) and two Australopithecus sediba partial skeletons (MH1 and MH2), have added to our understanding of thorax evolution; however, little is known about thorax morphology in early Homo. Here we describe hominin vertebrae, ribs, and sternal remains from the Dinaledi chamber of the Rising Star cave system attributed to Homo naledi. Although the remains are highly fragmented, the best-preserved specimens-two lower thoracic vertebrae and a lower rib-were found in association and belong to a small-bodied individual. A second lower rib may belong to this individual as well. All four of these individual elements are amongst the smallest known in the hominin fossil record. H. naledi is characterized by robust, relatively uncurved lower ribs and a relatively large spinal canal. We expect that the recovery of additional material from Rising Star Cave will clarify the nature of these traits and shed light on H. naledi functional morphology and phylogeny.

  7. Four accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prados, Jose; Archilla, Francisco; Melguizo, Consolación; Aranega, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    Accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs are a very rare congenital disorder. Here, we present the first case of multiple supernumerary intrathoracic ribs in an adult, which are present consecutively between ribs 1 and 4 and without articulation with the vertebrae. Despite this, anatomical variation is usually silent and accidentally discovered; its knowledge can prevent confusion with other structures during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic pathologies.

  8. Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Wiles, T R; Gerrard, D E; McCann, M A; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage-based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). Blood samples were collected before initiation of infusions and at the end of the infusion from 8 animals or at 1-h intervals for the first 11 h and at 15-min intervals for the last hour of infusion for the other 8 animals. Adipose tissue samples from SCF, IMF, and VF depots were collected at harvest, and lipids were extracted. Plasma enrichments of acetate and glucose and palmitate enrichment in each depot were used to calculate plasma turnover rates and fractional synthesis rates (FSR; % per h) of palmitate from each isotope. Early weaned steers had greater marbling scores compared to NW steers ( P< 0.05). Plasma turnover rates and FSR for EW and NW steers were similar except for SCF, where a greater FSR from acetate was observed for EW steers. It is possible the greater FSR for SCF was due to harvesting the animals at a slightly more advanced stage of conditioning as evidenced by the trend for greater 12th rib fat (P = 0.07). Plasma acetate turnover and palmitate FSR from acetate were much greater (P < 0.05) than the

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring the thickness of a coal rib during rib formation

    DOEpatents

    Mowrey, Gary L.; Ganoe, Carl W.; Monaghan, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring the position of a mining machine cutting a new entry in a coal seam relative to an adjacent, previously cut entry to determine the distance between a near face of the adjacent previously cut entry and a new face adjacent thereto of a new entry being cut by the mining machine which together define the thickness of a coal rib being formed between the new entry and the adjacent previously cut entry during the new entry-cutting operation. The monitoring apparatus; includes a transmit antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly from the new face of the coal rib for transmitting radio energy towards the coal rib so that one portion of the radio energy is reflected by the new face which is defined at an air-coal interface between the new entry and the coal rib and another portion of the radio energy is reflected by the near face of the coal rib which is defined at an air-coal interface between the coal rib and the adjacent previously cut entry. A receive antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly of the new face of the coal rib receives the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face and also receives the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face. A processor determines a first elapsed time period equal to the time required for the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and also determines a second elapsed time period equal to the time required for the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and thereafter calculates the thickness of the coal rib being formed as a function of the difference between the first and second elapsed time periods.

  10. Clinical Utility of Chest Computed Tomography in Patients with Rib Fractures CT Chest and Rib Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brandon C.; Overbey, Douglas M.; Tesfalidet, Feven; Schramm, Kristofer; Stovall, Robert T.; French, Andrew; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Barnett, Carlton; Moore, Ernest E.; Pieracci, Fredric M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest CT is more sensitive than a chest X-ray (CXR) in diagnosing rib fractures; however, the clinical significance of these fractures remains unclear. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the added diagnostic use of chest CT performed after CXR in patients with either known or suspected rib fractures secondary to blunt trauma. Methods Retrospective cohort study of blunt trauma patients with rib fractures at a level I trauma center that had both a CXR and a CT chest. The CT finding of ≥ 3 additional fractures in patients with ≤ 3 rib fractures on CXR was considered clinically meaningful. Student’s t-test and chi-square analysis were used for comparison. Results We identified 499 patients with rib fractures: 93 (18.6%) had CXR only, 7 (1.4%) had chest CT only, and 399 (79.9%) had both CXR and chest CT. Among these 399 patients, a total of 1,969 rib fractures were identified: 1,467 (74.5%) were missed by CXR. The median number of additional fractures identified by CT was 3 (range, 4 - 15). Of 212 (53.1%) patients with a clinically meaningful increase in the number of fractures, 68 patients underwent one or more clinical interventions: 36 SICU admissions, 20 pain catheter placements, 23 epidural placements, and 3 SSRF. Additionally, 70 patients had a chest tube placed for retained hemothorax or occult pneumothorax. Overall, 138 patients (34.5%) had a change in clinical management based upon CT chest. Conclusions The chest X-ray missed ~75% of rib fractures seen on chest CT. Although patients with a clinical meaningful increase in the number of rib fractures were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit, there was no associated improvement in pulmonary outcomes. PMID:28144607

  11. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    Continuing the 24 year old tradition, one of the Greek relativistic groups, this time the Relativity Group of the Physics Department of the University of Athens, organized the 12th Conference of the series "Recent Developments in Gravity" (NEB XII). This time NEB took place at Nafplio, Greece, from Thursday 29 June to Sunday 2 July, 2006. The Conference was attended by more than 100 participants, more than 50% of whom were relativists from abroad (both Greek and other nationalities). This signifies a tendency of the last few Conferences to open up the Greek Relativity Conference to the international scientific community. Actually, many notable members of the relativistic community all over the globe showed particular interest in coming to Nafplio, and spend four relaxed days in a nice sunny and historical place, presenting the results of their more recent work and discussing it with colleagues and students from Greece. The NEB XII Conference covered various aspects of gravitational physics: Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, Quantum Gravity, and Cosmology. Although the program was rather heavy and for the first time we had parallel sessions running in the afternoons, the wonderful weather (apart from the last afternoon when it rained heavily) and the beauty of Nafplio helped the organizers offer the participants a warm, pleasant, and creative time. According to most attendees, their impression was more than good, not only with respect to the hospitable environment, but with respect to the high level of talks as well. We hope the next Conference, which will be organized by the Relativity Group of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the summer of 2008, will raise the standards of the Conference even higher, thus further establishing our Conference as a notable Conference in the Relativistic community all over the world. Finally, we would like to thank the Gravitational Physics Section of the European Physical Society (GPS/EPS), ILIAS

  12. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and

  13. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  14. Traumatic Rib Injury: Patterns, Imaging Pitfalls, Complications, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Brett S; Gange, Christopher P; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Klionsky, Nina; Hobbs, Susan K; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    The ribs are frequently affected by blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax. In the emergency department setting, it is vital for the interpreting radiologist to not only identify the presence of rib injuries but also alert the clinician about organ-specific injury, specific traumatic patterns, and acute rib trauma complications that require emergent attention. Rib injuries can be separated into specific morphologic fracture patterns that include stress, buckle, nondisplaced, displaced, segmental, and pathologic fractures. Specific attention is also required for flail chest and for fractures due to pediatric nonaccidental trauma. Rib fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, both of which increase as the number of fractured ribs increases. Key complications associated with rib fracture include pain, hemothorax, pneumothorax, extrapleural hematoma, pulmonary contusion, pulmonary laceration, acute vascular injury, and abdominal solid-organ injury. Congenital anomalies, including supernumerary or accessory ribs, vestigial anterior ribs, bifid ribs, and synostoses, are common and should not be confused with traumatic pathologic conditions. Nontraumatic mimics of traumatic rib injury, with or without fracture, include metastatic disease, primary osseous neoplasms (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and osteochondroma), fibrous dysplasia, and Paget disease. Principles of management include supportive and procedural methods of alleviating pain, treating complications, and stabilizing posttraumatic deformity. By recognizing and accurately reporting the imaging findings, the radiologist will add value to the care of patients with thoracic trauma. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  15. Superbugs and Superdrugs-SMi's 12th annual conference--Overcoming resistance. 17-18 March 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adekemi

    2010-05-01

    The 12th Annual Superbugs and Superdrugs conference, held in London, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antimicrobial research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on antimicrobial peptides, addressing bacterial resistance, and new treatments for bacterial infections. Investigational drugs discussed include DPK-060 (DermaGen AB), DAV-132 (Da Volterra), PF-4287881, PNU-100480 and PF-02538084 (all Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) and lanbiotics from Novacta.

  16. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  17. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  18. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  19. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  20. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef prime rib following searing, cooking and holding under commercial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effect of commercial times/temperatures for searing, cooking, and holding for the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) from mechanically tenderized prime rib. Boneless beef ribeye was inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of ECOH and t...

  1. An experimental investigation of the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient in a rib-roughened square passage

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Wadsworth, C.M.

    1997-04-01

    Turbine blade cooling is accomplished, among other methods, by passing the cooling air through an often serpentine passage in the core of the blade. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, these passages are roughened with rib-shaped turbulence promoters. Considerable data are available on the heat transfer coefficient on the passage surface between the ribs. However, the heat transfer coefficients on the surface of the ribs themselves have not been investigated to the same extent. Therefore, an accurate account of the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces is critical in the overall design of the blade cooling system. The objective of this experimental investigation was to conduct a series of 13 tests to measure the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient, h{sub rib} in a square duct roughened with staggered 90 deg ribs. To investigate the effects that blockage ratio, e/D{sub h}, and pitch-to-height ratio, S/e, have on h{sub rib} and passage friction factor, three rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Comparisons were made between the rib average heat transfer coefficient and that on the wall surface between two ribs, h{sub floor}, reported previously. It is concluded that: The rib average heat transfer coefficient is much higher than that for the area between the ribs; similar to the heat transfer coefficient on the surface between the ribs, the average rib heat transfer coefficient increases with the blockage ratio; a pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 consistently produced the highest rib average heat transfer coefficients amongst all tested; under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in upstream-most position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than the midchannel positions; the upstream-most rib average heat transfer coefficients decreased with the blockage ratio; and thermal performance decreased with increased blockage ratio.

  2. Total absence of ribs in a newborn with cerebrocostomandibular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lale, Seema; Ardinger, Holly; Mardis, Neil; Changho, Sheelah; Lancaster, Thomas; Singh, Vivekanand

    2011-01-01

    Total absence of ribs is a rare finding that has occasionally been documented in patients with cerebrocostomandibular syndrome. Only 2 other reports document complete absence of ribs in 3 individuals, and we tabulate the findings of all the 4 cases of complete absence of ribs in this case report. Our case and the other 3 reported cases represent the extreme form of cerebrocostomandibular syndrome with regard to the costal defects.

  3. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  4. Automatic three-dimensional rib centerline extraction from CT scans for enhanced visualization and anatomical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sowmya; Alvino, Christopher; Grady, Leo; Kiraly, Atilla

    2011-03-01

    We present a complete automatic system to extract 3D centerlines of ribs from thoracic CT scans. Our rib centerline system determines the positional information for the rib cage consisting of extracted rib centerlines, spinal canal centerline, pairing and labeling of ribs. We show an application of this output to produce an enhanced visualization of the rib cage by the method of Kiraly et al., in which the ribs are digitally unfolded along their centerlines. The centerline extraction consists of three stages: (a) pre-trace processing for rib localization, (b) rib centerline tracing, and (c) post-trace processing to merge the rib traces. Then we classify ribs from non-ribs and determine anatomical rib labeling. Our novel centerline tracing technique uses the Random Walker algorithm to segment the structural boundary of the rib in successive 2D cross sections orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the ribs. Then the rib centerline is progressively traced along the rib using a 3D Kalman filter. The rib centerline extraction framework was evaluated on 149 CT datasets with varying slice spacing, dose, and under a variety of reconstruction kernels. The results of the evaluation are presented. The extraction takes approximately 20 seconds on a modern radiology workstation and performs robustly even in the presence of partial volume effects or rib pathologies such as bone metastases or fractures, making the system suitable for assisting clinicians in expediting routine rib reading for oncology and trauma applications.

  5. Cervical ribs: identification on MRI and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Walden, Michael J; Adin, Mehmet E; Visagan, Ravindran; Viertel, Valentina G; Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Maluf, Fernando; Patel, Neil V; Alluwaimi, Fatma; Lin, Doris; Yousem, David M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cervical ribs on cervical spine MRI and clinical relevance, we reviewed 2500 studies for cervical ribs and compression of neurovascular structures and compared to CT, when available. Brachial plexus or subclavian artery contact by cervical rib was identified on MRI and/or CT in 12 cases with diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome in one. Cervical ribs were identified on 1.2% (25/2083) of examinations, lower than on CT (2%), but MRI may offer equivalent anatomic explanation for patient symptoms.

  6. Osteoid osteoma of the rib presenting as thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Saeed; Arefanian, Saeed; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Binesh, Fariba; Heiranizadeh, Naeimeh

    2013-12-01

    Osteoid osteoma of the rib is a rare condition mostly mentioned in case report studies as lesions involving posterior region of the rib causing scoliosis. This report presents a 22-year-old man who complained of neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. The pathologic study of the resected mass of the first rib confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. This unique presentation of the osteoid osteoma as thoracic outlet syndrome suggests that this pathologic involvement of the ribs is not confined to the symptoms of pain and scoliosis.

  7. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival in 2015.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.

  8. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  9. The impact of home computers on 12th grade students' achievement in the computer science curriculum in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljuwaiber, Mohammed A.

    Technology has improved many educational issues. This is a very exciting time for technology and education. The primary purpose of this study was aimed at understanding the impact of home computer use on academic achievement in the computer curriculum of the 12th grade students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In particular, the study attempted to determine if the use of home computers would be an effective manner for increasing students' academic achievement. The participants of the study were 240 male and female students as a random sample from 12th grade from eight random high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An achievement exam and survey were developed by the researcher based on the computer science curriculum topics, the quantitative data was collected in both a single achievement exam and a single survey from a sample of 240 Saudi high school students. Both the survey and an achievement exam were split equally between male and female students. The study sought the answer to 10 questions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by tests of simple main effects and post hoc comparisons using Scheffe, as well as Pearson Correlation were conducted to answer the research questions. The study results pointed out that home computers were important to support the students in their academic achievement in the computer science curriculum. Therefore, more attention must be given to the use of home computers for all students. Moreover, we should attempt to treat the difficulties which students face for getting computers in their homes.

  10. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P < 0.01). During retail display of LM steaks and beef patties, the only difference was LM steaks from ECS were darker (lower L* value) than TAL or TAL/ECS steaks (P < 0.02). As display time

  11. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  12. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  13. The prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population.

    PubMed

    Brewin, James; Hill, Martin; Ellis, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Cervical ribs are an important cause of neurovascular compression at the thoracic outlet. Previous studies have shown the prevalence of cervical ribs to be between 0.05 and 3%, depending on the sex and race of the population studied. We examined 1,352 chest radiographs to determine the prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population of mixed sex and ethnicity. Our study found that the overall prevalence of cervical ribs was 0.74% with a higher rate in females compared with males (1.09 and 0.42%, respectively). Of the 10 individuals with a cervical rib, five were on the left, three were on the right and two were bilateral. The presence of elongated C7 transverse processes (transverse apophysomegaly) was also noted. We found a total of 30 elongated transverse processes with an overall prevalence of 2.21%. They were also more common in females (3.43%) than males (1.13%).

  14. Tapered rib fiber coupler for semiconductor optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert Edward

    2001-01-01

    A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.

  15. Differentiating the Causes of Spontaneous Rib Fracture After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Spontaneous rib fracture after treatment for primary breast cancer is not uncommon. Although metastatic disease accounts for about 30% of spontaneous rib fractures and should constitute the first line of diagnostic investigation, other possible contributors include primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis resulting from cancer treatments. Chemotherapy-induced menopause, aromatase inhibitors, radiation therapy, and long-term bisphosphonate use can all contribute to bone fragility, including spontaneous rib fractures in the latter 3. Drawing on recent breast cancer practice guidelines as well as population-based studies of fracture risk for women with a history of breast cancer and systematic reviews, this Perspective will provide an update on recent developments in understanding how to differentiate the possible reasons for non-traumatic rib fracture in women treated for breast cancer. In addition to describing the various possible causes of spontaneous rib fracture, the recommended medical and imaging procedures for differentiating among the potential causes will be presented.

  16. Family support for physical activity in girls from 8th to 12th grade in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between perceived family support and other selected correlates of physical activity (PA) with changes in PA over time. Methods A total of 421 girls in South Carolina completed questionnaires at 8th, 9th and 12th grades (1998–2003). Family support for PA, PA self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, availability of equipment, and PA were measured. Results Growth curve analysis showed that family support, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy were independently related to age-related changes in PA as reflected by total METs. Girls who reported lower family support at the 8th grade measure had more rapid declines in PA, and a unit change in family support was related to approximately 1/3 of a standard deviation change in total METs. Conclusions Maintenance of support from family members may reduce the decline in PA independent of girl’s self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control. PMID:17157371

  17. 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

    1997-01-01

    The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

  18. Aplastic articular facets in a dog with intervertebral disk rupture of the 12th to 13th thoracic vertebral space.

    PubMed

    Werner, Thorsten; McNicholas, W Thomas; Kim, Jongmin; Baird, Debra K; Breur, Gert J

    2004-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female spayed Pomeranian was presented with acute hind-limb paraplegia with the presence of deep pain perception and urinary incontinence. Myelography showed a Hansen type I herniation of the12th to 13th thoracic intervertebral space (T(12-13)). Articular facets of the T(12-13) and T(13) to first lumbar vertebra (L(1)) were absent. The spinal cord was decompressed using a bilateral T(12-13) modified lateral hemilaminectomy (pediculectomy). The aplastic sites were associated with minimal instability of the vertebral column, and stabilization of the vertebral column was not required. Familiarity with this condition is important, because articular facet aplasia may cause vertebral instability and may require an adjusted surgical approach or vertebral reduction and fusion following decompression.

  19. The effect of trade books on the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders in aquatic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Ann S.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders who participated in an eighteen-week environmental education program using trade books versus 11 th- and 12th-graders who participated in an eighteen-week, traditional environmental education program without the use of trade books. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental research technique. Four high school aquatic science classes at two suburban high schools were used in the research. One teacher at each high school taught one control class and one experimental class of aquatic science. In the experimental classes, four trade books were read to the classes during the eighteen-week semester. These four books were selected by the participating teachers before the semester began. The books used were A Home by the Sea, Sea Otter Rescue, There's a Hair in My Dirt, and The Missing Gator of Gumbo Limbo. The instrument used to measure environmental literacy was the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale. This test was given at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. The scores at the end of the semester were analyzed by 2 x 2 mixed model ANOVA with the teacher as the random effect and the condition (trade books) as the fixed effect. The statistical analysis of this study showed that the students in the experimental classes did not score higher than the control classes on the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale or on a subset of "water" questions. Several limitations were placed on this research. These limitations included the following: (1) a small number of classes and a small number of teachers, (2) change from the original plan of using environmental science classes to aquatic science classes, (3) possible indifference of the students, and (4) restrictive teaching strategies of the teachers.

  20. Single crystalline silicon solar cells with rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Shuhei; Hirai, Masakazu; Abe, Yusuke; Konagai, Makoto; Ichikawa, Yukimi

    2017-02-01

    To improve the conversion efficiency of Si solar cells, we have developed a thin Si wafer-based solar cell that uses a rib structure. The open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is known to increase with deceasing wafer thickness if the cell is adequately passivated. However, it is not easy to handle very thin wafers because they are brittle and are subject to warpage. We fabricated a lattice-shaped rib structure on the rear side of a thin Si wafer to improve the wafer's strength. A silicon nitride film was deposited on the Si wafer surface and patterned to form a mask to fabricate the lattice-shaped rib, and the wafer was then etched using KOH to reduce the thickness of the active area, except for the rib region. Using this structure in a Si heterojunction cell, we demonstrated that a high open-circuit voltage (VOC) could be obtained by thinning the wafer without sacrificing its strength. A wafer with thickness of 30 μm was prepared easily using this structure. We then fabricated Si heterojunction solar cells using these rib wafers, and measured their implied VOC as a function of wafer thickness. The measured values were compared with device simulation results, and we found that the measured VOC agrees well with the simulated results. To optimize the rib and cell design, we also performed device simulations using various wafer thicknesses and rib dimensions.

  1. Fatality risk and the presence of rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Woods, William; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Rib fractures may be dismissed as clinically insignificant, or of secondary importance in a patient presenting with other serious injuries, especially if the patient is young. This study assesses the effect of concomitant rib injuries on fatality risk following a car crash, and compares the effect as a function of patient age. The National Trauma Databank was sampled to identify 181,331 adults that were in motor vehicle crashes and had complete data available. Characteristics among several populations were compared, including the association between rib fractures and fatality risk in two age groups (18 to 45 years old and over 64 years old). Descriptive statistics were compiled to contrast the injury patterns and outcomes. Propensity scores were then generated using logistic regression, where the "treatment group" was those patients with rib fractures of at least an abbreviated injury scale (AIS) 3. Covariates for generating the propensity score included gender and the presence or absence of AIS 3, 4 or greater injuries to the head, abdomen or pelvis. Matching was performed using calipers on the propensity scores for all patients within the two age groups. Odds ratios for the outcome death were calculated for the matched datasets and compared between the two age groups. The probability that an adult with automotive blunt trauma had a rib injury as the maximum AIS (MAIS) increased significantly (p<0.001) with age. Furthermore, the probability of the patient having an MAIS defined by rib fractures increased significantly with age for adults who died with a thoracic MAIS: from 30.4% at age 21 to 51.3% at age 65. Rib fractures defined the MAIS for 55.9% of all patients over age 60 who died with a thoracic MAIS. In other words, over 55% of patients over 60 who died of a chest injury had no injury worse than rib injuries. The odds ratio for death for younger patients (aged 18-45) was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.6) if rib fractures of at least AIS 3 or greater were present. For

  2. Nuclear Physics with RIB's: How it all started

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    2016-04-01

    Neutron halos were discovered through measurements of interaction cross sections and fragmentation cross sections of nuclei near the neutron drip line. Such measurements became possible with the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) produced though projectile fragmentations of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. RIBs were invented 30 years ago at the Bevalac facility in Berkeley. In this article, I describe how they were invented and how neutron halos were discovered. What happened at that time was a series of small serendipities guiding us to the present prosperous field of RIB science.

  3. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs... Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  4. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs... Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  5. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs... Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or... roof, face or ribs and coal or rock bursts. (b) No person shall work or travel under unsupported...

  6. Effect of rib angle on local heat/mass transfer distribution in a two-pass rib-roughened channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P. R.; Han, J. C.; Lau, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    The naphthalene sublimation technique is used to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a two-pass channel. A test section that resembles the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils is employed. The local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were found to be 1.5-6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. Depending on the rib angle-of-attack and the Reynolds number, the average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than the fully developed values.

  7. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. Detail, center pier, showing rigidlyfixed arch ribs, starpattern balustrade, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, center pier, showing rigidly-fixed arch ribs, star-pattern balustrade, and simple ornamentation including molded treatment of concrete, pyramidal pier cap, and stylized pilaster - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  9. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  10. Characterization of PMHS Ribs: A New Test Methodology.

    PubMed

    Charpail, Estelle; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Laporte, Sébastien; Lavaste, François; Vallancien, Guy

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of structural tests to investigate, first, the relationships between geometric and constitutive characteristics of ribs and, second, their mechanical behaviour and rupture threshold. A new methodology was developed that included tests on complete isolated ribs. These tests simulated anterior-posterior loading, as seen in frontal impact. The 4(th) to 9(th) ribs were removed from five cadaver rib cages. The costal geometry was obtained from CT scans and was used to build a specific finite-element model for each rib tested. The test set-up was composed of two caps wherein the two rib extremities were potted. One cap was fixed on the frame of the test set-up through a pin joint. The second cap was fixed to a mobile truck through a pin joint. The truck allowed low friction translation along the anterior-posterior axis. Translation was imposed on the cap such that a constant displacement rate was obtained. External forces and moments were recorded by a sensor at the spinal end. The rotational displacements on the sternal and spinal ends and the translational displacement of the truck were recorded. The mineral content of the ribs was also measured. Fracture was found to occur at a mean displacement of 41 mm, at a mean rupture load of 87 N, and at a mean stiffness of 2340 N/m. Three ribs were reconstructed in a finite-element model and the test set-up was simulated. Comparisons between tests and simulations are provided and discussed.

  11. Rib Fracture Protocol Advancing the Care of the Elderly Patient.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Susan

    This article discusses unique factors associated with rib fractures in the elderly patient population and explains the process used in one facility to develop a revised protocol for the management of elderly patients with a rib fracture. The goals were to eliminate gaps in early trauma care management and employ a care routine that would improve outcomes for this vulnerable group of patients with fracture.

  12. New technique for fixing rib fracture with bioabsorbable plate.

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, Hironori; Ohata, Norihisa; Narita, Kunio

    2016-09-01

    Fixation of a bone fracture with a bioabsorbable plate made of poly-L-lactide and hydroxyapatite has received attention. We adopted this technique for a rib fracture by bending the plate into a U-shape and fixing it with suture through the holes in the mesh of the plate and holes that are drilled in the edge of the fractured rib. The suture is also wound around the plate.

  13. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  14. Harvesting Rib Cartilage in Primary and Secondary Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Christopher Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Satisfactory and consistent long-term results in primary and secondary rhinoplasty rely on adequately resupporting or reconstructing the nasal osseocartilagenous framework. Autogenous rib cartilage has been our graft material of choice for major nasal reconstruction when sufficient septal cartilage is not available. The rib provides the most abundant source of cartilage for graft fabrication and is the most reliable when structural support is needed.

  15. The Rib Cartilage Concept in Microtia.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Henning

    2015-12-01

    There is a long history of rib cartilage use in reconstruction for microtia. This article aims to describe the modern techniques of autologous auricular reconstruction in detail, to elucidate the modifications for certain anatomical or disease-related conditions, and to contrast the different strategies used by other surgeons. The two mainstays of successful reconstruction with excellent results are the fabrication of the framework and soft tissue management. A three-dimensional framework mimics the curves, indentations, and peaks of a normal ear with maximal stability. Recently, the creation of a conchal bowl and an additional tragal strut has become a standard procedure. Soft tissue management is highly specific to each patient and equally contributes to the final result of the procedure. The correct position of the incision line and the trimming of the local flaps require thorough planning. Most of the individual modifications must be made in soft tissue management, particularly in patients with a low hairline and facial asymmetry. Autologous auricular reconstruction is a standard procedure that needs to be individualized to each patient. However, it is challenging and requires intensive training. In experienced hands, patients experience excellent results.

  16. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  17. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  18. Ultrasonic focusing through the ribs using the DORT method.

    PubMed

    Cochard, E; Prada, C; Aubry, J F; Fink, M

    2009-08-01

    Thermal ablation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound has produced promising clinical results to treat hepatocarcinoma and other liver tumors. However skin burns have been reported due to the high absorption of ultrasonic energy by the ribs. This study proposes a method to produce an acoustic field focusing on a chosen target while sparing the ribs using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT method). The idea is to apply an excitation weight vector to the transducers array which is orthogonal to the subspace of emissions focusing on the ribs. A linear array of transducers has been used to measure the set of singular vectors associated with a chest phantom, made of three human ribs immersed in water, and to produce the desired acoustic fields. The resulting propagating fields have been measured both in the focal plane and in the plane of the ribs using a needle hydrophone. The ratio of the energies absorbed at the focal point and on the ribs has been enhanced up to 100-fold, as demonstrated by the measured specific absorption rates.

  19. Delivering multiple independent RIB simultaneously: Technical and operational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    ISAC is an ISOL-type facility at which RIB are produced by direct reactions of 480 MeV protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron on thick targets. Like other ISOL-type facilities, ISAC is limited to the production and delivery of a single RIB at any given time. ARIEL, the Advanced Rare-IsotopE Laboratory, will provide for the production and delivery of, ultimately, two additional RIB, the first produced by photofission on actinide targets using electrons from a new superconducting electron linac and the second by direct and indirect reactions with protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron. This will allow for the simultaneous delivery of three independent RIB to experimental areas at ARIEL and ISAC. The shift from single-user to multi-user operation will introduce significant technical and operational challenges that RIB facilities have not yet had to address. Almost all aspects of facility operation will become more complex as the first RIB from ARIEL targets become available.

  20. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to <1.7 μm, without sacrificing either SM operation or low propagation loss. This makes micron-scale Si waveguides particularly well-suited for spectroscopy and extensive wavelength division multiplexing. However, rib waveguides require large bending radii, which lead to large circuit sizes. There are two solutions for this. So-called Euler bends in Si strip waveguides enable low-loss bends down to 1 μm bending radius with less than 0.1 dB/90° loss for both polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  1. "Explosive volcanic activity at Mt. Yasur: A characterization of the acoustic events (9-12th July 2011)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Laura; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Cannata, Andrea; Gresta, Stefano; Lodato, Luigi; Privitera, Eugenio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Gaeta, Mario; Gaudin, Damien; Palladino, Danilo Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic processes occur in a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. However, a key step of magma ascent is recognizable in the dynamics of gas and magma in the shallow plumbing system, where volatiles play a fundamental role in controlling the eruptive style. With the aim of investigating shallow degassing processes, an experimental setup was deployed at Mt. Yasur, an active volcano located in Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc), from 9th to 12th July 2011. The setup comprised high-speed and thermal cameras, as well as a microphone, capable of recording both in the infrasonic and audible range. The analysis of acoustic signals, validated by observing images from the high-speed and thermal cameras, has enabled characterizing the explosive activity during the investigated period. Two types of explosions, distinct for spectral features and waveforms, were observed: (i) minor events, corresponding to small overpressurized bursts, occurring almost continuously; (ii) major events, characterizing the Strombolian activity at Mt. Yasur. By investigating variation in the occurrence rate of the minor events, we found that, on a short timescale, the dynamics responsible for the two types of explosions are decoupled. These results, together with previous literature data, bring additional evidence of the existence of distinct sources of degassing. Finally, major events can be distinguished as emergent events, i.e. long-lasting signals, corresponding to ash-rich explosions, and impulsive events, featuring shorter duration and larger amplitude.

  2. The use of a multi-method approach to identify the pigments in the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus.

    PubMed

    Deneckere, A; De Reu, M; Martens, M P J; De Coene, K; Vekemans, B; Vincze, L; De Maeyer, Ph; Vandenabeele, P; Moens, L

    2011-10-01

    A selection of illuminations of the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus was analysed with Raman spectroscopy (in situ and laboratory measurements), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-fluorescence photography and infrared reflectography (IRR). The aim of this study is to determine the pigments used, in order to search for anachronisms. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy (molecular information) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (elemental information) following pigments could be identified: ultramarine (Na(8-10)Al(6)Si(6)O(24)S(2-4)), azurite (2CuCO(3)·Cu(OH)(2)), caput mortuum (Fe(2)O(3)), vermilion (HgS), orpiment (As(2)S(3)) and lead white (2PbCO(3)·Pb(OH)(2)). Moreover, two synthetic red pigments, PR4 and PR176, and a degradation product, gypsum (CaSO(4)·2H(2)O), were present in the manuscript. To establish the origin of the modern materials UV-fluorescence photography was used. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was applied to visualise the underdrawing of the investigated folios.

  3. In Japanese, there is no word for abstinence. Report from the 12th World Congress of Sexology.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1995-01-01

    The 12th World Congress of Sexology took place in August 1995 in Japan under the sponsorship of the World Association for Sexology, a conglomerate of 60 member organizations representing 25 countries. The conference focused on sexuality education, and participants from around the world recounted how sexuality education and sexual rights are being politicalized in their countries. Sexuality professionals world-wide look to US professionals for information about effective programs, resources, and research, but the US has a great deal to learn from countries such as those in Scandinavia which have extremely low levels of unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases as a result of their commitment to sexuality education and services for young people. During the Congress, debates centered around whether the nature of sexuality is a social construct or is innate and universal. The biological nature of sexuality was explored, and reports of sexuality surveys from around the world revealed surprisingly similar patterns of behavior. Homosexuality emerged as the issue most shaped by culture. In some countries, male same-sex behavior is recognized without being categorized into a separate identity. Terminology for sex behavior also differs across cultures. For example, there is no word for "abstinence" in Japanese or in Swedish. Conference participants were urged to exchange information, expand their work in sex education to "sexuality" education, evaluate their efforts, educate themselves and others, and encourage reforms to assure sexuality education and sexual rights.

  4. The use of a multi-method approach to identify the pigments in the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneckere, A.; De Reu, M.; Martens, M. P. J.; De Coene, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Vandenabeele, P.; Moens, L.

    2011-10-01

    A selection of illuminations of the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus was analysed with Raman spectroscopy (in situ and laboratory measurements), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-fluorescence photography and infrared reflectography (IRR). The aim of this study is to determine the pigments used, in order to search for anachronisms. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy (molecular information) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (elemental information) following pigments could be identified: ultramarine (Na 8-10Al 6Si 6O 24S 2-4), azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), caput mortuum (Fe 2O 3), vermilion (HgS), orpiment (As 2S 3) and lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2). Moreover, two synthetic red pigments, PR4 and PR176, and a degradation product, gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), were present in the manuscript. To establish the origin of the modern materials UV-fluorescence photography was used. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was applied to visualise the underdrawing of the investigated folios.

  5. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  6. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  7. Legal Implications of Personnel Management. Proceedings of the Annual Summer Workshop, Southeastern Community College Leadership Program (12th, Tallahassee, Florida, July 18-20, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clampitt, Joyce, Ed.

    The 12th Annual Summer Workshop, Southeastern Community College Leadership Program, focused on "first-level managers" and on the increasing role of the courts in the day-to-day operation of the college. The first session of the workshop was a video-tape presentation entitled "Legal Implications of Personnel Management." These proceedings provide…

  8. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume I. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in vocational agriculture designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: farm and agribusiness planning, employment-seeking skills, agricultural chemicals, and conservation. Each unit includes a…

  9. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (12th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2016, which was organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016. The Mobile Learning 2016 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  10. Cooperative Learning, Motivational Effects, and Student Characteristics: An Experimental Study Comparing Cooperative Learning and Direct Instruction in 12th Grade Physics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanze, Martin; Berger, Roland

    2007-01-01

    One hundred thirty-seven students in 12th grade physics classes participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing the jigsaw classroom method of cooperative instruction with traditional direct instruction. While no differences were found between the two conditions for physics achievement gains, the results revealed differences in students'…

  11. Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Use by 9th-12th Grade Students: Results from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…

  12. Influence of Skip Patterns on Item Non-Response in a Substance Use Survey of 7th to 12th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Olds, R. Scott; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective case study assessed the influence of item non-response error on subsequent response to questionnaire items assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Post-hoc analyses were conducted on survey results obtained from 4,371 7th to 12th grade students in Ohio in 2005. A skip pattern design in a conventional questionnaire…

  13. Fixitup Faucet Company's Overseas Move. 12th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy; Jacobson, Edy

    This lesson asks 12th grade students to imagine that they are special assistants to the Undersecretary of Commerce for a foreign country who must answer a letter from a U.S. company planning to move its manufacturing operations overseas. The lesson also asks them to design a business brochure that will convince the company to come to their…

  14. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  15. Foreword: The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) (Erice, 20 26 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca

    2008-06-01

    The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19

  16. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  17. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  18. [The 12th amendment to the German Drug Law. Chances and obstacles for investigator-initiated clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Dreier, G; Marx, C; Schmoor, C; Maier-Lenz, H

    2005-04-01

    The European Union's so called Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC was implemented in national law in Germany in August 2004, leading to the 12th amendment of the German Drug Law (Arzneimittelgesetz). The directive is intended to harmonize the clinical trial's regulatory environment across the European Union and to improve protection of human subjects. It lays down the principles and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice (GCP). As the regulation applies to all clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, and as only non-interventional studies are excluded, academic, investigator-initiated clinical trials will also have to comply with the EU clinical trials directive implemented in the German Drug Law. In an investigator-initiated trial in which the investigator takes the responsibility of a sponsor, the investigator-sponsor must take total legal and financial responsibility for the clinical trial. Since publicly funded clinical trials make a large contribution to improved care, concern has been expressed that non-commercial research projects will be reduced and the vital medical research conducted at academic institutions curtailed. Nonetheless GCP ensures a valid study design, qualified data management, analysis and monitoring of the trial and thereby promotes more valid data and protection of study participants. The trials are more likely to lead to reliable results leading to new therapies, strategies or a better understanding of diseases. What is needed, therefore, is an increase in public funding and the establishment of clinical trial units/organizations associated with the universities or hospitals where independent researchers have the possibility to obtain theoretical advice and practical help, professional training and support. In the end, the directive may serve as a stimulus to build a better national research environment and to promote public funding, and may lead to fewer but more valid clinical trials.

  19. [Induced abortion after the 12th week of pregnancy in the county of Arhus 1993-1994. Psychological consequences].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L; Petersson, B H

    1996-07-29

    The records of all women applying for permission to have an abortion performed after the 12th week of pregnancy during a one-year period in the County of Aarhus were continuously reviewed, and the women who had the abortion performed due to psychosocial reasons were interviewed with a questionnaire at the time of the abortion and again four months later. Of the 76 women who applied for permission for a late abortion the following were excluded from the study: 31 who had the abortion because a malformed child was suspected, six women who did not have the abortion although permission had been given, five women who did not receive permission, four who were under 18 years of age, one who had a miscarriage, 10 who were from another country of origin and did not understand Danish and finally four women who were allowed an abortion on a medical indication and who were either in hospital or in jail. Fifteen women were questioned concerning their age, length of pregnancy and psychological and social histories and were asked to fill out a depression scale. The data showed that none of them had planned their pregnancy and they had had no symptoms of pregnancy until the time at which they applied for the abortion. None of them regretted the abortion afterwards; half of the women were under psychological strain at the time of application, and a few of them had even more psychological symptoms four months after the abortion. Although they had many social problems, physical complications and psychological problems only a few of the women had seen a doctor in the four month period between the abortion and the follow-up.

  20. Effects of genotype, level of supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits grazing lambs.

    PubMed

    Arvizu, R R; Domínguez, I A; Rubio, M S; Bórquez, J L; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; González, M; Jaramillo, G

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Suffolk×Dorper (SD) and Rambouillet (R) lamb genotypes, dietary supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits in male lambs grazing ryegrass pasture. SD lambs had heavier cold carcass (HCW) and better carcass yield (CY) and rib eye area at 12th rib (RA) than R lambs; R had larger legs. Feed supplement increased average daily weight gain (ADG), slaughter live weight (SLW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass yield, carcass length (CL), leg perimeter (LP), major thorax width (MTW), minor thorax width (MiTW), rib eye area and dorsal fat at 12th rib (DF12), and also decreased meat moisture. Organic chromium reduced dorsal fat at 12th rib and meat fat content.

  1. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  2. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Khaled M.; Murphy, Michael M.; Lawson, Heather E.; Klemetti, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m. PMID:27648341

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a Ribbed Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically wall-mounted ribs has been investigated by large eddy simulation with a dynamic subgrid-scale model. The value of Re considered is 98,000, based on hydraulic diameter and mean bulk velocity. An immersed boundary method was employed to implement the ribs in the computational domain. The spacing of the ribs is the key parameter to produce the d-type, intermediate and k-type roughness flows. The mean velocity profiles and turbulent intensities obtained from the present LES are in good agreement with the experimental measurements currently available. Turbulence statistics, including budgets of the Reynolds stresses, were computed, and analyzed to elucidate turbulence structures, especially around the ribs. In particular, effects of the ribs are identified by comparing the turbulence structures with those of smooth pipe flow. The present investigation is relevant to the erosion/corrosion that often occurs around a protruding roughness in a pipe system. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  4. Emerging from the rib: resolving the turtle controversies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ritva; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F; Cebra-Thomas, Judith

    2015-05-01

    Two of the major controversies in the present study of turtle shell development involve the mechanism by which the carapacial ridge initiates shell formation and the mechanism by which each rib forms the costal bones adjacent to it. This paper claims that both sides of each debate might be correct-but within the species examined. Mechanism is more properly "mechanisms," and there is more than one single way to initiate carapace formation and to form the costal bones. In the initiation of the shell, the rib precursors may be kept dorsal by either "axial displacement" (in the hard-shell turtles) or "axial arrest" (in the soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus), or by a combination of these. The former process would deflect the rib into the dorsal dermis and allow it to continue its growth there, while the latter process would truncate rib growth. In both instances, though, the result is to keep the ribs from extending into the ventral body wall. Our recent work has shown that the properties of the carapacial ridge, a key evolutionary innovation of turtles, differ greatly between these two groups. Similarly, the mechanism of costal bone formation may differ between soft-shell and hard-shell turtles, in that the hard-shell species may have both periosteal flattening as well as dermal bone induction, while the soft-shelled turtles may have only the first of these processes.

  5. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    The 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers was held at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA between September 30 and October 2, 2009. This meeting was the continuation of a series of previous meetings which was initiated in 1987 and has been held bi-annually since then. Following the recent tradition at the last few meetings, the program was sub- divided into six sessions. At each session, an overview talk was presented, followed by two or three shorter oral presentations which supplemented the coverage of important issues. These talks were followed by discussion periods and poster sessions of contributed papers. The sessions were: Physics of Transition to/from Enhanced Confinement Regimes, Pedestal and Edge Localized Mode Dynamics, Plasma Rotation and Momentum Transport, Role of 3D Physics in Transport Barriers, Transport Barriers: Theory and Simulations and High Priority ITER Issues on Transport Barriers. The diversity of the 90 registered participants was remarkable, with 22 different nationalities. US participants were in the majority (36), followed by Japan (14), South Korea (7), and China (6). This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of 18 accepted papers from submitted manuscripts based on overview talks and poster presentations. The paper selection procedure followed the guidelines of Nuclear Fusion which are essentially the same as for regular articles with an additional requirement on timeliness of submission, review and revision. One overview paper and five contributed papers report on the H-mode pedestal related results which reflect the importance of this issue concerning the successful operation of ITER. Four papers address the rotation and momentum transport which play a crucial role in transport barrier physics. The transport barrier transition condition is the main focus of other four papers. Finally, four additional papers are devoted to the behaviour and control of

  6. 45 deg staggered rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1998-07-01

    For high-blockage ribs with large heat transfer areas, commonly used in small gas turbine blades, the rib heat transfer is a significant portion of the overall heat transfer in the cooling passages. Three staggered 45 deg rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel walls. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for 45 deg ribs, and 90 deg ribs reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. It was concluded that: (a) For the geometries tested, the rib average heat transfer coefficient was much higher than that for the area between the ribs. (b) Except for two cases corresponding to the highest blockage ribs mounted at pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10 for which the heat transfer results of 45 deg ribs were very close to those of 90 deg ribs, 45 deg ribs produced higher heat transfer coefficients than 90 deg ribs. (c) At pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10, all 45 deg ribs produced lower friction factors than 90 deg ribs. However, when they were brought closer to each other (S/e = 5), they produced higher friction factors than 90 deg ribs. (d) Heat transfer coefficients for the two smaller rib geometries (e/D{sub h} = 0.133 and 0.167) did to vary significantly with the pitch-to-height ratio in the range tested. However, the heat transfer coefficient for the high blockage rib geometry increased significantly as the ribs were brought closer to each other. (e) Under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in the furthest upstream position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than those in the midstream position. (f) Rib thermal performance decreased with the rib blockage ratio.

  7. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Han, In-taek; Kim, Jong-min

    2003-01-01

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  8. Study of rib fracture mechanisms based on the rib strain profiles in side and forward oblique impact.

    PubMed

    Leport, Tiphaine; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Lecuyer, Erwan; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Rib fractures constitute a good indication of severity as there are the most frequent type of AIS3+ chest injuries. In 2008, Trosseille et al. showed a promising methodology to exhibit the rib fracture mechanisms, using strain gauges glued on the ribs of Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) and developing a specific signal analysis. In 2009, they published the results of static airbag tests performed on 50th percentile male PMHS at different distances and angles (pure lateral and 30 degrees forward oblique direction). To complete these already published data, a set of 8 PMHS lateral and oblique impactor tests were performed with the same methodology. The rib cages were instrumented with more than 100 strain gauges on the ribs, cartilage and sternum. A 23.4 kg impactor was propelled at 4.3 or 6.7 m/s. The forces applied onto the PMHS at 4.3 m/s ranged from 1.6 kN to 1.9 kN and the injuries varied from 4 to 13 rib fractures. At 6.7 m/s, the forces applied onto the PMHS ranged from 2.6 kN to 4 kN and the injuries varied from 9 to 16 rib fractures. The results of 24 tests from Trosseille et al. 2008 and 2009 and from the current study were processed in the same way and analyzed together. The time and location of the fractures were determined for each test and a ribcage fracture scenario was defined for each configuration. Strain profile corridors were built for pure lateral and forward oblique impacts, in the case of a rigid impact (impactor) or for an airbag loading. They can be used to assess the human body model biofidelity and the validation of rib fracture mechanisms in these models. Based on these corridors, the effects of the severity, the impact angle and the loading system on rib strain profiles were analyzed and are presented in this paper.

  9. Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles

    DOEpatents

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.; Smith, J. Harold

    1984-01-01

    A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

  10. 45 deg round-corner rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1999-04-01

    Cooling channels, roughened with repeated ribs, are commonly employed as a means of cooling turbine blades. The increased level of mixing induced by these ribs enhances the convective heat transfer in the blade cooling cavities. Many previous investigations have focused on the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces between these ribs and only a few studies report the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces themselves. The present study investigated the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces of 45 deg. round-corner ribs. Three staggered rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel wall. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and channel friction factors for sharp- and round-corner ribs and 45 versus 90 deg ribs, reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. The smallest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.133) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 10 and the largest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.25) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 5, both in midstream position, produced the highest and the lowest thermal performances, respectively.

  11. Chondrosarcoma of the Rib Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masashi; Tao, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Toshiki; Onoda, Hideko; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with a history of long-term asbestos exposure was found to have a chest wall tumor invading the sixth rib on chest computed tomography. The computed tomography also revealed multiple plaques in the pleura. Malignant pleural mesothelioma was suspected, and thoracoscopic surgery was performed. Thoracoscopy revealed that the tumor location was extrapleural. Thus, excisional biopsy was performed. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Additional wide resection of the chest wall, including the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs, was performed. Chest wall reconstruction was performed with a polypropylene mesh. PMID:26933413

  12. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts.

  13. The Diverging Sphere and the Rib in Prompt Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; McGuire, E; Garza, R; Roeske, F; Vitello, P

    2002-05-03

    Steady state corner-turning in the rib is possible if R{sub 0}/R{sub 1} << 0.15, where R{sub 0} is the half-width and R{sub 1} the inner radius. For thicker ribs, the kinetics will further slow the turn. A steady state turn will have a symmetrical detonation front. The inverse radius relation appears to hold for the diverging sphere, at least for large radii. The reaction zone lengths for diverging spheres and ratesticks increase with the radius of curvature and are comparable.

  14. Repair of lung herniation with titanium prosthetic ribs and Prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gülay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-03-01

    We present a rare case of intercostal lung herniation due to blunt trauma. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with lung herniation due to falling off a donkey. Computed tomography demonstrated a fracture of the 8th left rib, a comminuted fracture of the 9th rib, and lung herniation into the 8th intercostal space. The herniation was repaired using a titanium prosthetic rib, a rib plate, and Prolene mesh via a thoracotomy.

  15. Earthquake relocations and InSAR analysis following the June 12th 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano, Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Keir, Derek; Neuberg, Jurgen; Grandin, Raphael; Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kibreab, Alem; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Pagli, Carolina; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    Nabro volcano sits on the southern part of Danakil block to the east of the Afar depression, on the Arabian plate. On the 12th June 2011, Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10,000 years. The eruption caused a 17-km-long lava flow, a 15-km-high ash cloud, and ranks as one of the largest emissions of SO2 since the Mt. Pinatubo (1991) event. This eruption creates an important opportunity to use seismicity and surface deformation measurements to understand the subsurface magmatic system and deformation of a hazardous, off axis caldera during continental rupture. We installed a network of 8 seismometers around Nabro caldera which began recording on the 31st August and tasked SAR acquisitions from TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) satellites. The SAR images used for this study post date the eruption. We used TSX stripmap mode images from ascending and descending orbits. Using a small baseline approach, we used 25 images acquired between the 1st July 2011 to the 5th October 2012 on descending orbit 046, to create 34 interferograms. We complemented these with 19 images from ascending orbit 130 spanning the 6th July 2011 to the 10th October 2012 from ascending orbit 130, which we used to create 21 interferograms. We produced a velocity ratemap and timeseries using π-RATE showing subsidence of up to 25cm/yr centred on Nabro. We used a Monte-Carlo hybrid downhill simplex technique to invert the dataset and found the best fitting solution as a mogi source at 6.9 ±1.1 km depth, and located at a 13.35 (lat) and 41.69 (long). The time dependence observed is consistent with a viscoelastic relaxation around the magma chamber, following depletion. Concurrent with the TSX acquisitions, CSK imaged the volcano on a descending track between 26th June 2011 and 18th July 2012 within the ASI project SAR4Volcanoes, and 64 images were used to produce 171 interferograms which were inverted to form a timeseries using a SBAS approach. This dataset has an overall

  16. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  17. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  18. Turbulent transport phenomena in a channel with periodic rib turbulators

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, T.M.; Hwang, J.J.; Chen, S.H. )

    1992-09-01

    Periodic fully developed turbulent flow in a 2D channel with rib turbulators on two opposite walls has been studied numerically and experimentally. In numerical predictions, an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model is adopted, and a smoothed hybrid central/skew upstream difference scheme is developed. In experiments, the laser-Doppler velocimetry and laser holographic interferometry are employed to measure the local flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results are obtained with the ratio of pitch to rib height 5, 10, 15, and 20, for Reynolds number of 3.3 x 10 exp 4 and are presented in terms of the reattachment length, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles, isotherm patterns, and distributions of local pressure recovery and Nusselt number. A detailed comparison with experimental data shows that the present calculations have an improvement over the previous work in the prediction of periodic ribbed-wall flow and heat transfer. In addition, regions susceptible to hot spots are identified by examining the distributions of the local Nusselt number. Furthermore, the enhancement of mean Nusselt number is documented in terms of relative contributions of the increased turbulence intensity and surface area provided by the ribs. 32 refs.

  19. Unveiling the gating mechanism of ECF Transporter RibU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jianing; Ji, Changge; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-12-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are responsible for uptake of micronutrients in prokaryotes. The recently reported crystal structure of an ECF transporter RibU provided a foundation for understanding the structure and transport mechanism of ECF transporters. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) was carried out to study the conformational changes of the S component RibU upon binding by riboflavin. Our result and analysis revealed a critically important gating mechanism, in which part of loop5 (L5') (eleven residues, missing in the crystal structure) between TM5 and TM6 is dynamically flexible and serves as a gate. Specifically, the L5' opens a large cavity accessible to riboflavin from the extracellular space in Apo-RibU and closes the cavity upon riboflavin binding through hydrophobic packing with riboflavin. Thus, L5'is proposed to be the gate for riboflavin binding. In addition, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation is employed to investigate the translocation dynamics of RibU during riboflavin transport. The simulation result does not show evidence that the S component alone can carry out the transport function. Since loop regions are very flexible and therefore could not be resolved by crystallography, their dynamics are hard to predict based on crystal structure alone.

  20. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  1. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  2. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.202 Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work...

  3. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Chest Radiography in the Detection of Rib Fractures in Abused Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Walton, John W.; Rosas, Angela J.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Rogers, Kristen K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chest radiographs (CXR) are the standard method for evaluating rib fractures in abused infants. Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive method to detect rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare CT and CXR in the evaluation of rib fractures in abused infants. Methods: This retrospective study included all 12 abused infants…

  4. 30 CFR 75.202 - Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs... Protection from falls of roof, face and ribs. (a) The roof, face and ribs of areas where persons work or travel shall be supported or otherwise controlled to protect persons from hazards related to falls of...

  5. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest.

  6. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  7. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Stein, D R; Desilva, U; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Fifty-five normal-weaned Angus steers (268 ± 22 kg; 265 ± 16 d of age) were used to evaluate the effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements for stocker cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range on growth performance, body composition, and adipose tissue development of different fat depots. Steers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments: 1.02 kg·steer(-1)·d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement (CON), corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (CORN), soybean hull/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (SBH), or dried distillers grains with solubles fed at 1% of BW (DDGS). All supplements were individually fed 5 d/wk during the 121-d winter grazing phase. After winter grazing, 3 steers per treatment were harvested to determine body composition and carcass characteristics, and collect subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue samples. The remaining steers grazed cool-season grass pastures for 74 d without supplementation before finishing. Steers were fed a common finishing diet for 113 d before harvest, at which time carcass characteristics were collected at a commercial abattoir. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) winter grazing ADG compared with CON steers, and CORN steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than SBH and DDGS steers. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.04) mesenteric/omental fat mass but did not influence (P > 0.13) 12th rib fat thickness or marbling score at intermediate harvest compared with CON steers. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and markers of adipogenesis were greater (P < 0.05) in PR adipose tissue of energy-supplemented steers compared with CON steers but not in SC adipose tissue. Fiber-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.01) mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding protein 4 compared with CORN steers in PR adipose tissue but not SC adipose tissue. At final harvest, energy-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.05) KPH and yield grade

  8. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  9. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  10. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef prime rib following searing, cooking, and holding under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Luchansky, John B

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of commercial times and temperatures for searing, cooking, and holding on the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) within mechanically tenderized prime rib. Boneless beef ribeye was inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of ECOH and then passed once through a mechanical tenderizer with the fat side facing upward. The inoculated and tenderized prime rib was seared by broiling at 260°C for 15 min in a conventional oven and then cooked in a commercial convection oven at 121.1°C to internal temperatures of 37.8, 48.9, 60.0, and 71.1°C before being placed in a commercial holding oven maintained at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. After searing, ECOH levels decreased by ca. 1.0 log CFU/g. Following cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 to 71.1°C, pathogen levels decreased by an additional ca. 2.7 to 4.0 log CFU/g. After cooking to 37.8, 48.9, or 60.0°C and then warm holding at 60.0°C for 2 h, pathogen levels increased by ca. 0.2 to 0.7 log CFU/g. However, for prime rib cooked to 37.8°C, pathogen levels remained relatively unchanged over the next 6 h of warm holding, whereas for those cooked to 48.9 or 60.0°C pathogen levels decreased by ca. 0.3 to 0.7 log CFU/g over the next 6 h of warm holding. In contrast, after cooking prime rib to 71.1°C and holding for up to 8 h at 60.0°C, ECOH levels decreased by an additional ca. 0.5 log CFU/g. Our results demonstrated that to achieve a 5.0-log reduction of ECOH in blade tenderized prime rib, it would be necessary to sear at 260°C for 15 min, cook prime rib to internal temperatures of 48.9, 60.0, or 71.1°C, and then hold at 60.0°C for at least 8 h.

  11. First rib metamorphosis: its possible utility for human age-at-death estimation.

    PubMed

    Kunos, C A; Simpson, S W; Russell, K F; Hershkovitz, I

    1999-11-01

    Human first ribs demonstrate predictable, sequential changes in shape, size, and texture with increasing age, and thus, can be used as an indicator of age at death. Metamorphosis of the first rib's head, tubercle, and costal face was documented in a cross-sectional sample of preadult and adult first ribs of known age at death from the Hamann-Todd skeletal collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio). Blind tests of the usefulness of the first rib as an age indicator were conducted, including tabulation of intraobserver and interobserver inaccuracies and biases. First rib age estimates show inaccuracies and biases by decade comparable to those generated by other aging techniques. Indeed, the first rib method is useful as an isolated age indicator. When used in conjunction with other age indicators, the first rib improves the quality of summary age assessments.

  12. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  13. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  14. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  15. BILATERAL FIRST RIB FRACTURE IN A DIVE WITH LIFE VEST.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Pietro de Almeida; de Almeida, Joelmar César; Sandri, João Luiz

    2010-01-01

    First-rib fractures are uncommon and are generally related to major thoracic trauma: so much so that they serve to indicate the severity of the trauma. Isolated bilateral first-rib fractures without major thoracic trauma are rarely described in the literature. The symptoms may go unnoticed and be minimized, thus making this condition difficult to diagnose. The present report presents a case of direct trauma on the supraclavicular region with symptoms of contusion of the brachial plexus, caused by a fall from a jet ski while a life vest was being used. The literature was reviewed to show the various facets of the problem and the treatment for this condition was discussed.

  16. BILATERAL FIRST RIB FRACTURE IN A DIVE WITH LIFE VEST

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Pietro de Almeida; de Almeida, Joelmar César; Sandri, João Luiz

    2015-01-01

    First-rib fractures are uncommon and are generally related to major thoracic trauma: so much so that they serve to indicate the severity of the trauma. Isolated bilateral first-rib fractures without major thoracic trauma are rarely described in the literature. The symptoms may go unnoticed and be minimized, thus making this condition difficult to diagnose. The present report presents a case of direct trauma on the supraclavicular region with symptoms of contusion of the brachial plexus, caused by a fall from a jet ski while a life vest was being used. The literature was reviewed to show the various facets of the problem and the treatment for this condition was discussed. PMID:27022557

  17. An estimation of the primary proton spectrum between 10 to the 12th and 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Siohan, F.; Yodh, G. B.

    1978-01-01

    Based on measurements of unaccompanied charged hadron flux from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 14th eV at mountain altitudes, the primary proton flux is estimated using recently determined proton-proton total cross sections from new measurements of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude at ISR, and Glauber theory to calculate proton-air inelastic cross section. The derived spectrum agrees well with extrapolation of the direct measurements below 2 times 10 to the 12th eV without change of slope.

  18. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  19. Autopsy observations in lethal short-rib polydactyly syndromes.

    PubMed

    Okiro, Patricia; Wainwright, Helen; Spranger, Jürgen; Beighton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The short rib-polydactyly syndromes are a heterogeneous group of lethal autosomal recessive disorders (SRP I-IV), which result from cellular ciliary dysfunction during embryogenesis. Diagnosis is conventionally based on radiographic imaging. Since 1976, postmortem investigations of 5 affected fetuses or stillbirths have been undertaken and the visceral abnormalities have been documented. These anomalies are discussed in the context of prenatal differential diagnosis and prognostication following imaging in pregnancy and at autopsy following miscarriage or stillbirth.

  20. Thoracoscopic localization of nonpalpable rib tumors for excisional biopsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J M; Freeman, R K

    2000-07-01

    Nonpalpable tumors of the rib can be difficult to localize accurately at the time of excisional biopsy. Furthermore, the ability of current imaging techniques to assess pleural or pulmonary involvement is not reliable. An intraoperative localization method using single port thoracoscopy is discussed which allows optimal placement of a biopsy incision and provides an accurate assessment of any tumor invasion into the adjacent pleura or lung.

  1. Point and transfer mobility of point-connected ribbed plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, A. R.; Gibbs, B. M.

    2011-09-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the problem of structure-borne sound transmission between vibrating sources and ribbed-plate receiver structures. Vibrating sources, such as pumps, motors, fans, etc., transmit vibro-acoustic power, causing noise complaints by occupants in cars, trains, aircraft, buildings and/or material fatigue and damage. The transmission process is complicated in that sources transmit power through several contacts and by up to six components of excitation at each contact. The structure-borne sound power is a function of source activity, source mobility and receiver mobility, and all three quantities must be known to some degree. For non-homogeneous receiver structures, such as thin-plate cavity constructions or lightweight framed constructions, the sheathing plates are typically fastened to the framing members using bolts, screws or spot-welded joints. Hence the resulting system is a point-connected ribbed plate structure and the receiver mobility is expected to vary significantly with position. Since measured receiver data seldom is available for prediction purposes, a method of estimating the point and transfer mobility of point connected ribbed plates is required. In this paper, an approximate approach, based on substitution forces, is described. The model uses infinite beam and infinite plate behaviour as input quantities. Estimates of point and transfer mobility are compared with measured results using a timber joist floor construction as an example.

  2. The effect of spacer ribs on Ledinegg type flow instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, David Allan

    1993-09-09

    An experimental program has been completed which evaluated the effect of a flow obstruction in a heated channel on the onset of flow instability (OBI). The test channel was rectangular (80 x 3 mm), heated on one surface, and equipped with view ports. Tests were conducted in a flow controlled mode at heat fluxes of 370 kW/M2, and 610 kW/m2. Direct comparisons were made between the demand curve minimum for the unobstructed channel and a channel equipped with a 2.07 mm wide rib that was parallel to the flow and in contact with the heated surface. Data at OFI is presented in the nondimensional terms Of Qratio (ratio of heat flux applied to heat flux required to achieve saturated liquid conditions at the exit), and the local Stanton number at the channel exit for each channel arrangement. The Q{sub ratio} and Stanton number values for the unobstructed channel and the rib equipped channel are then compared to produce an estimate of the rib effect.

  3. Non-diffuseness of vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Chung, Hyuck

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of structural intensity in a rib-reinforced plate, investigating the diffuseness. Many prediction models of building and structural acoustics, such as statistical energy analysis or energy flow methods, assume the vibrational wave fields to be diffuse. However, the diffuseness assumption is not always valid. One such example is a rib-reinforced plate typically found in a lightweight floor with wooden joists. Other examples can be found in aircraft and ship structures. The structural intensity of a ribbed plate is computed at low to mid frequencies using the Fourier sine expansion of the transverse displacement of the plate. Hamilton's principle is used in combination with thin plate theory and Euler beam theory. The model takes into account interactions between components. The Fourier sine modes are re-formulated as plane waves in a radial coordinate system, which can express the structural intensity in terms of the angular component of the modes. In the simulations, ensemble averages and rain-on-the-roof excitations are used. The numerical results show that the structural intensity varies significantly as the angle of propagation changes and cannot be assumed to form a diffuse field.

  4. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  5. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer in a Rib Roughened Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-11-08

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and frictional losses in a rib roughened channel combined with detached pin-fins. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=[1/4]E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin-tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/O=0, 1, 2, respectively. The rib height-to-channel height ratio is 0.0625. Two newly proposed cross ribs, namely the broken rib and full rib are evaluated in this effort. The broken ribs are positioned in between two consecutive rows of pin-fins, while the full ribs are fully extended adjacent to the pin-fins. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all pin elements. The presence of ribs enhances local heat transfer coefficient on the endwall substantially by approximately 20% to 50% as compared to the neighboring endwall. In addition, affected by the rib geometry, which is a relatively low profile as compared to the overall height of the channel, the pressure loss seems to be insensitive to the presence of the ribs. However, from the overall heat transfer enhancement standpoint, the baseline cases (without ribs) outperform cases with broken ribs or full ribs.

  6. Favorable pressure gradient turbulent flow over straight and inclined ribs on both channel walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachie, Mark F.; Shah, Mohammad K.

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental study of turbulent flows over straight and inclined transverse ribs of square and triangular cross sections attached to the bottom and top walls of an asymmetric converging channel. The pitch-to-height ratio of the ribs was 10. A particle image velocimetry technique was used to conduct extensive velocity measurements at channel midspan and in planes close to the leading and trailing edges of the inclined ribs. From these measurements, spatial averaged profiles of the mean velocity and higher order statistics were obtained to study the effects of rib geometry, pressure gradient, spanwise plane, and rib inclination on the flow characteristics. The results show that rib geometry has no significant effects on the mean flow and turbulent quantities. The roughness effects produced by the straight ribs outweighed pressure gradient effects in the inner region of the flow. As a result, the skin friction coefficient is nearly independent of pressure gradient. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent transport of the shear stress are also independent of pressure gradient. On the contrary, favorable pressure gradient decreased the Reynolds normal stresses in the outer region and increased the magnitudes of the triple velocity correlations and transport of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The three-dimensional secondary motion produced by the inclined ribs distorted the mean flow pattern and substantially diminished the ribs' effectiveness to augment skin friction and turbulence. For example, the skin friction over the inclined ribs is only 50%-70% of the value measured over the straight ribs. Furthermore, the size of equivalent sand grain required to produce the same amount of drag is one-tenth to one-third of the rib height for the inclined ribs compared to two- to fourfold for the straight ribs. The inclined ribs also reduced the level of the Reynolds stresses, triple velocity correlations, and transport of both the turbulent kinetic energy

  7. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  8. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity. PMID:26175916

  9. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes.

  10. Evaluation of intensity based beam-shaping method with Rib-phantom HIFU sonications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max; Koskela, Julius; Ylihautala, Mika

    2012-11-01

    The relation between rib bone heating during HIFU therapy and incident intensity on the bone surface was examined using an experimental setup and simulations with ray-tracer. The relation was found to be linear yet the data had large variance. The result was successfully applied to an intensity-based beam-shaping algorithm, which was fast enough for online therapy planning, and used to protect the ribs from overheating during intercostal sonications to a HIFU phantom containing two porcine rib bones.

  11. A study of general instability of box beams with truss-type ribs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Schwartz, Edward B

    1942-01-01

    The design of truss-type ribs for box beams is theoretically treated with regard to the function of the ribs in stabilizing the compression flange. The theory is applied to a design problem, and the results of this application are presented and discussed in relation to the general problem of rib design. The results of some tests made as a part of this general study are presented in an appendix.

  12. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  13. First Rib Stress Fracture in a Sidearm Baseball Pitcher: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Takeshi; Kimura, Yasunobu; Hida, Toshiko

    2005-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site. Key Points Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. We report the case of a young male baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the first rib located uncommonly at the posterior portion of the rib. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site. PMID:24431977

  14. Prediction of fat percentage within marbling score on beef longissimus muscle using 3 different fat determination methods.

    PubMed

    Dow, D L; Wiegand, B R; Ellersieck, M R; Lorenzen, C L

    2011-04-01

    Consumers are concerned with fat consumption from meat products, and the ability to determine fat has changed with recent technological advances. The objective of this study was to predict fat percentage within marbling scores and compare 3 fat analysis procedures. Steaks (n = 119) were selected by USDA grading system using an E + V Vision Grading camera at a commercial beef plant during 1 d. Two samples per carcass were cut from the 13th rib, both sides, and transported to the University of Missouri meat laboratory. The sample from the right side of the carcass was allotted to Warner-Bratzler shear force, and the sample from the left side, which was graded by the camera, was allotted to fat extraction. Warner-Bratzler shear force samples were cut into 2.54-cm steaks and aged for 14 d. Steaks allotted to fat extraction were trimmed of all external fat and twice ground using 8- and 4-mm grinding plates. The finely ground beef was then split into its allotted fat-extraction methods. The 3 methods used in fat extraction were 2:1 chloroform/methanol (Folch), ether-extractable fat (ether), and microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (CEM). Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not different between marbling scores (P > 0.05). Regardless of fat extraction method, fat percentage increased as marbling score increased (P < 0.05). All regression equations for fat percentage, regardless of extraction method, were linear. Prediction equation for fat percentage using CEM was -3.46 + 0.016 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.824 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using ether was -3.08 + 0.017 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.859 (P < 0.0001). Prediction equation for fat percentage using Folch was -3.42 + 0.019 (marbling score), R(2) of 0.816 (P < 0.0001). When the CEM, Folch, and ether methods were compared, CEM and Folch regression lines had different slopes (P < 0.05). The slope of the regression line for ether was not different (P > 0.05) from CEM or Folch

  15. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  16. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-10-15

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called 'Hoover's sign', has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (∆Ppl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ∆Ppl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ∆Ppl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm.

  17. Quantitative geometric analysis of rib, costal cartilage and sternum from childhood to teenagehood.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Baptiste; Badina, Alina; Laporte, Sébastien; Lambot, Karene; Mitton, David; Skalli, Wafa

    2013-09-01

    Better understanding of the effects of growth on children's bones and cartilage is necessary for clinical and biomechanical purposes. The aim of this study is to define the 3D geometry of children's rib cages: including sternum, ribs and costal cartilage. Three-dimensional reconstructions of 960 ribs, 518 costal cartilages and 113 sternebrae were performed on thoracic CT scans of 48 children, aged 4 months to 15 years. The geometry of the sternum was detailed and nine parameters were used to describe the ribs and rib cages. A "costal index" was defined as the ratio between cartilage length and whole rib length to evaluate the cartilage ratio for each rib level. For all children, the costal index decreased from rib level 1 to 3 and increased from level 3 to 7. For all levels, the cartilage accounted for 45-60 % of the rib length, and was longer for the first years of life. The mean costal index decreased by 21 % for subjects over 3-year old compared to those under three (p < 10(-4)). The volume of the sternebrae was found to be highly age dependent. Such data could be useful to define the standard geometry of the pediatric thorax and help to detect clinical abnormalities.

  18. Evaluating Loading Deflection of Distraction Osteogenic Rib in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Weimin; Tang, Chenlu; Yang, Junyi; Kong, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of patients with partially atrophic rib and rib defects requires an ideal arc of the rib that has adequate bone length and width. To design and assemble a distraction device with a strain gauge, we need to establish an animal model for testing it during rib distraction osteogenesis. Methods: Osteotomies were performed at the same position in the fifth rib in 8 rabbits. Customized distraction devices attached to strain gauges were used to distract the ribs. After a month of distraction and consolidation, loading deflection gauges were used, and specimens were examined histologically to record bone formation. Results: Distraction osteogenesis was carried out successfully in all rabbits when the device used to distract the rib up to 4 cm. Conclusions: The device can be used for strain testing during rib distraction osteogenesis performed in a rabbit model. There was no significant difference in the loading deflection gauges of the bone between osteogenic and contralateral ribs. This animal model of costal distraction osteogenesis is successful. PMID:27826456

  19. The Epidemiological, Morphological, and Clinical Aspects of the Cervical Ribs in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Spadliński, Łukasz; Cecot, Tomasz; Majos, Agata; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Pietruszewska, Wioletta; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    A familiarity with the anatomy of some types of bone anomalies is necessary for clinicians involved in many medical areas. The aim of this paper is to review the newest literature concerning the morphology, embryology, clinical image, and therapeutic methods of the cervical ribs in the humans. The incidence of cervical ribs has been found to vary from 0.58% in Malaysian population to 6.2% in Turkish population. Cervical ribs have clinical implications that are generally divided into neurological or vascular. This study is of particular importance for clinicians, as early identification of cervical ribs may prevent life-threatening complications. PMID:27975060

  20. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides.

  1. Posterior-only spinal fusion without rib head resection for treating type I neurofibromatosis with intra-canal rib head dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong; Dai, Fei; Liu, Yao Yao; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with intra-canal rib head protrusion are extremely rare. Current knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment for this situation are insufficient. The purpose of this study is to share our experience in the diagnosis and surgical treatments for such unique deformities. METHODS: Six patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with rib head dislocation into the spinal canal were diagnosed at our institution. Posterior instrumentation and spinal fusion without intra-canal rib head resection via a posterior-only approach was performed for deformity correction and rib head extraction. The efficacy and outcomes of the surgery were evaluated by measurements before, immediately and 24 months after the surgery using the following parameters: coronal spinal Cobb angle, apex rotation and kyphosis of the spine and the intra-canal rib head position. Post-operative complications, surgery time and blood loss were also evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for at least 24 months post-operatively. The three dimensional spinal deformity was significantly improved and the intra-canal rib head was significantly extracted from the canal immediately after the surgery. At follow-up 24 months after surgery, solid fusions were achieved along the fusion segments, and the deformity corrections and rib head positions were well maintained. There were no surgery-related complications any time after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic examinations are needed to identify patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with rib head dislocation into the canal who can be treated by posterior-only spinal fusion without rib head resection. PMID:24473510

  2. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  3. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among U.S. 12th-grade students: Prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Meghan E.; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Methods Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) following alcohol consumption. Results Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and White students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors, and other substance use. Conclusions AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. PMID:25907654

  4. [The effect of maternal dexamethasone treatment after the 12th week of pregnancy on fetal genital development in adrenogenital syndrome with 21-hydroxylase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Schwab, K O; Kruse, K; Dörr, H G; Horwitz, A E; Spingler, H

    1989-05-01

    Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone starting with gestation week 5 has been proposed to prevent virilization of female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. We report dexamethasone treatment in a mother during her third pregnancy; this treatment could not be started before the 12th week of gestation. The second child (index case) had a simple virilizing 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH and Prader IV genitalia. Because after amniocentesis a normal female karyotype and HLA identity with the index case were found, the dexamethasone treatment (3 x 0.5 mg/die) was continued until delivery.-In contrast to patients with salt-wasting CAH, the 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone level in the amniotic fluid was within the normal range. Decreased maternal plasma and urine estriol concentrations, as well as the plasma cortisol values, demonstrated adequate suppression of the fetal and maternal adrenal gland. No side effects were found in the mother as a result of the dexamethasone treatment. The newborn had virilization of the external genitalia according to Prader III but without hypertrophy of the clitoris. The degree of rugated scrotum was less marked in relation to the index case and the sinus urogenitalis was more distally shifted. Thus, surgery on the clitoris could be avoided. The conditions for further surgery (vaginoplasty) could probably be improved. Therefore, dexamethasone treatment of a mother with a female CAH fetus due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency seems to be justified starting at the 12th week of gestation. However, the optimal beginning of therapy is in early pregnancy.

  5. Climate Change and the Water Cycle: A New Southwest Regional Climate Hub Curriculum Unit for 6th-12th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, S.; Haan-Amato, S.; Deswood, H.; Rango, A.; Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and scientifically rigorous education unit for 6th -12th grade students. The unit is aligned with Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Nine activities can be conducted over 10 instruction hours. Each activity can also stand alone. In partnership with SWRCH, the Asombro Institute for Science Education developed the unit. Each activity was reviewed by an educator for educational practices and by a scientist for scientific accuracy. The unit was pilot tested with 524 students in 2014, and pre- and post-tests were administered. Ninety-one percent of students were able to name a greenhouse gas on the post-test, compared to only 48% on the pre-test. On the post-test, 86% of students identified the relationship between average global temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, compared to only 52% on the pre-test. A student commented: "I loved all of the activities! They are fun and help us understand about what goes on in the world." Educators who participated in pilot testing said: "the entire curriculum is great, but I was particularly impressed with the progression of ideas and the variety of lessons," and "students could see the relevance and importance of these real life issues." Anyone interested in using the unit to host workshops for teachers in southwestern states should contact Asombro for more information (information@asombro.org). The Climate Change and the Water Cycle 6th-12th grade curriculum unit is available online: www.swclimatehub.info/education/climate-change-and-water-cycle

  6. Prediction of Moisture Distribution in Closed Ribbed Panel for Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukule, A.; Rocens, K.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays one of the possibilities to improve energy efficiency is the use of building elements with low air permeability, for example, sandwich panels with steel sheeting. However, these panels have one important disadvantage - a relatively small load-bearing capacity. This can be prevented by reinforcing the panel with antiseptized birch plywood ribs. For wood-based materials prediction of hygrothermal performance is important to avoid rot. Currently the methodology of ISO 13788:2012 is widely used assuming that moisture flux passes through the building envelope of any material. This assumption is not completely accurate with regard to a closed structure where no penetration of ambient humidity is possible. Therefore, in order to predict the distribution of moisture in such structure with the surfaces exposed to different temperatures and to assess the hazards of rot for plywood ribs, a methodology for closed building envelope is presented. To provide insight into expected results according to both methodologies, estimation for individual case with constant environmental conditions is given. According to the methodology for the closed building envelope no free water will occur. Therefore, it is believable that also no rot will be observed. This is contrary to the assessment according to the methodology of ISO 13788:2012, which predicts condensation.

  7. The RIB production target for the SPES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monetti, Alberto; Andrighetto, Alberto; Petrovich, Carlo; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossetto, Francesco; Martinez Dominguez, Fernando; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Calderolla, Michele; Silingardi, Roberto; Mozzi, Aldo; Borgna, Francesca; Vivian, Gianluca; Boratto, Enrico; Ballan, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco; Meneghetti, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Facilities making use of the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) attract interest because they can be used for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research and interdisciplinary applications. The ISOL technique is based on the fast release of the nuclear reaction products from the chosen target material together with their ionization into short-lived nuclei beams. Within this context, the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility is now under construction in Italy at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare — Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). The SPES facility will produce RIBs mainly from n-rich isotopes obtained by a 40 MeV cyclotron proton beam (200 μA) directly impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe and update, from a comprehensive point of view, the most important results obtained by the analysis of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. In particular an improved target configuration has been studied by comparing different codes and physics models: the thermal analyses and the isotope production are re-evaluated. Then some consequent radioprotection aspects, which are essential for the installation and operation of the facility, are presented.

  8. Effects of the insertional and appositional forces of the canine diaphragm on the lower ribs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Theodore A; De Troyer, André

    2013-07-15

    The diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, and current conventional wisdom maintains that this action is the result of two mechanisms, namely, the force applied by the muscle fibres on the ribs into which they insert (insertional force) and the transmission of abdominal pressure through the zone of apposition (appositional force). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic force and the relative contributions of the insertional and appositional components, however, are unknown. To assess these forces, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces were severed in anaesthetized dogs, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration, and the displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes were measured during quiet breathing, during occluded breaths and during passive lung inflation. From these data, the isolated effects of pleural pressure and transdiaphragmatic pressure on rib displacement were determined. Then external forces were applied to the ribs in the cranial and the lateral direction to simulate, respectively, the effects of the insertional and appositional forces, and the rib trajectories for these external forces were used as the basis for a vector analysis to obtain the relative magnitudes of the insertional and appositional contributions to the rib displacement driven by transdiaphragmatic pressure. The results show that, per unit pressure, the inspiratory effect of the diaphragmatic force on the lower ribs is equal to the expiratory effect of pleural pressure, and that the insertional force contributes 60% of that inspiratory effect.

  9. An unusual cause of rib fracture following a road traffic accident.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, R J; Fulcher, R A

    1997-01-01

    A case is presented which is thought to be the first described example of rib fracture occurring as a result of airbag inflation. It would appear that the propellant cartridge came loose during deployment to form a missile, striking the patient on his chest and fracturing a rib. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9132187

  10. Osteomyelitis of sternum and rib after breast prosthesis implantation: A rare or underestimated infection?

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Piseth; Alliez, Antoine; Honnorat, Estelle; Menard, Amelie; Casanova, Dominique; Stein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sternum and rib osteomyelitis complicated from breast implant infection is rare. We report a case of early sternum and rib osteomyelitis occurred during breast implant infection managed in an inter-regional referral center for bone/joint infections in the south of France. PMID:26793446

  11. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  12. The use of nylon cable ties to repair rib fractures in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Downs, Chris; Rodgerson, Dwayne

    2011-03-01

    Commercially available nylon cable ties were used as a method of internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in 8 equine neonates. The procedure was effective, well-tolerated, rapid, and inexpensive. The use of nylon cable ties as internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in foals is an effective surgical procedure.

  13. Surgical Treatment of Snapping Scapula Syndrome Due to Malunion of Rib Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ten Duis, Kaj; IJpma, Frank F A

    2017-02-01

    This report describes a case of snapping scapula syndrome (SSS) caused by malunited rib fractures. Abrasion of the deformed ribs was performed with good results. SSS as a cause of shoulder pain after thoracic trauma has to be considered and can be treated by a surgical abrasion technique.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study on temperature elevation behind ribs caused by weakly focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Yin, Chang; Gong, Xiufen; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-10-01

    Temperature distribution in tissues behind ribs produced by weakly focused ultrasound had been calculated using Pennes bioheat equation and the validity of the theoretical model was experimentally confirmed in vitro using porcine live. We found that the position of the maximum temperature in tissue is strongly influenced by the distance between the transducer and ribs, while the gap between ribs is the determining factor for the maximum achievable temperature. Within the focal length, when the distance between the transducer and ribs increases, the maximum temperature increases and its position shifts away from the transducer. The rib width has little effect on the position of the maximum temperature but affects the achievable peak temperature. Our results provide useful information for treating liver cancers using ultrasound induced hyperthermia.

  15. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2013-10-01

    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a simplified prediction model for ribbed plates.

  16. [The osteometric method for the determination of sequential localization and sex characteristics of the ribs using discriminate analysis].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Permiakova, E Iu; Galitskaia, O I

    2009-01-01

    The study material was ribs of the Caucasoid carcasses from the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Department of Personality Identification, Russian Centre of Forensic Medical Examination. Each rib was measured as stipulated by the 13 point program of A.I. Turovtsev (1972). The results were analysed with the use of the SPSS statistical packet. Diagnostic models were calculated for the purpose of forensic medicine practice based on step-by-step discriminative analysis. It is recommended to perform expert evaluation in two stages. The aim of the first stage, is to establish the group affiliation of a concrete rib. Group 1 comprises III-V ribs, group 2--ribs VI--VIII, and group 3--ribs IX-XI. Determination of the sequential localization of I, II, and XII ribs encounters practically no difficulty due to their unique anatomical structure. The accuracy of classication of group localization of the ribs amounts to 99.6%. At the second stage, individual number of a concrete rib within a group is determined. The accuracy of classification of ribs belonging to groups 1 and 3 is 80.2% and 85.7% respectively and that of ribs in group 2 is lightly lower (41.7-69%). Sexual identity of the ribs was determined by means of multidimensional discriminative analysis. The accuracy of diagnosis is directly related to the integrity of the study material; in other words, it depends on the amount of ribs available for the analysis. It is shown that sexual identity is best established for rib VI followed by ribs VIII, II, IV, and I respectively. The main discriminative features include the total arch length, costal plane curvature, and height-width dimension. Diagnostic equations are derived for the determination of sexual identity of individual ribs for the practical purposes of forensic medical examination.

  17. Focusing of high-intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    A method for focusing high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU) through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs while maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) was proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, were investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator, the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% vs. 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2-D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue-mimicking phantoms and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infrared camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at +/- 10-15 mm off and +/- 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting caused by the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU, for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue.

  18. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    PubMed Central

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; #, ||

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% versus 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue mimicking phantoms, and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infra-red camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at ± 10–15 mm off and ± 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting due to the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue. PMID:20510186

  19. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons.

  20. Evaluating Earth and Space Sciences STEM Research Communication in 7th-12th Grade Rural Mississippi Classrooms and Resulting Student Attitudinal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.

    2013-05-01

    Observation and evaluation of STEM graduate students from Mississippi State University communicating their research of the Earth and Space Sciences in rural 7th-12th grade classrooms participating in the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) NSF GK-12 project. The methods they utilize to communicate their STEM research includes introducing new technologies and inquiry based learning experiences. These communication experiences have been observed and evaluated using two observational systems, the Mathematics Science Classroom Observational Profile System (M-SCOPS) and the Presentation Skills Protocol (PSP). M-SCOPS has been used over the first three years of the project to evaluate what Earth and Space research the STEM graduate students communicate in classroom activities along with how they are introducing STEM research through a variety of communication methods and levels of understanding. PSP, which INSPIRE began using this year, evaluates and provides feedback to the STEM graduate students on their communication during these classroom experiences using a rubric covering a range of skills for successful communication. PSP also allows the participating INSPIRE teacher partners to provide feedback to the STEM graduate students about development of their communication skills over the course of the year. In addition to feedback from the INSPIRE project and participating teachers, the STEM graduate students have the opportunity to evaluate their personal communication skills through video documentation to determine specific skills they would like to improve. Another area of research to be discussed is how the STEM graduate students communicating Earth and Space sciences research in the participating classrooms is impacting student attitudes about science and mathematics over the last three years. Student Attitudinal Surveys (SAS) are administered as a pre-evaluation tool in the fall when the STEM graduate students first enter into their

  1. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  2. Structural efficiency study of composite wing rib structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gary D.; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A series of short stiffened panel designs which may be applied to a preliminary design assessment of an aircraft wing rib is presented. The computer program PASCO is used as the primary design and analysis tool to assess the structural efficiency and geometry of a tailored corrugated panel, a corrugated panel with a continuous laminate, a hat stiffened panel, a blade stiffened panel, and an unstiffened flat plate. To correct some of the shortcomings in the PASCO analysis when shear is present, a two step iterative process using the computer program VICON is used. The loadings considered include combinations of axial compression, shear, and lateral pressure. The loading ranges considered are broad enough such that the designs presented may be applied to other stiffened panel applications. An assessment is made of laminate variations, increased spacing, and nonoptimum geometric variations, including a beaded panel, on the design of the panels.

  3. Development of new Hopkinson's device dedicated to rib's bone characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeur, O.; Haugou, G.; Chaâri, F.; Delille, R.; Drazetic, P.; Markiewicz, E.

    2012-08-01

    This study presents an original approach for the design of adapted Hopkinson device dedicated to the characterisation of human ribs' cortical bone. The quasi-static study carried out on flat samples coming from this anatomical part highlighted the importance of the critical effect of sample shape and location on the accuracy of identify mechanical behaviour. The access to higher rates of strains, Hopkinson bars technique are classically required whatever compression or tension loadings. Classical designs of measurement bars are not suitable for this purpose due to the complexity of specimen's geometry (thickness variation). In this context, a new design of SHTB is studied here on the basis on a Finite Element approach of the set measurement bars/biological coupon. Finite Element simulations have been conducted using Abaqus explicit code by varying the design configuration. The comparison on input and output elastic waves suggests a set of small diameter bars in polyamide 66 for a better signal measurement.

  4. Interactive Simulation of Diaphragm Motion Through Muscle and Rib Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Pierre-Frédéric; Bourne, Wesley; Bello, Fernando

    Modeling of diaphragm behaviour is of relevance to a number of clinical procedures such as lung cancer radiotherapy and liver access interventions. The heterogeneity in tissue composition of the diaphragm, as well as the various physiological phenomena influencing its behaviour, requires a complex model in order to accurately capture its motion. In this chapter we present a novel methodology based on a heterogenous model composed of mass-spring and tensegrity elements. The physiological boundary conditions have been carefully taken into account and applied to our model. Thus, it incorporates the influence of the rib kinematics, the muscle natural contraction/relaxation and the motion of the sternum. Initial validation results show that the behaviour of the model closely follows that of a real diaphragm.

  5. Natural merodiploidy of the lux-rib operon of Photobacterium leiognathi from coastal waters of Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the bacterial luminescence (lux) genes has proven effective in helping resolve evolutionary relationships among luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using lux genes, however, is based on the assumptions that the lux genes are present as single copies on the bacterial chromosome and are vertically inherited. We report here that certain strains of Photobacterium leiognathi carry multiple phylogenetically distinct copies of the entire operon that codes for luminescence and riboflavin synthesis genes, luxCDABEG-ribEBHA. Merodiploid lux-rib strains of P. leiognathi were detected during sequence analysis of luxA. To define the gene content, organization, and sequence of each lux-rib operon, we constructed a fosmid library of genomic DNA from a representative merodiploid strain, lnuch.13.1. Sequence analysis of fosmid clones and genomic analysis of lnuch.13.1 defined two complete, physically separate, and apparently functional operons, designated lux-rib1 and lux-rib2. P. leiognathi strains lelon.2.1 and lnuch.21.1 were also found to carry lux-rib1 and lux-rib2, whereas ATCC 25521T apparently carries only lux-rib1. In lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, lnuch.21.1, and ATCC 25521T, lux-rib1 is flanked upstream by lumQ and putA and downstream by a gene for a hypothetical multidrug efflux pump. In contrast, transposase genes flank lux-rib2 of lnuch.13.1, and the chromosomal location of lux-rib2 apparently differs in lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, and lnuch.21.1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that lux-rib1 and lux-rib2 are more closely related to each other than either one is to the lux and rib genes of other bacterial species, which rules out interspecies lateral gene transfer as the origin of lux-rib2 in P. leiognathi; lux-rib2 apparently arose within a previously unsampled or extinct P. leiognathi lineage. Analysis of 170 additional strains of P. leiognathi, for a total of 174 strains examined from coastal waters of Japan, Taiwan, the Philippine Islands, and

  6. Natural Merodiploidy of the lux-rib Operon of Photobacterium leiognathi from Coastal Waters of Honshu, Japan▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ast, Jennifer C.; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the bacterial luminescence (lux) genes has proven effective in helping resolve evolutionary relationships among luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using lux genes, however, is based on the assumptions that the lux genes are present as single copies on the bacterial chromosome and are vertically inherited. We report here that certain strains of Photobacterium leiognathi carry multiple phylogenetically distinct copies of the entire operon that codes for luminescence and riboflavin synthesis genes, luxCDABEG-ribEBHA. Merodiploid lux-rib strains of P. leiognathi were detected during sequence analysis of luxA. To define the gene content, organization, and sequence of each lux-rib operon, we constructed a fosmid library of genomic DNA from a representative merodiploid strain, lnuch.13.1. Sequence analysis of fosmid clones and genomic analysis of lnuch.13.1 defined two complete, physically separate, and apparently functional operons, designated lux-rib1 and lux-rib2. P. leiognathi strains lelon.2.1 and lnuch.21.1 were also found to carry lux-rib1 and lux-rib2, whereas ATCC 25521T apparently carries only lux-rib1. In lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, lnuch.21.1, and ATCC 25521T, lux-rib1 is flanked upstream by lumQ and putA and downstream by a gene for a hypothetical multidrug efflux pump. In contrast, transposase genes flank lux-rib2 of lnuch.13.1, and the chromosomal location of lux-rib2 apparently differs in lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, and lnuch.21.1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that lux-rib1 and lux-rib2 are more closely related to each other than either one is to the lux and rib genes of other bacterial species, which rules out interspecies lateral gene transfer as the origin of lux-rib2 in P. leiognathi; lux-rib2 apparently arose within a previously unsampled or extinct P. leiognathi lineage. Analysis of 170 additional strains of P. leiognathi, for a total of 174 strains examined from coastal waters of Japan, Taiwan, the Philippine Islands, and

  7. Compressive rib fracture: peri-mortem and post-mortem trauma patterns in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Kieser, Jules A; Weller, Sarah; Swain, Michael V; Neil Waddell, J; Das, Raj

    2013-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on high impact fractures of ribs, little is known about compressive rib injuries. We studied rib fractures from a biomechanical and morphological perspective using 15, 5th ribs of domestic pigs Sus scrofa, divided into two groups, desiccated (representing post-mortem trauma) and fresh ribs with intact periosteum (representing peri-mortem trauma). Ribs were axially compressed and subjected to four-point bending in an Instron 3339 fitted with custom jigs. Morphoscopic analysis of resultant fractures consisted of standard optical methods, micro-CT (μCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). During axial compression, fresh ribs had slightly higher strength because of energy absorption capabilities of their soft and fluidic components. In flexure tests, dry ribs showed typical elastic-brittle behaviour with long linear load-extension curves, followed by relatively short non-linear elastic (hyperelastic) behaviour and brittle fracture. Fresh ribs showed initial linear-elastic behaviour, followed by strain softening, visco-plastic responses. During the course of loading, dry bone showed minimal observable damage prior to the onset of unstable fracture. In contrast, fresh bone showed buckling-like damage features on the compressive surface and cracking parallel to the axis of the bone. Morphologically, all dry ribs fractured precipitously, whereas all but one of the fresh ribs showed incomplete fracture. The mode of fracture, however, was remarkably similar for both groups, with butterfly fractures predominating (7/15, 46.6% dry and wet). Our study highlights the fact that under controlled loading, despite seemingly similar butterfly fracture morphology, fresh ribs (representing perimortem trauma) show a non-catastrophic response. While extensive strain softening observed for the fresh bone does show some additional micro-cracking damage, it appears that the periosteum may play a key role in imparting the observed pseudo-ductility to the ribs

  8. Fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide based rib waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioffrè, M.; Gagliardi, M.; Casalino, M.; Coppola, G.; Iodice, M.; Della Corte, F.

    2007-02-01

    In this work we investigate the possibility to use Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, for the realization of integrated optical structures working at 1550 nm. Structural properties of sputtered zinc oxide thin films were studied by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements, while optical properties were investigated by spectrophotometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). In particular, ellipsometric measurements allowed to determine the dispersion law of the ZnO complex refractive index (see manuscript) = n - jk through the multilayer modeling using Tauc-Lorentz (TL) dispersion model. We have found a preferential c-axis growth of ZnO films, with slightly variable deposition rates from 2.5 to 3.8 Å/s. Conversely, the refractive index exhibits, from UV to near IR, a considerable and almost linear variation when the oxygen flux value in the deposition chamber varies from 0 to 10 sccm. In order to realize a waveguide structure, a 3-μm-thick ZnO film was deposited onto silicon single crystal substrates, where a 0.5-μm-thick thermal SiO II buffer layer was previously realized, acting as lower cladding. Dry and wet chemical etching processes have been investigated to achieve controllable etching rate and step etching profile, with the aim to realize an optical rib waveguide. The etched surfaces were inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. Moreover, we carried out the experimental measurements of the fringes pattern and Free Spectral Range (FSR) of an integrated Fabry- Perot etalon, obtained by cleaving of a single mode rib waveguide.

  9. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  12. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  13. Absence of point mutation in the 12th codon of transformed c-Ha-rasl genes of human cancer of the breast, stomach, melanoma, and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, P.G.; Schafer, R.; Willecke, K.V.; Seitz, I.F.

    1985-11-01

    In the authors' previous investigations, they established that the tumorous cell lines SK-BR-3 (breast cancer), LAN-1 (neuroblastoma), and a heterotransplant of malignant melanoma Jal contain transforming genes of Ha-ras type. Now, the authors report their results using restriction endonucleases of MspI and HpaII restriction to study nucleotide sequences 5'-CCGGC-3' and 3'GGCCG-5', which contain the 12th codon of GGC for the amino acid glycine in the normal allele of c-Ha-rasl in the three tumors listed above, in addition to human adenocarcinoma of the stomach (CaVSt) and normal cells corresponding to them. For hybridization of MspI/HpaII, fragments of chromosomal DNA isolated from cell lines SK-BR-3, and LAN-1, Ja-1 heterotransplant, and stomach adenocarcinoma CaVSt, the XmaI section of EJ oncogene, c-Ha-rasl (plasmid pEJ 6.6), labeled with /sup 32/P was used in down-translation reaction. Hybridization was performed in 3 x SSC buffer containing 5x Deinhardt's reagent and 10% dextran sulfate at 68/sup 0/C for 16-18 h. Washing of filters was conducted under rigid conditions. For autoradiography, Kodak XR-5 x-ray film in cartridges with reinforcing shields was used at -70/sup 0/C, exposure time of four to six days.

  14. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  15. Non-destructive assessment of human ribs mechanical properties using quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mitton, David; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Ellouz, Rafaa; Rongieras, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine

    2014-04-11

    Advanced finite element models of the thorax have been developed to study, for example, the effects of car crashes. While there is a need for material properties to parameterize such models, specific properties are largely missing. Non-destructive techniques applicable in vivo would, therefore, be of interest to support further development of thorax models. The only non-destructive technique available today to derive rib bone properties would be based on quantitative computed tomography that measures bone mineral density. However, this approach is limited by the radiation dose. Bidirectional ultrasound axial transmission was developed on long bones ex vivo and used to assess in vivo health status of the radius. However, it is currently unknown if the ribs are good candidates for such a measurement. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ex vivo ultrasonic measurements (axial transmission) and the mechanical properties of human ribs to determine if the mechanical properties of the ribs can be quantified non-destructively. The results show statistically significant relationships between the ultrasonic measurements and mechanical properties of the ribs. These results are promising with respect to a non-destructive and non-ionizing assessment of rib mechanical properties. This ex vivo study is a first step toward in vivo studies to derive subject-specific rib properties.

  16. Physical mechanisms of active control of sound transmission through rib stiffened double-panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiyue; Chen, Kean; Ding, Shaohu; Yu, Haoxin

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation on physical mechanisms of actively controlling sound transmission through a rib stiffened double-panel structure using point source in the cavity. The combined modal expansion and vibro-acoustic coupling methods are applied to establish the theoretical model of such active structure. Under the condition of minimizing radiated power of the radiating ribbed plate, the physical mechanisms are interpreted in detail from the point of view of modal couplings similar as that used in existed literatures. Results obtained demonstrate that the rule of sound energy transmission and the physical mechanisms for the rib stiffened double-panel structure are all changed, and affected by the coupling effects of the rib when compared with the analytical results obtained for unribbed double-panel case. By taking the coupling effects of the rib into considerations, the cavity modal suppression and rearrangement mechanisms obtained in existed investigations are modified and supplemented for the ribbed plate case, which gives a clear interpretation for the physical nature involved in the active rib stiffened double-panel structure.

  17. Quantitative analysis of rib kinematics based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Sakuta, Keita; Kawashima, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    An image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs has been developed. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 16 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector and processed to create bone images by using commercial software (Clear Read BS, Riverain Technologies). Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as a reduced rib velocity field, resulting in an asymmetrical distribution of rib movement. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left/right symmetric distributions of the velocity field, whereas those in abnormal cases showed asymmetric distributions because of locally limited rib movements. Dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements. The present method has a potential for an additional functional examination in chest radiography.

  18. Three-Dimensional Custom-Made Titanium Ribs for Reconstruction of a Large Chest Wall Defect.

    PubMed

    Simal, Isabel; García-Casillas, Maria Antonia; Cerdá, Julio Arturo; Riquelme, Óscar; Lorca-García, Concepción; Pérez-Egido, Laura; Fernández-Bautista, Beatriz; Torre, Manuel de la; de Agustín, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Reconstruction of large chest wall defects always demand surgeons of having lots of means available (both materials and resourceful) to apply a cover to chest wall defects which can range from a few centimeters to the lack of a few entire ribs. In this study, we present the case of a teenager who suffered from a complete resection of three ribs because of Ewing sarcoma dependent on the sixth rib. Given the size of the defect, a multidisciplinary approach was chosen to provide rigid and soft tissue coverage and minimal functional and aesthetic impact. Custom-made titanium implants were designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography scan reconstruction. The surgical specimen via a left lateral thoracotomy (fifth, sixth, and seventh entire ribs) was resected, leaving a defect of 35 × 12 × 6 cm. A Gore-Tex patch (W. L. Gore & Associates, Arizona, United States) was placed and, after that, the implants were anchored to the posterior fragment of the healthy ribs and to the costal cartilage anteriorly. Finally, the surgical site was covered with a latissimus dorsi flap. The postoperative course was uneventful. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient has full mobility. This case shows that the implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects. The implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects.

  19. Rib Composite Flap With Intercostal Nerve and Internal Thoracic Vessels for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Li, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Li-Cheng; Meng, Zhen; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Zhu, Ying-Nan; Wu, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present the outcome and discuss the feasibility of rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels for reconstructing mandibular defect. Methods: Rib composite flaps have been used in 82 patients for reconstructing benign tumor-caused large mandibular defects: 66 of the 82 patients were reconstructed using rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels, whereas the other 16 patients were reconstructed using rib composite flap with internal thoracic vessels, without intercostal nerve. After operation, clinical observation, imageological examination, and sensory detection were used to evaluate the effect of reconstruction. Results: All rib composite flaps with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels were successfully harvested and transplanted. Both immediate and long-term examination showed good appearance reconstruction. All followed-up patients conveyed good satisfaction degree with function and appearance reconstruction. Postoperative panoramic x-ray examination showed new bone formation between the transplanted rib and mandibular stump. Good recoveries of mandibular nerve sensory were observed when followed up after reconstruction surgery. Conclusions: Rib composite flap with intercostal nerve and internal thoracic vessels could be a promising method for reconstruction of mandibular defects. PMID:27564074

  20. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  1. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  2. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  3. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  4. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  5. Evolutionary mechanisms of rib loss in anurans: a comparative developmental approach.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M J; Sanchiz, B

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT The presence of free ribs is presumed to be a primitive morphological character observed only in a few families of Recent anurans, whereas the absence of ribs has been considered to be a derived condition that is widespread within this order. A comparative study of rib development based on representatives of several anuran lineages (Alytes, Bombina, Bufo, Discoglossus, Hyla, Pelobates, Pelodytes, Rana, and Xenopus) reveals a previously undetected diversity of developmental features in the formation and interaction between neural arches and ribs. The absence of free ribs at premetamorphic or later stages is verified in some groups, but we present for the first time evidence of the existence of larval rib rudiments in others, both in the anterior (Rana, Hyla) and posterior (Bufo, Discoglossus, Pelobates) presacral regions. Heterochrony seems to have played a major role in the processes underlying rib reduction. The intracolumnar differences between anterior (V(2)-V(4)) and posterior (V(5)-V(8)) regions are based on perturbations in the timing of early differentiation. Furthermore, a clear shift in the relative timing of ossification among evolutionary lineages was detected. In this respect Xenopus has a highly derived condition. The use of the morphological character of "rib loss" in phylogenetic analyses must be reconsidered due to the different convergent developmental paths described here. The phylogenetic analysis of a "sequence units" matrix of rib development is compared with current anuran phylogenies. Some evolutionary information appears to be clearly present in the ontogenetic data of this "missing morphology," but its value for evolutionary inferences is rather limited.

  6. The action of the canine diaphragm on the lower ribs depends on activation.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André

    2011-11-01

    Conventional wisdom maintains that the diaphragm lifts the lower ribs during isolated contraction. Recent studies in dogs have shown, however, that supramaximal, tetanic stimulation of the phrenic nerves displaces the lower ribs caudally and inward. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that the action of the canine diaphragm on these ribs depends on the magnitude of muscle activation. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the C5 and C6 phrenic nerve roots were selectively stimulated in 6 animals with the airway occluded, and the level of diaphragm activation was altered by adjusting the stimulation frequency. In the second experiment, all the inspiratory intercostal muscles were severed in 7 spontaneously breathing animals, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration, and neural drive was increased by a succession of occluded breaths. The changes in airway opening pressure and the craniocaudal displacements of ribs 5 and 10 were measured in each animal. The data showed that 1) contraction of the diaphragm causes the upper ribs to move caudally; 2) during phrenic nerve stimulation, the lower ribs move cranially when the level of diaphragm activation is low, but they move caudally when the level of muscle activation is high and the entire rib cage is exposed to pleural pressure; and 3) during spontaneous diaphragm contraction, however, the lower ribs always move cranially, even when neural drive is elevated and the change in pleural pressure is large. It is concluded that the action of the diaphragm on the lower ribs depends on both the magnitude and the mode of muscle activation. These findings can reasonably explain the apparent discrepancies between previous studies. They also imply that observations made during phrenic nerve stimulation do not necessarily reflect the physiological action of the diaphragm.

  7. [Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fractures successfully achieved with the use of long metalic plates].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Sato, T; Osawa, H; Koyanagi, T; Maekawa, K; Watanabe, N; Nakase, A; Sakata, J; Kamada, K

    1998-05-01

    Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fractures in 5 male patients was successfully achieved with the use of orthopedic A-O metalic plates, which are called reconstruction plates. In each patient, we prevented deformity of the rib cage and flail chest which frequently occurs after multiple rib fractures. Three of these patients received emergency operations because of severe hemopneumothorax and flail chest due to crushing injuries to the chest. They were treated by the standard thoracotomy, hemostasis of intrapleural bleeding, and stabilization of fractured ribs with reconstruction plates, in addition two of the patients underwent a single lobectomy to control the pulmonary hemorrhage. Another two patients were treated with mechanical ventilation and closed-tube thoracotomy following the chest trauma because their thoracic bleeding from drainage tubes was tolerable. But flail chest and respiratory insufficiency did not improve, in spite of positive controlled ventilation as a mode of internal pneumatic stabilization. Then surgical stabilization of the fractured ribs with these plates was carried out ten to twelve days after the accidents in each case. All patients tolerated the surgical procedures well and were successfully removed from the respirator, demonstrating complete stability of the chest wall. The long metal reconstruction plates with many perforations were very useful for the external fixation of segmentary fractured ribs as an external brace. This was because they were long enough to cover the whole length of the fractured ribs and moderately soft enough to be appropriately bent or twisted by hand at the time of operation. Moreover a number of holes in it allowed the suture to pass through the plate and rib, avoiding displacement of the prosthesis. This is the first report which describes the usefulness of orthopedic reconstruction plates for the stabilization of multiple rib fractures.

  8. Detailed Performance Assessment of 16% Blockage Interrupted Ribs at Sixty Degree Inclination in a Square Section Turbine Blade Cooling Passage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Northeastern University, Taslim et al. (1996) have produced some useful data. The lack of data for high blockage ratio ribs in the literature is the main...literature, Taslim and Spring (1995) which showed e/d of around 8 gave the best result. Ribs were positioned inline on opposite walls for the parallel rib...cross ribs 16% 60deg single ribbed wall 16.7% 45deg stag ( Taslim , 1988) 16.7% 90deg stag ( Taslim , 1988) 6.25% 45deg full (Han, 1991) Figure 5 Normalised

  9. Short rib-polydactyly syndrome and pericentric inversion of chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Urioste, M.; Martinez-Frias, M.L.; Bermejo, E.; Villa, A.; Jimenez, N.; Romero, D.; Nieto, C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a newborn infant with clinical and radiological manifestations of some type of short rib-polydactyly syndrome who died soon after birth. Chromosomal studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes and chondrocytes demonstrated an apparently balanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 (present in the mother also). This association may have occurred by chance but, if not, the chromosomal breakpoints could interrupt the gene responsible for short rib-polydactyly syndromes, or else be related to the mechanism of short rib-polydactyly syndromes. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.

    PubMed

    Puttmann, Kathleen T; Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult.

  11. Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of the Microfluidic Heat Sink with Variously-Shaped Ribs for Chip Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351

  12. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microfluidic heat sink with variously-shaped ribs for chip cooling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-04-22

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types.

  13. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  14. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (12th, Portland, Oregon, June 23-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lyn, Ed.; Bradley, Jennifer, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The 12th Annual Building on Family Strengths Conference was held from June 23rd through June 25th 2005 in Portland, Oregon. Highlights included: (1) An information-packed keynote address by Dr. Richard M. Lerner on promoting positive youth development through enhancing the assets of communities; (2) An exciting research plenary panel session that…

  15. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  16. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in passages rib-roughened on all walls

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Spring, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    A liquid crystal technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients in twelve test sections with square and trapezoidal cross-sectional areas representing blade midchord cooling cavities in a modern gas turbine. Full-length ribs were configured on suction side as well as pressure side walls while half-length ribs were mounted on partition walls between adjacent cooling cavities. Ribs were in staggered arrangements with a nominal blockage ratio of 22% and an angle of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 90 deg. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the roughened walls with full-length as well as half-length ribs. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances of all geometries are compared. The most important conclusion of this study is that the roughening of the partition walls enhances the heat transfer coefficients on those walls but, more importantly, enhances heat transfer coefficients on the primary walls considerably.

  17. Effect of adiabatic square ribs on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi-Saad, Aissa; Kadja, Mahfoud; Popa, Catalin; Polidori, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    A 2-D numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of two adiabatic square ribs on laminar flow and heat transfer in an asymmetrically heated channel. The two ribs are symmetrically located on each wall, exactly above the heating zone. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady bi-dimensional continuity, momentum and energy equations with the finite volume method. The investigations focused more specifically on the influence of ribs sizes on the flow structure and heat transfer enhancement. The results showed that the variation of ribs sizes significantly alters the heat transfer and fluid flow distribution along the channel, especially in the vicinity of protrusions. Also, the results show that streamlines, isotherms, and the number, sizes and formation of vortex structures inside the channel strongly depend on the size of protrusions. The changes in heat transfer parameters have also been presented.

  18. Behavior of streamwise rib vortices in a three-dimensional mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, J. M.; Bulbeck, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The structure and behavior of a streamwise rib vortex in a direct numerical simulation of a time-developing three-dimensional incompressible plane mixing layer is examined. Where the rib vortex is being stretched, the vorticity vector is primarily directed in the vortex axial direction and the radial and azimuthal velocity distribution is similar to that of a Burger's vortex. In the region where the vortex stretching is negative, there is a change in the local topology of the vortex. The axial flow is decelerated and a negative azimuthal component of vorticity is induced. These features are characteristic of vortex breakdown. The temporal evolution of the rib vortex is similar to the evolution of an axisymmetric vortex in the early stages of vortex breakdown. The effect of vortex breakdown on other parts of the flow is, however, not as significant as the interaction between the rib vortex and other vortices.

  19. Rib metastases from a non-tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B S; Mannion, P A; White, R A S

    2011-03-01

    Metastatic spread to the ribs in a 15-year-old, male, neutered, Irish setter is reported occurring secondary to an oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The dog presented with a history of a rapidly growing SCC of the right upper incisive region, which was confirmed by histopathology as a SCC. Thoracic radiographs showed bony lesions associated with the body of the right third rib, and the fifth and seventh costal cartilages. A rostral partial maxillectomy was performed as palliative treatment for the oral mass and a core biopsy of the lesion on the third rib was performed. The rib lesion was identified histopathologically as a metastatic SCC. A review of the literature of oropharyngeal SCC and the metastatic potential of non-tonsillar SCC is presented, in particular metastatic bone disease. This case report suggests possible implications of metastatic bone disease for treatment and prognosis for future cases of non-tonsillar SCC.

  20. Phrenic Arterial Injury Presenting as Delayed Hemothorax Complicating Simple Rib Fracture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed hemothorax after blunt torso injury is rare, but might be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of delayed hemothorax bleeding from phrenic artery injury in a 24-year-old woman. The patient suffered from multiple rib fractures on the right side, a right hemopneumothorax, thoracic vertebral injury and a pelvic bone fracture after a fall from a fourth floor window. Delayed hemothorax associated with phrenic artery bleeding, caused by a stab injury from a fractured rib segment, was treated successfully by a minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery. Here, we have shown that fracture of a lower rib or ribs might be accompanied by delayed massive hemothorax that can be rapidly identified and promptly managed by thoracoscopic means. PMID:27051252

  1. Schlieren visualization of water natural convection in a vertical ribbed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossa, M.; Misale, M.; Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Schlieren techniques are valuable tools for the qualitative and quantitative visualizations of flows in a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. A large number of schlieren systems have been developed and documented in the literature; majority of applications involve flows of gases, typically air. In this work, a schlieren technique is applied to visualize the buoyancy-induced flow inside vertical ribbed channels using water as convective fluid. The test section consists of a vertical plate made of two thin sheets of chrome-plated copper with a foil heater sandwiched between them; the external sides of the plate are roughened with transverse, square-cross-sectioned ribs. Two parallel vertical walls, smooth and unheated, form with the heated ribbed plate two adjacent, identical and asymmetrically heated, vertical channels. Results include flow schlieren visualizations with colour-band filters, reconstructions of the local heat transfer coefficient distributions along the ribbed surfaces and comparisons with past experiments performed using air as working fluid.

  2. SEASONAL VARIABILTIY LIPIDS, LIPID CLASSES AND PCBS IN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the seasonal variability of total lipids, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. One population was located in a highly c...

  3. Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nicole; Christian, Andreas; Sander, P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    The histology of cervical ribs of Sauropoda reveals a primary bone tissue, which largely consists of longitudinally oriented mineralized collagen fibres, essentially the same tissue as found in ossified tendons. The absence of regular periosteal bone and the dominance of longitudinal fibres contradict the ventral bracing hypothesis (VBH) postulated for sauropod necks. The VBH predicts histologically primary periosteal bone with fibres oriented perpendicular to the rib long axis, indicative of connective tissue between overlapping hyperelongated cervical ribs. The transformation of the cervical ribs into ossified tendons makes the neck more flexible and implies that tension forces acted mainly along the length of the neck. This is contrary to the VBH, which requires compressive forces along the neck. Tension forces would allow important neck muscles to shift back to the trunk region, making the neck much lighter. PMID:23034173

  4. Experimental Study of Turbulent Flow over Inclined Ribs in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsikata, Jonathan Mawuli

    This thesis is an experimental study of turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls in a channel that consists of an upstream parallel section to produce a fully developed channel flow and a diverging section to produce an adverse pressure gradient (APG) flow. The roughness elements used were two-dimensional square ribs of nominal height k = 3 mm. The ribs were secured to the lower wall of the channel and spaced to produce the following three pitches: 2k, 4k and 8 k, corresponding to d-type, intermediate and k-type rough walls, respectively. For each rough wall type, the ribs were inclined at 90°, 45° and 30° to the approach flow. The velocity measurements were performed using a particle image velocimetry technique. The results showed that rib roughness enhanced the drag characteristics, and the degree of enhancement increased with increasing pitch. The level of turbulence production and Reynolds stresses were significantly increased by roughness beyond the roughness sublayer. It was observed that the population, sizes and the level of organization of hairpin vortices varied with roughness and more intense quadrant events were found over the smooth wall than the rough walls. APG reinforced wall roughness in augmenting the equivalent sand grain roughness height, turbulence production and Reynolds stresses. APG also reduced the sizes of the hairpin packets but strengthened the quadrant events in comparison to the results obtained in the parallel section. The secondary flow induced by inclined ribs significantly altered the distributions of the flow characteristics across the span of the channel. Generally, the mean flow was less uniform close to the trailing edge of the ribs compared to the flows at the mid-span and close to the leading edge of the ribs. The Reynolds stresses and hairpin packets were distinctly larger close to the trailing edge of the ribs. Rib inclination also decreased the drag characteristics and significantly modified the distributions of the

  5. Posterior rib fractures in a young infant who received chiropractic care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paria Majd; Greiner, Mary V; Duma, Elena M

    2012-11-01

    We report on a 21-day-old infant with healing posterior rib fractures that were noted after a chiropractic visit for colic. Chiropractors are the third largest group of health care professionals in the United States, and colic is the leading complaint for pediatric chiropractic care. Rib fractures, specifically when posterior, are traditionally considered to be secondary to nonaccidental trauma. Thorough investigation is necessary to rule out bone fragility and genetic disorders, but patient history is key when evaluating unexplained fractures.

  6. Acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, C. B.; Hayek, S. I.; Hallander, J. E.; Bostian, D. A.

    1984-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells were made on the NUSC Transducer Calibration Platform (TCP) in Lake Seneca, NY. Six different types of mechanical drives were used at each of three locations inside the inner shell. Measurements of the shell vibration and acoustic radiation were made with and without outer shells installed around the inner shell structure. For two types of drives, measurements were made with a pressure release layer installed between the inner and outer shell surfaces. Acoustic radiation measurements were made as a function of frequency from 20 to 5,000 Hz and as a function of observation direction at several frequencies for each shell and drive measurement configuration. Measured acoustic radiation data as a function of frequency have been processed. Analysis of the processed data is presented and discussed. It is shown that the location of the drive had a significant effect on the acoustic radiation. The outer shell reduced the acoustic radiation at shell resonant frequencies, but had little effect on other frequencies. The pressure release layer in the double shell had little effect on the acoustic radiation.

  7. Image Classification of Ribbed Smoked Sheet using Learning Vector Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Pulungan, A. F.; Faza, S.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important export commodity in Indonesia, which can be a major contributor to national economic development. One type of rubber used as rubber material exports is Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS). The quantity of RSS exports depends on the quality of RSS. RSS rubber quality has been assigned in SNI 06-001-1987 and the International Standards of Quality and Packing for Natural Rubber Grades (The Green Book). The determination of RSS quality is also known as the sorting process. In the rubber factones, the sorting process is still done manually by looking and detecting at the levels of air bubbles on the surface of the rubber sheet by naked eyes so that the result is subjective and not so good. Therefore, a method is required to classify RSS rubber automatically and precisely. We propose some image processing techniques for the pre-processing, zoning method for feature extraction and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) method for classifying RSS rubber into two grades, namely RSS1 and RSS3. We used 120 RSS images as training dataset and 60 RSS images as testing dataset. The result shows that our proposed method can give 89% of accuracy and the best perform epoch is in the fifteenth epoch.

  8. Detection and registration of ribs in MRI using geometric and appearance models.

    PubMed

    Samei, Golnoosh; Székely, Gábor; Tanner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a new type of minimally invasive therapy for treating malignant liver tissues. Since the ribs on the beam path can compromise an effective therapy, detecting them and tracking their motion on MR images is of great importance. However, due to poor magnetic signal emission of bones, ribs cannot be entirely observed in MR. In the proposed method, we take advantage of the accuracy of CT in imaging the ribs to build a geometric ribcage model and combine it with an appearance model of the neighbouring structures of ribs in MR to reconstruct realistic centerlines in MRIs. We have improved our previous method by using a more sophisticated appearance model, a more flexible ribcage model, and a more effective optimization strategy. We decreased the mean error to 2.5 mm, making the method suitable for clinical application. Finally, we propose a rib registration method which conserves the shape and length of ribs, and imposes realistic constraints on their motions, achieving 2.7mm mean accuracy.

  9. A comparison of methods for focusing the field of a HIFU array transducer through human ribs.

    PubMed

    Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N

    2014-06-21

    A forward model, which predicts the scattering by human ribs of a multi-element high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer, was used to investigate the efficacy of a range of focusing approaches described in the literature. This forward model is based on the boundary element method and was described by Gélat et al (2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 5553-81; 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 8471-97). The model has since been improved and features a complex surface impedance condition at the surface of the ribs. The inverse problem of focusing through the ribs was implemented on six transducer array-rib topologies and five methods of focusing were investigated, including spherical focusing, binarized apodization based on geometric ray tracing, phase conjugation and the decomposition of the time-reversal operator method. The excitation frequency was 1 MHz and the array was of spherical-section type. Both human and idealized rib topologies were considered. The merit of each method of focusing was examined. It was concluded that the constrained optimization approach offers greater potential than the other focusing methods in terms of maximizing the ratio of acoustic pressure magnitudes at the focus to those on the surface of the ribs whilst taking full advantage of the dynamic range of the phased array.

  10. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  11. A Study on the Performance of the Split Reaction Water Turbine with Guide Ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deuel H.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2015-09-01

    The development of technologies that make use of renewable energy is of great significance presently. A new kind of turbine called Split Reaction Water Turbine (SRWT) using PVC pipes as material is a major contribution towards harnessing the energy potentials of small stream low head water resources. SRWTs of diameter to height ratio (D/H = 110 cm/160 cm) were tested at the MSU-IIT College of Engineering Fluid Engineering Laboratory. Data on volumetric flow and pressure head at the turbine inlet of the SRWT were recorded using National Instrument Data Processing System using LabView software. In later experiments, guide ribs were installed at the vane of the exit nozzles in order to determine the difference in the performance of the ribbed and the non-ribbed SRWT. Simulations of the running SRWT were conducted using SOLIDWORKS software. Results of the simulations aided in the thorough analyses of the data from the experimental runs. A comparison of data from the ribbed and non-ribbed SRWT shows that guide ribs were effective in directing the momentum of the exiting water to improve the speed of rotation. In this study, the increase in the speed of the Split Reaction Water Turbine was as much as 46%.

  12. Adaptive projection method applied to three-dimensional ultrasonic focusing and steering through the ribs.

    PubMed

    Cochard, E; Aubry, J F; Tanter, M; Prada, C

    2011-08-01

    An adaptive projection method for ultrasonic focusing through the rib cage, with minimal energy deposition on the ribs, was evaluated experimentally in 3D geometry. Adaptive projection is based on decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT method) and projection on the "noise" subspace. It is shown that 3D implementation of this method is straightforward, and not more time-consuming than 2D. Comparisons are made between adaptive projection, spherical focusing, and a previously proposed time-reversal focusing method, by measuring pressure fields in the focal plane and rib region using the three methods. The ratio of the specific absorption rate at the focus over the one at the ribs was found to be increased by a factor of up to eight, versus spherical emission. Beam steering out of geometric focus was also investigated. For all configurations projecting steered emissions were found to deposit less energy on the ribs than steering time-reversed emissions: thus the non-invasive method presented here is more efficient than state-of-the-art invasive techniques. In fact, this method could be used for real-time treatment, because a single acquisition of back-scattered echoes from the ribs is enough to treat a large volume around the focus, thanks to real time projection of the steered beams.

  13. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    PubMed

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration.

  14. Correlating first- and second-rib fractures noted on spine computed tomography with major vessel injury.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Ankaj; Ocel, Joseph; Rad, Arash Ehteshami; Kallmes, David F

    2010-11-01

    First- and second-rib fractures diagnosed on plain radiographs have been associated with traumatic aortic injury. We examined whether such fractures diagnosed on computed tomography (CT), which is of greater sensitivity than plain radiograms for rib fractures, are associated with traumatic vascular injury. We identified 1,894 patients who had undergone a chest CT angiogram with indication of trauma between 2005 and 2008. Among these, 185 patients were selected at random. The main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident or a fall. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with first- and/or second-rib fractures and those without. Proportions of patients with major vessel injury noted on CT angiography were compared between groups. Information regarding displacement of the fracture, location of the fracture, detection upon plain film, and gender of the patients was also evaluated and correlated with incidence of major vessel injury. Fisher's test and χ2 analysis were used to determine significance of the data. Incidence of major vessel injury was similar between patients with and without first- and/or second-rib fractures (7% vs. 9%, respectively; p = 0.59). No subset of type of rib fracture was associated with greater incidence of aortic injury. First- and second-fractures are not associated with greater incidence of aortic injury. Thus, the previous axiom that first- and second-rib fractures should result in increased examination for aortic injury may not hold true.

  15. Medial scapular winging associated with rib fractures and plating corrected with pectoralis major transfer

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Mears, Chad S.; Langston, Tanner D.; Van Boerum, Don H.; White, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rib plating is becoming increasingly common as a method for stabilizing a flail chest resulting from multiple rib fractures. Recent guidelines recommend surgical stabilization of a flail chest based on consistent evidence of its efficacy and lack of major safety concerns. But complications of this procedure can occur and are wide ranging. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report an interesting case of a 58-year-old male patient that worked as a long-distance truck driver and had a flail chest from multiple bilateral rib fractures that occurred when his vehicle was blown over in a wind storm. He underwent open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) of the bilateral rib fractures and they successfully healed. However, he had permanent long thoracic nerve injury on the side with the most severe trauma. This resulted in symptomatic scapular winging that impeded him from long-distance truck driving. The scapular winging was surgically corrected nearly two years later with a pectoralis major transfer augmented with fascia lata graft. The patient had an excellent final result. DISCUSSION We report this case to alert surgeons who perform rib fracture ORIF that long thoracic nerve injury is a potential iatrogenic complication of that procedure or might be a result of the chest wall trauma. CONCLUSION Although the specific cause of the long thoracic nerve injury could not be determined in our patient, it was associated with chest wall trauma in the setting of rib fracture ORIF. The scapular winging was surgically corrected with a pectoralis major transfer. PMID:25238337

  16. Effects of dietary fat on alcohol-pyrazole hepatitis in rats: the pathogenetic role of the nonalcohol dehydrogenase pathway in alcohol-induced hepatic cell injury.

    PubMed

    Takada, A; Matsuda, Y; Takase, S

    1986-08-01

    Rats were fed with two different alcohol-containing (36% of total calories) liquid diets of high fat and low fat (35% and 15% of total calories) with or without 2 mM of pyrazole for 12 weeks. At the 12th week, the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase level was significantly elevated in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group, but not in the low fat group. Ballooning and necrotic changes of the hepatocytes in the centrolobular area were more prominent in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group than in the low fat group and alcohol alone groups, indicating that high fat diet accelerates the development of alcohol-pyrazole hepatitis. In the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group, a decrease of hepatic microtubules content and an accumulation of hepatic export proteins in the hepatocytes were found. The protein accumulation was prominent only in the ballooned hepatocytes. Hepatic acetaldehyde levels were significantly higher in the alcohol-pyrazole high fat group than in the alcohol-pyrazole low fat group. These results suggest that the accelerated ethanol metabolism in the nonalcohol dehydrogenase pathway by a high fat diet may play an important role in the development of hepatocytic injuries, by impairing the microtubular function of the hepatocytes.

  17. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education: STEM Graduate Students Bring Current Research into 7th-12th Grade Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Jackson, B. S.; Walker, R. M.; Schmitz, D.; Pierce, D.; Funderburk, W. K.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE), a NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) program at Mississippi State University, pairs STEM graduate students with local K-12 teachers to bring new inquiry and technology experiences to the classroom (www.gk12.msstate.edu). The graduate fellows prepare lessons for the students incorporating different facets of their research. The lessons vary in degree of difficulty according to the content covered in the classroom and the grade level of the students. The focus of each lesson is directed toward the individual research of the STEM graduate student using inquiry based designed activities. Scientific instruments that are used in STEM research (e.g. SkyMaster weather stations, GPS, portable SEM, Inclinometer, Soil Moisture Probe, Google Earth, ArcGIS Explorer) are also utilized by K-12 students in the activities developed by the graduate students. Creativity and problem solving skills are sparked by curiosity which leads to the discovery of new information. The graduate students work to enhance their ability to effectively communicate their research to members of society through the creation of research linked classroom activities, enabling the 7-12th grade students to connect basic processes used in STEM research with the required state and national science standards. The graduate students become respected role models for the high school students because of their STEM knowledge base and their passion for their research. Sharing enthusiasm for their chosen STEM field, as well as the application techniques to discover new ideas, the graduate students stimulate the interests of the classroom students and model authentic science process skills while highlighting the relevance of STEM research to K-12 student lives. The measurement of the student attitudes about science is gathered from pre and post interest surveys for the past four years. This partnership allows students, teachers, graduate students, and the public to

  18. Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, E.

    2009-04-01

    The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are

  19. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  20. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Yi-Ta; Wei, Jun

    2009-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  1. Experimental heat transfer and friction in channels roughened with angled, V-shaped, and discrete ribs on two opposite walls

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Kercher, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that the enhancement in heat transfer coefficients for air flow in a channel roughened with angled ribs is on the average higher than that roughened with 90 deg ribs of the same geometry. Secondary flows generated by the angled ribs are believed to be responsible for these higher heat transfer coefficients. In an effort basically to double the area of high heat transfer coefficients, the angled rib is broken at the center to form a V-shaped rib, and tests are conducted to investigate the resulting heat transfer coefficients and friction factors. Three different square rib geometries, corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.083, 0.125, and 0.167, with a fixed pitch-to-height ratio of 10, mounted on two opposite walls of a square channel in a staggered configuration, are tested in a stationary channel for 5,000 < Re < 30,000. Heat transfer coefficients, friction factors, and thermal performances are compared with those of 90 deg, 45 deg, and discrete angled ribs. The V-shaped ribs are tested for both pointing upstream and downstream of the main flow. Test results show that: (a) 90 deg ribs represent the lowest thermal performance, based on the same pumping power, and is essentially the same for the 2:1 change in blockage ratio, (b) low-blockage-ratio (E/D{sub h} = 0.083) V-shaped ribs pointing downstream produced the highest heat transfer enhancement and friction factors. Among all other geometries with blockage ratios of 0.125 and 0.167, 45 deg ribs showed the highest heat transfer enhancements with friction factors less than those of V-shaped ribs, (c) thermal performance of 45 deg ribs and the lowest blockage discrete ribs are among the highest of the geometries tested in this investigation, and (d) discrete angled ribs, although inferior to 45 deg and V-shaped ribs, produce much higher heat transfer coefficients and lower friction factors compared to 90 deg ribs.

  2. SpaRibs Geometry Parameterization for Wings with Multiple Sections using Single Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De, Shuvodeep; Jrad, Mohamed; Locatelli, Davide; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Baker, Myles; Pak, Chan-Gi

    2017-01-01

    The SpaRibs topology of an aircraft wing has a significant effect on its structural behavior and stability as well as the flutter performance. The development of additive manufacturing techniques like Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF3) has made it feasible to manufacture aircraft wings with curvilinear spars, ribs (SpaRibs) and stiffeners. In this article a new global-local optimization framework for wing with multiple sections using curvilinear SpaRibs is described. A single design space is used to parameterize the SpaRibs geometry. This method has been implemented using MSC-PATRAN to create a broad range of SpaRibs topologies using limited number of parameters. It ensures C0 and C1 continuities in SpaRibs geometry at the junction of two wing sections with airfoil thickness gradient discontinuity as well as mesh continuity between all structural components. This method is advantageous in complex multi-disciplinary optimization due to its potential to reduce the number of design variables. For the global-local optimization the local panels are generated by an algorithm which is totally based on a set algebra on the connectivity matrix data. The great advantage of this method is that it is completely independent of the coordinates of the nodes of the finite element model. It is also independent of the order in which the elements are distributed in the FEM. The code is verified by optimizing of the CRM Baseline model at trim condition at Mach number equal to 0.85 for five different angle of attack (-2deg, 0deg,2deg,4deg and 6deg). The final weight of the wing is 19,090.61 lb. This value is comparable to that obtained by Qiang et al. 6 (19,269 lb).

  3. Three-Dimensional Custom-Made Titanium Ribs for Reconstruction of a Large Chest Wall Defect

    PubMed Central

    Simal, Isabel; García-Casillas, Maria Antonia; Cerdá, Julio Arturo; Riquelme, Óscar; Lorca-García, Concepción; Pérez-Egido, Laura; Fernández-Bautista, Beatriz; Torre, Manuel de la; de Agustín, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of large chest wall defects always demand surgeons of having lots of means available (both materials and resourceful) to apply a cover to chest wall defects which can range from a few centimeters to the lack of a few entire ribs. In this study, we present the case of a teenager who suffered from a complete resection of three ribs because of Ewing sarcoma dependent on the sixth rib. Given the size of the defect, a multidisciplinary approach was chosen to provide rigid and soft tissue coverage and minimal functional and aesthetic impact. Custom-made titanium implants were designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography scan reconstruction. The surgical specimen via a left lateral thoracotomy (fifth, sixth, and seventh entire ribs) was resected, leaving a defect of 35 × 12 × 6 cm. A Gore-Tex patch (W. L. Gore & Associates, Arizona, United States) was placed and, after that, the implants were anchored to the posterior fragment of the healthy ribs and to the costal cartilage anteriorly. Finally, the surgical site was covered with a latissimus dorsi flap. The postoperative course was uneventful. After 9 months of follow-up, the patient has full mobility. This case shows that the implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects. The implant of custom-made ribs, combined with other techniques, is a good surgical choice for reconstruction of large chest wall defects. PMID:28018805

  4. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  5. National Society of Black Physicists XXV Annual Day of Scientific Lectures and 21st Annual Meeting - NSBP '98: The Next Generation/12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students - NCPBS '98: Physics/Life in Motion

    SciTech Connect

    MacKellar, Alan

    1999-02-28

    The 12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) March 4-8, 1998 in Lexington, Ky. The Proceedings consists of scientific talks and abstracts given by NSBP members and students attending the NCBPS meeting. One joint session of general scientific interest was held, with NCBPS students, NSBP members, and about 75 high school students from the state of Kentucky present. NCBPS session included ''How to get into Graduate School'', ''How to Survive in Graduate School'', and a Panel on ''Opportunities for Physics Graduates.'' The report by AIP: ''Survey of Participants of the 12th Annual NCBPS'' is included in the Proceedings.

  6. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D.

    1995-10-01

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  7. Early intravenous ibuprofen decreases narcotic requirement and length of stay after traumatic rib fracture.

    PubMed

    Bayouth, Lilly; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P; Birrer, Kara L; Promes, John T

    2013-11-01

    Pain control after traumatic rib fracture is essential to avoid respiratory complications and prolonged hospitalization. Narcotics are commonly used, but adjunctive medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial. Twenty-one patients with traumatic rib fractures treated with both narcotics and intravenous ibuprofen (IVIb) (Treatment) were retrospectively compared with 21 age- and rib fracture-matched patients who received narcotics alone (Control). Pain medication requirements over the first 7 hospital days were evaluated. Mean daily IVIb dose was 2070 ± 880 mg. Daily intravenous morphine-equivalent requirement was 19 ± 16 vs 32 ± 24 mg (P < 0.0001). Daily narcotic requirement was significantly decreased in the Treatment group on Days 3 through 7 (P < 0.05). Total weekly narcotic requirement was significantly less among Treatment patients (P = 0.004). Highest and lowest daily pain scores were lower in the Treatment group (P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was 4.4 ± 3.4 versus 5.4 ± 2.9 days (P = 0.32). There were no significant complications associated with IVIb therapy. Early IVIb therapy in patients with traumatic rib fractures significantly decreases narcotic requirement and results in clinically significant decreases in hospital length of stay. IVIb therapy should be initiated in patients with traumatic rib fractures to improve patient comfort and reduce narcotic requirement.

  8. Generation of Turbulent Inflow Conditions for Pipe Flow via an Annular Ribbed Turbulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moallemi, Nima; Brinkerhoff, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    The generation of turbulent inflow conditions adds significant computational expense to direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent pipe flows. Typical approaches involve introducing boxes of isotropic turbulence to the velocity field at the inlet of the pipe. In the present study, an alternative method is proposed that incurs a lower computational cost and allows the anisotropy observed in pipe turbulence to be physically captured. The method is based on a periodic DNS of a ribbed turbulator upstream of the inlet boundary of the pipe. The Reynolds number based on the bulk velocity and pipe diameter is 5300 and the blockage ratio (BR) is 0.06 based on the rib height and pipe diameter. The pitch ratio is defined as the ratio of rib streamwise spacing to rib height and is varied between 1.7 and 5.0. The generation of turbulent flow structures downstream of the ribbed turbulator are identified and discussed. Suitability of this method for accurate representation of turbulent inflow conditions is assessed through comparison of the turbulent mean properties, fluctuations, Reynolds stress profiles, and spectra with published pipe flow DNS studies. The DNS results achieve excellent agreement with the numerical and experimental data available in the literature.

  9. Brief communication: Reevaluating osteoporosis in human ribs: the role of intracortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Stout, Sam D

    2012-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern in modern society and is continually being evaluated in past populations by quantifying bone loss. Cortical area measures are commonly used in anthropological analyses to assess bone loss in the ribs, but these values are typically based on endosteal expansion and do not account for intracortical bone loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using absolute cortical area, compared to traditional cortical area measures to describe global bone loss in elderly ribs. Transverse sections were prepared from sixth ribs of ten elderly subjects, and bone area measurements were made from 100× magnification composites of each rib for calculation of cortical area (Ct.Ar) and percent cortical area (% C/T). In addition, all areas of intracortical porosity were measured and percent porosity area (% Po.Ar) calculated. Absolute cortical area (Ct.Ar(A)) was calculated by subtracting porosity area from cortical area, and a percent absolute cortical area (% C(A)/T) calculated. ANOVA results reveal significant interindividual variation in percent porosity area (% Po.Ar). Percent cortical area and percent absolute cortical area values were compared and results show a mean difference of 4.08% exists across all subjects, with a range of 1.19-11.73%. This suggests that intracortical porosity is variable and does play a role in age-associated bone loss in the rib. All future investigations of osteoporosis should account for intracortical porosity in bone loss.

  10. Pitfalls associated with open reduction and internal fixation of fractured ribs.

    PubMed

    Sarani, Babak; Schulte, Leah; Diaz, Jose J

    2015-12-01

    Rib fracture is exceedingly common and remains a leading cause of death in patients with chest injury. Probability of death increases by 19% with each broken rib, and the probability of death increases further with age. Treatment is centered on pain control and early mobilization to provide adequate pulmonary hygiene. Multimodality interventions, such as incentive spirometry, postural changes, and coughing, are pivotal in minimizing the risk of pneumonia and death. Recently, many studies have found mortality benefit to operation fixation (ORIF) of ribs in select patients. However, this procedure remains underutilized partly due to lack of familiarity with its technique and pitfalls by trauma surgeons, in particular. Whereas there are publications on operative technique, there are no studies describing pitfalls associated with this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to describe pitfalls on the technical aspects of ORIF of the ribs based on the medical literature where possible and based on our experience in instances where peer reviewed evidence is lacking. The paper is not meant to serve as a protocol for managing rib fractures.

  11. Rib and sternum fractures in the elderly and extreme elderly following motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vishal; Conroy, Carol; Chang, David; Tominaga, Gail T; Coimbra, Raul

    2011-05-01

    As the population ages, the need to protect the elderly during motor vehicle crashes becomes increasingly critical. This study focuses on causation of elderly rib and sternum fractures in seriously injured elderly occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. We used data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database (1997-2009). Study case criteria included occupant (≥ 65 years old) drivers (sitting in the left outboard position of the first row) or passengers (sitting in the first row right outboard position) who were in frontal or side impacts. To avoid selection bias, only occupants with a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 3 (serious) or greater severity injury were included in this study. Odds ratios were used as a descriptive measure of the strength of association between variables and Chi square tests were used to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between categorical variables. Of the 211 elderly (65-79 years old) occupants with thoracic injury, 92.0% had rib fractures and 19.6% had sternum fractures. For the 76 extreme elderly (80 years or older) with thoracic injury, 90.4% had rib fractures and 27.7% had sternum fractures. Except for greater mortality and more rib fractures caused by safety belts, there were no differences between the extreme elderly and the elderly occupants. Current safety systems may need to be redesigned to prevent rib and sternum fractures in occupants 80 years and older.

  12. Holographic interferometry as a method to detect welding failures on ribbed iron structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Freyre, C.; Spector, M.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.; Yañez Casal, A.

    2013-11-01

    Metallic structures made of ribbed iron bars (ADN-420) are of common use in sheds and supporting structures. Usually, trusses are constructed with many pieces of ribbed iron bars, combined together through a welding process. Although ribbed iron manufacturers do not recommend this type of structure it is still frequently used. The main weakness of these trusses is the welding point because ribbed iron is not a material suitable for welding. This work presents results obtained from an analysis of welding points between ribbed iron bars extracted from a collapsed truss, by means of conventional (optical) and digital holographic interferometry (HI and DHI, respectively). The experiments were divided in two different series of studies. The first series were performed by HI on metallographic samples while the second series were done by DHI on different welding points. These results were complemented by metallographic analysis made in an external laboratory. DHI indicated that the bars did not have important failures but evidenced defects in one of the welding points under analysis. This information together with metallographic results allowed inferring that the collapse was probably due to an error in the design of the structure, since the iron bars were out of standard compliance.

  13. Effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on formation of coagulative necrosis in goat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqi; Gong, Xiaobo; Hu, Kai; Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2006-05-01

    The motives of the work are to explore the effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on HIFU ablation goat liver. A model-JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System was used. A 0.75 MHz focused transducer with 150mm aperture and 120mm focal length was used in all experiment. Acoustical power can be adjusted. 30 goats were divided into control group (HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU alone), experiment group 1(HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU combined with microbubble) and experiment group 2(Ribs in HIFU beam path were surgically removed, HIFU alone). 20 targeted regions at 5cm away from skin surface were applied for creating necrosis with linear scanning of 15mm length using HIFU in 3 groups. All animals were sacrificed two days later and exposed organs were dissected. After obtaining the maximal section, the volumes of the necrotic regions were measured, then to calculate Energy Efficiency Factor (EEF). Researched results showed that Ribs in HIFU beam path affected the formation of coagulative necrosis and enhanced EEF in control group. HIFU combined with microbubble could enhance the formation of coagulative necrosis and decrease EEF.

  14. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Radiating Rib Pain: A 65-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Cofano, Gregory; Meyers, Meredith; Sergent, Adam; LaCourt, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management and referral of a patient with rib pain who was subsequently diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. Clinical Features A 65-year-old woman presented with radiating rib pain to a chiropractic clinic. She was treated with a 2-week course of conservative care. On follow-up evaluation, she reported a deep ache over her lower ribs, wrapping around to her abdomen. Palpation under the anterior rib cage reproduced her pain, and she also had a positive Murphy Sign. She was referred for an abdominal ultrasonography. Intervention and Outcome Ultrasonography showed a 12-cm solid vascular mass of the right kidney. Further imaging studies using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the ultrasonography findings. She was referred to a cancer center for staging of the cancer and subsequent surgical treatment. The involved tissue, as well as the kidney and part of the inferior vena cava, was removed, and the pathology report determined that the mass was clear cell carcinoma. Conclusion This case describes an unusual presentation of a patient with rib pain that had previously undiagnosed renal cancer. Referral by her doctor of chiropractic resulted in detection of the tumor and treatment. PMID:27069436

  15. IGRT/ART phantom with programmable independent rib cage and tumor motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Olivier C. L.; Mills, John A.; Land, Imke; Mulholl, Pete; Menary, Paul; Crichton, Robert; Wilson, Adrian; Sage, John; Anna, Morenc; Depuydt, Tom

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of the Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radiation Oncology (MAESTRO) thorax phantom, a new anthropomorphic moving ribcage combined with a 3D tumor positioning system to move target inserts within static lungs. Methods: The new rib cage design is described and its motion is evaluated using Vicon Nexus, a commercial 3D motion tracking system. CT studies at inhale and exhale position are used to study the effect of rib motion and tissue equivalence. Results: The 3D target positioning system and the rib cage have millimetre accuracy. Each axis of motion can reproduce given trajectories from files or individually programmed sinusoidal motion in terms of amplitude, period, and phase shift. The maximum rib motion ranges from 7 to 20 mm SI and from 0.3 to 3.7 mm AP with LR motion less than 1 mm. The repeatability between cycles is within 0.16 mm root mean square error. The agreement between CT electron and mass density for skin, ribcage, spine hard and inner bone as well as cartilage is within 3%. Conclusions: The MAESTRO phantom is a useful research tool that produces programmable 3D rib motions which can be synchronized with 3D internal target motion. The easily accessible static lungs enable the use of a wide range of inserts or can be filled with lung tissue equivalent and deformed using the target motion system.

  16. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  17. The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease, or tallow.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A R; Powell, S; Johnston, S L; Matthews, J O; Bidner, T D; Valdez, F R; Southern, L L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of Cr as chromium propionate (CrProp) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease (CWG), or tallow. An experiment was conducted with 108 crossbred Yorkshire gilts assigned in a randomized complete block design based on BW (average initial and final BW were 29 +/- 3 and 109 +/- 7 kg, respectively) and allotted within block to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatment arrangement consisted of 2 levels of Cr supplementation (0 and 200 microg/kg in the form of CrProp) and 3 dietary fat sources (no added fat, CWG, or tallow). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 3 pigs per replicate pen. The experiment was conducted over time with 3 replicates in each of 2 trials. A 4-phase grower-finisher feeding program was used. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet with no added fat; 2) a C-SBM diet with 4% added tallow; 3) a C-SBM diet with 4% added CWG; 4) diet 1 + 200 microg/kg of Cr as CrProp; and 5) diet 2 + 200 microg/kg of Cr; 6) diet 3 + 200 microg/kg of Cr. Addition of Cr did not affect (P > 0.10) growth performance, but did decrease (P = 0.05) 10th-rib backfat and increase (P = 0.03) percentage of muscle. Gain:feed was increased (P = 0.003) and ADFI was decreased (P = 0.03) by fat addition. Fat addition increased HCW (P = 0.05) and dressing percent (P = 0.03). Average backfat, 9th-rib LM cook loss, and 10th-rib LM drip loss and total loss were decreased (P = 0.02 to 0.04) by tallow. Belly bending on both the teatline and scribe side were increased (P = 0.01 to 0.03) by CWG. Iodine values on belly fat samples were decreased (P = 0.02) by Cr supplementation. In addition, iodine values on belly and loin fat samples were increased (P = 0.001) by CWG. Overall, Cr supplementation decreased backfat and the iodine value of belly fat and increased the percentage of muscle.

  18. A Feasibility Study on Ribs as Anatomical Landmarks for Motion Tracking of Lung and Liver Tumors at External Beam Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi

    2017-02-01

    At external beam radiotherapy for some tumors located at thorax region due to lack of information in gray scale fluoroscopic images tumor position determination is problematic. One of the clinical strategies is to implant clip as internal fiducial marker inside or near tumor to represent tumor position while the contrast of implanted clip is highly observable rather than tumor. As alternative, using natural anatomical landmarks located at thorax region of patient body is proposed to extract tumor position information without implanting clips that is invasive method with possible side effect. Among natural landmarks, ribs of rib-cage structure that result proper visualization at X-ray images may be optimal as representative for tumor motion. In this study, we investigated the existence of possible correlation between ribs as natural anatomical landmarks and various lung and liver tumors located at different sites as challenging issue. A simulation study was performed using data extracted from 4-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom that is able to simulate motion effect of dynamic organs, as well. Several tumor sites with predefined distances originated from chosen ribs at anterior-posterior direction were simulated at 3 upper, middle, and lower parts of chest. Correlation coefficient between ribs and tumors was calculated to investigate the robustness of ribs as anatomical landmarks for tumor motion tracking. Moreover, a consistent correlation model was taken into account to track tumor motion with a rib as best candidate among selected ribs. Final results represent availability of using rib cage as anatomical landmark to track lung and liver tumors in a noninvasive way. Observations of our calculations showed a proper correlation between tumors and ribs while the degree of this correlation is changing depends on tumor site while lung tumors are more varied and complex with less correlation with ribs motion against liver tumors.

  19. Long-term results after muscle-rib flap transfer for reconstruction of composite limb defects.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Alexandru V; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Ileana, Matei; Irina, Capota; Filip, Ardelean; Olariu, Radu

    2011-03-01

    The authors present the long-term results in a series of 44 cases with post-traumatic bone defects solved with muscle-rib flaps, between March 1997 and December 2007. In these cases, we performed 21 serratus anterior-rib flaps (SA-R), 10 latissimus dorsi-rib flaps (LD-R), and 13 LD-SA-R. The flaps were used in upper limb in 18 cases and in lower limb in 26 cases. With an overall immediate success rate of 95.4% (42 of 44 cases) and a primary bone union rate of 97.7% (43 of 44 cases), and despite the few partisans of this method, we consider that this procedure still remains very usefully for small and medium bone defects accompanied by large soft tissue defects.

  20. The biomechanics of human ribs: material and structural properties from dynamic tension and bending tests.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Pullins, Clayton A; Freeman, Laura J; Duma, Stefan M; Rouhana, Stephen M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify both the tensile material properties and structural response of human ribs in order to determine which variables contribute to regional variation in the strength of human ribs. This was done by performing 94 matched tests on human rib specimens; 46 tension coupon tests, 48 three-point bending tests. Contralateral matched specimens were dissected from anterior and lateral regions of ribs 4 through 7 of six male fresh frozen post mortem human subjects ranging from 42 to 81 years of age. Tension coupons were taken from one side of the thorax, while three-point bending specimens were taken from the opposite side as the tension coupons at corresponding anatomical locations. The results of the tension coupon testing showed that there were no significant differences with respect to region or rib level: ultimate stress (p=0.90; p=0.53), ultimate strain (p=0.49; p=0.86), or modulus (p=0.72; p=0.81). In contrast, lateral three-point bending specimens were found to have a significantly higher peak bending moment (p<0.01), peak strain (p=0.03), modulus (p=0.05), and stiffness (p<0.01) than anterior specimens. The lateral three-point bending specimens also had a significantly larger area moment of inertia (p<0.01), larger distance to the neutral axis (p<0.01), smaller ratio of distance to the neutral axis to area moment of inertia (p<0.01), larger cortical bone area (p<0.01), and larger radius of gyration (p<0.01) than the anterior specimens. In addition, the peak moment (Ant p=0.20; Lat p=0.02), peak strain (Ant p=0.05; Lat p=0.15), and stiffness (Ant p<0.01; Lat p<0.01) were found to vary significantly with respect to rib level. Similar to anatomical region, the changes in the structural response with respect to rib level were also accompanied by significant changes in geometry. For anterior specimens, distance to the neutral axis (p<0.01), ratio of the distance to the neutral axis to area moment of inertia (p=0.02) and radius of

  1. Glued Joint Behavior of Ribs for Wood-Based Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolovs, G.; Rocens, K.; Sliseris, J.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of composite sandwich plywood plates with cell type core and their connections between skin layers of birch plywood and a core of straight and curved plywood honeycomb-type ribs. This shape of core ribs provides several improvements for these plates in the manufacturing process as well as improves the mechanical properties of plywood plates. This specific form of ribs allows simplifying the manufacturing of these plates although it should be detailed and improved. The most typical cases (series of specimens) were compared to the results obtained from FEM (ANSYS) simulations. All thicknesses of elements are chosen according to plywood supplier assortment. Standard birch plywood (Riga Ply) plates were used - three layer plywood was chosen for skin elements (Surfaces) and three or five layer plywood was chosen for edge elements. Different bond pressures were taken to compare their influence on joint strength and stiffness.

  2. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression.

  3. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu; Zou, Donghua; Li, Zhengdong; Wan, Lei; Qin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ningguo; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhong, Liangwei; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yijiu

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s). Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  4. The effect of age on the structural properties of human ribs.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Schafman, Michelle; Moorhouse, Kevin; White, Susan E; Kang, Yun-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury from motor vehicle crashes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The thorax is particularly at risk in motor vehicle crashes and is studied extensively by the injury biomechanics community. Unfortunately, most samples used in such research generally do not include children or the very elderly, despite the common occurrence of thorax injuries at both ends of the age spectrum. Rib fractures in particular, are one of the most common injuries, especially in the elderly, and can greatly affect morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. As the proportion of older adults in the population increases, such age-related fragility fractures will continually grow as a worldwide problem. Additionally, the risk of rib fracture significantly increases with age with confounding deleterious effects. Studies on elderly ribs are not uncommon, however very few studies exist which explore the mechanical properties and behavior of immature human bone, especially of ribs. Previous research identifying rib properties has provided useful information for numerous applications. However, no study has included a comprehensive sample of all ages (pediatric through elderly) in which ribs are tested in the same repeatable set-up. The goal of this study is to characterize differences in rib structural response across the age spectrum. One-hundred forty excised ribs from 70 individuals were experimentally tested in a custom-built pendulum fixture simulating a dynamic frontal impact. The sample includes individuals of ages ranging from six to 99 years old and includes 58 males and 12 females. Reported data include fracture location, displacement in the X and Y directions at fracture (δX, δY), force at fracture (FX), and linear structural stiffness (K). δX and K exhibit a statistically significant linear decrease with age (p<0.0001). FX reveals a trend in which a peak is reached in the young adult years (25-40). Detailed mechanical property data, as

  5. Optimization in modeling the ribs-bounded contour from computer tomography scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinskas, M. J.; Dzemyda, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a method for analyzing transversal plane images from computer tomography scans is presented. A mathematical model that describes the ribs-bounded contour was created and the problem of approximation is solved by finding out the optimal parameters of the model in the least-squares sense. Such model would be useful in registration of images independently on the patient position on the bed and on the radio-contrast agent injection. We consider the slices, where ribs are visible, because many important internal organs are located here: liver, heart, stomach, pancreas, lung, etc.

  6. Coordination Between Ribs Motion and Thoracoabdominal Volumes in Swimmers During Respiratory Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Sarro, Karine J.; Silvatti, Amanda P.; Barros, Ricardo M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if swimmers present better chest wall coordination during breathing than healthy non-athletes analyzing the correlation between ribs motion and the variation of thoracoabdominal volumes. The results of two up-to-date methods based on videogrammetry were correlated in this study. The first one measured the volumes of 4 separate compartments of the chest wall (superior thorax, inferior thorax, superior abdomen and inferior abdomen) as a function of time. The second calculated the rotation angle of the 2nd to the 10th ribs around the quasi-transversal axis also in function of time. The chest wall was represented by 53 markers, attached to the ribs, vertebrae, thorax and abdomen of 15 male swimmers and of 15 non- athletes. A kinematical analysis system equipped with 6 digital video cameras (60Hz) was used to obtain the 3D coordinates of the markers. Correlating the curves of ribs rotation angles with the curves of the separate volumes, swimmers presented higher values than non-athletes when the superior and inferior abdomen were considered and the highest correlation values were found in swimmers for the inferior thorax. These results suggest a better coordination between ribs motion and thoracoabdominal volumes in swimmers, indicating the prevalent and coordinated action of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to inflate and deflate the chest wall. The results further suggest that swimming practice leads to the formation of an optimized breathing pattern and can partially explain the higher lung volumes found in these athletes reported in literature. Key pointsThe study revealed that swimmers present higher correlation between the ribs motion and the variation of abdominal volumes than non-swimmers, suggesting that swimming practice might lead to the formation of an optimized breathing pattern, increasing the coordination between the thoracoabdominal volumes and the ribs motion.No previous work was found in the literature reporting this

  7. The use of a segmented transducer for rib sparing in HIFU treatments.

    PubMed

    Civale, John; Clarke, Robert; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail

    2006-11-01

    The use of focused ultrasound as a minimally invasive treatment for tumours is rapidly expanding. Target organs include the liver and kidneys. Both single element and phased array transducers may be used in the clinic. The presence of the rib cage presents a problem in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment planning, due to its high attenuation of the HIFU beam resulting in a loss of power at the focus as well as an increase in the risk of damage at the rib and to overlying tissues, including the skin. In this paper, a linearly segmented transducer, in which all active elements are driven in phase, has been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate how a beam with a clinically useful profile could be achieved by removing the contribution of edge segments from one side of the transducer to the field. We have considered the case in which the HIFU beam approaches the rib cage during a treatment and investigated configurations of the transducer for which up to three segments on the edge are switched off. This problem has been studied initially using a linear acoustic field program to model the segmented transducer's acoustic beam profile. Experimental measurements of the transducer's acoustic field were performed using an automated beam plotting system. Temperature measurements were made on a rib surface for two transducer configurations using a fine wire thermocouple. A thermochromic liquid crystal material was used to assess qualitatively the heating pattern generated by the ultrasound beam. We show the rib sparing potential of the segmented transducer during HIFU treatment by demonstrating a reduction in the prefocal width of the ultrasound beam when edge segments are switched off. This has been predicted with the acoustic field model and demonstrated experimentally by acoustic field measurements and observations of the heating pattern generated by the ultrasound beam. A significant decrease in the temperature rise on a rib was observed in

  8. High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Kiyat, Isa; Aydinli, Atilla; Dagli, Nadir

    2005-03-21

    In this work, detailed design and realization of high quality factor (Q) racetrack resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides are presented. Aiming to achieve critical coupling, suitable waveguide geometry is determined after extensive numerical studies of bending loss. The final design is obtained after coupling factor calculations and estimation of propagation loss. Resonators with quality factors (Q) as high as 119000 has been achieved, the highest Q value for resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides to date with extinction ratios as large as 12 dB.

  9. Pressure drop and mass transfer in two-pass ribbed channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, P. R.; Han, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of the sharp 180-deg turn and of the rib configuration on the pressure drop and mass transfer characteristics in a two-pass square channel with a pair of opposite rib-roughened walls (to simulate turbine airfoil cooling passages) were determined for a Reynolds number range of 10,000-60,000. Heat transfer enhancements were compared for the first pass and for the two-pass channel with the sharp 180-deg turn. Correlations for the fully-developed friction factors and loss coefficients were obtained.

  10. RIB in-flight production and the facility EXOTIC at LNL

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, Marco

    2014-05-09

    The production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) via the In-Flight technique is reviewed. This separation method typically employs four main production mechanisms: (i) Projectile Fragmentation; (ii) Projectile Fission; (iii) Nuclear Fusion and (iv) Direct Processes in Inverse Kinematics. We will concentrate particularly on the last mechanism, the one used by the facility EXOTIC at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) for the production of light RIBs. An extensive description of the facility and a brief overview of the most recent scientific achievements with {sup 7}Be and {sup 17}F are given.

  11. High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Aydinli, Atilla; Dagli, Nadir

    2005-03-01

    In this work, detailed design and realization of high quality factor (Q) racetrack resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides are presented. Aiming to achieve critical coupling, suitable waveguide geometry is determined after extensive numerical studies of bending loss. The final design is obtained after coupling factor calculations and estimation of propagation loss. Resonators with quality factors (Q) as high as 119000 has been achieved, the highest Q value for resonators based on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides to date with extinction ratios as large as 12 dB.

  12. Adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods: associations with sex and weight-control behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Ninth- to 12th-grade students (n=1,083) in 20 Minnesota high schools completed mail surveys (response rate=74%) as part of baseline measurements (Fall 2001) in a randomized controlled trial (TACOS: Trying Alternative Cafeteria Options in Schools). Linear models examined attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Girls were more likely than boys to report positive attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods (all P<.01). Weight-control practices were associated with more positive attitudes about and higher consumption of low-fat foods. Promoting low-fat snacks to adolescents who are interested in weight control may be an effective component of nutrition intervention programs because these students have more positive attitudes about low-fat foods. Dietitians' efforts to educate adolescents about the benefits and healthfulness of low-fat foods would aid intervention programs.

  13. A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2014-07-18

    In this study, we developed a statistical rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index (BMI). Thorax CT scans were obtained from 89 subjects approximately evenly distributed among 8 age groups and both sexes. Threshold-based CT image segmentation was performed to extract the rib geometries, and a total of 464 landmarks on the left side of each subject׳s ribcage were collected to describe the size and shape of the rib cage as well as the cross-sectional geometry of each rib. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to predict rib cage geometry as a function of age, sex, stature, and BMI, all of which showed strong effects on rib cage geometry. Except for BMI, all parameters also showed significant effects on rib cross-sectional area using a linear mixed model. This statistical rib cage geometry model can serve as a geometric basis for developing a parametric human thorax finite element model for quantifying effects from different human attributes on thoracic injury risks.

  14. Comparing and determining the causes of ribbed mussel nitrogen isotope signatures in three New England sub-watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geukensia demissa, the ribbed mussel, is a useful indicator of sources of nitrogen input into coastal watersheds as it possesses a slow tissue turnover rate and is a common salt marsh species. During the summer of 2016, we sampled ribbed mussels from three New England sub-watersh...

  15. Microbiological safety of commercial prime rib preparation methods: thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in mechanically tenderized beef roasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of food service operations in a medium-size Midwestern city was conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of prime rib preparation methods relative to survival of Salmonella spp. in both intact and tenderized (non-intact) product. All six restaurants visited seared rib eye roasts (ai...

  16. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  17. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  18. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  19. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  20. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  1. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  2. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  3. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  4. Evolution of the respiratory system in nonavian theropods: evidence from rib and vertebral morphology.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Lyson, Tyler R; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Recent reports of region-specific vertebral pneumaticity in nonavian theropod dinosaurs have brought attention to the hypothesis that these animals possessed an avian-style respiratory system with flow-through ventilation. This study explores the thoracic rib and vertebral anatomy of Sinraptor, Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Deinonychus; four nonavian theropods that all show well-preserved thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Comparisons to the osteology and soft tissue anatomy of extant saurians provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis of flow-through ventilation in nonavian theropods. Analyses of diapophyseal and parapophyseal position and thoracic rib morphology suggest that most nonavian theropods possessed lungs that were deeply incised by the adjacent bicapitate thoracic ribs. This functionally constrains the lungs as rigid nonexpansive organs that were likely ventilated by accessory nonvascularized air sacs. The axial anatomy of this group also reveals that a crocodilian-like hepatic-piston lung would be functionally and biomechanically untenable. Taken together with the evidence that avian-like air sacs were present in basal theropods, these data lead us to conclude that an avian-style pulmonary system was likely a universal theropod trait.

  5. Reconstruction of ulnar defect with vascularized rib graft: A case report.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Humbyrd, Casey J; Osgood, Greg M; Yang, Stephen C; Deune, E Gene

    2017-02-01

    This case report describes the reconstruction of a segmental ulnar defect using a vascularized rib graft. A 27-year-old man was injured during military service by an improvised explosive device, resulting in bilateral through-the-knee amputations, left hand deformity, and a segmental left ulnar defect. After unsuccessful ulnar reconstruction with nonvascularized autologous bone and allograft bone substitutes, he presented to our institution. We removed the residual allograft fragments from the ulnar defect, harvested a vascularized left sixth rib with the intercostal artery and vein, secured the construct with internal hardware, and performed microanastomoses of the intercostal artery and vein to the posterior interosseous artery and vein. Postoperatively, he had a hematoma at the vascularized graft recipient site caused by anticoagulation therapy for his chronic deep vein thrombosis. Despite this, the rib graft successfully incorporated on the basis of radiographic and clinical examinations at 27 months. He had no pain and good function of the arm. The results of this case suggest that a vascularized rib graft for forearm reconstruction may be a viable option with minimal donor site morbidity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:160-164, 2017.

  6. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that…

  7. Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with pneumatocyst of the right cervical rib.

    PubMed

    Haktanir, Alpay; Değirmenci, Bumin; Albayrak, Ramazan; Acar, Murat; Yucel, Aylin

    2005-11-01

    A patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome reported with a pneumatocyst of the proximal epiphysis of a right cervical rib. There was no additional skeletal abnormality except for fusion of the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of this particular association.

  8. Sonography of Occult Rib and Costal Cartilage Fractures: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Ross; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E.; Welk, Aaron B.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the detection of occult rib and costal cartilage fractures presenting as chest wall pain to a chiropractic clinic. Clinical features Three patients presented with chest wall pain and tenderness. Two of the patients presented with acute chest wall injury and 1 carried a previous diagnosis of rib fracture after trivial trauma 2 months earlier. Intervention and outcomes Diagnostic US was selected as a non-ionizing imaging tool for these patients after negative digital radiography studies. All fractures were considered isolated as there was no associated injury, such as pneumothorax. Both of the acute cases were followed up to complete healing (evidence of osseous union) using US. All patients eventually achieved pain-free status. Conclusion In these cases, US was more sensitive than radiography for diagnosing these cases of acute rib and costal cartilage fractures. Early recognition of rib injury could avoid potential complications from local manipulative therapy. PMID:25685124

  9. Chest Wall Reconstruction Using a Methyl Methacrylate Neo-Rib and Mesh.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Park, Bernard J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rizk, Nabil P; Huang, James; Jones, David R; Bains, Manjit S

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction of the chest wall after oncologic resection is performed by means of various techniques using different materials. We describe a new technique of chest wall reconstruction that includes the use of Marlex mesh and the creation of a neo-rib from a Steinmann pin and methyl methacrylate.

  10. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  11. Fully automatic lung segmentation and rib suppression methods to improve nodule detection in chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Soleymanpour, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid Reza; Ansaripour, Emad; Yazdi, Mehri Sadooghi

    2011-07-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in several diagnostic tasks. Lung segmentation is one of the mandatory steps for initial detection of lung cancer in Posterior-Anterior chest radiographs. On the other hand, many CAD schemes in projection chest radiography may benefit from the suppression of the bony structures that overlay the lung fields, e.g. ribs. The original images are enhanced by an adaptive contrast equalization and non-linear filtering. Then an initial estimation of lung area is obtained based on morphological operations and then it is improved by growing this region to find the accurate final contour, then for rib suppression, we use oriented spatial Gabor filter. The proposed method was tested on a publicly available database of 247 chest radiographs. Results show that this method outperformed greatly with accuracy of 96.25% for lung segmentation, also we will show improving the conspicuity of lung nodules by rib suppression with local nodule contrast measures. Because there is no additional radiation exposure or specialized equipment required, it could also be applied to bedside portable chest x-rays. In addition to simplicity of these fully automatic methods, lung segmentation and rib suppression algorithms are performed accurately with low computation time and robustness to noise because of the suitable enhancement procedure.

  12. Enhanced heat transfer in ribbed ducts using vortex generators. Annual report, July 1991-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Myrum, T.A.; Acharya, S.

    1992-08-10

    Local and average Nusselt number and overall pressure drop results were obtained experimentally for an air flow (Re = 3450) in a ribbed duct with vortex generators (circular rods) placed immediately above or just downstream of select rib elements. In virtually all cases, the presence of the generators led to increases in the average Nusselt number, Nu, and decreases in the entropy generation per unit duct length, S'. The largest generator-induced enhancement occurred for the largest dimensionless rib pitch (P/h = 38.4), where placing the largest diameter generators (d/h = 1.0) over every rib produced a 21-percent increase in Nu, and a 27-percent decrease in S'. For P/h = 19.2, the best performance corresponded to a 12-percent increase in Nu and a 9-percent decrease in S'. The local results demonstrated that the greatest generator-induced effect occurred behind the first generator, located at the entrance to the test section. Downstream, the generators typically had a minor impact on the local Nusselt number and frequently reduced the local Nusselt number.

  13. Construction of kidney phantom model with acoustic shadow by rib bones and respiratory organ motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongjun; Koizumi, Norihiro; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Takashi; Nomiya, Akira; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Naohiko; Homma, Yukio; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2017-03-01

    We have been studying the Non-Invasive Ultrasound Theragnostic System (NIUTS), which tracks and follows the affected area while irradiating High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). In this report, we propose a phantom model that includes rib bones and respiratory motion.

  14. SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

  15. Acyclic water pentamer induces novel supramolecular ribbed sheet: Cooperativity and competitiveness of weak and covalent forces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Atish Dipankar; Saha, Rajat; Mostafa, Golam

    2010-03-01

    The 1D chain complex [{Cu(II)(bpp)(malonate)(H 2O)}(H 2O) 4] n ( 1) (bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) self-assembles to form a 2D ribbed sheet stabilized by an acyclic pentameric water cluster, which in turn, influences the conformation of the bpp ligand.

  16. Hydatid Cyst of the Rib: A New Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chafik, A.; Benjelloun, A.; El Khadir, A.; El Barni, R.; Achour, A.; Ait Benasser, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The hydatid cyst is not rare in our country, but bone lesions are less common. The disease often takes the appearance of abscess or malignant lesion. We report a case of a 35-year-old man with a hydatid cyst of the rib complicated with cutaneous fistula. The surgery allowed both diagnosis and treatment. Albendazole was then administered to prevent relapse. PMID:20182633

  17. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results.

  18. Survival of Salmonella spp. during preparation of blade tenderized, rare beef prime rib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef prime rib is a delicacy and is traditionally cooked to low temperatures and held for long periods of time. Blade tenderization and other processes used in meat processing may cause translocation of surface pathogens into the interior and may allow for survival and potential growth of foodborne ...

  19. Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by synostosis of the first and second thoracic ribs: 2 case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reidler, Jay S; Das De, Soumen; Schreiber, Joseph J; Schneider, Darren B; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    We present 2 cases of combined arterial and neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome triggered by trauma in patients with congenital synostoses of the first and second ribs. These patients were successfully treated with supraclavicular resection of the first and second ribs and scalenectomy. We review these cases and the associated literature on thoracic outlet syndrome and rib synostosis.

  20. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-12-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  1. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 [times] l0[sup [minus]4] m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  2. Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Tung

    2001-01-09

    A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN 0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified.

  3. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Pierre; Ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-07

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  4. HIFU scattering by the ribs: constrained optimisation with a complex surface impedance boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2014-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localised, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more established treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionising radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element (BE) approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. Dissipative mechanisms inside the propagating medium have since been implemented, together with a complex surface impedance condition at the surface of the ribs. A reformulation of the boundary element equations as a constrained optimisation problem was carried out to determine the complex surface velocities of a multi-element HIFU array which generated the acoustic pressure field that best fitted a required acoustic pressure distribution in a least-squares sense. This was done whilst ensuring that an acoustic dose rate parameter at the surface of the ribs was kept below a specified threshold. The methodology was tested at an

  5. De Novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism in a patient with beemer-langer type short rib-polydactyly syndrome with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Mirkin, D.; Yang, S.

    1994-11-01

    A de novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism is detected in a fetus with type IV short rib (polydactyly) syndrome (Beemer-Langer). The cytogenetic finding in our case suggests a possible location of the gene or cluster of linked genes responsible for SR (P) S type IV to 17q21 or 17q23. Since this chromosome abnormality has not been described in short rib polydactyly syndromes and the existence of type IV SR (P) S has been controversial, the literature of this entity is reviewed with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  7. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and canola oils. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil and foods like ... and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and corn oil. Need More ...

  8. The vascular pattern and viability of microvascularized rib grafts based on periosteal circulation--an experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Papanastasiou, V.W.; Lalonde, D.H.; Williams, H.B.

    1984-11-01

    Previous reports have stressed the importance of the nutrient blood supply in rib grafts transferred by microvascular anastomoses. In the present experimental study, we have demonstrated that a rib graft transferred by microvascular anastomoses based on periosteal vessels can survive; vascular clearing studies demonstrated that the vascularity of these grafts extends not only into the cortex but the medulla as well. The relative facility of harvesting these grafts (compared with those based on nutrient vessels) should make them the favored choice. Technetium bone scintigraphy proved accurate in the assessment of both vascular pattern and microanastomotic patency. Tetracycline labeling did not correlate well with the patency of a rib graft's pedicle blood supply.

  9. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Higa, Talita S; Spinola, Acauã V; Fonseca-Alaniz, Miriam H; Evangelista, Fabiana Sant Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to compare the metabolic responses induced by high-fat (HF) diet and cafeteria (CA) diet in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into groups fed a chow (C, n=13), CA (n=12) or HF (n=11) diet during 12 weeks. Diets did not change body weight, Lee index, inguinal subcutaneous fat, the weight of organs and muscles, resting arterial pressure and heart rate. CA and HF increased visceral fat pad mass compared to C group, but only CA group showed greater adipocyte diameter and food intake compared to the C. Food intake was reduced in HF compared to C group. CA and HF showed hyperglycemia in the 3(rd), 6(th), 9(th) and 12(th) week and all values were higher in CA than HF, except in the 6(th) week. CA group showed glucose intolerance (GI) in the 6(th) week, while HF group did not show GI until the 9(th) week. CA decreased insulin sensitivity compared to C in the 12(th) week (kITT=3.3±0.2%/min vs. 4.2±0.1%/min). CA and HF groups presented higher insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and FFA levels compared to the C group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C in mg/dL were higher in the HF (161.9±7.2 and 57.5±13.4) than the CA (110.5±9.1 and 48.5±11.4), and HDL-C was higher in the HF than in the C and CA groups. In conclusion, the CA diet was more efficient to induce hyperphagia, adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperglycemia, earlier GI and insulin resistance, while the HF diet was more efficient to induce lipid profile changes.

  10. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  11. Melt-out till and ribbed moraine formation, a case study from south Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per

    2010-12-01

    Hummocky moraine with dispersed agglomerations of ribbed moraine - here named 'Åsnen-type ribbed moraine' - forms a 20-40 km wide zone over Småland, south Sweden, terminated to the north by a sharp boundary to streamlined terrain. The hummocky/ribbed moraine zone can be geomorphologically linked to the subaqueous Göteborg Moraine, formed at an oscillation/stand-still phase during the deglaciation of the Swedish west coast. Based on detailed sedimentological and structural investigations of ribbed moraine ridges it is concluded that diamict sequences and associated sorted sediment were deposited due to passive melt-out from stagnant, debris-rich ice with synsedimentary deposition of sorted sediments, preferentially at a melting ice/bed interface. To accommodate for the geomorphological expression, such an interpretation further implies that debris-rich ice formed in an intermediate adfreezing zone between ice at the pressure-melting point and a frontal frozen zone at deglaciation. Basal debris-rich ice was stacked into transversally arranged zones (controlled moraine), forming ribbed moraine 'embryos', the active phase of ridge formation. The stacked sequences of debris-rich ice eventually melted out beneath a stable and melt-retarding supraglacial ablation complex to form the final moraine ridges, the passive phase of ridge formation. In areas with no stable supraglacial ablation complex, the resulting landform after final de-icing was a hummocky moraine landscape. Internal composition of moraine hummocks suggests that most of them are composed of sediment gravity flow sediments, intercalated with stream-deposited sediments, all resting on a platform of subglacial melt-out till. De-icing of the zone now occupied by hummocky and ribbed moraine took a considerable time; deglacial 14C age differences from lake basins on either side of the geomorphic boundary to the streamlined terrain indicate a separation between active and stagnant ice along that boundary, and

  12. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  13. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/24327023 . US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Trans fat . Updated June 15, 2015. www.fda.gov/food/populartopics/ucm292278.htm . Accessed May 5, 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 ...

  14. Two paths to fat.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan D

    2015-04-01

    Excess caloric intake leads to both the growth of existing fat cells and the generation of new adipocytes. New findings show that PI3K-Akt2 signalling is involved in the differentiation of adult adipose precursor cells—a pathway not required for adipogenesis in the embryo.

  15. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  16. Effect of carcass fat and conformation class on consumer perception of various grilled beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the attributes influencing consumer perception of grilled beef steaks. The objects were 30 carcasses out of which eight cuts were obtained (2100 single samples were prepared). A total of 350 consumers were asked to rate the meat samples (6 samples for each consumer) by assessing: tenderness, juiciness, flavour, overall acceptability and satisfaction. The MQ4, which is a combination of consumer rates for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability that is transformed into a single parameter with greater discriminatory ability, was calculated using linear discriminate analysis. The tenderloin was the cut that had the highest ratings for all attributes, however, tenderness, juiciness, MQ4 and consumer satisfaction evaluated for oyster blade were not significantly different from tenderloin. The results of this study indicated that consumer preferences regarding grilled steak were not influenced by fat class, conformation rib fat thickness and ossification score of the carcasses but only by the type of meat cuts.

  17. Noninvasive Submental Fat Compartment Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: KYBELLA, ATX-101, is an injectable form of sodium deoxycholic acid. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. Objectives: A literature review and discussion of the treatment of submental fat. Results: KYBELLA is a well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of submental fat. Conclusions: KYBELLA is a safe and efficacious, first in class, injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. PMID:28018773

  18. Low loss coupling to sub-micron thick rib and nanowire waveguides by vertical tapering.

    PubMed

    Madden, S; Jin, Z; Choi, D; Debbarma, S; Bulla, D; Luther-Davies, B

    2013-02-11

    Highly nonlinear planar glass waveguides have been shown to be useful for all optical signal processing. However, the typical SMF-28 fiber to waveguide coupling loss of ~5dB/end remains a barrier to practical implementation. Low loss coupling to a fiber using vertical tapering of the waveguide film is analyzed for rib and nanowire waveguides and experimentally demonstrated for ribs showing polarization and wavelength independence over >300nm bandwidth. Tapers with essentially zero excess loss led to total losses from the waveguide to fiber core of 1.1dB per facet comprising only material absorption (0.75dB) and mode overlap loss (0.36dB), both of which can be eliminated with improvements to processing and materials.

  19. Estimating age at death using the sternal end of the fourth ribs from Mexican males.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Román, Jessica Inés; Hernández Espinoza, Patricia Olga

    2014-03-01

    The indicators proposed by İşcan et al. (1984) are said to reflect age changes that occur in the sternal end of the fourth rib. These indicators have been used to estimate age-at-death in adult skeletal samples. However, Isçan et al. developed their methods using a forensic sample from Florida (U.S.A.). In order to test the reproducibility of those methods we evaluate its accuracy for the fourth ribs by applying it to a sample of known age and sex but of different biological affinity: modern males from Mexico City. We found that the method developed by İşcan et al. underestimates age-at-death in the Mexican sample.

  20. Flutter of a sandwich cylindrical shell supported with annular ribs and loaded with axial forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Volkov, E. N.; Nedbaj, A. Ya.

    2015-08-01

    The supersonic flutter of a sandwich cylindrical shell supported from within with annular ribs and loaded with axial forces on the end faces is investigated. The shell motion is described by the equations of the theory of sandwich orthotropic shells. The solution of the equations is sought as a trigonometric series with respect to the axial coordinate. With the help of the Bubnov—Galerkin method, this problem is reduced to the set of algebraic equations for the analysis of the stability of which one uses the Routh—Hurwits criterion. By a numerical example, the effect of the number and the heights of the ribs on the critical velocity of the flow around the shell is shown.

  1. Sexual Dimorphism of the First Rib: A Comparative Approach Using Metric and Geometric Morphometric Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jeffrey James; Cross, Peter; Heaton, Vivienne

    2017-02-07

    This research investigated the sexual dimorphism of the first human rib using geometric morphometric and metric approaches on a sample of 285 specimens containing European Americans and African Americans from the Hamann-Todd collection. Metric measurements were investigated for sexual dimorphism and ancestral differences using univariate statistics. Four type II landmarks and 40 sliding semi-landmarks were placed outlining the dorsal and ventral curvatures of the ribs. Landmark data were processed using Generalized Procrustes Analyses with Procrustes distance sliding, and the subsequent coordinates were investigated for sexual dimorphism and ancestral differences using Procrustes ANOVAs. Both geometric morphometric and metric data were analyzed using cross-validated discriminant function analyses to test the hypothesis that variables from both approaches can be combined to increase sex classification rate. European Americans had sex correctly classified as high as 88.05% and African Americans as high as 70.86% using a combination of metric and geometric morphometric variables.

  2. High-definition video-assisted transaxillary first rib resection for thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yiu Che; Gelabert, Hugh A

    2013-04-01

    Transaxillary first rib resection is a well-established effective surgical treatment for patients with symptomatic thoracic outlet syndrome, but surgical access may be limited and visualization is constrained. The use of high-definition video-assisted imaging overcomes these limitations. The use of high-definition video-assisted visualization of the anatomy enhances the surgeon's tactile feedback of the rib from the small open wound and is effective in providing better surgical access and allows clear identification of vital structures for the operating surgical team. This technique enhances the appreciation of anatomic detail, situational awareness of the team, and allows for more efficient assistance to the surgeon. Improved visualization also facilitates effective education of nurses, residents, and students.

  3. Dynamic Stability of a Cylindrical Shell Reinforced by Longitudinal Ribs and a Hollow Cylinder Under the Action of Axial Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Volkov, E. N.; Nedbai, A. Ya.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamic stability of a cylindrical orthotropic shell reinforced by longitudinal ribs and a hollow cylinder under the action of axial forces changing harmonically with time was investigated with regard for the axial contact interaction of the shell with the ribs. A solution of the differential equations defining this process has been obtained in the form of trigonometric series in the angular and time coordinates. A two-term approximation of the Mathieu-Hill equations of motion was used for construction of the main region of instability of the shell. As a result, the problem was reduced to a system of algebraic equations for components of displacements of the shell at the locations of the ribs. The problem for uniformly spaced ribs was solved in the explicit form. A numerical example of this solution is presented.

  4. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  5. The rib index is not practically affected by the distance between the radiation source and the examined child

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background All lateral spinal radiographs in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) show a Double Rib Contour Sign (DRCS) of the thoracic cage, a radiographic expression of the rib hump. The outline of the convex overlies the contour of the concave ribs. The rib index (RI) method was extracted from the DRCS to evaluate rib hump deformity in IS patients. The RI was calculated by the ratio of spine distances d1/d2 where d1 is the distance between the most extended point of the most extending rib contour and the posterior margin of the corresponding vertebra on the lateral scoliosis films, while d2 is the distance from the least projection rib contour and the posterior margin of the same vertebra, (Grivas et al 2002). In a symmetric thorax the “rib index” is 1. This report is the validity study of DRCS, ie how the rib index is affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated child. Methods The American College of Radiology's (2009) guidelines for obtaining radiographs for scoliosis in children recommends for the scoliotic - films distance to be 1,80 meters. Normal values used for the transverse diameter of the ribcage in children aged 6-12 years were those reported by Grivas in 1988. Results Using the Euclidean geometry, it is shown that in a normal 12-year old child d1/d2 = 1.073 provided that the distance ΔZ ≈ 12cm (11,84) and EA = 180cm, with transverse ribcage diameter of the child 22 cm. Conclusions This validity study demonstrates that the DRCS is substantially true and the RI is not practically affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated child. The RI is valid and may be used to evaluate the effect of surgical or conservative treatment on the rib cage deformity (hump) in children with IS. It is noted that RI is a simple method and a safe reproducible way to assess the rib hump deformity based on lateral radiographs, without the need for any other special radiographs and exposure to additional radiation. PMID

  6. The experimental set-up of the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.; Tortone, G.; Anastasio, A.; Bettini, M.; Cassese, C.; Castellani, L.; Corti, D.; Costa, L.; De Fazio, B.; Galet, G.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Pontoriere, G.; Rocco, R.; Romoli, M.; Roscilli, L.; Sandoli, M.; Stroe, L.; Tessaro, M.; Zatti, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the experimental set-up of the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) in-flight facility EXOTIC consisting of: (a) two position-sensitive Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs), dedicated to the event-by-event tracking of the produced RIBs and to time of flight measurements and (b) the new high-granularity compact telescope array EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System), designed for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments employing low-energy light RIBs. EXPADES consists of eight ΔE -Eres telescopes arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target. Each telescope is made up of two Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) with a thickness of 40/60 μm and 300 μm for the ΔE and Eres layer, respectively. Additionally, eight ionization chambers were constructed to be used as an alternative ΔE stage or, in conjunction with the entire DSSSD array, to build up more complex triple telescopes. New low-noise multi-channel charge-sensitive preamplifiers and spectroscopy amplifiers, associated with constant fraction discriminators, peak-and-hold and Time to Amplitude Converter circuits were developed for the electronic readout of the ΔE stage. Application Specific Integrated Circuit-based electronics was employed for the treatment of the Eres signals. An 8-channel, 12-bit multi-sampling 50 MHz Analog to Digital Converter, a Trigger Supervisor Board for handling the trigger signals of the whole experimental set-up and an ad hoc data acquisition system were also developed. The performance of the PPACs, EXPADES and of the associated electronics was obtained offline with standard α calibration sources and in-beam by measuring the scattering process for the systems 17O+58Ni and 17O+208Pb at incident energies around their respective Coulomb barriers and, successively, during the first experimental runs with the RIBs of the EXOTIC facility.

  7. Transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures with cavity absorption.

    PubMed

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2011-04-01

    The transmission loss of sound through infinite orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures having cavity-filling fibrous sound absorptive materials is theoretically investigated. The propagation of sound across the fibrous material is characterized using an equivalent fluid model, and the motions of the rib-stiffeners are described by including all possible vibrations, i.e., flexural displacements, bending, and torsional rotations. The effects of fluid-structure coupling are account for by enforcing velocity continuity conditions at fluid-panel interfaces. By taking full advantage of the periodic nature of the double-panel, the space-harmonic approach and virtual work principle are applied to solve the sets of resultant governing equations, which are eventually truncated as a finite system of simultaneous algebraic equations and numerically solved insofar as the solution converges. To validate the proposed model, a comparison between the present model predictions and existing numerical and experimental results for a simplified version of the double-panel structure is carried out, with overall agreement achieved. The model is subsequently employed to explore the influence of the fluid-structure coupling between fluid in the cavity and the two panels on sound transmission across the orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structure. Obtained results demonstrate that this fluid-structure coupling affects significantly sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies and cannot be ignored when the rib-stiffeners are sparsely distributed. As a highlight of this research, an integrated optimal algorithm toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability is proposed, based on which a preliminary optimal design of the double-panel structure is performed.

  8. Turbulent flow in rib-roughened channel under the effect of Coriolis and rotational buoyancy forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Filippo; Jacono, David Lo; Cresci, Irene; Arts, Tony

    2014-04-01

    The turbulent flow inside a rotating channel provided with transverse ribs along one wall is studied by means of two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The measurement set-up is mounted on the same rotating disk with the test section, allowing to obtain the same accuracy and resolution as in a non-rotating rig. The Reynolds number is 15 000, and the rotation number is 0.38. As the ribbed wall is heated, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force play a role in the fluid dynamics. The mean velocity fields highlight the major impact of the rotational buoyancy (characterized by a buoyancy number of 0.31) on the flow along the leading side of the duct. In particular, since the flow is directed radially outward, the near-wall layers experience significant centripetal buoyancy. The recirculation area behind the obstacles is enlarged to the point of spanning the whole inter-rib space. Also the turbulent fluctuations are significantly altered, and overall augmented, with respect to the non-buoyant case, resulting in higher turbulence levels far from the rib. On the other hand the centrifugal force has little or no impact on the flow along the trailing wall. Vortex identification, proper orthogonal decomposition, and two-point correlations are used to highlight rotational effects, and in particular to determine the dominant scales of the turbulent unsteady flow, the time-dependent behavior of the shear layer and of the recirculation bubble behind the wall-mounted obstacles, the lifetime and advection velocity of the coherent structures.

  9. Approximate calculation of multispar cantilever and semicantilever wings with parallel ribs under direct and indirect loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1932-01-01

    A method is presented for approximate static calculation, which is based on the customary assumption of rigid ribs, while taking into account the systematic errors in the calculation results due to this arbitrary assumption. The procedure is given in greater detail for semicantilever and cantilever wings with polygonal spar plan form and for wings under direct loading only. The last example illustrates the advantages of the use of influence lines for such wing structures and their practical interpretation.

  10. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  11. Pain management in video assisted thoracic surgery: evaluation of localised partial rib resection. A new technique.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Sabanathan, S

    1995-10-01

    We undertook a re-evaluation of acute and chronic pain generation following Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) with regard to chest wall trauma produced by the instruments and their ports. From intercostal space (ICS) measurements made on 40 patients, it was confirmed that both the camera and the staple gun port diameters are too large for insertion without trauma. An instrument was produced (the "Sari" Punch, Bolton Surgical Services, Sheffield, England) which cleanly excises an elipse of the superior aspect of a rib, prior to the introduction of the ports. At the same time, the recommended orbit of the instruments about the surgical focus was abandoned in favour of an alignment along one ICS so that only one nerve was potentially traumatised. These modifications were then combined with balanced, pre-emptive and continuous paravertebral analgesia and the efficacy of this approach was evaluated in nine patients undergoing VATS. Operation of the rib punch was easy in all patients and was carried out without clinical or radiological trauma to the rib. Insertion of the ports was easy and access was good to all intrathoracic structures. Postoperative analgesia was good and the mean hospital stay was 2.7 days (range 2-4). Follow-up two months later confirmed a satisfactory surgical procedure and no patients complained of chest wall pain or numbness. We conclude that pain generation with VATS must be seriously considered if the technique is to become truly successful. Balanced, pre-emptive, paravertebral analgesia will protect the central nervous system while the removal of an elipse of rib and alignment of the instruments along one ICS will reduce the likelihood of peripheral nerve trauma.

  12. Rare association of hyper IgE syndrome with cervical rib and natal teeth.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B; Gomathy, N

    2009-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone.

  13. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10−6 RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things. PMID:26343678

  14. Calculated Coupling Efficiency Between an Elliptical-Core Optical Fiber and a Silicon Oxynitride Rib Waveguide [Corrected Copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Beheim, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    The effective-index method and Marcatili's technique were utilized independently to calculate the electric field profile of a rib channel waveguide. Using the electric field profile calculated from each method, the theoretical coupling efficiency between a single-mode optical fiber and a rib waveguide was calculated using the overlap integral. Perfect alignment was assumed and the coupling efficiency calculated. The coupling efficiency calculation was then repeated for a range of transverse offsets.

  15. [Subcutaneous fat necrosis and persistent hypercalcaemia in a newborn treated with therapeutic neonatal hypothermia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, José M; Laliena Aznar, Sara; Corella Aznar, Elena; Cuadrado Piqueras, Laura; Oliván del Cacho, María J; Pinillos Pisón, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the current standard treatment in newborns with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, changing the outcome of these children. It is considered a safe technique with almost no side effects. A possible adverse side event is subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is an acute self-limiting panniculitis that develops during the first weeks of life. We report a case of a newborn at term suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a generalized multiform erythematous rash and firm and indurated plaques over the back, buttocks and extremities on his 12th day of life after being treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Histopathological study after skin punchbiopsy confirmed the suspicion of subcutaneous fat necrosis. The infant developed asymptomatic moderate hypercalcaemia within the first month of life, which was treated with intravenous fluids and diuretics. Serum calcium levels decreased and normalized in 3 months, with progressive disappearance of skin lesions.

  16. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.

    PubMed

    Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene.

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causing a rib lesion in an adult AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Dantas, Kátia Cristina; Garcia, Roberta Scholz Pinto; Magri, Marcello Mihailenko Chaves; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2010-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a geographic distribution that is limited to Central and South America; Brazil has the highest number of cases. Severe disseminated disease caused by paracoccidioidomycosis was observed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients who live or have resided in endemic paracoccidioidomycosis areas. Here we describe a male patient admitted to a large public hospital with diffuse nodular infiltrates observed in chest radiographs and with erosion at the second rib near the sternum. Blood tests showed anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibodies, a human immunodeficiency virus viral load of 59,700 (4.8 log), and CD4 144/mm(3), with negative serology result for fungal infections. Aspirate of the rib lesion showed cells with a typical morphology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, aside from benign inflammatory cells. The histology of the rib biopsy showed typical granulomas and immunostained fungal cells. Although there was no growth in the Sabouraud cultures, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 and rDNA genes were detected in the aspirate by polymerase chain reaction. Therapy with amphotericin resulted in complete recovery. This type of bone lesion is rare and has been described primarily in the juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis; it must be included in the differential diagnosis of bone lesions in adult acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients of endemic areas.

  18. Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-08-04

    This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.

  19. Experimental methods in RIB target/ion source development and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Murray, S.N.; Cui, B.

    1997-11-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay-times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TISs) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular-injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies and a gas-flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test-stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow-rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this report, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay-times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam-plasma target/ion source (EBPTIS) developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive and negative ion extraction modes.

  20. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    PubMed Central

    Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  1. Hybrid RANS/LES of turbulent flow in a rotating rib-roughened channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Qian-Qiu; Wang, Bing-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coriolis force on the flow field in a rib-roughened channel subjected to either clockwise or counter-clockwise system rotation using hybrid RANS/LES based on wall modelling. A simplified dynamic forcing scheme incorporating backscatter is proposed for the hybrid simulation approach. The flow is characterized by a Reynolds number of Re = 1.5 × 104 and a rotation number Ro ranging from -0.6 to 0.6. The mean flow speed and turbulence level near the roughened wall are enhanced under counter-clockwise rotation and suppressed under clockwise rotation. The Coriolis force significantly influences the stability of the wall shear layer and the free shear layers generated by the ribs. Consequently, it is interesting to observe that the classification of the roughness type relies not only on the pitch ratio, but also on the rotation number in the context of rotating rib-roughened flows. In order to validate the present hybrid approach, the first- and second-order statistical moments of the velocity field obtained from the simulations are thoroughly compared with the available laboratory measurement data.

  2. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles : histomorphometry of rib cortical bone.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Utah; Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals

    1998-03-01

    Bone loss associated with estrogen depletion is well documented in cancellous bone but less well characterized in cortical bone. The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized or sham-operated dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Just prior to each postoperative biopsy, tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential rib biopsies provided a means to follow the ovariectomy response over time and to compare each animal against its own baseline. Though ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at 1 month after surgery, a transient increase in cortical bone formation occurred thereafter, with a sixfold increase over that of sham-operated dogs at 4 months (P < 0.001) and a return to near control levels at 8.5 months. Cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. These data demonstrate for the first time that rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in aged female dogs.

  3. Lung-deflating ability of rib cage and abdominal muscles in rabbits.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Edgardo; Prandi, Edi; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Pecchiari, Matteo

    2003-04-15

    Anesthetized, apneic, mechanically ventilated rabbits were placed into a tilting plethysmograph that a rubber diaphragm, tightly fitting the animal's body just below the xiphoid process, separated into a rib cage and abdominal chamber. Expired volumes (DeltaV) and abdominal pressure changes (DeltaPab) were assessed in supine and upright posture during maximal rib cage (RCC) and/or abdominal compression (ABC) by pressurizing either or both chambers, and during maximal stimulations of abdominal muscles (ABS). With RCC, DeltaV supine and upright amounted to 16+/-4.9 (mean+/-S.D.) and 20.9+/-7% of the vital capacity in supine posture (VCs) and to 75.8+/-14.5 and 44.8+/-13.9% of the expiratory reserve volume (ERV) in corresponding posture, DeltaPab being negligible. With ABC, DeltaV was 13.7+/-2 and 38.9+/-7.3% VCs and 68.4+/-14.8 and 84.4+/-10.5% ERV, respectively. Both DeltaV and DeltaPab were similar with ABC and ABS, independent of posture. If this applies also to RCC and expiratory rib cage muscle contraction, maximal expiratory effects of the latter (a) are larger in upright than supine posture; (b) contribute to ERV more in supine than upright posture; and (c) are similar to those caused by ABS in supine, but substantially smaller in upright posture.

  4. Simulation Analysis of Air Flow and Turbulence Statistics in a Rib Grit Roughened Duct

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I. I.; Denizopoulou, A. C.; Ntinas, G. K.; Fragos, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of variable artificial roughness patterns on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the ducts of solar air heaters. Different geometries of roughness elements investigated have demonstrated the pivotal role that vortices and associated turbulence have on the heat transfer characteristics of solar air heater ducts by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional, turbulent, unsteady flow around rectangular ribs of variable aspect ratios by directly solving the transient Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the finite elements method. Flow characteristics and several aspects of turbulent flow are presented and discussed including velocity components and statistics of turbulence. The results reveal the impact that different rib lengths have on the computed mean quantities and turbulence statistics of the flow. The computed turbulence parameters show a clear tendency to diminish downstream with increasing rib length. Furthermore, the applied numerical method is capable of capturing small-scale flow structures resulting from the direct solution of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. PMID:25057511

  5. Computational study on the propagation of strongly focused nonlinear ultrasound in tissue with rib-like structures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiexing; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen; Ping, Zihong; Wu, Junru

    2013-08-01

    The presence of a rib cage is a significant hindrance to the potential applications of focused ultrasound as a noninvasive extracorporeal surgery modality for various internal organs. Here the influence of ribs on the propagation of strongly focused high-intensity nonlinear ultrasound beam inside the body is studied. Based on the spheroidal beam equation, a three-dimensional numerical algorithm is developed to solve the nonlinear acoustic field generated by a focused ultrasonic transducer with a large aperture angle. Idealized ribs, of rectangular cross sectional, with high absorption and impedance, and various dimensions, are used to simulate human anatomical configurations. The changes in the spatial distribution of acoustic intensity and the reduction of the acoustic pressure amplitude and heat deposition rate due to the presence of "ribs" are investigated. It is somewhat surprising that in some cases, the axial peak positions shift less than 2 mm and more than 80% of the sound energy can propagate through the space of the rib cage in the strongly focused sound field. This study also includes quantitative analyses of the effects of different rib configurations and transducers of various f-numbers. The results can be used as reference information for further study and clinical applications.

  6. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  7. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Wang; Jiexing, Lin; Xiaozhou, Liu; Jiehui, Liu; Xiufen, Gong

    2016-04-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Fund from State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and SRF for ROCS, SEM.

  8. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  9. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  10. Experimental investigation of cross-over jets in a rib-roughened trailing-edge cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Fei

    Increasing the rotor inlet temperature can dramatically increase the efficiency and power output of the gas turbine engine. However, the melting point of turbine blade material limits the realistic upper bound of the rotor inlet temperature. As a result, the development of high temperature turbine blade material and advanced turbine blade cooling technology determines the future of turbine blade engine. Adding impingement jet holes and rib turbulators in the inner cooling channel of the gas turbine blades are two effective ways to enhance the cooling effects. The purpose of this study is to figure out the influence of different combinations of jet holes and rib turbulators on the heat transfer efficiency. A tabletop scale test model is used in the study to simulate the cooling cavity of trailing edge and its feed channel in a real gas turbine blade. The Dimensional Analysis Theory is used in the study to eliminate the influence of scaling. Two different crossover slots are tested with 5 different rib arrangements, and each of the test geometries is tested for 6 jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 36,000. The two different crossover slots are the crossover slots with 0 and 5 degree tilt angles. The four different rib arrangements are ribs with 0 degree, 45 degree, 90 degree and 135 degree angles of attack with respect to the flow direction. Furthermore, a smooth test section (no ribs) was also tested. The steady state liquid crystal thermography is used to quantify the heat transfer performance of the target areas. The variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number is plotted for each of the 10 geometries. Also, the variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number are compared for different rib angles of attack with the same crossover slot tilt angle, and between different crossover slots tilt angles with the same rib angle. The results show that, the area-weighted average Nusselt number increases monotonically with the Reynolds number; the target

  11. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow using V and broken V ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Amano, R. S.

    2015-05-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and various industrial applications. With an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures, developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output; these advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine designs to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream of gas are based on an increase in the heat transfer areas and on the promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, an improvement in performance is obtained by casting repeated continuous V- and broken V-shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channels into the core of the blade. A detailed experimental investigation is done for two pass square channels with a 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for a steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° V- and broken 60° V-ribs in a channel are considered. A series of thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for Reynolds numbers 16,000, 56,000 and 85,000 within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the rib. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. A series of experimental measurements is performed to predict the overall performance of the channel. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the Nusselt number, the pressure drop and the overall performance of the eight different ribbed ducts at the specified Reynolds number. The main contribution of this study is to evaluate the best combination of rib arrangements

  12. Rib Fracture Fixation Restores Inspiratory Volume and Peak Flow in a Full Thorax Human Cadaveric Breathing Model

    PubMed Central

    Slobogean, Gerard P.; Kim, Hyunchul; Russell, Joseph P.; Stockton, David J.; Hsieh, Adam H.; O’Toole, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple rib fractures cause significant pain and potential for chest wall instability. Despite an emerging trend of surgical management of flail chest injuries, there are no studies examining the effect of rib fracture fixation on respiratory function. Objectives: Using a novel full thorax human cadaveric breathing model, we sought to explore the effect of flail chest injury and subsequent rib fracture fixation on respiratory outcomes. Patients and Methods: We used five fresh human cadavers to generate negative breathing models in the left thorax to mimic physiologic respiration. Inspiratory volumes and peak flows were measured using a flow meter for all three chest wall states: intact chest, left-sided flail chest (segmental fractures of ribs 3 - 7), and post-fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the chest wall with a pre-contoured rib specific plate fixation system. Results: A wide variation in the mean inspiratory volumes and peak flows were measured between specimens; however, the effect of a flail chest wall and the subsequent internal fixation of the unstable rib fractures was consistent across all samples. Compared to the intact chest wall, the inspiratory volume decreased by 40 ± 19% in the flail chest model (P = 0.04). Open reduction and internal fixation of the flail chest returned the inspiratory volume to 130 ± 71% of the intact chest volumes (P = 0.68). A similar 35 ± 19% decrease in peak flows was seen in the flail chest (P = 0.007) and this returned to 125 ± 71% of the intact chest following ORIF (P = 0.62). Conclusions: Negative pressure inspiration is significantly impaired by an unstable chest wall. Restoring mechanical stability of the fractured ribs improves respiratory outcomes similar to baseline values. PMID:26848471

  13. The role of acoustic nonlinearity in tissue heating behind the rib cage using high intensity focused ultrasound phased array

    PubMed Central

    Yuldashev, Petr V.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Ilyin, Sergey A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate theoretically the effects of nonlinear propagation in a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field produced by a therapeutic phased array and the resultant heating of tissue behind a rib cage. Three configurations of focusing were simulated: in water, in water with ribs in the beam path, and in water with ribs backed by a layer of soft tissue. The Westervelt equation was used to model the nonlinear HIFU field and a 1 MHz phased array consisting of 254 circular elements was used as a boundary condition to the model. The temperature rise in tissue was modelled using the bioheat equation, and thermally necrosed volumes were calculated using the thermal dose formulation. The shapes of lesions predicted by the modelling were compared with those previously obtained in in vitro experiments at low power sonications. Intensity levels at the face of the array elements that corresponded to formation of high amplitude shock fronts in the focal region were determined as 10 W·cm−2 in the free field in water and 40 W·cm−2 in the presence of ribs. It was shown that exposures with shocks provided a substantial increase in tissue heating, and its better spatial localization in the main focal region only. The relative effects of overheating ribs and splitting of the focus due to the periodic structure of the ribs were therefore reduced. These results suggest that utilizing nonlinear propagation and shock formation effects can be beneficial for inducing confined HIFU lesions when irradiating through obstructions such as ribs. Design of compact therapeutic arrays to provide maximum power outputs with lower intensity levels at the elements is necessary to achieve shock wave regimes for clinically relevant sonication depths in tissue. PMID:23528338

  14. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  15. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  16. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  17. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

  18. 12th Annual School Construction Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    School construction completed in 2006 totaled just more than $20 billion, a drop of seven percent from the record $21.6 billion put in place in 2005. Even so, it was the sixth year in the last seven that annual construction exceeded $20 billion. During the seven years of the present century, school districts have completed construction projects…

  19. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  20. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  1. Reducing chest injuries in automobile collisions: rib fracture timing and implications for thoracic injury criteria.

    PubMed

    Kemper, A R; Kennedy, E A; McNally, C; Manoogian, S J; Stitzel, J D; Duma, S M

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the biomechanical response of the human thorax during dynamic shoulder belt loading representative of that seen in a severe automotive collision. Two post-mortem human surrogates (PMHSs) (one male and one female) were instrumented with 26 single-axis strain gages on the ribs, sternum, and clavicle. The thorax of each PMHS was placed on a custom spine support bracket designed to support the thorax on either side of the spinous process, thereby allowing free motion at the costovertebral joints. In addition, the support bracket raised the thorax above the flat base plate, which could otherwise constrain the deformation and motion of the posterior region of the rib cage. The thorax of each PMHS was then loaded using a custom table-top belt loading system that generated thoracic displacement rates representative of a severe automotive collision, 1.3 m/s for the male PMHS and 1.0 m/s for the female PMHS. The rib fracture timing data, determined by analyzing the strain gage time histories, showed that severe thoracic injury (AIS = 3) occurred at 16% chest compression for the male and 12% chest compression for the female. However, these values are well below the current thoracic injury criteria of 29% chest compression for the male and 23% chest compression for the female. This data illustrates that serious thoracic injury (AIS = 3) occurs at lower chest compressions than the current ATD thoracic injury criteria. Overall, this study provides critical data that can be used in the design and validation of advanced ATDs and finite element models, as well as the establishment of improved, more stringent thoracic injury criteria.

  2. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin allotransplantation model of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Nasir, Serdar; Zor, Fatih; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Siemionow, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cellular and vascularized bone marrow cells have been used to induce donor-specific chimerism in various models of composite tissue allotransplantation. Although thymus transplantation has been reported in the literature, the effect of thymus transplantation on chimerism levels in vascularized bone containing composite tissue allotransplantation has not been reported. In this study, a new method for composite vascularized sternal bone marrow transplant model is descried that can be applied to augment chimerism after transplantation. A total of seven composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin transplantations were performed in two groups. The first group (n = 5) was designed as an allotransplantation group and the second group (n = 2) was designed as an isotransplantation group. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, and pectoralis muscles allografts were harvested on the common carotid artery and external jugular vein and a heterotopic transplantation was performed to the inguinal region of the recipient rat. Cyclosporine A monotherapy was administered in order to prevent acute and chronic allograft rejection. Animals sacrificed when any sign of rejection occurred. The longest survival was 156 day post-transplant. Assessment of bone marrow cells within sternum bone component and flow cytometry analysis of donor-specific chimerism in the peripheral blood of recipients were evaluated. Our results showed that this composite allograft carried 7.5 × 10(6) of viable hematopoietic cells within the sternum component. At day 7 post-transplant chimerism was developed in T-cell population and mean level was assessed at 2.65% for RT1(n) /CD4 and at 1.0% for RT1(n) /CD8. In this study, a new osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscle, and skin allotransplantation model is reported which can be used to augment hematopoietic activity for chimerism induction after transplantation.

  3. Short-Rib Polydactyly and Jeune Syndromes Are Caused by Mutations in WDR60

    PubMed Central

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R.; Leo, Paul J.; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D.; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A.; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J.; Beales, Philip L.; Brown, Matthew A.; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Duncan, Emma L.; Wicking, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I–V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. PMID:23910462

  4. The 'Pro-Drug' RibCys Decreases The Mutagenicity of High LET Radiation in Cultured Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenarczyk, M.; Ueno, A.; Vannais, D. B.; Kraemer, S.; Kronenberg, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Tatsumi, K.; Hei, T. K.; Waldren, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    We have initiated studies aimed at reducing the mutational effects of high LET radiation such as Fe-56 ions and C-12 ions with certain drugs. The mutagenicity of high LET (143 keV/micrometer) Fe-56 or C-12 ions (LET = 100 keV/micrometer) was quantified at the CD59 locus of human-hamster hybrid AL cells. RibCys [2,S)-D-ribo-(1',2',3',4'- Tetrahydroxybutyl)-thiazolidine-4(R)-ca riboxylic acid], formed by condensation of L-cysteine with D-ribose, is designed so that the sulfhydryl amino acid L-cysteine is released intracellularly via nonenzymatic ring opening and hydrolysis leading to increased levels of glutathione (GSH). RibCys (4 or 10 mM), present during irradiation and a few hours post-irradiation, significantly decreased the yield of CD59(-) mutants induced by radiation. RibCys did not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, nor was it mutagenic itself. These results, together with the minimal side effects reported in mice and pigs, indicate that RibCys may be useful, perhaps even when used prophylactically, in reducing the load of mutations created by high LET radiation in astronauts or other exposed individuals. RibCys is an attractive drug that may reduce the risk of carcinogenesis in people exposed to high LET radiation.

  5. Pressure Distribution over a Wing and Tail Rib of a VE-7 and of a TS Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the pressure distribution over a rib of the wing and over a rib of the horizontal tail surface of an airplane in flight and to obtain information as to the time correlation of the loads occurring on these ribs. Two airplanes, VE-7 and TS, were selected in order to obtain the information for a thin and a thick wing section. In each case the pressure distribution was recorded for the full range of angle of attack in level flight and throughout violent maneuvers. The results show: (a) that the present rib load specifications in use by the Army Air Corps and the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, are in fair agreement with the loads actually occurring in flight, but could be slightly improved; (b) that there appears to be no definite sequence in which wing and tail surface ribs reach their respective maximum loads in different maneuvers; (c) that in accelerated flight, at air speeds less than or equal to 60 per cent of the maximum speed, the accelerations measured agree very closely with the theoretically possible maximum accelerations. In maneuvers at higher air speeds the observed accelerations were smaller than those theoretically possible. (author)

  6. Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.

  7. Periosteal Osteosarcoma Arising from the Rib and Scapula: Imaging Features in Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Beom; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Periosteal osteosarcoma is an extremely rare chondroblastic osteosarcoma in the flat bone. There were authors reporting of two cases of periosteal osteosarcoma in the highly unusual sites. One of them arose from the rib, in a 17-year-old male, which appeared as a hypodense juxtacortical mass with periosteal reaction on CT. The other one arose from the scapula, in a 17-year-old female, which showed the intermediate signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted image (WI), heterogeneous high SI on T2WI, and rim-enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1WI with cortical destruction on MRI. PMID:24843242

  8. Giant congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation with extensive involvement of chest wall and ribs: surgical experience.

    PubMed

    Parashi, Hrishikesh Sukhadeo; Bhosle, Krishnarao Narayan; Thakare, Nitin Dashrath; Sharma, Ajay; Potwar, Sushrut Suhas

    2013-06-01

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions. Review of literature shows that most reported cases are secondary to trauma or iatrogenic in origin. Congenital intercostal AVMs are extremely rare. We believe that only 1 case report of congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation has been reported previously in the literature. We present an exceedingly rare case of giant congenital intercostal AVM in a young patient diagnosed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax and treated by surgical resection of the involved chest wall and ribs with reconstruction of the surgical defect.

  9. Development and Validation of a Musculoskeletal Model of the Fully Articulated Thoracolumbar Spine and Rib Cage

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Anderson, Dennis E.

    2015-01-01

    We developed and validated a fully articulated model of the thoracolumbar spine in opensim that includes the individual vertebrae, ribs, and sternum. To ensure trunk muscles in the model accurately represent muscles in vivo, we used a novel approach to adjust muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and position using computed tomography (CT) scans of the trunk sampled from a community-based cohort. Model predictions of vertebral compressive loading and trunk muscle tension were highly correlated to previous in vivo measures of intradiscal pressure (IDP), vertebral loading from telemeterized implants and trunk muscle myoelectric activity recorded by electromyography (EMG). PMID:25901907

  10. Successful operative rib fixation of traumatic flail chest in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Chesnut, Charles H; Santos, Ariel P; Armen, Scott B

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention has been directed towards operative rib fixation of traumatic flail chest; reported benefits include more rapid weaning from the ventilator, decreased intensive care unit stays, decreased complications and improved functional results. The outcomes of this surgical intervention in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, a rare condition characterized by low bone density and bone fragility, are unknown. This case demonstrates that, in the management of traumatic flail chest in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta, surgical fixation can be successful and should be considered early.

  11. Secondary left ventricular injury with haemopericardium caused by a rib fracture after blunt chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Pankaj; Somsekhar, Ganti; Macauley, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    Trauma is the third most common cause of death in the West. In the US, approximately 90,000 deaths annually are traumatic in nature and over 75% of casualties from blunt trauma are due to chest injuries. Cardiac injuries from rib fractures following blunt trauma are extremely rare. We report the unusual case of a patient who fell from a height and presented with haemopericardium and haemothorax as a result of left ventricular and lingular lacerations and was sucessfully operated upon. PMID:16722596

  12. Selection of targets and ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, the authors describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications. A brief review of present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect fast and efficient diffusion release of the short-lived species is also given.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Turbulent Flow in a Ribbed Serpentine Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iaccarino, Gianluca; Kalitzin, Georgi; Elkins, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the turbulent flow in a serpentine with oblique ribs is investigated experimentally and by numerical simulations. The measurements are carried out by using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) and the simulations using the Immersed Boundary (IB) technique. A brief description of these two approaches is reported in following sections. The results are reported in terms of velocity distributions in various planes in the serpentine; differences between measurements and simulations are presented qualitatively and quantitatively. The study of the discrepancy allows us to identify areas of needed improvements in the turbulence modeling.

  14. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  15. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  16. [Reliability of the individual age assessment at the time of death based on sternal rib end morphology in Balkan population].

    PubMed

    Donić, Danijela; Durić, Marija; Babić, Dragan; Popović, Dorde

    2005-06-01

    This paper analyzes the reliability of the Iscan's sternal rib-ends phase method for the assessment of individual age at the time of death in the Balkan population. The method is based on the morphological age changes of the sternal rib ends. The tested samples consisted of 65 ribs from autopsy cases in the Institute for Forensic Medicine, University of Belgrade, during 1999-2002 (23 females, and 42 males of various ages, ranged from 17-91 years), according to the forensic documents. Significant differences between the real chronological age of the individuals and the values established by the Iscan's method was found, especially in the older categories (phases 6 and 7), in both males and females. The results of the discriminative analysis showed the values of the highest diagnostic relevance for the assessment of age in our population: the change of the depth of the articular fossa, the thickness of its walls, and the quality of the bones.

  17. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  18. Regional percent fat and bone mineral density in Korean adolescents: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3), 2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of total and regional (trunk, arm, and leg) percent fat on total and regional (arm, leg, rib, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and pelvis) bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adolescents were examined using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009. Percent fat and BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in a population-based sample of 710 Korean adolescents (365 boys and 345 girls), aged 10-19 years. After adjusting for age, height, weight, serum vitamin D, dietary calcium intake, and menarche for girls in complex sampling linear regression analysis, higher total and regional percent fat were associated with low total BMD and BMD in all regions in boys aged 13-16 years, while the associations were inconsistent for early and late adolescent boys. In girls, the inverse associations were more consistent for those aged 17-19 years than for younger girls. While most of total and regional percent fat were negatively associated with BMD of thoracic and lumbar spine and femur in boys, most of these relationships were not significant in girls. The negative association with total BMD was consistent for trunk percent fat but variable for arm and leg percent fat according to age subgroup and gender. In conclusion, the unfavorable effect of regional percent fat on all regional BMD is more consistent in boys aged 13-16 years and in girls aged 17-19 years, while the relationship appears to be gender and age subgroup-specific.

  19. The influence of stiffening ribs on the natural frequencies of butterfly valve disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursoniu, C.; Pepa, D.; Tufoi, M.; Gillich, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a study regarding the influence of the ribs shape on the dynamic behavior of butterfly valves, in terms of natural frequency variation, is presented. This behavior is important because the valve disk vibrates due to fluid flow when it is fully or partially open. If the disk is “locked in”, which means that frequency of oscillation is equal to the frequency of vortex shedding, the negative effect of resonance occurs, and harming of the structure is expected. The phenomenon is undesired and can be avoided by designing the disk in order to have the natural frequencies higher as the shedding frequencies. The study is performed via the finite element method (FEM) and first concerns in finding the proper disk thickness for the valve’s geometrical input parameters by static analysis. Afterward, modal analysis on disks with stiffness ribs of various shapes and positions is made. As a result, guidelines for designing the disk’s stiffening elements are provided.

  20. The vertebral column, ribs, and sternum of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus waterhouse).

    PubMed

    Olude, Matthew Ayokunle; Mustapha, Oluwaseun Ahmed; Ogunbunmi, Temitope Kehinde; Olopade, James Olukayode

    2013-01-01

    Examined bones were obtained from eight adult African giant rats, Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse. Animals used had an average body mass of 730.00 ± 41.91 gm and body length of 67.20 ± 0.05 cm. The vertebral formula was found to be C7, T13, L6, S4, Ca31-36. The lowest and highest points of the cervicothoracic curvature were at C5 and T2, respectively. The spinous process of the axis was the largest in the cervical group while others were sharp and pointed. The greatest diameter of the vertebral canal was at the atlas (0.8 cm) and the lowest at the caudal sacral bones (2 mm). The diameter of the vertebral foramen was the largest at C1 and the smallest at the S4; the foramina were negligibly indistinct caudal to the sacral vertebrae. There were 13 pairs of ribs. The first seven pairs were sternal, and six pairs were asternal of which the last 2-3 pairs were floating ribs. The sternum was composed of deltoid-shaped manubrium sterni, four sternebrae, and a slender processus xiphoideus. No sex-related differences were observed. The vertebral column is adapted for strong muscular attachment and actions helping the rodent suited for speed, agility, dexterity, and strength which might enable it to overpower prey and escape predation.

  1. The response of pediatric ribs to quasi-static loading: mechanical properties and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Moorhouse, Kevin; Kang, Yun-Seok; Donnelly, Bruce R; Pfefferle, Kiel; Manning, Angela X; Litsky, Alan S; Herriott, Rod; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bolte, John H

    2013-12-01

    Traumatic injury is a major cause of death in the child population. Motor vehicle crashes account for a large portion of these deaths, and a considerable effort is put forth by the safety community to identify injury mechanisms and methods of injury prevention. However, construction of biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices and computational models for this purpose requires knowledge of bone properties that is difficult to obtain. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties and measures of skeletal development in the growing rib. Anterolateral segments of 44 ribs from 12 pediatric individuals (age range: 5 months to 9 years) were experimentally tested in three-point bending. Univariate mixed models were used to assess the predictive abilities of development-related variables (e.g., age, stature, histomorphometry, cross-sectional geometry) on mechanical variables (material and structural properties). Results show that stature, in addition to age, may be a reliable predictor of bone strength, and that histomorphometry has potential to explain bone properties and to further our understanding of fracture mechanisms. For example, percent secondary lamellar bone (%Sd.Ar) successfully predicts peak force (F P) and Young's modulus (E). Application of these findings is not restricted to injury biomechanics, but can also be referenced in forensic and anthropological contexts.

  2. Effects of etidronate on calcification of scales and ribs in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Masaharu

    2012-04-01

    Effects of etidronate on the calcification of scales and ribs were investigated in goldfish. Daily intraperitoneal injections of etidronate at doses of 1 and 10 mgP/kg body weight for 2 weeks inhibited calcification of ontogenic scales and ribs without affecting the accretion of organic matrices. Removal of some scales induced their regeneration within the two-week period. Their newly formed organic matrix was fully uncalcified in fish treated with 10 mgP/kg, whereas in those treated with 1 mgP/kg, the regenerating scales were only partially calcified. Daily administration of etidronate 10 mgP/kg resulted in an increase of body weight. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of etidronate on the calcification of osseous tissues in mammals can be expected also on comparable tissues in fishes. An appropriate dose of etidronate that inhibits hard tissue calcification but not affects the body growth in fish seemed to exist between 1 and 10 mgP/kg.

  3. Mutations in mouse Ift144 model the craniofacial, limb and rib defects in skeletal ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Alyson; Butterfield, Natalie C.; Town, Liam; Courtney, Andrew D.; Cooper, Ashley N.; Ferguson, Charles; Barry, Rachael; Olsson, Fredrik; Liem, Karel F.; Parton, Robert G.; Wainwright, Brandon J.; Anderson, Kathryn V.; Whitelaw, Emma; Wicking, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in components of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery required for assembly and function of the primary cilium cause a subset of human ciliopathies characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia. Recently, mutations in the IFT-A gene IFT144 have been described in patients with Sensenbrenner and Jeune syndromes, which are associated with short ribs and limbs, polydactyly and craniofacial defects. Here, we describe an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mouse mutant with a hypomorphic missense mutation in the Ift144 gene. The mutant twinkle-toes (Ift144twt) phenocopies a number of the skeletal and craniofacial anomalies seen in patients with human skeletal ciliopathies. Like other IFT-A mouse mutants, Ift144 mutant embryos display a generalized ligand-independent expansion of hedgehog (Hh) signalling, in spite of defective ciliogenesis and an attenuation of the ability of mutant cells to respond to upstream stimulation of the pathway. This enhanced Hh signalling is consistent with cleft palate and polydactyly phenotypes in the Ift144twt mutant, although extensive rib branching, fusion and truncation phenotypes correlate with defects in early somite patterning and may reflect contributions from multiple signalling pathways. Analysis of embryos harbouring a second allele of Ift144 which represents a functional null, revealed a dose-dependent effect on limb outgrowth consistent with the short-limb phenotypes characteristic of these ciliopathies. This allelic series of mouse mutants provides a unique opportunity to uncover the underlying mechanistic basis of this intriguing subset of ciliopathies. PMID:22228095

  4. Invasive pleural malignant mesothelioma with rib destruction and concurrent osteosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Morena; Rocconi, Francesca; Marruchella, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Anna Rita; Masci, Stefano; Santori, Domenico; Civitella, Carla; Luciani, Alessia; Boari, Andrea

    2015-12-02

    A 7-year-old Dachshund was clinically examined because of a 10-day history of lameness in the left hind limb. On the basis of radiological and cytological findings, an osteosarcoma of the left acetabular region was suspected. The dog underwent a hemipelvectomy and osteosarcoma was diagnosed by subsequent histopathological examination. An immovable subcutaneous mass was noted on the left chest wall during the physical examination and non-septic neutrophilic inflammation was diagnosed by cytology. Forty days later, the dog showed signs of respiratory distress with an in-diameter increase of the subcutaneous mass up to 4 cm. Thoracic radiography and ultrasonography revealed pleural effusion and a lytic process in the fourth left rib. Furthermore, ultrasound examination revealed a mixed echogenic mobile structure with a diameter of around 2 cm floating within the pleural fluid of the left hemithorax close to the pericardium. The dog underwent surgery for an en bloc resection of the subcutaneous mass together with the fourth rib and the parietal pleura. Moreover, the left altered lung lobe, corresponding to the mobile structure detected by ultrasound, was removed. Based on cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations, an invasive epithelioid pleural malignant mesothelioma was diagnosed.

  5. Primary adamantinoma of the rib. Unusual presentation for a bone neoplasm of uncertain origin.

    PubMed

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Del Valle, Luis; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mendoza-Ramón, Hilda; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Adamantinomas are rare, low-grade malignant intra-osseous tumors composed of epithelial and mesenchymal elements, which show a marked predilection for the tibia and fibula of young adult male patients. Although cases of adamantinoma located to the axial skeleton have been reported either as recurrent or metastatic disease, only two cases of primary adamantinoma located to the thoracic wall have been previously described. In this study we present the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a 24-year-old male with a slow growing, solid-cystic, painful mass, located to the right 11th rib, which was morphological and immunohistochemically diagnosed as a primary classic adamantinoma. Radiological studies showed a multiloculated lesion with a solid component. The patient underwent a whole surgical resection of the lesion. Histologically, multiple foci of epithelial cells with basaloid and squamous components were found intermixed within a fibrous stromal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated expression of cytokeratins, EMA, vimentin and other epithelial markers. Primary affection of the rib is an unusual feature of classic adamantinomas.

  6. An instability theory for the formation of ribbed moraine, drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Chapwanya, M

    2014-11-08

    We present a theory for the coupled flow of ice, subglacial water and subglacial sediment, which is designed to represent the processes which occur at the bed of an ice sheet. The ice is assumed to flow as a Newtonian viscous fluid, the water can flow between the till and the ice as a thin film, which may thicken to form streams or cavities, and the till is assumed to be transported, either through shearing by the ice, squeezing by pressure gradients in the till, or by fluvial sediment transport processes in streams or cavities. In previous studies, it was shown that the dependence of ice sliding velocity on effective pressure provided a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling ribbed moraine, while the dependence of fluvial sediment transport on water film depth provides a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling mega-scale glacial lineations. Here, we combine these two processes in a single model, and show that, depending largely on the granulometry of the till, instability can occur in a range of types which range from ribbed moraine through three-dimensional drumlins to mega-scale glacial lineations.

  7. An instability theory for the formation of ribbed moraine, drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, A. C.; Chapwanya, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a theory for the coupled flow of ice, subglacial water and subglacial sediment, which is designed to represent the processes which occur at the bed of an ice sheet. The ice is assumed to flow as a Newtonian viscous fluid, the water can flow between the till and the ice as a thin film, which may thicken to form streams or cavities, and the till is assumed to be transported, either through shearing by the ice, squeezing by pressure gradients in the till, or by fluvial sediment transport processes in streams or cavities. In previous studies, it was shown that the dependence of ice sliding velocity on effective pressure provided a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling ribbed moraine, while the dependence of fluvial sediment transport on water film depth provides a mechanism for the generation of bedforms resembling mega-scale glacial lineations. Here, we combine these two processes in a single model, and show that, depending largely on the granulometry of the till, instability can occur in a range of types which range from ribbed moraine through three-dimensional drumlins to mega-scale glacial lineations. PMID:25383019

  8. Numerical sensitivity analysis of 3- and 2- dimensional rib-roughened channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmiri, Amir

    2012-07-01

    Rough surfaces have been used as a tool to enhance heat transfer by increasing the level of turbulence mixing in the flow. In numerically simulating such flows, it is common to simulate a 3D rib-roughened channel with a 2D domain in order to reduce the computational time and power. The main purpose of the present work is to investigate the accuracy of the above approximation. In order to do so, initially a 3D channel is simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes technique and comparison is made against 2D simulations as well as experimental data. In addition, the effects of rib thermal boundary condition and near-wall treatments are also investigated. All computations are undertaken using the commercial CFD code `STAR-CD'. The Reynolds number, based on the channel bulk velocity and hydraulic diameter, is 30,000. Two low-Reynolds-number linear Eddy-Viscosity Models, namely the Lien-Chen-Leschziner k - ɛ model and a variant of Durbin's v 2 - f formulation are used. In the CFD simulations reported here, the focus is on the experimental data of Rau et al. (ASME J Turbomach 120:368-375, 1998). It was found that the present results for a 3D channel are in relatively good agreement with the data. It was also shown that a 2D channel can be used to represent the flow in the centre-line of a 3D channel with relatively good accuracy.

  9. New experimental results on local heat transfer inside a rectangular channel with rib-roughened surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Vitali, L.; Niro, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present new experimental results on local heat transfer characteristics of a forced air-flow through a 12-mm-height, rectangular channel of 1:10 aspect ratio, with square-cross-section ribs mounted onto the lower surface. Data are collected on a completely redesigned test section. Specifically, the electric heater is made of very thin copper tracks, in direct contact with the air flow and covering at 97.5% the channel lower surface to guarantee a very uniform heat flux. The copper tracks are laminated onto a 2-mm thick board of FR-4 glass epoxy to provide negligible heat conduction inside the plate and heat losses from its sides. Finally, the channel walls are in XPS and, into the upper one, a double glazing consisting of two 120 mm x 120 mm Germanium windows is mounted to allow optical access to the IR camera and to reduce local heat dispersions. Data here presented refer to convection over 4 mm x 2 mm ribs in transverse configuration for Reynolds numbers, based on the duct hydraulic diameter, ranging between 700 and 8000. Preliminary tests show how the new apparatus has significantly improved the quality, the ease and the quickness of the measurements.

  10. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications.

  11. Ultra broadband flat dispersion tailoring on reversed-rib chalcogenide glass waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanfen; Qi, Renduo; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a horizontal slot in the reversed-rib chalcogenide glass waveguide to tailor its dispersion characteristics. The waveguide exhibits a flat and low dispersion over a wavelength range of 1080 nm, in which the dispersion fluctuates between -10.6 ps·nm-1·km-1 and +11.14 ps·nm-1·km-1. The dispersion tailoring effect is due to the mode field transfer from the reversed-rib waveguide to the slot with the increase of wavelength, which results in the extension of the low dispersion band. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient and the phase-matching condition of the four-wave mixing process in this waveguide are studied, showing that the waveguide has great potential in nonlinear optical applications over a wide wavelength range. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB328700 and 2011CBA00303) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575102 and 61321004).

  12. Image-processing technique for suppressing ribs in chest radiographs by means of massive training artificial neural network (MTANN).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Abe, Hiroyuki; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    When lung nodules overlap with ribs or clavicles in chest radiographs, it can be difficult for radiologists as well as computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes to detect these nodules. In this paper, we developed an image-processing technique for suppressing the contrast of ribs and clavicles in chest radiographs by means of a multiresolution massive training artificial neural network (MTANN). An MTANN is a highly nonlinear filter that can be trained by use of input chest radiographs and the corresponding "teaching" images. We employed "bone" images obtained by use of a dual-energy subtraction technique as the teaching images. For effective suppression of ribs having various spatial frequencies, we developed a multiresolution MTANN consisting of multiresolution decomposition/composition techniques and three MTANNs for three different-resolution images. After training with input chest radiographs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images, the multiresolution MTANN was able to provide "bone-image-like" images which were similar to the teaching bone images. By subtracting the bone-image-like images from the corresponding chest radiographs, we were able to produce "soft-tissue-image-like" images where ribs and clavicles were substantially suppressed. We used a validation test database consisting of 118 chest radiographs with pulmonary nodules and an independent test database consisting of 136 digitized screen-film chest radiographs with 136 solitary pulmonary nodules collected from 14 medical institutions in this study. When our technique was applied to nontraining chest radiographs, ribs and clavicles in the chest radiographs were suppressed substantially, while the visibility of nodules and lung vessels was maintained. Thus, our image-processing technique for rib suppression by means of a multiresolution MTANN would be potentially useful for radiologists as well as for CAD schemes in detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs.

  13. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42).

  14. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... they are also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  15. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  16. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) can have serious effects on rowing training and performance and accordingly represent an important topic for sports medicine practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this review is to outline the definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, injury management and injury prevention strategies for RSF in rowers. To this end, nine relevant books, 140 journal articles, the proceedings of five conferences and two unpublished presentations were reviewed after searches of electronic databases using the keywords 'rowing', 'rib', 'stress fracture', 'injury', 'mechanics' and 'kinetics'. The review showed that RSF is an incomplete fracture occurring from an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and the rate of bone formation. RSF occurs in 8.1-16.4% of elite rowers, 2% of university rowers and 1% of junior elite rowers. Approximately 86% of rowing RSF cases with known locations occur in ribs four to eight, mostly along the anterolateral/lateral rib cage. Elite rowers are more likely to experience RSF than nonelite rowers. Injury occurrence is equal among sweep rowers and scullers, but the regional location of the injury differs. The mechanism of injury is multifactorial with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors contributing. Posterior-directed resultant forces arising from the forward directed force vector through the arms to the oar handle in combination with the force vector induced by the scapula retractors during mid-drive, or repetitive stress from the external obliques and rectus abdominis in the 'finish' position, may be responsible for RSF. Joint hypomobility, vertebral malalignment or low bone mineral density may be associated with RSF. Case studies have shown increased risk associated with amenorrhoea, low bone density or poor technique, in combination with increases in training volume. Training volume alone may have less effect on injury than other factors. Large differences in seat and handle

  17. First rib fracture and Horner’s syndrome due to a motor vehicle collision: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of a first rib fracture and Horner's syndrome due to a motor vehicle collision is reported. Initial evaluation in a hospital emergency department and follow-up by a medical primary care physician failed to provide identification of the Horner’s syndrome. Careful assessment and review of the patient’s symptoms, signs and images revealed this uncommon and important neurologic case presentation. A brief discussion related to traumatic first rib fracture, Horner’s syndrome and arterial dissections of the neck is provided. PMID:23830309

  18. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demir, Nihat; Peker, Erdal; Ece, İbrahim; Kaba, Sultan; Ağengin, Kemal; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil.

  19. Effect of the ripening time under vacuum and packaging film permeability on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Liaros, N G; Katsanidis, E; Bloukas, J G

    2009-12-01

    The effect of vacuum ripening of low-fat fermented sausages packaged in films with different permeabilities on their microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics was studied. High-fat control sausages were produced with 30% initial fat and low-fat sausages with 10% initial fat. The low-fat sausages were separated into: (a) non-packaged (control) and (b) packaged under vacuum on 7th, 12th and 17th day of processing, remaining under vacuum during the ripening period for 21, 16 and 11days, respectively, in three different oxygen (100, 38 and⩽5cm(3)/m(2)/24h/1atm) and water vapour (4.5, <2.5 and 1g/m(2)24h) permeability plastic bags. Vacuum packaging reduced (p<0.05) the weight loss, the hardness and extent of lipid oxidation in the sausages, increased (p<0.05) their lightness, but had no effect (p>0.05) on the redness, compared to the control sausages. Packaging low-fat fermented sausages under vacuum for the last 11days of ripening in packaging film with high permeability increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid bacteria count. The same product packaged in film with medium permeability had a higher (p<0.05) Micrococcaceae count and the same (p>0.05) hardness and overall acceptability as the high-fat control sausages. A ripening time of 11days and the medium packaging film permeability were the most appropriate conditions for the vacuum packaging of low-fat fermented sausages.

  20. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  1. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.

  2. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography. PMID:28119889

  3. Differences in rates of radiation-induced true and false rib fractures after stereotactic body radiation therapy for Stage I primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Hideharu; Inoue, Toshihiko; Shiomi, Hiroya; Oh, Ryoong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetry and investigate the clinical outcomes of radiation-induced rib fractures (RIRFs) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). A total of 126 patients with Stage I primary lung cancer treated with SBRT, who had undergone follow-up computed tomography (CT) at least 12 months after SBRT and who had no previous overlapping radiation exposure were included in the study. We used the Mantel–Haenszel method and multiple logistic regression analysis to compare risk factors. We analyzed D(0.5 cm3) (minimum absolute dose received by a 0.5-cm3 volume) and identified each rib that received a biologically effective dose (BED) (BED3, using the linear–quadratic (LQ) formulation assuming an α/β = 3) of at least 50 Gy. Of the 126 patients, 46 (37%) suffered a total of 77 RIRFs. The median interval from SBRT to RIRF detection was 15 months (range, 3–56 months). The 3-year cumulative probabilities were 45% (95% CI, 34–56%) and 3% (95% CI, 0–6%), for Grades 1 and 2 RIRFs, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor location was a statistically significant risk factor for the development of Grade 1 RIRFs. Of the 77 RIRFs, 71 (92%) developed in the true ribs (ribs 1–7), and the remaining six developed in the false ribs (ribs 8–12). The BED3 associated with 10% and 50% probabilities of RIRF were 55 and 210 Gy to the true ribs and 240 and 260 Gy to the false ribs. We conclude that RIRFs develop more frequently in true ribs than in false ribs. PMID:25504640

  4. Anatomy of a serial killer: differential diagnosis of tuberculosis based on rib lesions of adult individuals from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Luísa; Roberts, Charlotte Ann

    2006-05-01

    The role of new bone formation on visceral surfaces of ribs in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in past human populations has been explored by many researchers, using both skeletal remains with known causes of death and archaeological samples. This study focuses, firstly, on adult skeletons from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection in Portugal and investigates the skeletal manifestations of individuals known to have died from TB; secondly, this study focuses on the role of rib lesions in the diagnostic criteria for TB. One hundred and fifty-seven males and 106 females aged between 22-87 years were examined; causes of death were assigned as pulmonary TB, extrapulmonary TB, and pulmonary non-TB; a control group, extrapulmonary non-TB, was selected from the remaining individuals. Of individuals with rib lesions, 85.7% (69/81) had pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB as an assigned cause of death, while 17.8% (16/90) of individuals with rib lesions had a non-TB cause of death. Rib lesions were significantly more common in individuals who had died from TB, although the lesions cannot be considered pathognomonic for TB. In individuals dying from pulmonary TB, ribs in the central part of the rib cage were most affected, at their vertebral ends. The lower part of the rib cage may be a marker for peritoneal TB, and "coral-like" new bone formation on ribs may be an indicator of neoplastic disease. Further work on rib involvement in TB in clinical contexts, and the study of further documented skeletal collections, are recommended.

  5. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  6. Wastewater contaminant transport and treatment in a nutrient limited ribbed fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, C. P. R.; Price, J. S.; Branfireun, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    To minimize the discharge of wastewater contaminants from remote northern communities and mining operations, fen peatlands in sub-arctic regions are used for tertiary wastewater treatment to detain, transform, and remove these contaminants. However, there is a limited understanding of contaminant transport and treatment in fen peatlands, particularly in sub-arctic Canada. To better characterize wastewater contaminant transport and treatment in these systems, approximately 44 m3 day-1 of simulated wastewater, concentrated custom-blend fertilizer (NO3-, PO33-, and SO42-) and Cl- diluted with water, was pumped into a small 0.5 ha sub-arctic ribbed fen continuously for 47 days (July 15th -August 31st 2014). Contaminant concentration of 3 similar ribbed fens varied between 0.0-3.0 mg L-1 over the study period (May - September 2014). An exponential increase in transmissivity (2.4 to 16.8 m2 day-1) as the water table rose (~0.16 m) increased the average linear groundwater velocity (0.5 to 3.4 m day-1) and resulted in rapid SO42- (0.8 m day-1) and Cl- (1.9 m day-1) transport. Notwithstanding the rapid transport of Cl-, diffusion into inactive pores still retarded Cl- transport by a factor of 1.8. Contrary to the rapid transport of SO42- and Cl-, the other contaminants were rapidly removed from the pore water (likely through biological uptake or adsorption) and minimal transport was observed (0.29 and 0.04 m day-1 for PO33- and NO3-, respectively). Northern ribbed fens have a large capacity to detain certain wastewater contaminants (e.g., NO3- and PO33-), yet allow rapid transport of others (e.g., SO42- and Cl-). Thus, these peatlands have the potential to significantly decrease wastewater contamination in northern aquatic environment by both biogeochemical and physical processes but careful management of the hydrology is required to prevent the release of mobile contaminants.

  7. Risk of pneumonia in patients with isolated minor rib fractures: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Teng, Ying-Hock; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Han-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. Design Nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants Non-traumatic patients were matched through 1:8 propensity-score matching according to age, sex, and comorbidities (namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) with the comparison cohort. We estimated the adjusted HRs (aHRs) by using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 709 patients with IMRFs and 5672 non-traumatic patients were included. Main outcome measure The primary end point was the occurrence of pneumonia within 30 days. Results The incidence of pneumonia following IMRFs was 1.6% (11/709). The aHR for the risk of pneumonia after IMRFs was 8.94 (95% CI=3.79 to 21.09, p<0.001). Furthermore, old age (≥65 years; aHR=5.60, 95% CI 1.97 to 15.89, p<0.001) and COPD (aHR=5.41, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.59, p<0.001) were risk factors for pneumonia following IMRFs. In the IMRF group, presence of single or two isolated rib fractures was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia with aHRs of 3.97 (95% CI 1.09 to 14.44, p<0.001) and 17.13 (95% CI 6.66 to 44.04, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Although the incidence of pneumonia following IMRFs is low, patients with two isolated rib fractures were particularly susceptible to pneumonia. Physicians should focus on this complication, particularly in elderly patients and those with COPD. PMID:28087547

  8. Considerations on the thermal performances of ribbed channels by means of a novel dynamic method for hierarchical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, A.; Fustinoni, D.; Vignati, F.; Gramazio, P.; Ciminà, S.

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of ribbed surfaces for the enhancement of heat transfer in forced convection allowed to observe that different geometries may lead to comparable performances. Due to the lack of an underlying structure of the data, a novel method for data clustering is introduced here, to assess to what extent comparable performances can be achieved using different rib geometries. The clustering method is an agglomerative technique, based on the inclusion of each configuration in another ones bounding box, whose size depends dynamically on the Nusselt number and the pumping power. The method is applied to a large database experimentally obtained at ThermALab of Politecnico di Milano, in order to identify the Nusselt number and the friction factor for diverse-rib configurations in a large-aspect ratio channel with low-Reynolds flows. The clusters are determined, and the resulting families of configurations are used to assess the possible effects of the rib geometry on the thermal and fluid-dynamic performances. The clustering analysis results suggest interesting considerations.

  9. Use of the titanium vertical ribs osteosynthesis system for reconstruction of large posterolateral chest wall defect in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Jean-Philippe; D'Annoville, Thomas; Canaud, Ludovic; Marty-Ané, Charles-Henri

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of reconstruction of a large full-thickness posterolateral defect of the chest wall after resection of a stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) using the combination of a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium device and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh. A 40-year-old female presented with a NSCLC classified as type IIIA and required both neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An en bloc resection including the left upper lobe, posterolateral segments of five ribs (K3-K7) and vertebral bodies (T3-T6) was performed through a posterior J-shaped approach. A vertical rib osteosynthesis system was used to ensure thoracic wall stability and mechanical organ protection, prevent ventilatory impairment, avoid incarceration of the tip of the scapula, and maintain an acceptable cosmetic aspect. The device was locked onto the middle arch of the second and eighth ribs. We hung the PTFE mesh from the titanium bars with multiple non-absorbable sutures under maximal tension. Final pathological classification was T4N0M0 with an R0 final resection status. After an uneventful course, the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. This first experience indicates that vertical rib osteosynthesis combined with a PTFE mesh can be used safely and easily in a one-stage procedure for major posterior chest wall defects.

  10. Secondary flow and heat transfer coefficient distributions in the developing flow region of ribbed turbine blade cooling passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Peter; McGilvray, Matthew; Gillespie, David R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental and numerical study of the development and coupling of aerodynamic flows and heat transfer within a model ribbed internal cooling passage to provide insight into the development of secondary flows. Static instrumentation was installed at the end of a long smooth passage and used to measure local flow features in a series of experiments where ribs were incrementally added upstream. This improves test turnaround time and allows higher-resolution heat transfer coefficient distributions to be captured, using a hybrid transient liquid crystal technique. A composite heat transfer coefficient distribution for a 12-rib-pitch passage is reported: notably the behaviour is dominated by the development of the secondary flow in the passage throughout. Both the aerodynamic and heat transfer test data were compared to numerical simulations developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. By conducting a number of simulations it was possible to interrogate the validity of the underlying assumptions of the experimental strategy; their validity is discussed. The results capture the developing size and strength of the vortical structures in secondary flow. The local flow field was shown to be strongly coupled to the enhancement of heat transfer coefficient. Comparison of the experimental and numerical data generally shows excellent agreement in the level of heat transfer coefficient predicted, though the numerical simulations fail to capture some local enhancement on both the ribbed and smooth surfaces. Where this was the case, the coupled flow and heat transfer measurements were able to identify missing velocity field characteristics.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Aspergillus oryzae strains 3.042 and RIB40 for soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong

    2013-06-17

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 (Chinese strain) is a close relative of A. oryzae RIB40 (Japanese strain), which is the important agent used for soy sauce fermentation. The genome of A. oryzae 3.042 was sequenced and compared with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different soy sauce flavors are produced by these strains. The A. oryzae 3.042 chromosome is 36,547,279bp and contains 11,399 protein-encoding genes. MUMmer analysis revealed that the genomes of A. oryzae 3.042 and RIB40 are mostly collinear. Genome sequence data and comparative analysis of the two strains identified several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in cell growth, salt tolerance, environmental resistance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to salt tolerance, especially genes for K(+) transport, while others were associated with ester formation and amino acid metabolism, which likely contribute to flavor formation. In conclusion, comparative genome analysis provided insights into the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains. The unique genes that we found in A. oryzae would make sense to the soy sauce fermentation.

  12. Sinorhizobium meliloti flavin secretion and bacteria-host interaction: role of the bifunctional RibBA protein.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Svetlana N; Rice, Jennifer; Domreis, Elizabeth; Lynch, Joseph; Sa, Na; Qamar, Zeeshan; Rajamani, Sathish; Gao, Mengsheng; Roje, Sanja; Bauer, Wolfgang D

    2014-05-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbiont of Medicago spp. and other legumes, secretes a considerable amount of riboflavin. This precursor of the cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide is a bioactive molecule that has a beneficial effect on plant growth. The ribBA gene of S. meliloti codes for a putative bifunctional enzyme with dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activities, catalyzing the initial steps of the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. We show here that an in-frame deletion of ribBA does not cause riboflavin auxotrophy or affect the ability of S. meliloti to establish an effective symbiosis with the host plant but does affect the ability of the bacteria to secrete flavins, colonize host-plant roots, and compete for nodulation. A strain missing the RibBA protein retains considerable GTP cyclohydrolase II activity. Based on these results, we hypothesize that S. meliloti has two partly interchangeable modules for biosynthesis of riboflavin, one fulfilling the internal need for flavins in bacterial metabolism and the other producing riboflavin for secretion. Our data also indicate that bacteria-derived flavins play a role in communication between rhizobia and the legume host and that the RibBA protein is important in this communication process even though it is not essential for riboflavin biosynthesis and symbiosis.

  13. Evaluation of the iPhone with an acrylic sleeve versus the Scoliometer for rib hump measurement in scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vertebral rotation found in structural scoliosis contributes to trunkal asymmetry which is commonly measured with a simple Scoliometer device on a patient's thorax in the forward flexed position. The new generation of mobile 'smartphones' have an integrated accelerometer, making accurate angle measurement possible, which provides a potentially useful clinical tool for assessing rib hump deformity. This study aimed to compare rib hump angle measurements performed using a Smartphone and traditional Scoliometer on a set of plaster torsos representing the range of torsional deformities seen in clinical practice. Methods Nine observers measured the rib hump found on eight plaster torsos moulded from scoliosis patients with both a Scoliometer and an Apple iPhone on separate occasions. Each observer repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements, and were blinded to previous results. Intra-observer reliability and inter-observer reliability were analysed using the method of Bland and Altman and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were calculated for repeated measurements of each of the eight plaster torso moulds by the nine observers. Results Mean absolute difference between pairs of iPhone/Scoliometer measurements was 2.1 degrees, with a small (1 degrees) bias toward higher rib hump angles with the iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were +/- 1.8 degrees (Scoliometer) and +/- 3.2 degrees (iPhone). 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were +/- 4.9 degrees (iPhone) and +/- 3.8 degrees (Scoliometer). The measurement errors and confidence intervals found were similar to or better than the range of previously published thoracic rib hump measurement studies. Conclusions The iPhone is a clinically equivalent rib hump measurement tool to the Scoliometer in spinal deformity patients. The novel use of plaster torsos as rib hump models avoids the

  14. Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Kaori; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

  15. Cough induced stress fracture and arthropathy of the ribs at extreme altitude.

    PubMed

    Litch, J A; Tuggy, M

    1998-04-01

    Cough and chest wall pain at high altitude have only received passing mention in the medical literature. Increased minute ventilation of cold dry air at very high altitude is likely to cause airway irritation. This in turn may result in airway drying, mucus production, postnasal drip from vasomotor rhinitis, and bronchospasm acting individually or in combination to stimulate the vagal cough reflex. The cough is exacerbated further at extreme altitudes above 5500 m, and may result in intercostal muscle strain and single or multiple rib fractures. We present a case of multiple cough induced stress fractures and arthropathy documented by technetium-99 bone scan in a high altitude climber and suggest the addition of the term High Altitude Cough Syndrome (HACS) to the medical syntax to identify this discrete medical problem of exposure to very high altitude.

  16. Midfoot reconstruction with serratus anterior-rib osteomuscular free flap following oncological resection of synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Artiaco, Stefano; Piana, Raimondo; Boux, Elena; Tos, Pierluigi

    2015-12-01

    During recent decades, the concept of surgical treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas has evolved, with the aim of preserving limb function. In this paper we report a case of metatarsal reconstruction by means of serratus and rib free flap after excision of a synovial sarcoma located in the dorsal aspect of the midfoot. Five years after the operation, the patient was free from recurrence and recovered full foot function. Amputation has been widely used in the past and this procedure still remains a valuable option when limb salvage is not possible. Nevertheless, in selected cases, reconstruction by means of composite free flaps may be successfully used for limb preservation in the treatment of malignant foot tumors after surgical excision.

  17. Promises and Challenges of Two-Step Targets for Production of Neutron-rich RIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L.; Drake, D.M.; Hsu, H.-H.; Wilson, M.T.

    2003-08-26

    Development of a prototype two-step target to produce neutron-rich RIBs is presented, with particular emphasis on thermal analysis under high-power operation. The two-step target is an attractive concept for production of fission-product activities without interference by high-energy spallation reactions which occur in direct production targets. In this concept, a high-energy production beam interacts with a primary target of refractory metal, depositing beam energy in the primary target and producing low-energy neutrons that cause fissions in a surrounding secondary target of mixed UC2 and excess C. Thermal analysis of the composite target presents challenges in cooling the primary target while maintaining the secondary target at temperatures suitable for release of the fission products. The effects of fission energy deposition in the secondary target are discussed, along with the complexities resulting from the thermally insulating character of the secondary target material.

  18. Distraction Osteogenesis of Multiple Ribs for the Treatment of Acquired Thoracic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Piper, Merisa L; Delrosario, Lawrence; Hoffman, William Y

    2016-03-01

    Acquired thoracic dystrophy is a complication associated with early open repair of pectus excavatum resulting from extensive cartilage resection. The condition can cause serious functional and physiologic impairments, including cardiac compression and restrictive pulmonary function. We describe a 17-year-old boy with acquired thoracic dystrophy after Ravitch repair of pectus excavatum during infancy, whom we treated with distraction osteogenesis. The patient had a marked deformity of the chest wall and general hypoplasia of the central portion of the ribcage, with resultant symptomatic dyspnea on exertion and reduced pulmonary function. After osteotomies and distraction osteogenesis of bilateral ribs 4-8 using customized distraction devices, he had improved thoracic contour, resolution of dyspnea, and decreased restrictive pulmonary symptoms. This case suggests that distraction osteogenesis, already used extensively in craniomaxillofacial and orthopedic surgery, may be a novel method for management of this condition.

  19. Tissue-engineered ribs for chest wall reconstruction: a case with 12-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Qi; Huang, Fu-Guo; Zhao, Yong-Fan; Qin, Ting-Wu; Li, Xiu-Qun; Liu, Chang; Li-Ling, Jesse; Yang, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We hereby report on a case in which a huge chest wall defect generated by resection of a massive aggressive tumor (desmoplastic fibroma) was repaired with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells embedded in a bone-derived biomaterial. In this case, there were three challenges to overcome: reconstruction of the soft tissue, repair of the skeletal defect of the thoracic wall and repair of the defect in the pleural cavity. The defects of soft tissue and pleural cavity were reconstructed, respectively, with an ipsilateral abdominal flap and a diaphragm muscular flap. The huge defect in the chest wall was successfully repaired with the tissue-engineered ribs, which was confirmed by long-term follow-up with computerized tomography and histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. In view of its effectiveness and safety, tissue-engineered bones may have a broad application for the repair of large skeletal defects and bone regeneration.

  20. Optimisation of expression and purification of the recombinant Yol066 (Rib2) protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Urban, A; Ansmant, I; Motorin, Y

    2003-03-25

    Yeast protein Yol066 (encoded by YOL066 ORF, also known as Rib2) possesses two distinct sequence domains: C-terminal deaminase domain and N-terminal part related to RNA:pseudouridine (psi)-synthases. The deaminase domain is implicated in the riboflavine biosynthesis, while the exact function of the RNA:Psi-synthase domain remains obscure. Here we report the optimisation of growth conditions and purification scheme for recombinant His(6)-tagged Yol066 expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using pET28 plasmid. Production of soluble Yol066 protein is best at low temperature (18 degrees C) and IPTG concentration (50 micro M) and Yol066 purification was achieved using metal-affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. This optimised protocol yields about 10 mg of highly purified recombinant Yol066 from 3 l of E. coli culture.

  1. Compact and efficient large cross-section SOI rib waveguide taper optimized by a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yujin; Wang, Xi; Dong, Ying; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is applied to optimize a taper between a large cross-section silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide and a single-mode fiber to achieve an ultra-compact and highly efficient coupling structure. The coupling efficiency is taken as the objective function of the genetic algorithm in the taper optimization process. To apply the optimization algorithm, the taper is segmented into several sections. Three encoding forms and a two-step optimization strategy are adopted in the optimization process, resulting in a 10μm long taper with a coupling efficiency of 93.30% in quasi-TE mode at 1550nm. The characteristics of the optimized taper including the field profile, spectrum and fabrication tolerances in both horizontal and vertical directions are investigated via a three dimensional eigenmode expansion (EME) method, indicating that the optimized taper is compatible with the prevailing integrated circuit (IC) processing technology.

  2. Osteochondroma of the Ventral Scapula Causing Scapular Static Winging and Secondary Rib Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Rao, B Kailash; Kumar, P Varun; Ram, G Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    An osteochondroma is a benign tumour of bone, which is located mainly in the metaphysis of long bones. It does not commonly occur in the scapula. On the ventral surface of the scapula, it can produce various manifestations due to mass effect. We are reporting a rare presentation of an osteochondroma at superomedial angle of ventral aspect of the scapula in a 31-year-old female. She initially presented with a painful shoulder and radiating pain in the arm. The scapular mass produced pseudo winging of the scapula and erosion of the ribs on the same side. The patient was successfully managed by open excision, using a parascapular approach. The patient had no evidence of recurrence at one year’s follow-up and is currently able to carry on her day to day activities without any discomfort. PMID:24995200

  3. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junda

    1991-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  4. Colour Based Image Processing Method for Recognizing Ribbed Smoked Sheet Grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibriani, Ike; Sumardi; Bayu Satriya, Alfredo; Budi Utomo, Satryo

    2017-03-01

    This research proposes a colour based image processing technique to recognize the Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS) grade so that the RSS sorting process can be faster and more accurate than the traditional one. The RSS sheet image captured by the camera is transformed into grayscale image to simplify the recognition of rust and mould on the RSS sheet. Then the grayscale image is transformed into binary image using threshold value which is obtained from the RSS 1 reference colour. The grade recognition is determined by counting the white pixel percentage. The result shows that the system has 88% of accuracy. Most faults exist on RSS 2 recognition. This is due to the illumination distribution which is not equal over the RSS image.

  5. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  6. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    PubMed

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation.

  7. Prediction of Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Ribbed Coolant Passage With a 180 Degree Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical results are presented for flow in a rotating internal passage with a 180 degree turn and ribbed walls. Reynolds numbers ranging from 5200 to 7900, and Rotation numbers of 0.0 and 0.24 were considered. The straight sections of the channel have a square cross section, with square ribs spaced one hydraulic diameter (D) apart on two opposite sides. The ribs have a height of 0.1D and are not staggered from one side to the other. The full three dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved combined with the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. By solving an additional equation for mass transfer, it is possible to isolate the effect of buoyancy in the presence of rotation. That is, heat transfer induced buoyancy effects can be eliminated as in naphthalene sublimation experiments. Heat transfer, mass transfer and flow field results are presented with favorable agreement with available experimental data. It is shown that numerically predicting the reattachment between ribs is essential to achieving an accurate prediction of heat/mass transfer. For the low Reynolds numbers considered, the standard turbulence model did not produce reattachment between ribs. By modifying the wall boundary condition on omega, the turbulent specific dissipation rate, much better agreement with the flow structure and heat/ mass transfer was achieved. It is beyond the scope of the present work to make a general recommendation on the omega wall boundary condition. However, the present results suggest that the omega boundary condition should take into account the proximity to abrupt changes in geometry.

  8. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics.

  9. Prediction of the weight of lean and fat yield in bacon weight carcasses. A comparison of predictors used in commercial pig carcass classification.

    PubMed

    Giles, L R; Ryan, P J; Watchman, D K; Belinda Dettmann, E

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of pig carcass description were compared as predictors of the weight (kg) of commercial lean yield and fat yield in 209 bacon weight carcasses. The predictors used included hot carcass weight and carcass sex in association with: the backfat measurements used in the Danish grading scheme (minimum loin, 3rd-4th lumbar and 3rd-4th last rib fat thickness); the proposed Australian system (P(2) fat thickness); fat classes published by the South Australian Livestock Marketing Study Group (1980); mid-line carcass measurements (backfat at minimum loin, mid back, maximum shoulder as well as carcass length) and visual carcass grade. There was no difference in precision between the carcass classification systems as predictors of lean yield. (R(2) = 69·0 % and residual standard deviation = 1·5.) Precision varied between the predictors of fat yield. The predictors were ranked as follows with R(2)(%) and residual standard deviation in parentheses. Danish (80·0, 0·50); Australian (70·5, 0·60); fat class (67·8, 0·64); mid-line (64·9, 0·67) and grade (58·1, 0·72).

  10. The relevance of the first ribs of the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) for the understanding of the Neandertal thorax.

    PubMed

    Bastir, Markus; García-Martínez, Daniel; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Ríos, Luis; Barash, Alon; Recheis, Wolfgang; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Reconstructing the morphology of the Neanderthal rib cage not only provides information about the general evolution of human body shape but also aids understanding of functional anatomy and energetics. Despite this paleobiological importance there is still debate about the nature and extent of variations in the size and shape of the Neandertal thorax. The El Sidrón Neandertals can be used to contribute to this debate, providing new costal remains ranging from fully preserved and undistorted ribs to highly fragmented elements. Six first ribs are particularly well preserved and offer the opportunity to analyze thorax morphology in Neandertals. The aims of this paper are to present this new material, to compare the ontogenetic trajectories of the first ribs between Neandertals and modern humans, and, using geometric morphometrics, to test the hypothesis of morphological integration between the first rib and overall thorax morphology. The first ribs of the El Sidrón adult Neandertals are smaller in centroid size and tend to be less curved when compared with those of modern humans, but are similar to Kebara 2. Our results further show that the straightening of the first ribs is significantly correlated with a straightening of the ribs of the upper thorax (R = 0.66; p < 0.0001) in modern humans, suggesting modularity in the upper and lower thorax units as reported in other hominins. It also supports the hypothesis that the upper thorax of Neandertals differs in shape from modern humans with more anteriorly projecting upper ribs during inspiration. These differences could have biomechanical consequences and account for stronger muscle attachments in Neandertals. Different upper thorax shape would also imply a different spatial arrangement of the shoulder girdle and articulation with the humerus (torsion) and its connection to the upper thorax. Future research should address these inferences in the context of Neandertal overall body morphology.

  11. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  12. [Nephrocalcinosis and subcutaneous fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Lobo, Luísa; Azevedo, António Siborro; Simão, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, transient and self-healing panniculits. This entity generally follows an uncomplicated course, however there are rare and important complications. The authors present a case of a newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia is not fully understood and the nephrocalcinosis can evolve to chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should be aware of subcutaneous fat necrosis as a possible risk factor for hypercalcemia and patients should have serial serum and urinary calcium determinations for up to 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesions. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypercalcemia are essential to prevent severe complications.

  13. A new "fat face" illusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Hao; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C; Wang, Zhe; Xiao, Naiqi G; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel fat face illusion that when two identical images of the same face are aligned vertically, the face at the bottom appears 'fatter'. This illusion emerged when the faces were shown upright, but not inverted, with the size of the illusion being 4%. When the faces were presented upside down, the illusion did not emerge. Also, when upright clocks were shown in the same vertically aligned fashion, we did not observe the illusion, indicating that the fat illusion does not generalize to every category of canonically upright objects with similar geometric shape as a face.

  14. Thermo-mechanically tunable Bragg grating filters on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raum, Christopher R.

    This thesis explores the integration of an optical device within a micromechanical structure to enhance its performance and enable behaviour it would otherwise be incapable of. Thermo-mechanically tunable Bragg grating filters on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide bridges have been designed, fabricated and characterised to demonstrate what happens when an optical device, and the actuator used to tune its optical response, are physically the same structure. The process flow developed to fabricate the device was a five mask process that included a bridge waveguide, integrated filter, and integrated heater. A surface micromachining technique was developed to release up to 4000 mum long, 5 mum thick waveguide bridges. The device has three distinct operating regimes: pre-buckle, buckle, and post-buckle. The pre-buckle experimental thermal sensitivity of the filter was 76 pm/°C and the theoretical sensitivity was 83 pm/°C. During the transient buckle regime, the Bragg filter wavelength was measured to shift 0.95 nm, and theorised to shift 0.55 nm. The post-buckle experimental thermal sensitivity of the filter was 88 pm/°C and the theoretical sensitivity was 99 pm/°C. The rib waveguide bridge was observed to possess a meta-stable regime between the pre- and post-buckle regimes. Before the critical buckle temperature could be attained, the bridge deflected 0.5 mum out-of-plane and remained static over a range of 7.5 °C, whereupon it deflected to its full 15.1 mum buckling mode height. This metastable deflection caused a Bragg wavelength shift of 0.39 nm. The thermal sensitivity of the Bragg filter wavelength in this meta-stable regime was 62 pm/°C. Rectangular cross-section beams did not produce this behaviour. Mechano-optical bi-stability was also observed. In this bi-stable regime there would be two possible Bragg wavelengths for a given temperature, depending on whether the device was in a forward or return path. The bi-stable regime occurred over a span of 15

  15. Fat Grams: How to Track Your Dietary Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... for total fat based on a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet. Multiply 2,000 by 0. ... So if you're on a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet, 400 to 700 calories can ... of calories a day. For a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet, that's 200 calories or about ...

  16. Refinement of the Upper and Lower Bounds of Effective Heat Conductivity Coefficients of Rib-Reinforced Composite Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose two refined structural models of the thermal behavior of a rib-reinforced composite medium at general anisotropy of the materials of compound components. For the criterion of equivalence of the rib-reinforced composite to the fictitious homogeneous anisotropic material, equality of the specific heat dissipation in them was used, which permits determining the upper and lower bounds of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of the composite material. The design values of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of a honeycomb structure with cavities filled and not filled with foam plastic have been determined. It has been shown that the refinement of certain thermal characteristics of 12%, and the refined "fork" of values of these quantities, does not exceed 2.5%. Indirect comparison has been made between the calculated and experimental values of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of such compounds, which has shown that the results obtained in the work are qualitatively reliable.

  17. Optimization of processing conditions for the sterilization of retorted short-rib patties using the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum sterilization conditions for short-rib patties in retort trays by considering microbiological safety, nutritive value, sensory characteristics, and textural properties. In total, 27 sterilization conditions with various temperatures, times, and processing methods were tested using a 3(3) factorial design. The response surface methodology (RSM) and contour analysis were applied to find the optimum sterilization conditions for the patties. Quality attributes were significantly affected by the sterilization temperature, time, and processing method. From RSM and contour analysis, the final optimum sterilization condition of the patties that simultaneously satisfied all specifications was determined to be 119.4°C for 18.55min using a water-cascading rotary mode. The findings of the present study suggest that using optimized sterilization conditions will improve the microbial safety, sensory attributes, and nutritional retention for retorted short-rib patties.

  18. An Insight to the Modeling of 1 × 1 Rib Loop Formation Process on Circular Weft Knitting Machine using Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sadhan Chandra

    2015-10-01

    The mechanics of single jersey loop formation is well-reported is literature. However, as the concept of any model of double jersey loop formation process is not available in accessible international literature. Therefore, it was planned to develop a model of 1 × 1 rib loop formation process on dial and cylinder machine using computer so that the influence of various input variables on the final loop length as well on the profile of tension on the yarn inside Knitting Zone (KZ) can be understood. The model provides an insight into the mechanics of 1 × 1 rib loop formation system on dial and cylinder machine. Besides, the degree of agreement between predicted and measured values of loop length and cam forces as well as theoretical analysis of the model have justified the acceptability of the model.

  19. Formation of Self-Connected Si0.8Ge0.2 Lateral Nanowires and Pyramids on Rib-Patterned Si(1 1 10) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lei; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Si0.8Ge0.2 is deposited onto the rib-patterned Si (1 1 10) template oriented in the [1 -1 0] direction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the rib sidewalls reshape into pyramid-covered (0 0 1) and smooth {1 1 3} facets, respectively, while the {1 0 5} facets-bounded lateral SiGe nanowires dominate the rib top along the [5 5 -1] direction. At both the rib shoulder sites and the pyramid vacancy sites, self-connecting occurs between the meeting nanowire and pyramids to form elongated huts, which are driven by the minimization of the total energy density according to the finite-element simulations results. These results suggest a convenient solution to form lateral SiGe nanowires covering multi-faceted surfaces on the patterned template.

  20. Formation of Self-Connected Si0.8Ge0.2 Lateral Nanowires and Pyramids on Rib-Patterned Si(1 1 10) Substrate.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this work, Si0.8Ge0.2 is deposited onto the rib-patterned Si (1 1 10) template oriented in the [1 -1 0] direction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the rib sidewalls reshape into pyramid-covered (0 0 1) and smooth {1 1 3} facets, respectively, while the {1 0 5} facets-bounded lateral SiGe nanowires dominate the rib top along the [5 5 -1] direction. At both the rib shoulder sites and the pyramid vacancy sites, self-connecting occurs between the meeting nanowire and pyramids to form elongated huts, which are driven by the minimization of the total energy density according to the finite-element simulations results. These results suggest a convenient solution to form lateral SiGe nanowires covering multi-faceted surfaces on the patterned template.