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Sample records for 12th thoracic vertebra

  1. Chondroblastoma of the thoracic vertebra.

    PubMed

    Attar, A; Ugur, H C; Caglar, Y S; Erdogan, A; Ozdemir, N

    2001-01-01

    A 48-year-old patient with interscapular pain was admitted to our clinic. MRI revealed a mass infiltrating the second thoracic vertebra and adjacent structures. No other clinical manifestations were observed in general examination. The patient underwent surgery and subtotal removal was achieved while anterior and posterior stabilisations were performed. Diagnosis was pathologically confirmed. As thoracic chondroblastoma cases are not frequent, we decided to present this case. PMID:11148083

  2. Chondromyxoid fibroma of two thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Bruder, E; Zanetti, M; Boos, N; von Hochstetter, A R

    1999-05-01

    We report on a case of chondromyxoid fibroma involving two adjacent thoracic vertebrae with features of aggressive behaviour on radiographs, CT and MRI. Histology revealed typical chondromyxoid fibroma with unusually coarse calcifications. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the spine is rare, and only 30 of these tumours have been reported so far. Involvement of two contiguous vertebral bodies by chondromyxoid fibroma, as reported here, appears exceptional. PMID:10424337

  3. Transverse plane of apical vertebra of structural thoracic curve: vertebra displacement versus vertebral deformation.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    CT transversal scans of the trunk provided at the level of Th8 or Th9 (apical vertebra) of 23 patients with structural thoracic scoliosis were reviewed. The following parameters were studied: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process, 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process respectively, 4) rotation angle to the sagittal plane according to Aaro and Dahlborn, 5) Cobb angle. Values of measured parameters demonstrated a common pattern of intravertebral deformity: counter clockwise deviation of the spinous process (alpha angle 15,0 +/-8,5 degrees), beta concave (69,8 +/-8,5 degrees) significantly greater than beta convex (38,8 +/-8,5 degrees), gamma concave (54,3 +/-7,8 degrees) not different from gamma convex (56,0 +/-8,0 degrees). Strong linear positive correlation between alpha angle and Aaro-Dahlborn angle was observed (r=0,78, p<0,05). Changes in morphology of apical vertebra due to intravertebral bone remodelling followed the vertebral spatial displacement and there existed a linear correlation in between. The two processes develop in opposite directions. PMID:17108421

  4. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases. PMID:27385301

  5. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases.

  6. Salmonella spondylodiscitis of the thoracic vertebrae mimicking spine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Muhamad Effendi, Ferdhany; Ibrahim, Mohd Ikraam; Mohd Miswan, Mohd Fairudz

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Salmonella infection involving the thoracic spine is very rare. It commonly presents with non-specific chronic back pain and can occur with no gastrointestinal manifestation. Blood test results and imaging findings are often indistinguishable from more common chronic spine infections such as spine tuberculosis. Culture studies remain the key to establishing a definitive diagnosis and subsequently successful treatment. We report a case in which a patient presented with symptoms and signs suggestive of spine tuberculosis, yet the culture examination revealed otherwise. PMID:27381996

  7. Investigation of a Correlation between Thoracic Vertebra Hyperplasia and Relapse in Paroxysmal Atrial FIbrillation Patients Following Extended Pulmonary Vein Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Tadashi; Yoshioka, Koichiro; Kanda, Shigetaka; Fujibayashi, Daisuke; Amino, Mari; Ikari, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is effective therapy for the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF). However, it is not easy to predict relapse of pAF. Approximately 70% pAF patients were maintained sinus rhythm for 1 year after PVI in Japan. In this study, all of the cases were underwent chest computed tomography (CT) to check for the morphology and positional relationship of the left atrium. We detected relapse cases that exhibited spur formation in the thoracic vertebrae. Therefore, we conducted an investigation based on the hypothesis that, "Because hyperostosis involves proliferative changes in the synovium or pia mater cells with an inflammatory basis, it is related to the onset of atrial fibrillation." The study sample consisted of 24 sequential cases (males: 20, mean age: 66.2 ± 6.9 years) of drug-resistant pAF that underwent PVI at our hospital between January and May, 2015. When subjects were divided into a relapse group and a non-relapse group and 21 background factors were compared, it was found that the relapse group subjects were older than the non-relapse group subjects (70.3 ± 7.2 vs 64.1 ± 5.7, p = 0.04). The proportion of cases with thoracic vertebra hyperplasia was markedly high in the relapse group (6 cases [75%] vs. 3 cases [18%], p = 0.007). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups for any other background factors. Our results suggested that thoracic vertebra hyperplasia could be a marker for predicting relapse after PVI in pAF patients. PMID:27628611

  8. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  9. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  10. Minimally invasive anterior approach for kyphoplasty of the first thoracic vertebra in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gigante, N; Pierangeli, E

    2008-02-01

    A vertebral body collapse of the first thoracic vertebra (T1) was diagnosed after radiological investigation in an adult male suffering for severe dorsal pain due to suspected multiple myeloma (MM). According to the principles of minimally invasive neurosurgery and the aesthetic needs of the patient, an open T1 kyphoplasty was performed by means of a right anterior approach through the inferior brow of the neck, generally utilized for the anterior approaches to the cervical spine. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MM and the postoperative radiological investigation showed a good vertebral body (VB) restoration. No gross neurological deficit was noted and the patient was discharged within a few days after a good recovery. Kyphoplasty is a percutaneous technique utilized by means of a posterior approach for VB restoration from T4 to the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) in patients with vertebral body compression fractures (VCFs) of osteoporotic, traumatic and neoplastic origin. Anatomic obstacles make the performance of posterior kyphoplasty from T1 to T4 very difficult. To the best of our knowledge no anterior approach for T1 kyphoplasty has been reported in the literature. Our experience gives us the opportunity to emphasize this approach and this technique for the minimally invasive treatment of the VCFs of this segment of the spine.

  11. Mini Transsternal Approach to the Anterior High Thoracic Spine (T1–T4 Vertebrae)

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhaskar; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Anichini, Giulio; Vergani, Francesco; Malik, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The anterior high thoracic spine is one of the most complex segments to be accessed surgically due to anatomical constraints and transitional characteristics. We describe in detail the mini transsternal approach to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies of T1 to T4 vertebral bodies. We analyse our surgical series, indications, and outcomes. Methods. Over a 5-year period 18 consecutive patients with thoracic myelopathy due to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies with T1 to T4 vertebral bodies involvement received a mini transsternal approach with intraoperative monitoring. Frankel scoring system was used to grade the neurological status. Results. Mean follow-up was 40 months. 78% patients improved in Frankel grade after surgery and 22% patients remained unchanged. Average operation time was 210 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed postoperative pneumonia successfully treated with antibiotics. Conclusion. The mini transsternal is a safe approach for infective, metastatic, traumatic, and degenerative lesions affecting the anterior high thoracic spine and the only one allowing an early and direct visualisation of the anterior theca. This approach overcomes the anatomical constraints of this region and provides adequate room for optimal reconstruction and preservation of spinal alignment in the cervicothoracic transition zone with good functional patient outcomes. PMID:27218104

  12. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    KURAMOCHI, Mizuki; IZAWA, Takeshi; HORI, Mayuka; KUSUDA, Kayo; SHIMIZU, Junichiro; ISERI, Toshie; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; OHASHI, Fumihito; KUWAMURA, Mitsuru; YAMATE, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger. PMID:25766770

  13. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger.

  14. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger. PMID:25766770

  15. Anode heel affect in thoracic radiology: a visual grading analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearon, T.; Brennan, P. C.

    2006-03-01

    For decades, the antero-posterior (AP) projection of the thoracic spine has represented a substantial challenge. Patient thickness varies substantially along the cranio-caudal axis resulting in images that are too dark for the upper vertebrae and too light, or with excessive quantum mottle, towards the 9th to 12th thoracic vertebra. The anode heel affect is a well known phenomenon, however there is a paucity of reports demonstrating its exploitation in clinical departments for optimising images. The current work, using an adult, tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom, explores if appropriate positioning ofthe anode can improve image quality for thoracic spine radiology. At each of 5 kVps (70, 81, 90, 102, 109) thirty AP thoracic spine images were produced, 15 with the anode end of the tube towards the cranial part of the phantom and 15 with the anode end of the tube facing caudally. Visual grading analysis of the resultant images demonstrated significant improvements in overall image quality and visualisation of specific anatomical features for the cranially facing anode compared with the alternative position, which were most pronounced for the 1st to 4th and 9th to 12th vertebrae. These improvements were evident at 70, 81 and 90 kVp, but not for the higher beam energies. The results demonstrate that correct positioning of the X-ray tube can improve image quality for thoracic radiology at specific tube potentials. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether this easy to implement and cost-free technique can be employed for other examinations.

  16. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  17. Bilateral Thoracic Ganglion Cyst : A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708

  18. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of the Entire Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae for Vertebral Compression Fractures Related to Chronic Glucocorticosteriod Use: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Quan-Ping; He, Cheng-Jian; Gu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Tao; Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most frequent of all secondary types of osteoporosis, and can increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). There are promising additions to current medical treatment for appropriately selected osteoporotic patients. Few studies have reported on the efficiency of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty for whole thoracic and lumbar glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with intractable pain caused by successional VCFs treated by PVP. PMID:25469092

  19. Percutaneous approach to the upper thoracic spine: optimal patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Edward; Clamp, Jonathan; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous access to the upper thoracic vertebrae under fluoroscopic guidance is challenging. We describe our positioning technique facilitating optimal visualisation of the high thoracic vertebrae in the prone position. This allows safe practice of kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty and biopsy throughout the upper thoracic spine.

  20. 12th International CHARGE syndrome conference proceedings.

    PubMed

    Martin, Donna M; Salem-Hartshorne, Nancy; Hartshorne, Timothy S; Scacheri, Peter C; Hefner, Margaret A

    2016-04-01

    The CHARGE Syndrome Foundation holds an International conference for families and professionals every other summer. In July, 2015, the 12th meeting was held in Schaumburg, Illinois, at the Renaissance Schaumburg Hotel. Day one of the 4-day conference was dedicated to professionals caring for and researching various aspects of CHARGE, including education, medical management, animal models, and stem cell-based approaches to understanding and treating individuals with CHARGE. Here, we summarize presentations from the meeting, including a synopsis of each of the three different breakout sessions (Medical/Clinical, Basic Science/CHD7, and Education), followed by a list of abstracts and authors for both platform and poster presentations. PMID:26754144

  1. Panel Recommends State-Level NAEP for 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    A national commission formed to review the future of the 12th grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has recommended that the nation's primary barometer of student performance should expand dramatically to provide mandatory state results on the achievement of 12th graders and to measure their readiness for college, employment,…

  2. Vertebrae numbers of the early hominid lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, Martin; Martelli, Sandra A; Boeni, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    General doctrine holds that early hominids possessed a long lumbar spine with six segments. This is mainly based on Robinson's (1972) interpretation of a single partial Australopithecus africanus skeleton, Sts 14, from Sterkfontein, South Africa. As its sixth last presacral vertebra exhibits both thoracic and lumbar characteristics, current definitions of lumbar vertebrae and lumbar ribs are discussed in the present study. A re-analysis of its entire preserved vertebral column and comparison with Stw 431, another partial A. africanus skeleton from Sterkfontein, and the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000 from Nariokotome, Kenya, did not provide strong evidence for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in either of these early hominids. Thus, in Sts 14 the sixth last presacral vertebra has on one side a movable rib. In Stw 431, the corresponding vertebra shows indications for a rib facet. In KNM-WT, 15000 the same element is very fragmentary, but the neighbouring vertebrae do not support the view that it is L1. Although in all three fossils the transitional vertebra at which the articular facets change orientation seems to be at Th11, this is equal to a large percentage of modern humans. Indeed, a modal number of five lumbar vertebrae, as in modern humans, is more compatible with evolutionary principles. For example, six lumbar vertebrae would require repetitive shortening and lengthening not only of the lumbar, but also of the entire precaudal spine. Furthermore, six lumbar vertebrae are claimed to be biomechanically advantageous for early hominid bipedalism, yet an explanation is lacking as to why the lumbar region should have shortened in later humans. All this raises doubts about previous conclusions for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in early hominids. The most parsimonious explanation is that they did not differ from modern humans in the segmentation of the vertebral column.

  3. Thoracic Radiculopathy due to Rare Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of thoracic, or abdominal pain syndrome. The clinical representation of this uncommon disorder is often atypical. With many differential diagnoses to consider, it is not surprising that the cause of thoracic radiculopathy is often not discovered for months, or years, after the symptoms arise. We report two rare cases of thoracic radiculopathy; one case was caused by extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) along the thoracic paraspinal area, and the other by foraminal stenosis, due to a bony spur of the thoracic vertebra. As such, thoracic radiculopathy should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with thoracic and abdominal pain, especially if initial diagnostic studies are inconclusive. PMID:27446792

  4. Thoracic radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ryan C; Andary, Michael T; Russo, Randolph B; DeLano, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of spinal pain syndromes. Degenerative disc disease and diabetes mellitus may frequently cause radiculopathy at the thoracic level. Electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the evaluation of radiculopathy and thoracic spinal pain syndromes. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a procedure that may be used in the treatment of thoracic spinal pain syndromes. Surgical intervention for thoracic radiculopathy usually is reserved for patients with progressive myelopathy and neurologic compromise.

  5. Making New Links, 12th Grade and beyond: Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Technical Panel on 12th Grade Preparedness Research, convened by the Governing Board, consists of seven members with expertise in a variety of measurement and policy areas related to preparedness. The purpose of the Panel was to assist the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) in planning research and validity studies that will enable the…

  6. The Future of 12th Grade NAEP: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for NAEP 12th Grade Assessments in 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The task of the Ad Hoc Committee on Planning for the the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 12th Grade Assessments in 2009 addresses three policy areas: (1) Conducting assessment at the state level in 12th grade; (2) Reporting on 12th grade student preparedness for college-credit coursework, training for employment and entrance…

  7. Ivory vertebra and systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Suarez, Felipe; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    The ivory vertebra sign seen on a standard radiograph of the spine should prompt investigations for a cause, which is most likely to be a bone metastasis, a lymphoma, or Paget's disease of bone. A diagnosis of idiopathic ivory vertebra can be given if no cause is identified. We report an unusual case of ivory vertebra sign that was due to systemic mastocytosis and improved with specific treatment. Although osteoporosis is the most common bone abnormality in systemic mastocytosis, an isolated sclerotic or lytic lesion may be found. The ivory vertebra sign should not be considered idiopathic until tests are done for mastocytosis, particularly given the availability of effective treatments.

  8. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar vertebra.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Shu, S J; Chan, M K; Chan, C H

    2001-12-01

    Chondroblastoma of the vertebra is a very rare condition. To our knowledge fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the world literature. We report a 54-year-old man with chondroblastoma of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The clinical and radiological aspects of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the presence of an extraosseous mass suggestive of locally aggressive behavior. PMID:11810169

  9. A neglected point in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Variations in the number of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate identification of vertebral levels is the main cause of wrong-site spine surgery which is performed by nearly half of the spine surgeons. Unusual anatomy and failure to verify the surgical level on radiographs have been commonly reported. We aimed at investigating the variations in vertebral number in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and thus to raise awareness of the possibility for wrong-level spinal surgery and to make a comparison with normal adolescents. A cohort of 657 AIS patients and 248 normal adolescents, presented to our center from June 2008 to February 2013, who met the inclusion criteria, were recruited. Radiographs were reviewed to identify the number of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae and the presence of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. In the AIS group, 70 (10.6%) patients had variations in the number of thoracic and/or lumbar vertebrae. Remarkably, the prevalence of variations in male subjects was significantly higher than that in female subjects (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven patients (5.6%) had an atypical number of thoracic vertebrae, with 33 having 11 thoracic vertebrae and 4 patients having 13. Forty-eight patients (7.3%) had an atypical number of lumbar vertebrae, with 14 having 4 lumbar vertebrae and 34 patients having 6. Multilevel vertebral anomalies were present in 2.3% of the patients (15 of 657). A variation in the number of vertebrae had been identified in 1.7% (11) of the reports by the radiologist. In the normal group, 27 (10.9%) subjects showed variations in the vertebral number. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atypical numbers of vertebral number between the AIS and normal groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that variations in the number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae were found in up to10.6% of AIS patients. Identification of variations in the number of vertebrae is crucial to serve to decrease the risk of wrong-level surgery. PMID:27559975

  10. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  11. PREFACE: 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    This special issue presents a collection of refereed plenary and review papers presented at the 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics held in Nice, France, 25 29 October, 2004 (ICPP2004). The primary aims of ICPPs are: To advance all fields of plasma physics worldwide. To promote strong linkage with other areas of science in order to highlight the interdisciplinary character of the field. To strongly encourage participation by all members of the plasma physics community, in particular by young plasma physicists, women plasma physicists and plasma physicists from developing countries. The 12th ICPP was organized on behalf of the International Advisory Committee (IAC). About 330 papers (invited and contributed) were presented. These papers covered the four topics: Plasma applications Space and astrophysical plasmas Fundamental plasma physics Fusion plasmas Most of the contributions are available online at the following address: http://hal.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ICPP2004/en/. The Congress was underwritten by the Association Euratom CEA. The organizers wish to thank the main sponsors: the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, the Region Provence Alpes Côtes d'Azur, the city of Nice and the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For this special issue, the Programme Committee selected 41 speakers from about 100 proposals received from the IAC, to present invited talks. Some of them provided a written paper. Refereeing of these papers was conducted by the guest editors, following the normal refereeing standards of the journal.

  12. Torsional deformity of apical vertebra in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:15456062

  13. 12th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    The Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) had its 12th annual meeting in Villa Clythia, Fréjus, France, from 16th to 18th January 2013. This series of meetings is a collaboration between the Physical Acoustics Group (PAG) of the Institute of Physics and the Groupe d'Acoustique Physique, Sous-marine et UltraSonore (GAPSUS) of the Société Française d'Acoustique. This year, attendees got the opportunity to see the French Riviera with its Mediterranean vegetation covered by a nice thick snow layer. The participants heard 34 excellent oral presentations and saw 3 posters covering an exciting and diverse range of subjects and of frequencies, from ultrasonic wave propagation in chocolate to metamaterials applied to seismic waves for protecting buildings. Among them, invited talks were given by Pr F A Duck ( Enhanced healing by ultrasound: clinical effects and mechanisms), Pr. J-C Valiére, who actually gave two invited talks ( 1. Measurement of audible acoustic particle velocity using laser: Principles, signal processing and applications, 2. Acoustic pots in ancient and medieval buildings: Literary analysis of ancient texts and comparison with recent observations in French churches), Dr P Huthwaite ( Ultrasonic imaging through the resolution of inverse problems), Dr X Lurton ( Underwater acoustic systems on oceanographic research vessels: principles and applications), Dr S Guenneau ( From platonics to seismic metamaterials). For the fifth consecutive year AFPAC is followed by the publication of its proceedings with 12 peer-reviewed papers which cover the most recent research developments in the field of Physical Acoustics in the UK and France. Alain Lhémery (CEA, France) and Nader Saffari (UCL, United Kingdom) French Riviera 12th AFPAC — Villa Clythia, Fréjus (French Riviera), the 17th of January 2013

  14. The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R; Benson, D R

    1986-01-01

    An anomalous (butterfly) eleventh thoracic vertebra in a fetus of 63 mm greatest length is described and graphic reconstructions (together with normal controls) are provided. The cartilaginous hemicentra are separated by disc-like material. Cartilaginous bars to adjacent vertebrae are present. The neural arch is complete. The notochord is not duplicated. Only one comparable case in the embryonic period has been described previously. After a discussion of cleft vertebrae in the human and in experimental animals, a developmental timetable of the appearance of several vertebral anomalies is provided. The sensitive period for butterfly vertebrae, depending on the mode of origin, seems to be 3-6 postovulatory weeks. More severe anomalies, such as the split notochord syndrome, appear earlier. It is concluded that most of the vertebral anomalies discussed arise during the embryonic period proper, although the timing of a few, such as spina bifida occulta, extends into the early fetal period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:3693103

  15. The Mars 6 Landing, 12th March 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    The Soviet Union sent five landers to Mars: 2MV3 in 1962; Mars 2 and 3 in 1971 and Mars 6 and 7 in 1973. Influenced by astrobiologist Gavril Tikhov, early Soviet designers believed that it would be possible to reach the surface of Mars using large parachutes. When the atmosphere was found to be much thinner than anticipated, the landers were redesigned to incorporate rockets. The Mars 2 and 3 missions were impeded by a poor level of navigational knowledge, making it difficult to achieve precise entry trajectories for the subsequent touchdowns. Despite that, Mars 3 achieved the first soft landing on Mars in 1971 and a brief surface transmission. Two years later, the Soviet Union achieved the first temperature and pressure profile of the atmosphere of Mars down to the surface when Mars 6 landed in the Mare Erythraeum on 12th March 1974. Because of internal debates within the Soviet space programme and the nature of news management at the time, the achievement of Mars 6 has been obscured.

  16. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  17. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  18. The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Cushion, Melanie T; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2013-01-01

    The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12) was held in August 2012 in Tarrytown, New York. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and (2) foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists, e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference that brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Slow but steady progress is being achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune-deficient and immune-competent hosts, and is providing critical insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. This IWOP meeting demonstrated the importance of newly developed genomic level information for many of these pathogens and how analysis of such large data sets is providing key insights into the basic biology of these organisms. A great concern is the loss of scientific expertise and diversity in the research community due to the ongoing decline in research funding. This loss of researchers is due to the small size of many of these research communities and a lack of appreciation by the larger scientific community concerning the state of art and challenges faced by researchers working on these organisms.

  19. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  20. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  1. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  2. 78 FR 24069 - Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port Canaveral Harbor; Port Canaveral, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 12th Annual Saltwater Classic; Port... Canaveral, Florida during the 12th Annual Saltwater Classic. The event is scheduled to take place...

  3. Pull-out strength of cemented solid versus fenestrated pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Leichtle, C. I.; Rothstock, S.; Happel, J.; Walter, F.; Shiozawa, T.; Leichtle, U. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cement augmentation of pedicle screws could be used to improve screw stability, especially in osteoporotic vertebrae. However, little is known concerning the influence of different screw types and amount of cement applied. Therefore, the aim of this biomechanical in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of cement augmentation on the screw pull-out force in osteoporotic vertebrae, comparing different pedicle screws (solid and fenestrated) and cement volumes (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). Materials and Methods A total of 54 osteoporotic human cadaver thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were instrumented with pedicle screws (uncemented, solid cemented or fenestrated cemented) and augmented with high-viscosity PMMA cement (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). The insertion torque and bone mineral density were determined. Radiographs and CT scans were undertaken to evaluate cement distribution and cement leakage. Pull-out testing was performed with a material testing machine to measure failure load and stiffness. The paired t-test was used to compare the two screws within each vertebra. Results Mean failure load was significantly greater for fenestrated cemented screws (+622 N; p ⩽ 0.001) and solid cemented screws (+460 N; p ⩽ 0.001) than for uncemented screws. There was no significant difference between the solid and fenestrated cemented screws (p = 0.5). In the lower thoracic vertebrae, 1 mL cement was enough to significantly increase failure load, while 3 mL led to further significant improvement in the upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbar regions. Conclusion Conventional, solid pedicle screws augmented with high-viscosity cement provided comparable screw stability in pull-out testing to that of sophisticated and more expensive fenestrated screws. In terms of cement volume, we recommend the use of at least 1 mL in the thoracic and 3 mL in the lumbar spine. Cite this article: C. I. Leichtle, A. Lorenz, S. Rothstock, J. Happel, F. Walter, T. Shiozawa, U. G. Leichtle. Pull

  4. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  5. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  6. Highlights of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Anastasia; Dorbala, Sharmila; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2015-09-01

    The 12th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT was held from 3 to 5 May 2015 in Madrid, Spain. In this article, the three Congress Program Committee Chairs summarize selected highlights of the presented abstracts.

  7. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  8. Thoracic actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Slade, P. R.; Slesser, B. V.; Southgate, J.

    1973-01-01

    Six cases of pulmonary infection with Actinomyces Israeli and one case of infection with Nocardia asteroides are described. The incidence of thoracic actinomycosis has declined recently and the classical presentation with chronic discharging sinuses is now uncommon. The cases described illustrate some of the forms which the disease may take. Actinomycotic infection has been noted, not infrequently, to co-exist with bronchial carcinoma and a case illustrating this association is described. Sputum cytology as practised for the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma has helped to identify the fungi in the sputum. Treatment is discussed, particularly the possible use of oral antibiotics rather than penicillin by injection. Images PMID:4568119

  9. Environmental Education in High School 9th-12th Biology Course Curricula Started to Be Implemented in 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula started to be implemented in 2007 with regard to concepts and attainments addressing to environmental education. In this regard, 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula were analyzed using content-analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods. 9th-12th grade…

  10. Uniextrapedicular kyphoplasty for the treatment of thoracic osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhaohui; Ma, Rong; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Huiyong; Ding, Huiqiang; Liang, Siming; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are common and cause pain and disability. Most osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures occur in the lower thoracic and thoracolumbar spine. Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty through a transpedicular approach is a classic procedure performed to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, due to the slender morphology of the pedicles, small pedicle size, and the angular severity of thoracic kyphosis, performing kyphoplasty in middle and high thoracic levels is technically challenging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of single-balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of thoracic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures via an extrapedicular approach. Between July 2004 and May 2008, thirty-eight patients with thoracic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures underwent percutaneous kyphoplasty via a unilateral extrapedicular approach. Average patient age was 60.3 years. Symptomatic levels ranged from T4 to T12. All affected vertebrae were identified via physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiographs. Pain relief, vertebral height restoration, and kyphosis correction were compared pre- and postoperatively using the visual analog scale and radiographs. The operation was successful in all patients. Average injected bone cement volume was 3.2±1.4 mL. Mean follow-up was 9.5 months. Visual analog scale pain score improved in 36 of 38 patients postoperatively. Mean visual analog scale pain score was 8.92±0.682 preoperatively and 2.40±0.31 postoperatively and remained at 2.80±0.34 until last follow-up. Mean middle body height correction ratio was 50.9%±34.6%. No lateral wedging was found in the coronal alignment of the treated vertebrae. Three (7.9%) patients sustained cement extravasation with no adverse events. Kyphoplasty through a unilateral extrapedicular approach can achieve convergent and proper cement filling in the affected

  11. Vulnerability of healthy vertebrae in patients with and without previous vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Morosano, Mario E; Menoyo, Inés; Caferra, Digna A; Sánchez, Ariel; Tomat, María F; Bocanera, Roberto; Pezzotto, Stella M; Masoni, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Vertebral deformities are associated with a marked increase in morbidity, mortality, and burden in terms of sanitary expenditures. Patients with vertebral fractures have a negative impact in their health, less quality of life, and loss of functional capacity and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore the vulnerability of healthy vertebrae in patients who have sustained already a compression fracture and in patients who do not have prevalent fractures in the thoracic spine; and to explore the association of the deformity in healthy vertebrae with different variables, such as bone mineral density (BMD), body mass index, age, loss of height, presence of clinical kyphosis, history of other osteoporotic fractures, and falls occurring during the last year. Clinical data and complementary studies from 175 postmenopausal outpatients were analyzed. These women (age: 69.7±11.1 years) had not received any treatment for osteoporosis. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine and bone densitometry of the hip were obtained; morphometry was performed in 1575 thoracic vertebrae from T4 to T12. The angle of wedging of each vertebral body was calculated using a trigonometric formula. Then, the sum of wedge angles of vertebral bodies (SWA) was determined, and Cobb angle was measured. In patients with vertebral fractures, after excluding the angles of fractured vertebral bodies, the mean wedge angle of the remaining vertebrae (MWAhealthy) was calculated. The same procedure was followed in patients without vertebral fractures. MWAhealthy was considered as an indicator of the structural vulnerability of non-fractured vertebrae. Patients with prevalent fractures had lower BMD, wider Cobb angle, and higher sum of wedge angles than patients without vertebral fractures. The proportion of patients with accentuation of clinical kyphosis was higher in the group with prevalent vertebral fractures. A highly significant difference was found in the MWAhealthy

  12. Thoracic amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Shamsuzzaman, S M; Hashiguchi, Y

    2002-06-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis is the common and pericardial amebiasis the rare form of thoracic amebiasis. Low socioeconomic conditions, malnutrition, chronic alcoholism, and ASD with left to right shunt are contributing factors to the development of pulmonary amebiasis. Although no age is exempt, it commonly occurs in patients aged 20 to 40 years, with an adult male to female ratio of 10:1. Children rarely develop thoracic amebiasis: when it does occur there is an equal sex distribution. The infection usually spreads to the lungs by extension of an amebic liver abscess. Infection may pass to the thorax directly from the primary intestinal lesion through hematogenous spread, however. Lymphatic spread is one possible route. Inhalation of dust containing cysts and aspiration of cysts or trophozoites of E histolytica in the lungs are some other hypothetical routes. The lung is the second most common extraintestinal site of amebic involvement after the liver. Usually the lower lobe, and sometimes the middle lobe of the right lung, are affected, but it may affect any lobe of the lungs. The patient develops fever and right upper quadrant pain that is referred to the tip of the right shoulder or in between the scapula. Hemophtysis is common. The diagnosis of thoracic amebiasis is suggested by the combination of an elevated hemidiaphragm (usually right), hepatomegaly, pleural effusion, and involvement of the right lung base in the form of haziness and obliteration of costophrenic and costodiaphragmatic angles. Infection is usually extended to the thorax by perforation of a hepatic abscess through the diaphragm and across an obliterated pleural space, producing pulmonary consolidation, abscesses, or broncho-hepatic fistula. Empyema develops when a liver abscess ruptures into the pleural space. Rarely, a posterior amebic liver abscess can burst into the inferior vena cava and develop an embolism of the inferior vena cava and thromboembolic disease of the lungs with congestive

  13. Thoracic amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Shamsuzzaman, S M; Hashiguchi, Y

    2002-06-01

    Pleuropulmonary amebiasis is the common and pericardial amebiasis the rare form of thoracic amebiasis. Low socioeconomic conditions, malnutrition, chronic alcoholism, and ASD with left to right shunt are contributing factors to the development of pulmonary amebiasis. Although no age is exempt, it commonly occurs in patients aged 20 to 40 years, with an adult male to female ratio of 10:1. Children rarely develop thoracic amebiasis: when it does occur there is an equal sex distribution. The infection usually spreads to the lungs by extension of an amebic liver abscess. Infection may pass to the thorax directly from the primary intestinal lesion through hematogenous spread, however. Lymphatic spread is one possible route. Inhalation of dust containing cysts and aspiration of cysts or trophozoites of E histolytica in the lungs are some other hypothetical routes. The lung is the second most common extraintestinal site of amebic involvement after the liver. Usually the lower lobe, and sometimes the middle lobe of the right lung, are affected, but it may affect any lobe of the lungs. The patient develops fever and right upper quadrant pain that is referred to the tip of the right shoulder or in between the scapula. Hemophtysis is common. The diagnosis of thoracic amebiasis is suggested by the combination of an elevated hemidiaphragm (usually right), hepatomegaly, pleural effusion, and involvement of the right lung base in the form of haziness and obliteration of costophrenic and costodiaphragmatic angles. Infection is usually extended to the thorax by perforation of a hepatic abscess through the diaphragm and across an obliterated pleural space, producing pulmonary consolidation, abscesses, or broncho-hepatic fistula. Empyema develops when a liver abscess ruptures into the pleural space. Rarely, a posterior amebic liver abscess can burst into the inferior vena cava and develop an embolism of the inferior vena cava and thromboembolic disease of the lungs with congestive

  14. Shape regression for vertebra fracture quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael Tillge; de Bruijne, Marleen; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2005-04-01

    Accurate and reliable identification and quantification of vertebral fractures constitute a challenge both in clinical trials and in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various efforts have been made to develop reliable, objective, and reproducible methods for assessing vertebral fractures, but at present there is no consensus concerning a universally accepted diagnostic definition of vertebral fractures. In this project we want to investigate whether or not it is possible to accurately reconstruct the shape of a normal vertebra, using a neighbouring vertebra as prior information. The reconstructed shape can then be used to develop a novel vertebra fracture measure, by comparing the segmented vertebra shape with its reconstructed normal shape. The vertebrae in lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine were manually annotated by a medical expert. With this dataset we built a shape model, with equidistant point distribution between the four corner points. Based on the shape model, a multiple linear regression model of a normal vertebra shape was developed for each dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation. The reconstructed shape was calculated for each dataset using these regression models. The average prediction error for the annotated shape was on average 3%.

  15. Asian Studies: Experimental Course of Study, 11th or 12th Year Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Carl

    This experimental course of study has a twofold purpose. Primarily, it is intended to serve as basis for an elective for the 11th or 12th year student. Openended in organization, it encourages teachers and students to add new dimensions. It provides a comprehensive bibliography and detailed information with which to develop an elective in the area…

  16. Why 12th Grade Must Be Redesigned Now--and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This first report in a new series by Jobs For the Future (JFF) provides the rationale for restructuring 12th grade and tying it more tightly to the first year of college through new high school and college partnerships. The paper proposes a new common benchmark of readiness that high schools and colleges can work together to meet to ensure…

  17. Crime and the Law: A 12th Grade Social Studies Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Education, Madison.

    The document outlines a semester-long 12th grade study of criminal law which is accomplished through an examination of Wisconsin and constitutional law. Six sections comprise the teaching outline. Section I, The Legislative Process, considers the legislature, various statutes and terminologies, revision of legislation, and penalties. Section II,…

  18. Engaging the Learner. Annual Instructional Technology Conference (12th, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 1-3, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carter F.; Schneider, Gary F.; Kontos, George; Kuzat, Hanan; Janossy, James; Thurmond, Karen; Moore, Beth; Whitledge, Lynn; Speer, Priscilla; Harber, Annette; Bailey, Kathrine; Penney, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    The following is a collection of papers presented at the 12th annual Instructional Technology Conference at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This conference is an opportunity for higher-education professionals from across the country to discuss opportunities and challenges presented by instructional technology. The…

  19. The importance of evaluating all seven cervical vertebrae in the trauma patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iş, Merih; Karataş, Ayşe; Akyüz, Fevzullah; Gezen, Ferruh

    2007-04-01

    The cervical spine is injured in approximately 3% of major trauma patients and 10% of patients with serious head injury. We present a patient in whom an unstable cervical spine, without neurological deficit, resulting from a traffic accident was misdiagnosed as normal in the emergency room. Although cervical spine pain or tenderness and neurological deficit have a sensitivity of 93% for cervical spine injury, asymptomatic patients or patients with mild symptoms can have spine injury. All trauma patients with a complaint of mild neck pain require a standard three-view radiological evaluation of the cervical spine demonstrating all seven vertebrae and the top of first thoracic vertebra even if their neurologic examination is normal.

  20. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  1. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive radiological factors for extension of fusion distal to caudal end vertebra.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Tsirikos, A I; Subramanian, A S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical, radiological, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire data were reviewed pre-operatively and two years post-operatively for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral convex segmental pedicle screw technique. A total of 72 patients were included (67 female, 5 male; mean age at surgery 16.7 years (13 to 23)) and divided into groups: group 1 included 53 patients who underwent fusion between the vertebrae at the limit of the curve (proximal and distal end vertebrae); group 2 included 19 patients who underwent extension of the fusion distally beyond the caudal end vertebra. A mean scoliosis correction of 80% (45% to 100%) was achieved. The mean post-operative lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation and trunk shift were less than in previous studies. A total of five pre-operative radiological parameters differed significantly between the groups and correlated with the extension of the fusion distally: the size of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, the lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation, the Cobb angle on lumbar convex bending and the size of the compensatory thoracic curve. Regression analysis allowed an equation incorporating these parameters to be developed which had a positive predictive value of 81% in determining whether the lowest instrumented vertebra should be at the caudal end vertebra or one or two levels more distal. There were no differences in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 outcome scores between the two groups (p = 0.17). In conclusion, thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be effectively treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral segmental pedicle screw technique. Five radiological parameters correlate with the need for distal extension of the fusion, and an equation incorporating these parameters reliably informs selection of the lowest instrumented

  2. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  3. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  4. Missed Traumatic Thoracic Spondyloptosis With no Neurological Deficit: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Farooque, Kamran; Khatri, Kavin; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic thoracic spondyloptosis is caused by high energy trauma and is usually associated with severe neurological deficit. Cases presenting without any neurological deficit can be difficult to diagnose and manage. Case Presentation We reported a four-week spondyloptosis of the ninth thoracic vertebra over the tenth thoracic vertebra, in a 20-year-old male without any neurological deficit. The patient had associated chest injuries. The spine injury was managed surgically with in-situ posterior instrumentation and fusion. The patient tolerated the operation well and postoperatively there was no neurological deterioration or surgical complication. Conclusions Patients presenting with spondyloptosis with no neurological deficit can be managed with in-situ fusion via pedicle screws, especially when presenting late and with minimal kyphosis. PMID:27218044

  5. Automated vertebra identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehm, Matthias; Klinder, Tobias; Kneser, Reinhard; Lorenz, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare methods for automatically identifying individual vertebrae in arbitrary CT images. The identification is an essential precondition for a subsequent model-based segmentation, which is used in a wide field of orthopedic, neurological, and oncological applications, e.g., spinal biopsies or the insertion of pedicle screws. Since adjacent vertebrae show similar characteristics, an automated labeling of the spine column is a very challenging task, especially if no surrounding reference structures can be taken into account. Furthermore, vertebra identification is complicated due to the fact that many images are bounded to a very limited field of view and may contain only few vertebrae. We propose and evaluate two methods for automatically labeling the spine column by evaluating similarities between given models and vertebral objects. In one method, object boundary information is taken into account by applying a Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for each vertebral object. In the other method, appearance models containing mean gray value information are registered to each vertebral object using cross and local correlation as similarity measures for the optimization function. The GHT is advantageous in terms of computational performance but cuts back concerning the identification rate. A correct labeling of the vertebral column has been successfully performed on 93% of the test set consisting of 63 disparate input images using rigid image registration with local correlation as similarity measure.

  6. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment. PMID:25808686

  7. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment.

  8. Multifocal thoracic chordoma mimicking a paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Conzo, Giovanni; Gambardella, Claudio; Pasquali, Daniela; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Avenia, Nicola; Pietra, Cristina Della; Napolitano, Salvatore; Palazzo, Antonietta; Mauriello, Claudio; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Pettinato, Guido; Napolitano, Vincenzo; Santini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Chordoma of thoracic vertebras is a very rare locally invasive neoplasm with low grade malignancy arising from embryonic notochordal remnants. Radical surgery remains the cornerstone of the treatment. We describe a case of multifocal T1-T2 chordoma, without bone and disc involvement, incidentally misdiagnosed as a paraganglioma, occurring in a 47-year-old male asymptomatic patient. Neoplasm was radically removed by an endocrine surgeon through a right extended cervicotomy. A preoperative reliable diagnosis of chordoma, as in the reported case, is often difficult. Radical surgery can provide a favorable outcome but, given the high rates of local recurrence of this neoplasm, a strict and careful follow-up is recommended. Although very rare, chordoma should be suggested in the differential diagnosis of the paravertebral cervical masses of unknown origin. Spine surgeon consultation and a FNB should be routinely included in the multidisciplinary preoperative work-up of these neoplasms. PMID:24125991

  9. Endovascular aortic injury repair after thoracic pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Bartoli, M A; Blondel, B; Peltier, E; Adetchessi, T; Fuentes, S

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to describe the management and prevention of thoracic aortic injuries caused by a malposition of pedicle screws in corrective surgery of major spine deformities. Positioning pedicle screws in thoracic vertebras by posterior approach exposes to the risk of injury of the elements placed ahead of the thoracic spine, as the descending thoracic aorta. This complication can result in a cataclysmic bleeding, needing urgent vascular care, but it can also be totally asymptomatic, resulting in the long run in a pseudoaneurysm, justifying the systematic removal of the hardware. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who underwent spinal correction surgery for thoraco-lumbar degenerative kypho-scoliosis. Immediately after the surgery, a thoracic aortic injury caused by the left T7 pedicle screw was diagnosed. The patient underwent a two-step surgery. The first step was realized by vascular surgeons and aimed to secure the aortic wall by short endovascular aortic grafting. During the second step, spine surgeons removed the responsible screw by posterior approach. The patient was discharged in a rehabilitation center 7 days after the second surgery. When such a complication occurs, a co-management by vascular and spine surgeons is necessary to avoid major complications. Endovascular management of this kind of vascular injuries permits to avoid an open surgery that have a great rate of morbi-mortality in frail patients. Nowadays, technologies exist to prevent this kind of event and may improve the security when positioning pedicle screws. PMID:25023930

  10. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, a

  11. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  12. Prenatal development of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Gilanpour, Hassan; Radmehr, Bijan

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at clarifying the detailed morphological and topographical changes of the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk of sheep during fetal development. Bilateral micro-dissection of the thoracic sympathetic trunk was performed on 40 sheep fetuses aged 6-20 weeks (18 males and 22 females) under a stereomicroscope. The cervicothoracic ganglion (CTG) was observed on 75/80 sides (93.7%) and was composed of the caudal cervical and the first thoracic ganglia on 45/80 sides (56.2%), and of the caudal cervical and the first two thoracic ganglia on 30/80 sides (37.5%). The presence of the two last (12th-13th) thoracic ganglia was not constant. The influence of the sex, the side of the body, and the ages of the fetus on the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep were identified. In spite of the differences in the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk between early and late fetal developments, the morphology and topography of the older fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk tended to be similar to that of the adult sheep. To comprehend the comparative morphology of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk more completely, our results were compared with previous studies. Consequently, differences and similarities in the composition and position of the CTG, presence of single caudal cervical ganglion without fusion to the thoracic ganglia, and absence of the thoracic ganglia, and presence of splitting of the interganglionic branch were found among sheep, pig, and human fetuses. Therefore, sheep might be the appropriate animal model to be applied in human sympathetic nervous system. PMID:23639816

  13. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra. PMID:26157278

  14. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  15. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  16. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  17. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition ... hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves ...

  18. Thoracic intrathymic thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, R J; Moore, K L; Gottfried, M R; Lowe, J E; Sabiston, D C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors introduce thoracic intrathymic thyroid as a clinical entity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although accessory aberrant thyroid has not been found in other tissues in the mediastinum, a thoracic intrathymic location has not been described previously. It is believed that mediastinal thyroid tissue represents accessory ectopic tissue from the median thyroid anlage. Moreover, the close association of the thymus and thyroid supports the theory that mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue develops from abnormal descent of these structures during embryogenesis. METHODS: Benign thoracic intrathymic thyroid lesions are described in patients with mediastinal masses. CONCLUSION: Thoracic intrathymic thyroid is a distinct entity. Its occurrence is supported both clinically and embryologically. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8024364

  19. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes pain in the shoulder, arm, and neck. It happens when the nerves or blood vessels just below your ... vein is compressed, your hand might be sensitive to cold, or turn pale or bluish. Your arm ...

  20. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

  1. Dynamic cortex stripping for vertebra evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieger, James; Burns, Joseph E.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertebral cortex removal through cancellous bone reconstruction (CBR) algorithms on CT has been shown to enhance the detection rate of bone metastases by radiologists and reduce average reading time per case. Removal of the cortical bone provides an unobstructed view of the inside of vertebrae without any anomalous distractions. However, these algorithms rely on the assumption that the cortical bone of vertebrae can be removed without the identification of the endosteal cortical margin. We present a method for the identification of the endosteal cortical margin based on vertebral models and CT intensity information. First, triangular mesh models are created using the marching cubes algorithm. A search region is established along the normal of the surface and the image gradient is calculated at every point along the search region. The location with the greatest image gradient is selected as the corresponding point on the endosteal cortical margin. In order to analyze the strength of this method, ground truth and control models were also created. Our method was shown to have a significantly reduce the average error from 0.80 mm +/- 0.14 mm to 0.65 mm +/- 0.17 mm (p <0.0001) when compared to erosion. This method can potentially improve CBR algorithms, which improve visualization of cancellous bone lesions such as metastases, by more accurately identifying the inner wall of the vertebral cortex.

  2. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  3. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, and non-profit organizations. In this regard, this conference has wide-ranging support and participation among private and public entities involved in the science and management of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.

  4. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  5. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  6. PREFACE: 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsson, M. L.; Chadwick, A. V.; Jackson, R. A.; McCabe, E. E.

    2015-04-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe

  7. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  8. PREFACE: 12th International Conference on Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, N.; Landl, N.; Bogdan, A.; Yudin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference ''Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications'' (GDP 2015) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 6-11, 2015. GDP 2015 represents a continuation of the conferences on physics of gas discharge held in Russia since 1984 and seminars and conferences on the technological applications of low temperature plasmas traditionally organized in Tomsk. The six-day Conference brought together the specialists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussions on the topics that are of interest to the Conference participants. The selected papers of the Conference cover a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of the physical processes in the generators of low-temperature plasma, the low and high-pressure discharges, the pulsed plasma sources, the surface modification, and other gas-discharge technologies. The Conference was hosted by Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Scientific Center, and Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building.

  9. Beta particle dosimetry of the trabecular region of a thoracic vertebra utilizing NMR microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisch, Derek William

    Radiation damage to the hematopoietic bone marrow represents the primary limiting factor to the further development of internal emitter therapies such as radioimmunotherapy and the use of incorporated radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. Improvements in radiation dosimetry of bone marrow are believed to be a prerequisite to accurate predictions of myelotoxicity for these radionuclide therapies. Current radiation dosimetry models for the prediction of marrow dose utilize a scheme in which separate calculations of cumulated activity and dose per transition (radionuclide S value) must be made. The selection of an appropriate S value is generally limited to one of only three sources, all of which use as input the trabecular microstructure of an individual measured 20 years ago, and the tissue masses derived from different individuals measured 70 years ago. This work improves on previously developed methods, which may be used to expand the microstructural database (particularly for non-Reference Man patients). Techniques were developed to avoid voxel effects that arise when taking microstructural measurements across a digitized image. In addition, this work developed a basis for comparison of the existing dosimetry models to an accurate methodology allowing for radiation transport in a voxelized image. The images used are obtained using NMR microscopy methods. This work will be the first of its kind in skeletal dosimetry in that it will allow for S- value calculation using microstructural and mass data from the same source. A new method for performing skeletal dosimetry was developed, and absorbed fraction results are found to be consistent in shape with other models. At electron energies less than 100 keV, all models studied were found to be consistent for all source and target combinations. Finally, a dose example comparing accepted methodologies with the one developed in this study illustrated the variance and importance of skeletal tissue masses used in calculating S-values and absorbed dose.

  10. Automatic CT Measurement In Lumbar Vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisseling, Johannes T.; van Erning, Leon J. T. O.; Schouten, Theo E.; Lemmen, J. Albert M.

    1989-04-01

    Reliable software for automatic determination of the border between the cancellous bone and the cortical bone of lumbar vertebrae has been developed. An automatic procedure is needed because calculations in a larger series of patient data take too much time due to the inevitable human interaction required by available software packages. Processing in batch mode is essential. An important advantage of automatic outlining is its reproducibility, because only a single technique with objective criteria is used. In a so-called Region Of Interest (ROI) texture analysis can be performed to quantify the condition of the vertebral body in order to diagnose osteoporosis. This technique may be an alternative to a classification based solely on the average X-ray absorption value.

  11. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet’s disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient’s symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  12. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet's disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient's symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  13. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, José Maria

    2005-01-01

    The thoracic outlet syndrome is a polymorphic clinical entity, whose nature is essentially anatomic, caused by the chronic compression of the neurovascular structures that are originated in the chest or neck and course to the upper extremity. According to the most affected structure, they can be classified as neurologic, arterial or venous syndromes, that may cause discomfort, pain and disability, sometimes definite and irreparable. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to recognize in clinical practice and it is important to emphasize some peculiar symptoms or signs that each syndrome may present, through specific maneuvers or adequate complementary studies. The great majority of patients may improve with physical therapy or postural correction, and a minority is indicated for surgical therapy. The main features of the diverse thoracic outlet syndromes, their clinical presentation, diagnosis, conventional and surgical management, surgical access, complications and prognosis are described and discussed in this paper dedicated to a complete review of the entity. PMID:16234911

  14. The Consistency of the Opinions of 12th-Grade Biology Pupils on the Desirability of Biotechnologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Roth, Zvi

    1986-01-01

    This study examined 12th-grade biology students' opinions and beliefs on the desirability of the use and/or development of various biotechnologies. Describes the development of and presents results from the three questionnaires employed in the study. Includes a listing of the 15 biotechnology topics investigated in the study. (ML)

  15. Examining the Alignment of Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and 12th-Grade Exit Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Yuan, Haiquan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of the 2002 Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and the alignment between the curriculum guidelines and two most recent provincial-level 12th-grade exit examinations in China. Both curriculum guidelines and test content were represented using two-dimensional matrices (i.e., topic by level of…

  16. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (12th, Atlanta, Georgia, December 12-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Camille, Ed.

    This proceedings includes 62 papers presented at the 12th annual International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) conference. Topics of papers include: electronic undergraduate courses; software for teaching change management; cooperative projects; experiential learning; World Wide Web applications; internationalization of the information…

  17. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  18. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  19. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Proximity to Commercial Physical Activity Facilities Among 12th Grade Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Lobelo, Felipe; Porter, Dwayne E.; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between proximity to commercial physical activity facilities and cardiorespiratory fitness of 12th grade girls. Methods Adolescent girls (N=786, 60% African American, mean age=17.6 ± 0.6 years) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170). Commercial physical activity facilities were mapped and counted within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer around girls’ homes using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Sedentary activities and vigorous physical activity (VPA, greater or equal to 6 METs) were determined by the average number of 30-minute blocks reported per day on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Mixed model regressions were calculated using school as a random variable. Results Girls had higher weight-relative PWC170 scores if there was a commercial physical activity facility (n=186, 12.4±4.2 kg·m/min/kg) within 0.75-mile street-network buffer of home as compared to girls without a nearby facility (n=600, 11.2±3.6 kg·m/min/kg). After adjusting for demographic variables, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and VPA, having one or more commercial physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of homes was significantly related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions Both with and without adjustment for covariates, the presence of a commercial physical activity facility within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of a girl’s home was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22525114

  1. PREFACE: 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ondřej; Punčochář, Ivo; Duník, Jindřich

    2015-11-01

    The 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015) took place at the Research Centre NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic, on November 19 - 20, 2015. The annual European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis has been organized since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and Denmark to bring together senior and junior academics and engineers from diverse fields of automatic control, fault detection, and signal processing. The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers and developers to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, or even open problems. It also offers a great opportunity for industrial partners to express their needs and priorities and to review the current activities in the fields. A total of 74 papers have been submitted for ACD 2015. Based on the peer reviews 48 papers were accepted for the oral presentation and 10 papers for the poster presentation. The accepted papers covered areas of control theory and applications, identification, estimation, signal processing, and fault detection. In addition, four excellent plenary lectures were delivered by Prof. Fredrik Gustafsson (Automotive Sensor Mining for Tire Pressure Monitoring), Prof. Vladimír Havlena (Advanced Process Control for Energy Efficiency), Prof. Silvio Simani (Advanced Issues on Wind Turbine Modelling and Control), and Prof. Robert Babuška (Learning Control in Robotics). The ACD 2015 was for the first time in the workshop history co-sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC). On behalf of the ACD 2015 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who prepared and submitted papers, participated in the peer review process, supported, and attended the workshop.

  2. Recurrent chondromyxoid fibroma of the thoracic spine 30 years after primary excision: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, F; Dorfman, H D; Kane, P B

    2001-10-01

    We report a case of late recurrence of chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) arising in a thoracic vertebra in an 11-year-old male. This was treated by curettage, and 30 years later, the patient noticed shoulder pain and leg weakness. A recurrent mass appeared at the same site in the spinous process of T6. The histologic features of the recurrent tumor were similar to those of the primary lesion. A total of 38 cases of CMF of the vertebra have been reported. Only 3 of 38 previously reported vertebral CMF recurred. Tumors recurred 2 years after operation in 2 cases, and 7 years after operation in 1 case. PMID:12574851

  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome: anatomy.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Erdoğan

    2004-02-01

    The thoracic outlet region contains three important structures: the brachial plexus, the subclavian artery, and the subclavian vein. As they travel from the upper mediastinum to the upper extremity, these structures run through three important spaces: the interscalene triangle, the costoclavicular space, and the subpectoral space. Compression can occur in any of these three spaces because of structural anomalies or trauma.

  4. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and

  5. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    Continuing the 24 year old tradition, one of the Greek relativistic groups, this time the Relativity Group of the Physics Department of the University of Athens, organized the 12th Conference of the series "Recent Developments in Gravity" (NEB XII). This time NEB took place at Nafplio, Greece, from Thursday 29 June to Sunday 2 July, 2006. The Conference was attended by more than 100 participants, more than 50% of whom were relativists from abroad (both Greek and other nationalities). This signifies a tendency of the last few Conferences to open up the Greek Relativity Conference to the international scientific community. Actually, many notable members of the relativistic community all over the globe showed particular interest in coming to Nafplio, and spend four relaxed days in a nice sunny and historical place, presenting the results of their more recent work and discussing it with colleagues and students from Greece. The NEB XII Conference covered various aspects of gravitational physics: Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, Quantum Gravity, and Cosmology. Although the program was rather heavy and for the first time we had parallel sessions running in the afternoons, the wonderful weather (apart from the last afternoon when it rained heavily) and the beauty of Nafplio helped the organizers offer the participants a warm, pleasant, and creative time. According to most attendees, their impression was more than good, not only with respect to the hospitable environment, but with respect to the high level of talks as well. We hope the next Conference, which will be organized by the Relativity Group of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the summer of 2008, will raise the standards of the Conference even higher, thus further establishing our Conference as a notable Conference in the Relativistic community all over the world. Finally, we would like to thank the Gravitational Physics Section of the European Physical Society (GPS/EPS), ILIAS

  6. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  7. Non-traumatic compression fractures of the thoracic spine following a seizure -- treatment by percutaneous kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gnanalingham, K; Macanovic, M; Joshi, S; Afshar, F; Yeh, J

    2004-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented with acute mid-thoracic back pain following a witnessed grand mal seizure. There was no trauma and the patient was on steroids for systemic lupus erythematosus. X-rays and CT scans of the thoracic spine revealed compression fractures at T5 and T6, with 50 % loss of vertebral height and kyphosis. He underwent percutaneous kyphoplasty of both vertebrae, with symptomatic improvement. Non-traumatic compression fractures of the thoracic spine following seizures are a rare injury. This may be related to the compressive forces exerted on the vertebral column by the contractions of the truncal muscles, during a seizure. These compression fractures are suitable for treatment by minimally invasive techniques, such as kyphoplasty.

  8. Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Joehaimey; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Omar, Ahmad Sabri; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajudin; Nor, Sobri; Lam, Weii Cheak; Yusof, Mohd Imran

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS. METHODS A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1–L3 than at T6–T8 or T9–T12 (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients. PMID:26831315

  9. Level Set Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae Using Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritscher, Karl; Leber, Stefan; Schmölz, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    For the planning of surgical interventions of the spine exact knowledge about 3D shape and the local bone quality of vertebrae are of great importance in order to estimate the anchorage strength of screws or implants. As a prerequisite for quantitative analysis a method for objective and therefore automated segmentation of vertebrae is needed. In this paper a framework for the automatic segmentation of vertebrae using 3D appearance models in a level set framework is presented. In this framework model information as well as gradient information and probabilities of pixel intensities at object edges in the unseen image are used. The method is tested on 29 lumbar vertebrae leading to accurate results, which can be useful for surgical planning and further analysis of the local bone quality.

  10. Inherited thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur after 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Gorana; Kovac, Mirjana; Povazan, Ljubica; Magic, Zvonko; Djordjevic, Valentina; Salatic, Iva; Mitic, Igor; Novakov-Mikic, Aleksandra

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent fetal loss (RFL) is a significant clinical problem, occurring in 1% to 5% of reproductive females. Inherited or acquired thrombophilia has been diagnosed in 50% to 65% of women with history of unexplained fetal loss. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of thrombophilia in women with unexplained RFL in Serbian population and to find out whether the presence of thrombophilia is associated with pregnancy losses that occur later than 12th gestational week. We have examined 147 women with unexplained RFL or intrauterine fetal death and 128 healthy women with at least 1 uncomplicated pregnancy. The antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V (FV) G1691A, factor II (FII) G20210A, and MTHFR C677T were determined. At least 1 inherited thrombophilic defect was found in 54 (36.7%) of 147 women with repeated fetal losses and in 11 (8.59%) of 128 controls (P < .001, OR 6.17, 95% CI 3.06-12.48). The most common thrombophilic abnormalities were homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT, FV Leiden, and FII G20210A. Deficiency of natural anticoagulants occurred in 10 patients, with protein S deficiency being the most frequent one. Thrombophilia was found in 46 of 94 women with RFL that occurred later than the 12th gestational week and in only 8 of 53 with RPL earlier than 12th week (P = .001). Our study has shown the association between the hereditary thrombophilia and RFL that occurred after the 12th gestational week in Serbian population.

  11. Superbugs and Superdrugs-SMi's 12th annual conference--Overcoming resistance. 17-18 March 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adekemi

    2010-05-01

    The 12th Annual Superbugs and Superdrugs conference, held in London, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antimicrobial research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on antimicrobial peptides, addressing bacterial resistance, and new treatments for bacterial infections. Investigational drugs discussed include DPK-060 (DermaGen AB), DAV-132 (Da Volterra), PF-4287881, PNU-100480 and PF-02538084 (all Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) and lanbiotics from Novacta.

  12. Deformation Measurement Of Lumbar Vertebra By Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryoukei; Iwata, Koichi; Nagata, Ryo

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of normal lumbar vertebra and one with the interarticular part cut off to simulate hemi-spondylolysis were measured by the double exposure holographic interferometry. In the normal lumbar vertebra, displacement due to the load applied to the inferior articular process was greater than that of superior articular process under the same load. The interarticular part was subjected to the high stress. From these points, one of the valuable data to consider the cause of spondylolysis was obtained.

  13. [Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu

    2015-02-01

    Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes of French and Israeli 12th Graders in Agricultural or Rural Secondary Schools about Water and Irrigation Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Jacobi, Daniel; Mazouz, Yossef; Lacroix, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge and attitudes of 154 Israeli 12th graders, expected to be very aware of water-related agricultural issues, and of 447 French 12th graders were compared, focusing on possibilities of change of existing situations. Israeli students put much greater emphasis on the role of scientific knowledge and the authorities in water control issues.…

  15. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed. PMID:25790340

  16. Can China comply with its 12th five-year plan on industrial emissions control: a structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jinnan; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Jiang, Hongqiang

    2015-04-21

    China's rapid economic growth has caused serious environmental problems, resulting in the implementation of two major measures-end-of-pipe facilities and the phasing out of backward capacity-to reduce China's industrial emissions as part of its 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010). It is important to determine whether China can meet the targets set forth in its 12th FYP (2011-2015) for industrial pollution reduction using these same solutions. In this paper, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was used to identify the contributions of the adopted measures-as well as other underlying factors-and to evaluate the feasibility of the reduction target in China's 12th FYP. Results show that the decrease in major industrial pollutant emissions achieved during the 11th FYP resulted from improved technological efficiency, including end-of-pipe abatement efficiency and pollutant generation intensity. The same measures adopted during China's 12th FYP can address the problem of industrial wastewater emissions resulting from economic growth when the economic structure is kept constant. But it may not fulfill its commitment of reducing industrial atmospheric pollutants emissions unless the economic structure and growth patterns are drastically reformed.

  17. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  18. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  19. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  20. Multi-modal vertebrae recognition using Transformed Deep Convolution Network.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunliang; Landis, Mark; Laidley, David T; Kornecki, Anat; Lum, Andrea; Li, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    Automatic vertebra recognition, including the identification of vertebra locations and naming in multiple image modalities, are highly demanded in spinal clinical diagnoses where large amount of imaging data from various of modalities are frequently and interchangeably used. However, the recognition is challenging due to the variations of MR/CT appearances or shape/pose of the vertebrae. In this paper, we propose a method for multi-modal vertebra recognition using a novel deep learning architecture called Transformed Deep Convolution Network (TDCN). This new architecture can unsupervisely fuse image features from different modalities and automatically rectify the pose of vertebra. The fusion of MR and CT image features improves the discriminativity of feature representation and enhances the invariance of the vertebra pattern, which allows us to automatically process images from different contrast, resolution, protocols, even with different sizes and orientations. The feature fusion and pose rectification are naturally incorporated in a multi-layer deep learning network. Experiment results show that our method outperforms existing detection methods and provides a fully automatic location+naming+pose recognition for routine clinical practice. PMID:27104497

  1. Computerized scheme for vertebra detection in CT scout image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Hanxun; Zhang, Guodong; Cong, Lin; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Our purposes are to develop a vertebra detection scheme for automated scan planning, which would assist radiological technologists in their routine work for the imaging of vertebrae. Because the orientations of vertebrae were various, and the Haar-like features were only employed to represent the subject on the vertical, horizontal, or diagonal directions, we rotated the CT scout image seven times to make the vertebrae roughly horizontal in least one of the rotated images. Then, we employed Adaboost learning algorithm to construct a strong classifier for the vertebra detection by use of Haar-like features, and combined the detection results with the overlapping region according to the number of times they were detected. Finally, most of the false positives were removed by use of the contextual relationship between them. The detection scheme was evaluated on a database with 76 CT scout image. Our detection scheme reported 1.65 false positives per image at a sensitivity of 94.3% for initial detection of vertebral candidates, and then the performance of detection was improved to 0.95 false positives per image at a sensitivity of 98.6% for the further steps of false positive reduction. The proposed scheme achieved a high performance for the detection of vertebrae with different orientations.

  2. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  3. Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Gowar, F J

    1978-01-01

    A case of mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is described; it is believed to be the first to be reported in Britain. Five surgically treated cases have been reported but in none was the diagnosis made before operation. Symptoms are caused by pressure of the cyst on the trachea and oesophagus and my be aggravted by eating a fatty meal. Differential diagnosis from other mediastinal tumours, especially bronchogenic cyst and neurofibroma, could perhaps be established before operation by lymphangiography. Images PMID:746509

  4. [Surgery for thoracic tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kilani, T; Boudaya, M S; Zribi, H; Ouerghi, S; Marghli, A; Mestiri, T; Mezni, F

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is mainly a medical disease. Surgery has been the unique therapeutic tool for a long time before the advent of specific antituberculous drugs, and the role of surgery was then confined to the treatment of the sequelae of tuberculosis and their complications. The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB combined to immunosuppressed patients represent a new challenge for tuberculosis surgery. Surgery may be indicated for a diagnostic purpose in patients with pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal or thoracic wall involvement, or with a therapeutic purpose (drainage, resection, residual cavity obliteration). Modern imaging techniques and the advent of video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a new approach of this pathology; the majority of diagnostic interventions and selected cases requiring lung resection can be performed through a mini-invasive approach. Patients proposed for aggressive surgery may be treated with the best results thanks to a good evaluation of the thoracic lesions, of the patients' nutritional, infectious and general status combined with a good coordination between the specialized medical team for an optimal preparation to surgery.

  5. [Thoracic actinomycosis: three cases].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Msougar, Y; Ouadnouni, Y; Bouchikh, M; Benosmane, A

    2007-09-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare condition which, in the thoracic localisation, can mimic cancer or tuberculosis. We report a series of three case of thoracic actinomycosis treated in the Ibn Sina University Thoracic Surgery Unit in Rabat, Morocco. CASE N degrees 1: This 45-year-old patient presented a tumefaction on the left anterior aspect of the chest. Physical examination identified a parietal mass with fistulisation to the skin. Radiography demonstrated a left pulmonary mass. Transparietal puncture led to the pathological diagnosis of actinomycosis. The patient was given medical treatment and improved clinically and radiographically. CASE N degrees 2: This 68-year-old patient presented repeated episodes of hemoptysis. The chest x-ray revealed atelectasia of the middle lobe and bronchial fibroscopy demonstrated the presence of a bud in the middle lobar bronchus. Biopsies were negative. The patient underwent surgery and the histology examination of the operative specimen revealed pulmonary actinomycosis. The patient recovered well clinically and radiographically with antibiotic therapy. CASE N degrees 3: This 56-year-old patient presented cough and hemoptysis. Physical examination revealed a left condensation and destruction of the left lung was noted on the chest x-ray. Left pleuropulmonectomy was performed. Histological analysis of the surgical specimen identified associated Aspergillus and Actinomyces. The outcome was favorable with medical treatment. The purpose of this work was to recall the radiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic, outcome aspects of this condition and to relate the problems of differential diagnosis when can suggest other diseases. PMID:17978739

  6. The effect of thoracic spine mobilization and stabilization exercise on the muscular strength and flexibility of the trunk of chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seong-Rae; Kim, Kyung; Park, Sun-Ja; Kim, Kyung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether thoracic spine mobilization added to stabilization exercises increases the muscular strength and range of motion of the thoracic vertebrae of chronic low-back pain patients. [Subjects] This study enrolled 20 patients with chronic low back pain, who were divided into two groups. Ten subjects were randomly selected for the stabilization exercise group and the remaining 10 subjects received thoracic spine mobilization in addition to performing the stabilization exercises. [Methods] The patients performed stabilization exercises and received thoracic spine mobilization for 12 weeks. The range of motion and isometric muscular strength of the vertebrae of all subjects were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the comparison of muscular strength before and after the intervention, the change in muscular strength of the trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 16.0±7.4 Nm, and that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 34.2±7.6 Nm, a significant difference in each group. In the post-intervention intergroup comparison, the muscular strength of trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 111.1±16.9 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 125.9±11.3 Nm, a significant difference. Also, the muscular strength of the trunk extensors in the stabilization exercise group was 148.9±31.8 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 182.9±37.2 Nm, a significant difference. The thoracic spine flexion in the stabilization exercise group was 29.8±9 degrees, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 38.7±6.9 degrees, a significant difference. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar flexion values between the two groups. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine mobilization added to a stabilization exercise increased the muscular strength of patients with chronic low back pain.

  7. The effect of thoracic spine mobilization and stabilization exercise on the muscular strength and flexibility of the trunk of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seong-Rae; Kim, Kyung; Park, Sun-Ja; Kim, Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether thoracic spine mobilization added to stabilization exercises increases the muscular strength and range of motion of the thoracic vertebrae of chronic low-back pain patients. [Subjects] This study enrolled 20 patients with chronic low back pain, who were divided into two groups. Ten subjects were randomly selected for the stabilization exercise group and the remaining 10 subjects received thoracic spine mobilization in addition to performing the stabilization exercises. [Methods] The patients performed stabilization exercises and received thoracic spine mobilization for 12 weeks. The range of motion and isometric muscular strength of the vertebrae of all subjects were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the comparison of muscular strength before and after the intervention, the change in muscular strength of the trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 16.0±7.4 Nm, and that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 34.2±7.6 Nm, a significant difference in each group. In the post-intervention intergroup comparison, the muscular strength of trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 111.1±16.9 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 125.9±11.3 Nm, a significant difference. Also, the muscular strength of the trunk extensors in the stabilization exercise group was 148.9±31.8 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 182.9±37.2 Nm, a significant difference. The thoracic spine flexion in the stabilization exercise group was 29.8±9 degrees, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 38.7±6.9 degrees, a significant difference. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar flexion values between the two groups. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine mobilization added to a stabilization exercise increased the muscular strength of patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:26834367

  8. [Paravertebral analgesia in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Arnal, D; Garutti, I; Olmedilla, L

    2004-10-01

    Managing postoperative pain from thoracotomy is one of the greatest challenges anesthesiologists face in daily practice. Proper management is assumed to improve the patient's prognosis. The thoracic paravertebral block, following its rediscovery, is being used with increasing frequency and success for both surgery and recovery from thoracotomy, challenging the supremacy of thoracic epidural analgesia, which to date has been considered the gold standard. We describe the history, anatomy, techniques and complications of the thoracic paravertebral block and review published randomized controlled trials comparing the thoracic paravertebral block to placebo and to epidural analgesia. In view of published evidence, it seems that the thoracic paravertebral block may replace the thoracic epidural technique as the gold standard for providing analgesia for patients undergoing thoracotomy.

  9. Nonmalignant Adult Thoracic Lymphatic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Maxim; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-09-01

    The thoracic lymphatic disorders are a heterogeneous group of uncommon conditions that are associated with thoracic masses, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and chylous complications. Accurate diagnosis of the thoracic lymphatic disorders has important implications for the newest approaches to management, including embolization and treatment with antilymphangiogenic drugs. New imaging techniques to characterize lymphatic flow, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiogram, are redefining approaches to disease classification and therapy. PMID:27514588

  10. Nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Nonintubated thoracic surgery has been used in procedures including pleura, lungs and mediastinum. Appropriate anesthesia techniques with or without sedation allow thoracic surgery patients to avoid the potential risks of intubated general anesthesia, particularly for the high-risk patients. However, nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery has some benefits as well as problems. In this review, the background, indication, perioperative anesthetic consideration and management, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed and summarized. PMID:25589994

  11. Automatic labeling and segmentation of vertebrae in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Labeling and segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image- guided interventions. State-of-the art techniques have focused either on image feature extraction or template matching for labeling of the vertebrae followed by segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi- object models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics among several anatomies. In particular, we have created models for segmentation of the lumbar spine which are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae pose+shape model and utilize it in a novel framework for labeling and segmentation of the vertebra in a CT image. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the labeling and segmentation of CT images acquired from 56 subjects. The method correctly labels all vertebrae in 70% of patients and is only one level off for the remaining 30%. The mean distance error achieved for the segmentation is 2.1 +/- 0.7 mm.

  12. An improved level set method for vertebra CT image segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis and therapy for the lumbar disc herniation requires accurate vertebra segmentation. The complex anatomical structure and the degenerative deformations of the vertebrae makes its segmentation challenging. Methods An improved level set method, namely edge- and region-based level set method (ERBLS), is proposed for vertebra CT images segmentation. By considering the gradient information and local region characteristics of images, the proposed model can efficiently segment images with intensity inhomogeneity and blurry or discontinuous boundaries. To reduce the dependency on manual initialization in many active contour models and for an automatic segmentation, a simple initialization method for the level set function is built, which utilizes the Otsu threshold. In addition, the need of the costly re-initialization procedure is completely eliminated. Results Experimental results on both synthetic and real images demonstrated that the proposed ERBLS model is very robust and efficient. Compared with the well-known local binary fitting (LBF) model, our method is much more computationally efficient and much less sensitive to the initial contour. The proposed method has also applied to 56 patient data sets and produced very promising results. Conclusions An improved level set method suitable for vertebra CT images segmentation is proposed. It has the flexibility of segmenting the vertebra CT images with blurry or discontinuous edges, internal inhomogeneity and no need of re-initialization. PMID:23714300

  13. Automatic localization of vertebrae based on convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Mu, Wei; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Localization of the vertebrae is of importance in many medical applications. For example, the vertebrae can serve as the landmarks in image registration. They can also provide a reference coordinate system to facilitate the localization of other organs in the chest. In this paper, we propose a new vertebrae localization method using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The main advantage of the proposed method is the removal of hand-crafted features. We construct two training sets to train two CNNs that share the same architecture. One is used to distinguish the vertebrae from other tissues in the chest, and the other is aimed at detecting the centers of the vertebrae. The architecture contains two convolutional layers, both of which are followed by a max-pooling layer. Then the output feature vector from the maxpooling layer is fed into a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier which has one hidden layer. Experiments were performed on ten chest CT images. We used leave-one-out strategy to train and test the proposed method. Quantitative comparison between the predict centers and ground truth shows that our convolutional neural networks can achieve promising localization accuracy without hand-crafted features.

  14. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  15. A Case Of Atypical Presentation of Thoracic Osteomyelitis & Paraspinal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Utkarsh

    2008-01-01

    Here presented is a case involving a 44-year-old man with a chief complaint of sharp lateral right-sided rib pain with notable radiation to the anterior portion of the thorax and minor radiation around the lateral back. The etiology of the pain and radiculopathy, which was initially attributed to a right-sided rib fracture, was later accurately credited to a paraspinal abscess discovered on a lateral X-ray of the thoracic spine. Subsequently, studies including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), and bone scan all confirmed the diagnosis of a paraspinal abscess between the right lobe and its neighboring T9 and T10 vertebrae. The mass was biopsied and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Appropriate surgical and medical intervention was possible due to the early diagnosis of the abscess. PMID:19148317

  16. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival in 2015.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.

  17. Bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast after radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebra in a young woman: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Keskek, Mehmet; Kilic, Mehmet; Ertan, Tamer; Erdem, Adnan; Yoldas, Omer

    2008-01-01

    Thoracic radiation in the early years of life is a known risk factor for breast cancer later in life. A 21-year-old woman who had received thoracic radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebra 9 years earlier was referred to our hospital for investigation of a palpable mass in her left breast. Ultrasonography and excisional biopsy showed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the left breast, with no detectable pathology in the right breast except that it was more hypoplastic than the left breast. Considering the known risk factors for invasive breast cancer in both breasts, we performed bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction using subpectoral implants. The final histopathological diagnosis was bilateral DCIS. PMID:18668319

  18. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  19. Automated localization of vertebra landmarks in MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Narasimhamurthy, Anand; Rao, V. S. Veeravasarapu; Vaidya, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    The identification of key landmark points in an MR spine image is an important step for tasks such as vertebra counting. In this paper, we propose a template matching based approach for automatic detection of two key landmark points, namely the second cervical vertebra (C2) and the sacrum from sagittal MR images. The approach is comprised of an approximate localization of vertebral column followed by matching with appropriate templates in order to detect/localize the landmarks. A straightforward extension of the work described here is an automated classification of spine section(s). It also serves as a useful building block for further automatic processing such as extraction of regions of interest for subsequent image processing and also in aiding the counting of vertebra.

  20. Extraosseous Thoracic Foraminal Osteoblastoma: Diagnostic Dilemma and Management with 3 Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hadgaonkar, Shailesh Ramakant; Shah, Kunal Chandrakant; Khurjekar, Ketan Shripad; Sancheti, Parag Kantilal

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblastomas are bone forming lesions arising mainly from posterior elements of the vertebra. They are commonly encountered in the cervical and lumbar regions. We present a case of a thoracic osteoblastoma which is extra osseous and is not communicating with any part of the vertebra present intraforaminally. This is a rare presentation of an osteoblastoma. Imaging studies do not accurately diagnose the osteiod lesion. The size of the lesion and cortical erosion seen on the computed tomography scan help in differentiating the osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, but they are less sensitive and specific. Thus a histopathology is the investigation of choice to diagnose the osteoblastoma. Early and adequate removal of mass prevents malignant transformation, metastasis, and recurrence. In our case we excised the pars interarticularis unilaterally, removed the osteoid mass intact, and performed unilateral instrumented fusion. There was no recurrence and solid fusion was seen at 3 years follow up. PMID:25346825

  1. Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2007-07-27

    Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207

  2. 3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter

    1997-10-01

    A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.

  3. Morphometrical dimensions of the sheep thoracolumbar vertebrae as seen on digitised CT images.

    PubMed

    Mageed, Mahmoud; Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-09-01

    The sheep spine is widely used as a model for preclinical research in human medicine to test new spinal implants and surgical procedures. Therefore, precise morphometric data are needed. The present study aimed to provide computed tomographic (CT) morphometry of sheep thoracolumbar spine. Five adult normal Merino sheep were included in this study. Sheep were anaesthetised and positioned in sternal recumbency. Subsequently, transverse and sagittal images were obtained using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Measurements of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, intervertebral disc and transverse processes were performed with dedicated software. Vertebral bodies and the spinal canal were wider than they were deep, most obviously in the lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs were as much as 57.4% thicker in the lumbar than in the thoracic spine. The pedicles were higher and longer than they were wide over the entire thoracolumbar spine. In conclusion, the generated data can serve as a CT reference for the ovine thoracolumbar spine and may be helpful in using sheep spine as a model for human spinal research.

  4. Burst fracture of the lumbar vertebra due to a landmine injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kurklu, Mustafa; Yurttas, Yuksel; Ozkan, Huseyin; Sehirlioglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The reason we report this case is that spine injuries may well occur due to landmines similar to other injuries like traumatic limb amputations and more over they may be overlooked. Case presentation The patient was 29-years-old Turkish male and was a member of the military. He detonated the landmine that caused his injuries while in a conflict zone. He had a right below knee and left above knee traumatic amputations. He had also mild intermittent pain in his lower back. There were no focal neurological findings such as weakness, altered sensibility, or alteration in the function of the bowel or bladder. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed an L2 burst fracture. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated a burst fracture of the L2 vertebrae and moderate compression in the anterior portion of the thecal sac due to the fracture fragment. Because of the stabile nature of the L2 burst fracture and lack of neurological disturbance, operative decompression, instrumentation and fusion was not performed. After healing of the stumps, the patient was mobilized with immediate prostheses and a thoracolumbosacral brace. Conclusion Spine injuries should not be overlooked when evaluating patients after landmine explosions. After the patient has been stabilized, the secondary screening and radiographic evaluations should also comprise the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine when treating patients after landmine injuries. PMID:19829776

  5. Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.

    PubMed

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium.

  6. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  7. 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

    1997-01-01

    The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

  8. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but its definition has been disputed. TOS is differentiated into five distinct disorders: arterial vascular, venous vascular, traumatic neurovascular, true neurologic (TN-TOS), and nonspecific TOS. TN-TOS is caused by compression of the lower plexus (T1>C8 roots and/or lower trunk) by a fibrous band. The most frequent presenting symptoms are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digital flexors. Numbness and sensory loss are usually present, mainly in the ulnar forearm, although severe pain or pain/paresthesia proximal to the elbow can occur; however, sensory symptoms or signs can be absent in some patients. Nerve conduction studies are pathognomonic and show the loss or severe attenuation of the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Additionally, they show a severely depressed median compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and, subsequently, a depressed ulnar CMAP and SNAP. TN-TOS is a rare disorder, although its incidence may be higher than previously believed. Hirayama disease is an important differential diagnosis. Nonspecific TOS, which is mainly diagnosed by provocative maneuvers, corresponds to the classical concept of TOS. However, this concept is now challenged and the existence of nonspecific TOS is doubted. PMID:25475030

  9. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  10. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  11. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  12. Innervation and functional characteristics of connective tissues, especially elastic fibers, in human fetal thoracic intervertebral articular capsule and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Miya; Yasui, Masaya; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    The articular capsules between the thoracic vertebrae, which have physiologically different functions from those of other levels of the vertebrae, have yet to be subjected to neuro-anatomical and fine structural analysis. In the present study, we analyzed serial frozen sections of decalcified thoracic vertebrae in human fetuses, and identified the articular capsule tissue with its unique distribution of elastic fibers. The fine structure of the elastic fibers was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the early-stage fetus, the fibrous membrane forming the lateral intervertebral articular capsule contained abundant thin elastic fibers consisting of microfibrils. In the late-stage fetus, the lateral capsule of fibrous membrane was occupied by thick elastic fibers. A medial articular capsule, namely the ligamenta flava, contained numerous thick elastic fibers in both early and late-stage fetuses. The distributional differences in nerve fibers between early and late-stage fetuses were determined by immunostaining, using antibodies raised against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5; ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase). Innervation by PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers was limited to the areas of the articular capsules near the blood vessels, which may indicate their functional relation with blood flow. No PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers were found in the ligamenta flava of the late-stage fetus. Innervation might be directly involved in the development of the intervertebral articular capsules in normal human fetuses.

  13. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A Pubmed search using the specific key words “LSTV,” “lumbosacral transitional vertebrae,” and “Bertolotti's Syndrome” was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. Results LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a “false joint” susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Conclusions Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential

  14. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  15. New approach to evaluate rotation of cervical vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2001-07-01

    Functional deficits after whiplash injury can be analyzed with a quite novel radiologic method by examination of joint-blocks in C0/1 and C1/2. Thereto the movability of C0, C1 and C2 is determined with three spiral CT-scans of the patient's cervical spine. One series in neutral and one in maximal active lateral right and left rotation each. Previous methods were slice based and time consuming when manually evaluated. We propose a new approach to a computation of these angles in 3D. After a threshold segmentation of bone tissue, a rough 2D classification takes place for C0, C1 and C2 in each rotation series. The center of an axial rotation for each vertebra is gained from the approximation of its center of gravity. The rotation itself is estimated by a cross-correlation of the radial distance functions. From the previous rotation the results are taken to initialize a 3D matching algorithm based on the sum of squared differences in intensity. The optimal match of the vertebrae is computed by means of the multidimensional Powell minimization algorithm. The three translational and three rotational components build a six-dimensional search-space. The vertebrae detection and rotation computation is done fully automatic.

  16. The use of a multi-method approach to identify the pigments in the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneckere, A.; De Reu, M.; Martens, M. P. J.; De Coene, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Vandenabeele, P.; Moens, L.

    2011-10-01

    A selection of illuminations of the 12th century manuscript Liber Floridus was analysed with Raman spectroscopy (in situ and laboratory measurements), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-fluorescence photography and infrared reflectography (IRR). The aim of this study is to determine the pigments used, in order to search for anachronisms. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy (molecular information) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (elemental information) following pigments could be identified: ultramarine (Na 8-10Al 6Si 6O 24S 2-4), azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), caput mortuum (Fe 2O 3), vermilion (HgS), orpiment (As 2S 3) and lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2). Moreover, two synthetic red pigments, PR4 and PR176, and a degradation product, gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O), were present in the manuscript. To establish the origin of the modern materials UV-fluorescence photography was used. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was applied to visualise the underdrawing of the investigated folios.

  17. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  18. Trunk Muscle Activity Is Modified in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Thoracic Kyphosis with Potential Consequences for Vertebral Health

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Alison M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis) and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture. PMID:25285908

  19. The examination of soft tissue compliance in the thoracic region for the development of a spinal manipulation training mannequin

    PubMed Central

    Starmer, David J.; Duquette, Sean A.; Stainsby, Brynne E.; Giuliano, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the soft tissue compliance of the thoracic paraspinal musculature differs based on gender and body type to help create a foam human analogue mannequin to assist in the training of spinal manipulative therapy. Methods: 54 volunteers were grouped based on their gender and body types. In the prone position, thoracic paraspinal soft tissue compliance was measured at T1, T3 T6, T9 and T12 vertebrae levels bilaterally using a tissue compliance meter. Results: There was no significant difference in tissue compliance when comparing the genders except at T1 (p=0.026). When comparing body types, significantly higher tissue compliance was found between endomorphs and the other groups. No significant difference was found between ectomorphs and mesomorphs. The compliance for the participants in this study ranged from 0.122 mm/N to 0.420 mm/N. Conclusion: There are significant differences in thoracic spine soft tissue compliance in healthy asymptomatic patients between genders in the upper thoracic spine, and between different body types throughout the thoracic spine. It may be beneficial to create multiple versions of practice mannequins to simulate variations amongst different patients. PMID:26136607

  20. Influence of Skip Patterns on Item Non-Response in a Substance Use Survey of 7th to 12th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Olds, R. Scott; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective case study assessed the influence of item non-response error on subsequent response to questionnaire items assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Post-hoc analyses were conducted on survey results obtained from 4,371 7th to 12th grade students in Ohio in 2005. A skip pattern design in a conventional questionnaire…

  1. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  2. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smoking, Drinking and Illicit Drug Use among American 8th, 10th and 12th Grade Students, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2003-01-01

    Paper examines ethnic differences in licit and illicit drug use among American 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular focus on girls. Across ethnic groups, drug use is highest among Native American girls and lowest among black and Asian American girls. Trend data suggest that girls' and boys' drug use patterns are converging.…

  3. Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Use by 9th-12th Grade Students: Results from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…

  4. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  5. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  6. Foreword: The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) (Erice, 20 26 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca

    2008-06-01

    The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19

  7. [A case of thoracic actinomycosis].

    PubMed

    Denisova, O A; Cherniavskaia, G M; Beloborodova, É I; Topol'nitskiĭ, E B; Iakimenko, Iu V; Chernogoriuk, G É; Beloborodova, E V; Strezh, Iu A; Vil'danova, L R

    2014-01-01

    A case of thoracic actinomycosis manifest as round shadow in the lung is described. Diagnosis was based on the presence of actinomycetes in a transthoracic lung biopsy sample. Treatment for 3 months resulted in recovery. No relapse was documented during 1 year follow-up period. PMID:25265662

  8. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  9. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  10. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  11. [The 12th amendment to the German Drug Law. Chances and obstacles for investigator-initiated clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Dreier, G; Marx, C; Schmoor, C; Maier-Lenz, H

    2005-04-01

    The European Union's so called Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC was implemented in national law in Germany in August 2004, leading to the 12th amendment of the German Drug Law (Arzneimittelgesetz). The directive is intended to harmonize the clinical trial's regulatory environment across the European Union and to improve protection of human subjects. It lays down the principles and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice (GCP). As the regulation applies to all clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, and as only non-interventional studies are excluded, academic, investigator-initiated clinical trials will also have to comply with the EU clinical trials directive implemented in the German Drug Law. In an investigator-initiated trial in which the investigator takes the responsibility of a sponsor, the investigator-sponsor must take total legal and financial responsibility for the clinical trial. Since publicly funded clinical trials make a large contribution to improved care, concern has been expressed that non-commercial research projects will be reduced and the vital medical research conducted at academic institutions curtailed. Nonetheless GCP ensures a valid study design, qualified data management, analysis and monitoring of the trial and thereby promotes more valid data and protection of study participants. The trials are more likely to lead to reliable results leading to new therapies, strategies or a better understanding of diseases. What is needed, therefore, is an increase in public funding and the establishment of clinical trial units/organizations associated with the universities or hospitals where independent researchers have the possibility to obtain theoretical advice and practical help, professional training and support. In the end, the directive may serve as a stimulus to build a better national research environment and to promote public funding, and may lead to fewer but more valid clinical trials. PMID:15830256

  12. Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

  13. Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

  14. Esophagectomy-related thoracic duct injury detected by lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yasuo; Morita, Masaru; Saeki, Hiroshi; Ando, Koji; Ida, Satoshi; Kimura, Yasue; Oki, Eiji; Ohga, Takefumi; Kusumoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Chylothorax is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of esophagectomy. A 72-year-old man underwent thoracoscopy-assisted subtotal esophagectomy and reconstruction with a gastric tube, through a retrosternal route, after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Chylothorax was detected after starting enteral feeding on postoperative day (POD) 7. Despite conservative therapy such as fasting, total parenteral nutrition, and octreotide administration, massive fluid drainage continued. On POD 19, lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (HSA-D) was performed and the site of leakage was detected at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra. On POD 23, the thoracic duct was ligated, following which the volume of chylothorax decreased. Lymphoscintigraphy 12 days after the reoperation showed no leakage from the thoracic duct. We recommend lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Tc-HSA-D for locating the chyle leakage site and helping decide about the operative indication.

  15. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  16. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  17. Quantitative histochemistry of rat lumbar vertebrae following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eurell, J. A.; Kazarian, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    The histochemical effects of the return to gravity immediately and 6 and 29 days following spaceflight on the bone of rat vertebral bodies were investigated. No significant change in the calcium salt content of the vertebrae was found immediately postflight, although 6 days later it was significantly decreased. The calcium content was found to have returned to normal by 29 days postflight. While postflight collagen content was not significantly altered, keratosulfate was found to be significantly higher in trabecular bone of rats immediately postflight and 6 days postflight. In addition, chondroitin sulfate was found to be increased in vertebral bone on days 6 and 29 postflight. These findings indicate that bone turnover slows in vertebrae during spaceflight allowing bone aging, which support the contention that a form of osteolysis begins immediately upon return to gravity to remove components of old bone at which time mineral levels decrease and levels of chondroitin and keratkosulfates shift. It was found that the osteolysis phase was quickly followed by new bone replacement which was completed before 29 days postspaceflight.

  18. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon’s hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. PMID:26822625

  19. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  20. "Lucy" (A.L. 288-1) had five sacral vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    A "long-backed" scenario of hominin vertebral evolution posits that early hominins possessed six lumbar vertebrae coupled with a high frequency of four sacral vertebrae (7:12-13:6:4), a configuration acquired from a hominin-panin last common ancestor (PLCA) having a vertebral formula of 7:13:6-7:4. One founding line of evidence for this hypothesis is the recent assertion that the "Lucy" sacrum (A.L. 288-1an, Australopithecus afarensis) consists of four sacral vertebrae and a partially-fused first coccygeal vertebra (Co1), rather than five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans. This study reassesses the number of sacral vertebrae in Lucy by reexamining the distal end of A.L.288-1an in the context of a comparative sample of modern human sacra and Co1 vertebrae, and the sacrum of A. sediba (MH2). Results demonstrate that, similar to S5 in modern humans and A. sediba, the last vertebra in A.L. 288-1an exhibits inferiorly-projecting (right side) cornua and a kidney-shaped inferior body articular surface. This morphology is inconsistent with that of fused or isolated Co1 vertebrae in humans, which either lack cornua or possess only superiorly-projecting cornua, and have more circularly-shaped inferior body articular surfaces. The level at which the hiatus' apex is located is also more compatible with typical five-element modern human sacra and A. sediba than if only four sacral vertebrae are present. Our observations suggest that A.L. 288-1 possessed five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans; thus, sacral number in "Lucy" does not indicate a directional change in vertebral count that can provide information on the PLCA ancestral condition.

  1. Disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic adolescent scoliosis: a new look into the pattern's growth.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; Liu, Z; Yan, P; Qiu, Y; Zhu, F

    2015-12-01

    A self-control ratio, the spine-pelvis index (SPI), was proposed for the assessment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in this study. The aim was to evaluate the disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in these patients using SPI. A total of 64 female patients with thoracic AIS were randomly enrolled between December 2010 and October 2012 (mean age 13 years, standard deviation (sd) 2.17; 9 to 18) and a further 73 healthy female patients with a mean age of 12.4 years (mean age 12.4 years, sd 2.24; 9 to 18), were randomly selected from a normal control database at our centre. The radiographic parameters measured included length of spine (LOS), height of spine (HOS), length of thoracic vertebrae (LOT), height of thoracic vertebrae (HOT), width of pelvis (WOP), height of pelvis (HOP) and width of thorax (WOT). SPI was defined as the ratio LOS/HOP. The SPI and LOT/HOP in patients with AIS showed a significant increase when compared with normal girls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively), implying an abnormal pattern of growth of the spine relative to the pelvis in patients with AIS. No significant difference in SPI was found in different age groups in the control group, making the SPI an age-independent parameter with a mean value of 2.219 (2.164 to 2.239). We also found that the SPI was not related to maturity in the control group. This study, for the first time, used a self-control ratio to confirm the disproportionate patterns of growth of the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic AIS, highlighting that the SPI is not affected by age or maturity.

  2. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. PMID:26843431

  3. On prediction of the strength levels and failure patterns of human vertebrae using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Majid; Zeinali, Ahad; Razmjoo, Arash; Nazemi, Majid

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents an effective patient-specific approach for prediction of failure initiation and growth in human vertebra using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method (FEM). The studies were carried out on 13 vertebrae (lumbar and thoracic), excised from 3 cadavers with the average age of 42 years old. Initially, 4 samples were QCT scanned and the images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strains obtained from the nonlinear analyses were used to predict the occurrence of local failures and development of the failure patterns. In the linear analyses, the strain energy density measure was used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. Subsequently, the samples were destructively tested in uniaxial compression and the experimental load-displacement diagrams were obtained. The plain radiographic images of the tested samples were also examined for observation of the failure patterns. In continuation, the presence of osteolytic defects in vertebrae was simulated by creation of artificial cavities within 9 remaining samples using a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. The same protocol was followed for scanning, modeling, and destructive testing of these samples. A strong correlation was found between the predicted and measured strengths. Finally, a typical vertebroplasty treatment was simulated by injection of low-viscosity bone cement within 3 compressed samples. The failure patterns and the associated load levels for these samples were also predicted using the QCT voxel-based FEM. PMID:19457486

  4. Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, Andreas . E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne; Schorlemer, Ines von; Kuhlen, Michaela; Paulussen, Michael; Hunold, Andrea; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

  5. The Association of Employment and Physical Activity among Black and White 10th and 12th Grade Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams. Methods We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n=12073) and 12th grade students (n=5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study. Results Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise. Conclusions Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research. PMID:20231752

  6. Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra.

  7. Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

  8. TEVAR: Endovascular Repair of the Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Nation, David A.; Wang, Grace J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has allowed a minimally invasive approach for management of an array of thoracic aortic pathologies. Initially developed specifically for exclusion of thoracic aortic aneurysms, TEVAR is now used as an alternative to open surgery for a variety of disease pathologies due to the lower morbidity of this approach. Advances in endograft technology continue to broaden the applications of this technique. PMID:26327745

  9. Periosteal structure and development in a rat caudal vertebra.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Carach, B J

    1988-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats from birth to 300 days were used to study the bone/soft tissue interrelationships of the 14th caudal vertebra with particular emphasis on the periosteum throughout growth, development and maturation. The growth of the rats follows a sigmoid curve with three phases, a developmental, a rapid growth and a maturation phase. The width/length ratio of the bone and the thickness of the periosteum are closely concurrent, with a rapid decrease during the developmental phase and a levelling off during the rapid growth phase. SEM studies established that the caudal vertebra has symmetrical lateral sides and a pronounced concavity on the ventral surface where the main vascular plexus is located. Morphological changes in the periosteum cna be described as occurring in three layers and reflect the stages seen in general somatic growth. The inner cambial layer initially contains elongated but functional osteoblasts; these become cuboidal during the rapid growth phase and ultimately are flattened and quiescent. The mid-zone with its vessels, undifferentiated and mononuclear phagocytic cells also attains its maximum development in the rapid growth period and then gradually involutes. The fibrous periosteum consists of a syncytial arrangement of fibroblasts in a collagenous matrix which becomes increasingly dense although reduced in width. Sharpey fibre bundles connect the bone with the fibrous periosteum and these become thicker with age. The mid-zone of the periosteum has not been described previously. Besides having a nutritive role and providing progenitor cells it is thought to act as a buffer modulating the interaction between bone and the covering soft tissues. With age and the deletion of the mid-zone a less sensitive periosteal response to stress can be expected. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3225221

  10. Derivation of an equation to estimate marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Gebault, R A; Field, R A; Means, W J; Russell, W C

    1998-08-01

    Marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae from Choice- and Select-grade carcasses weighing 294 to 343 kg was determined so that a method to monitor the amount of marrow in meat from advanced meat/bone separation machinery and recovery (AMR) systems could be developed. The marrow determination requires cleaning and then ashing bones. Because a large difference in ash content of bone and bone marrow exists and because cartilage content of cervical vertebrae in Choice and Select beef is relatively constant, it was possible to derive the following equation: Weight of marrow = [weight of cartilage (% ash in cartilage - % ash in bone) + % ash in bone (total weight) - (total ash)]/[(% ash in bone - % ash in marrow)]. Constants for ash in fresh bone, marrow, and cartilage were 58.51, .57, and 2.14% with SD of 2.23, .15, and .30%, respectively. A cartilage content of 9.5% along with cervical vertebrae weight and total ash weight were also used to calculate 33.9% marrow in cervical vertebrae. Means for marrow pressed or centrifuged from bovine cervical vertebrae were lower than those obtained from the equation. Therefore, pressing and centrifuging left some marrow in spongy bone. Our ashing method for determining the amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae should be useful for determining marrow remaining in cervical vertebrae of bone cakes from AMR systems. Percentage ash in pressed bones is higher and the calculated marrow content is lower when pressed bones are compared to cervical vertebrae that are not pressed. The amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae minus the amount left in cervical vertebrae from bone cakes equals the amount in meat from AMR systems.

  11. Fast track endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João Bosco Vieira; Kux, Peter; Castro, Carlos H V; Cruvinel, Marcos G C; Costa, José R R

    2003-12-01

    The length of hospital stay is an important factor of cost and psychological discomfort in the treatment of hyperhidrosis by endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy (ETS). Our experience enrolls 1587 patients operated on an outpatient basis in the last 10 years and seven months. This study aimed to confirm that ETS can be performed on an outpatient basis. Fifty-two consecutive patients (30 males and 22 females) were submitted to ETS under general anesthesia using a single lumen endotracheal tube, with lung collapse by intrapleural injection of CO(2). The sympathetic chain and the communicating rami were severed at different levels according to hyperhidrosis location. Patients were physical state American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2. Age varied between 13 and 55 years (27.3 +/- 10.2 years). They were monitored with ECG, SPO2, NIBP, expired CO(2), sevoflurane analyzer, and airway pressure. Normal saline (40.0 +/- 2.7 ml/kg) was infused intravenously. The drugs used were propofol, alfentanil, rocuronium, ondansetron, dexamethasone, dipyrone, cetoprofene and sevoflurane. Anesthesia and post-operative data were analyzed. Post-operative thoracic X-rays were taken in 20 patients before discharge. Anesthesia lasted 67.2 +/- 20.8 minutes, and the surgical procedure took 46.3 +/- 20.9 minutes. The patients stayed 18.0 +/- 11.0 minutes in the post-anaesthetic care unit and were discharged from hospital after 150.3 +/- 43.1 minutes. The only abnormal post-operative event observed was insignificant residual carbothorax, found in 2 (10%) of the thoracic X-rays taken. In conclusion, this study confirmed that ETS can be performed safely on an outpatient basis. PMID:14673677

  12. Analgesia in thoracic surgery: review.

    PubMed

    De Cosmo, G; Aceto, P; Gualtieri, E; Congedo, E

    2009-06-01

    Post-thoracotomy pain is one of the most severe types of postoperative pain. It can last up to 2 months and can become chronic in 30% of patients. Pain relief after thoracic surgery is of particular significance, not only for ethical considerations but also for reduction of postoperative pulmonary and cardiac complications. Because of the difficulty in pain control, many approaches have been suggested, but a multimodal therapeutic strategy that provides a central or peripheral block associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) and adjuvant drugs is now the cornerstone of treatment, offering the possibility of reducing opioid requirements and side effects. Thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and opioids is regarded as the gold standard treatment for post-thoracotomy pain management because it results in early extubation, better ventilatory mechanisms and gas exchange, decreased incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia and chronic postoperative pain. When epidural analgesia is contraindicated or cannot be performed, other regional techniques of analgesia can be used. An alternative method of providing adequate pain relief is a thoracic paravertebral block: continuous paravertebral infusion of local anesthetic via a catheter placed percutaneously or under direct vision during thoracotomy. This is effective in controlling postoperative pain and in preserving pulmonary function. Other techniques, such as intercostal and interpleural blocks, are rarely utilized, whereas a single shot of intrathecal injection of a hydrophilic opioid, such as morphine, appears to be effective. Cryoanalgesia, which is successful in the immediate postoperative period, has been abandoned for its brief duration and increased incidence of chronic pain. PMID:18953284

  13. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  14. [A review on thoracic ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Lanza, Mario; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan

    2016-07-01

    The use of thoracic ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in the emergency department, intensive care unit or in patients with pulmonary diseases is increasing steadily. It is used to guide percutaneous tracheostomies, to assess pleural effusions, to rule out pneumothorax, and to guide the placement of endovascular and pleural catheters. It is also useful in the assessment of patients with dyspnea. The aim of this review is to provide the practical and technical basics for the use of this diagnostic tool among internists and specialists in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27661554

  15. Left Second Rib Exostosis, Spinal Cord Compression and Left Upper Thoracic Scoliosis: A Rare Triad

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Krishnan; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

    2012-01-01

    Exostosis of the rib with neural foraminal extension as a cause of spinal cord compression and scoliosis has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We describe a young male with hereditary multiple exostosis who presented with a spastic gait, lower limb weakness and a deformity of the upper back. Radiographic imaging revealed a lesion arising from the left second rib which was encroaching the spinal canal and a scoliotic deformity of the upper thoracic spine. Through a single T shaped posterior approach he underwent a decompressive laminectomy of T1 and T2 vertebra and excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of osteochondroma was confirmed by histopathological studies. He was followed up at one year when his neurological condition had returned to normal however the scoliosis had increased. PMID:22977702

  16. Intercostal neuralgia as a symptom of an osteoblastoma in thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Ohki, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka

    2015-07-02

    An osteoblastoma is a benign bone lesion most commonly affecting the spine; it is frequently found in the posterior elements of the vertebra. When an osteoblastoma originates in the spine, it usually causes dull and localised dorsal pain, but the period between symptom development and diagnosis can be long. MRI shows intense peritumoural oedema accompanying the osteoblastoma. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy with osteoblastoma at the level of the T8-9 left laminae causing intercostal neuralgia without direct invasion to the intercostal nerve. Immediately after surgery, intercostal neuralgia was diminished. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an osteoblastoma with intercostal neuralgia, which is possibly the key symptom for diagnosing an osteoblastoma in the thoracic spine.

  17. Whole-exome sequencing links TMCO1 defect syndrome with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Davut; Karaca, Ender; Aydin, Hatip; Beck, Christine R; Gambin, Tomasz; Muzny, Donna M; Bilge Geckinli, B; Karaman, Ali; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2014-09-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a type of disruptive technology that has tremendous influence on human and clinical genetics research. An efficient and cost-effective method, WES is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for identifying the molecular basis of genetic syndromes that are often challenging to diagnose. Here we report a patient with a clinical diagnosis of cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD; MIM#213980) in whom we identified a homozygous splice-site mutation in the transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1) gene using WES. TMCO1 mutations cause craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs, and intellectual disability (MIM#614132). A retrospective review revealed that clinical manifestations of both syndromes are very similar and overlap remarkably. We propose that mutations of TMCO1 are not only responsible for craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies and mental retardation syndrome but also for CFTD.

  18. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  19. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques. PMID:23775735

  20. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  1. Alignment of full and partial CT thoracic scans using bony structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Myers, Kyle J.

    2006-03-01

    Diagnostic thoracic procedures using computed tomography (CT) often include comparisons of scans acquired with different slice thicknesses. In this manuscript, we investigated the potential for alignment of different CT scans from the same patient using skeletal knowledge of the thoracic region. Skeletal matching was selected because it is expected to be less susceptible to differences associated with patient breath hold, positioning and cardiac motion. Our method utilized the positioning of the ribs relative to the vertebra for matching. It also included matching the scapula when visible in the scans. Rib positioning was described by the angles formed between the vertebra centroid and combinations of pairs of rib centroids visible on each CT slice; this was used as the primary matching mechanism. Scapula morphology was described using a feature based on the local maxima of the distance transform. Since the scapula is not visible in all slices of a full scan, its description was limited to only defining the potential range of slices. A cost function incorporating the difference of features from rib positioning and scapula morphology between two slices was derived and used to match slices. The method was evaluated on an independent set of 10 pairs of full and partial CT scans. Assessment was based on whether or not slices containing known nodules between each pair of scans were overlapping after the alignment procedure. Results showed that the proposed metric correctly aligned 9 out of 10 scans. The preliminary results are encouraging for using this method as a first step towards temporal analysis of lung nodules.

  2. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  3. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  4. Cervical compensatory alignment changes following correction of adult thoracic deformity: a multicenter experience in 57 patients with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taemin; Scheer, Justin K; Eastlack, Robert; Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Klineberg, Eric; Passias, Peter G; Deviren, Vedat; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Alignment changes in the cervical spine that occur following surgical correction for thoracic deformity remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate such changes in a cohort of adults with thoracic deformity treated surgically. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with thoracic deformity. Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: corrective osteotomy for thoracic deformity, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV) between T-1 and T-4, lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) at or above L-5 (LIV ≥ L-5) or at the ilium (LIV-ilium), and a minimum radiographic follow-up of 2 years. Sagittal radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively as well as at 3 months and 2 years postoperatively, including the C-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2-7 cervical lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, T-1 slope (T1S), T1S minus CL (T1S-CL), T2-12 thoracic kyphosis (TK), apical TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), PI-LL, pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). RESULTS Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.6 years met the study inclusion criteria. The preoperative prevalence of increased CL (CL > 15°) was 48.9%. Both 3-month and 2-year apical TK improved from baseline (p < 0.05, statistically significant). At the 2-year follow-up, only the C2-7 SVA increased significantly from baseline (p = 0.01), whereas LL decreased from baseline (p < 0.01). The prevalence of increased CL was 35.3% at 3 months and 47.8% at 2 years, which did not represent a significant change. Postoperative cervical alignment changes were not significantly different from preoperative values regardless of the LIV (LIV ≥ L-5 or LIV-ilium, p > 0.05 for both). In a subset of patients with a maximum TK ≥ 60° (35 patients) and 3-column osteotomy (38 patients), no significant postoperative cervical changes were seen. CONCLUSION Increased CL is common in adult spinal deformity patients with thoracic deformities

  5. A statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model for segmentation of CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image guided interventions. Current techniques focus on identification and separate segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi-object shape models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics between several anatomies. These models are also used for segmentation purposes and are shown to be robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model and propose a novel technique to register such a model to CT images. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the multi-vertebrae segmentation of CT images acquired from 16 subjects. The mean distance error achieved for all vertebrae is 1.17 mm with standard deviation of 0.38 mm.

  6. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement.

  7. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement. PMID:25985887

  8. Ossification of thoracic ligamenta flava

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, S.; Minoru, O.; Russell, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    Although ligamentum flavum ossification (LFO) often occurs in normal persons, there are no reports of its detection on lateral chest radiographs made during screening examinations. Review of 1,744 consecutive lateral chest radiographs identified LFO in 6.2% of males and 4.8% of females. LFO occurred mainly at the intervertebral segments from T9-T10 through T12-L1. Most prevalent was the hook-shaped LFO, protruding inferoirly from the inferior facets into the projections of the intervertabral foramina. Though LFO can cause severe neurologic symptoms, none of the affected persons in this study reported such symptoms. LFO was first visualized radiographically when the subjects were 20-40 years old, and it may be a physiologic condition. The LFO in these cases existed independent of thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and degenerative osteoarthritis.

  9. [Thoracic nocardiosis - a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Vale, Artur; Guerra, Miguel; Martins, Daniel; Lameiras, Angelina; Miranda, José; Vouga, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia genus microorganisms are ubiquitous, Gram positive aerobic bacterias, responsible for disease mainly in immunocompromised hosts, with cellular immune response commitment. Inhalation is the main form of transmition and pulmonary disease is the most frequent presentation. Dissemination may occur by contiguity and also via hematogenous. The clinical and imaging presentation is not specific, and diagnosis is obtained after identification of Nocardia bacteria in biological samples. Since there are no reliable studies that indicate the best therapeutic option, treatment should be individualized and based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Surgical drainage should also be considered in all patients. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with thoracic nocardiosis, and make a short literature review on the theme.

  10. Thoracic Extraosseous Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

  11. [Thoracic actinomycosis versus bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Brombacher-Frey, I; Wöckel, W; Kreusser, T

    1992-01-01

    We report on 4 thoracic actinomycoses; in three of these four cases a bronchial carcinoma was suspected, and in case No. 2 this carcinoma had been considered to be in a very advanced and inoperable stage. A man of 51 years of age was in a generally run-down condition. He also noticed that his sputum was tinged with blood. The x-ray film showed a large space-occupying growth at the right lung hilus. Repeated perbronchial biopsies of the focus did not yield any diagnosis. Actinomycosis was identified histologically only in the tissue samples obtained via thoracotomy. After a three-month penicillin course the hilar shadow receded. A 61-year old male patient was transferred to our Pneumological Hospital, being strongly suspected of suffering from an extensive bronchial carcinoma, and having multiple intrathoracic space-occupying growths as well as pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and an infiltration of the left thoracic wall with fistula formation; however, histological examination of skin biopsies revealed that he was suffering from actinomycosis. Antibiotic therapy cured him completely in a six-month course. In a man of 32 years of age who had been indulging for many years in a severe abuse of nicotin, we suspected a central bronchial carcinoma on the basis of his x-ray, but histology of the tissue taken from the space-occupying growth via diagnostic thoracotomy revealed that this patient, too, suffered from actinomycosis. Complete recession occurred after several months of antibiotic treatment. A woman of 82 years had been an inpatient for several months in another hospital because of relapsing pleuropneumonias on the right side. She was transferred to us as an outpatient after a renewed relapse. We conducted a transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the right indurating pleural effusion. A few actinomyces filaments were seen on histological examination of the purulent exudate. Hence, actinomycosis was confirmed. After antibiotic therapy the finding receded

  12. Variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae with tail reduction in Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Sayaka

    2014-10-01

    Tail length in primates can vary greatly between species or even between local conspecific populations, and the tail is markedly reduced in several lineages. In Old World monkeys, tail length is considered as an important feature reflecting their phylogeny and adaptations. The number of caudal vertebrae is one of the important factors which determine tail length, and it is known that this number varies with tail length. Caudal vertebrae can be divided into two types (proximal and distal), and tail mobility and function are considered to be different in these two regions. Though the number of vertebrae in each region is important for understanding tail length evolution in Old World monkeys, there have been few attempts to investigate this matter. This study focused only on the proximal caudal vertebrae, which are more easily preserved than the distal ones, and tested if there is variation in their number with tail length or phylogenic differences. As a result, two important findings were obtained: (1) the variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae was different among the phylogenic groups, and (2) especially in Papionini, there was a great variation in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae, and it correlated strongly with relative tail length [RTL = (tail length/head and body length (sitting height)) × 100%]. I speculate that these variations in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae were possibly caused by a change of the embryonic developmental mechanism of tail morphogenesis, a common mechanism of morphological evolution. To clarify the mechanisms and evolutionary trends of the variation in the proximal caudal vertebrae, not only morphological approaches but also developmental biological approaches will be necessary in the future.

  13. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  14. Thoracic ranula: an extremely rare case.

    PubMed

    Pang, Claudine Elizabeth; Lee, Tee Sin; Pang, Kenny Peter; Pang, Yoke Teen

    2005-03-01

    We present the first case of a thoracic ranula which originated from the left submandibular area extending into the subcutaneous tissue planes of the anterior chest wall. The patient had a history of surgery for a previous benign left salivary gland cyst, and presented with an enlarging mass in the anterior chest wall. This was a recurrence of a ranula, with an extension into the anterior thoracic wall. The thoracic ranula was excised, together with ipsilateral sublingual and submandibular glands, via a transcervical approach. No recurrence was detected over a 3-year post-operative follow up.

  15. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  16. Fully automatic vertebra detection in x-ray images based on multi-class SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-02-01

    Automatically detecting vertebral bodies in X-Ray images is a very complex task, especially because of the noise and the low contrast resulting in that kind of medical imagery modality. Therefore, the contributions in the literature are mainly interested in only 2 medical imagery modalities: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). Few works are dedicated to the conventional X-Ray radiography and propose mostly semi-automatic methods. However, vertebra detection is a key step in many medical applications such as vertebra segmentation, vertebral morphometry, etc. In this work, we develop a fully automatic approach for the vertebra detection, based on a learning method. The idea is to detect a vertebra by its anterior corners without human intervention. To this end, the points of interest in the radiograph are firstly detected by an edge polygonal approximation. Then, a SIFT descriptor is used to train an SVM-model. Therefore, each point of interest can be classified in order to detect if it belongs to a vertebra or not. Our approach has been assessed by the detection of 250 cervical vertebræ on radiographs. The results show a very high precision with a corner detection rate of 90.4% and a vertebra detection rate from 81.6% to 86.5%.

  17. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  18. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.

  19. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Armond, Mônica Costa; Generoso, Rodrigo; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2012-02-24

    The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females) between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]). There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  20. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Armond, Mônica Costa; Generoso, Rodrigo; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2012-01-01

    The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females) between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p £ 0.05) and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]). There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  1. Automated alignment of serial thoracic scans using bone structure descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    In this manuscript we present an automated algorithm for the alignment of thoracic scans using descriptors of bone structures. Bone structures were utilized because they are expected to be less susceptible to sources of errors such as patient positioning and breath hold. The algorithm employed the positioning of ribs relative to the spinal cord along with a description of the scapula. The spinal cord centroid was detected by extracting local maxima of the distance transform followed by point tracing along consecutive slices. Ribs were segmented using adaptive thresholding followed by the watershed algorithm to detach ribs from the vertebra, and by imposing requirements of rib proximity to the lung border. The angles formed between the spinal cord centroid and segmented rib centroids were used to describe rib positioning. Additionally, the length of the scapula was extracted in each slice. A cost function incorporating the difference of features from rib positioning and scapula length between two slices was derived and used to match slices. The method was evaluated on a set of 12 pairs of full and partial CT scans acquired on the same day. Evaluation was based on whether the slices showing a nodule at its maximum diameter in each scan were matched. Full-to-partial and partial-to-full alignment were performed. Results showed that the proposed metric matched nodule slices within an average distance of 1.08 and 1.17 slices from the target for full-to-partial and partial-to-full alignment respectively. These preliminary results are encouraging for using this method as a first step in an overall process of temporally analyzing CT lung nodules.

  2. Sexual Dimorphism in Newborn Vertebrae and its Potential Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Dharmavaram, Naga L.; Fisher, Carissa L.; Friedlich, Philippe; Epi, MS; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether the sex-related differences in vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) found in children and at the timing of peak bone mass – a major determinant of osteoporosis and future fracture risk – are also present at birth. Study design Vertebral CSA, vertebral height, and intervertebral disc height were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 70 healthy full-term newborns (35 male and 35 female). Additionally, measures of the length and CSA of the humerus, musculature, and adiposity were obtained. Results Weight, body length, and head and waist circumferences did not significantly differ between sexes (all P’s ≥ 0.06). Compared with newborn boys, girls had significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions; 1.47 ± 0.11 vs. 1.31 ± 0.12; P < 0.0001. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that sex was a predictor of vertebral CSA independent of gestational age, birth weight, and body length. In contrast, sexes were monomorphic with regard to vertebral height, intervertebral disc height, and spinal length (all P’s ≥ 0.11). There were also no sex differences in the length or cross-sectional dimensions of the humerus or in measures of musculature and adiposity (all P’s ≥ 0.10). Conclusions Factors related to sex influence fetal development of the axial skeleton. The smaller vertebral CSA in females is associated with greater flexibility of the spine that could represent the human adaptation to fetal load. Unfortunately, it also imparts a mechanical disadvantage that increases stress within the vertebrae for all physical activities and the susceptibility for fragility fractures later in life. PMID:26028289

  3. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Hasan; Yildırım, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs) among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1) fusion and (2) posterior arch deficiency (PAD). The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD), with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4%) had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50%) had Angle Class I, 8 (50%) had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076). Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD) were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD) were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism. PMID:26692691

  4. Thoracic Duct Embolization with Lipiodol for Chylothorax due to Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair with Debranching Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hyoung; Jung, Jae Seung; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Hee Jung; Son, Ho Sung

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare postoperative complication of a thoracic surgical procedure. Here, we report a case of chylothorax after thoracic endovascular aortic repair with debranching for the distal arch aneurysm of the aorta. First, the patient was treated by a medical method (nil per os, fat-free diet, and octreotide), but this method failed. The patient strongly refused surgical treatment. Therefore, we tried to occlude the thoracic duct by lymphangiography Lipiodol, and this line of treatment was successful. PMID:25705604

  5. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  6. Stability and intra-tester reliability of an in vivo measurement of thoracic axial rotation using an innovative methodology.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Nicola R; Hall, Alison; Hollands, Mark; Balanos, George M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and intra-tester reliability of an innovative approach to measure active thoracic spine axial rotation. Ultrasound imaging of a thoracic vertebra in conjunction with Polhemus motion analysis of the transducer was used to measure axial thoracic spine rotation in a functional position. The range of motion in a convenience sample of asymptomatic subjects (n=24) was calculated across ten repetitions of a single trial to evaluate stability. The protocol was repeated the same day and 7-10 days later to provide data for within and between day intra-tester reliability. Mean total range of axial rotation was 85.15 degrees across a single trial with SD=14.8, CV=17.4, SEM=3.04. SEM ranged 0.63-3.37 for individual subjects and 2.60-3.64 across repetitions. Stability of performance occurred at repetitions 2-4. Intra-tester reliability (ICC(2,1)) was excellent within day (0.89-0.98) and good/excellent between days (0.720.94). Bland-Altman plots however suggest that agreement may range from 0 to 10% for within day measures and from 0 to 15% for between day measures. Whether this combined approach has sufficient precision and accuracy as a clinical research tool has yet to be fully evaluated. PMID:19046655

  7. Morphological variation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae in Macropodidae and its functional relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinmin; Milne, Nick; O'Higgins, Paul

    2005-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate how the form of the marsupial thoracolumbar vertebrae varies to cope with the particular demands of diverse loading and locomotor behaviors. The vertebral columns of 10 species of Macropodidae, with various body masses and modes of locomotion, together with two other arboreal marsupials, koala and cuscus, were selected. Seventy-four three-dimensional landmark coordinates were acquired on each of the 10 last presacral vertebrae of the 70 vertebral columns. The interspecific variations of the third lumbar vertebra (L3, which approximates the mean) and the transitional patterns of the thoracolumbar segments were examined using the combined approach of generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results of analyses of an individual vertebra (L3) and of the transitional patterns indicate significant interspecific differences. In the L3 study the first PC shows allometric shape variation, while the second PC seems to relate to adaptation for terrestrial versus arboreal locomotion. When the L3 vertebrae of the common spotted cuscus and koala are included for comparison, the vertebra of the tree kangaroo occupies an intermediate position between the hopping kangaroo and these arboreal marsupials. The L3 vertebrae in the arboreal marsupials possess a distinct dorsoventrally expanded vertebral body, and perpendicularly orientated spinous and transverse processes. The results of the present study suggest that vertebral shape in the kangaroo and wallaroos provides a structural adaptation to hopping through a relatively enlarged loading area and powerful lever system. In contrast, the small-sized bettongs (or rat kangaroos) have a relatively flexible column and elongated levers for the action of back muscles that extend and laterally flex the spine. The complex pattern of vertebral shape transition in the last 10 presacral vertebrae was examined using PCAs that compare between species

  8. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases—first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines.

  9. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Danguilan, Jose Luis J

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases-first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines. PMID:27651936

  10. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Danguilan, Jose Luis J

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases-first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines.

  11. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases—first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines. PMID:27651936

  12. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground.

    PubMed

    Beck, Inken M; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-02-01

    The 12th Transgenic Technology meeting was held in Edinburgh on 6th-8th October 2014 and interest to participate in the meeting overcame all expectations. The TT2014 was the largest meeting ever with more than 540 scientists, technicians, and students from all over the world. The meeting had an excellent scientific program that brought information on the latest ground-breaking technologies for gene targeting and genome editing using programmable nucleases into the foreground. These presentations were well balanced with several highlights over viewing topics in embryonic stem cell research, embryogenesis, disease models, and animals in agriculture. Ample space was reserved also for short talks presenting technical development and for highlighting posters contributions. A highlight of the meeting was the award of the 10th International Society of Transgenic Technologies Prize to Janet Rossant for her outstanding contributions in the field of mouse embryogenesis.

  13. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R−). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation. PMID:26900989

  14. Current status and future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution during the 12th FYP period in Guiyang city of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hezhong; Qiu, Peipei; Cheng, Ke; Gao, Jiajia; Lu, Long; Liu, Kaiyun; Liu, Xingang

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate the future trends of SO2 and NOx pollution in Guiyang city of China, the MM5/CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system is applied to assess the effects of air pollution improvement that would result from reduction targets for SO2 and NOx emissions during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). Three scenarios are established for the objective year 2015 based on the reference emissions in base year 2010. Scenario analysis and modeling results show that emissions are projected to increase by 26.5% for SO2 and 138.0% for NOx in 2015 Business-As-Usual (BAU) relative to base year 2010, respectively, which will lead to a substantial worsening tendency of SO2 and NOx pollution. In comparison, both the 2015 Policy Reduction (PR) and 2015 Intensive Policy Reduction (IPR) scenarios would contribute to improve the urban air quality. Under 2015 PR scenario, the maximum annual average concentration of SO2 and NOx will reduce by 54.9% and 31.7%, respectively, relative to the year 2010, with only 2.1% of all individual gridded receptors exceed the national air quality standard limits; while the maximum annual average concentrations of SO2 and NOx can reduce further under 2015 IPR scenario and comply well with standards limits. In view of the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness, the emission reduction targets set in the 2015 PR scenario are regarded as more reasonable in order to further improve the air quality in Guiyang during the 12th FYP period and a series of comprehensive countermeasures should be effectively implemented.

  15. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among U.S. 12th-grade students: Prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Meghan E.; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Methods Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) following alcohol consumption. Results Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and White students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors, and other substance use. Conclusions AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. PMID:25907654

  16. Climate Change and the Water Cycle: A New Southwest Regional Climate Hub Curriculum Unit for 6th-12th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, S.; Haan-Amato, S.; Deswood, H.; Rango, A.; Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and scientifically rigorous education unit for 6th -12th grade students. The unit is aligned with Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Nine activities can be conducted over 10 instruction hours. Each activity can also stand alone. In partnership with SWRCH, the Asombro Institute for Science Education developed the unit. Each activity was reviewed by an educator for educational practices and by a scientist for scientific accuracy. The unit was pilot tested with 524 students in 2014, and pre- and post-tests were administered. Ninety-one percent of students were able to name a greenhouse gas on the post-test, compared to only 48% on the pre-test. On the post-test, 86% of students identified the relationship between average global temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, compared to only 52% on the pre-test. A student commented: "I loved all of the activities! They are fun and help us understand about what goes on in the world." Educators who participated in pilot testing said: "the entire curriculum is great, but I was particularly impressed with the progression of ideas and the variety of lessons," and "students could see the relevance and importance of these real life issues." Anyone interested in using the unit to host workshops for teachers in southwestern states should contact Asombro for more information (information@asombro.org). The Climate Change and the Water Cycle 6th-12th grade curriculum unit is available online: www.swclimatehub.info/education/climate-change-and-water-cycle

  17. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zhuang; Wu, Cheng'ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Materials and Methods Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. Results The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. Conclusion The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan. PMID:27587947

  18. Three-dimensional measurement of wedged scoliotic vertebrae and intervertebral disks.

    PubMed

    Aubin, C E; Dansereau, J; Petit, Y; Parent, F; de Guise, J A; Labelle, H

    1998-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis involves complex spinal intrinsic deformations such as the wedging of vertebral bodies (VB) and intervertebral disks (ID), and it is obvious that the clinical evaluation obtained by the spinal projections on the two-dimensional (2D) radiographic planes do not give a full and accurate interpretation of scoliotic deformities. This paper presents a method that allows reconstruction in 3D of the vertebral body endplates and measurement of the 3D wedging angles. This approach was also used to verify whether 2D radiographic measurements could lead to a biased evaluation of scoliotic spine wedging. The 3D reconstruction of VB contours was done using calibrated biplanar X-rays and an iterative projection computer procedure that fits 3D oriented ellipses of adequate diameters onto the 3D endplate contours. "3D wedging angles" of the VB and ID (representing the maximum angle between adjacent vertebrae) as well as their angular locations with respect to the vertebral frontal planes were computed by finding the positions of the shortest and longest distances between consecutive endplates along their contour. This method was extensively validated using several approaches: (1) by comparing the 3D reconstructed endplates of a cadaveric functional unit (T8-T9) with precise 3D measurements obtained using a coordinate measuring machine for 11 different combinations of vertebral angular positions; (2) by a sensitivity study on 400 different vertebral segments mathematically generated, with errors randomly introduced on the digitized points (standard deviations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm); (3) by comparing the clinical wedging measurements (on postero-anterior and lateral radiographs) at the thoracic apical level of 34 scoliotic patients (15 degrees < Cobb < 45 degrees) to the computed values. Mean errors for the 11 vertebral positions were 0.5 +/- 0.4 mm for VB thickness, less than 2.2 degrees for endplate orientation, and about 11 degrees (3 mm) for the location of

  19. Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han San; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Results Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Conclusion Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain. PMID:27182497

  20. Fully automatic detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Strukelj, Michael; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge about the vertebrae is a valuable source of information for several annotation tasks. In recent years, the research community spent a considerable effort for detecting, segmenting and analyzing the vertebrae and the spine in various image modalities like CT or MR. Most of these methods rely on prior knowledge like the location of the vertebrae or other initial information like the manual detection of the spine. Furthermore, the majority of these methods require a complete volume scan. With the existence of use cases where only a single slice is available, there arises a demand for methods allowing the detection of the vertebrae in 2D images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic and parameterless algorithm for detecting the vertebrae in 2D CT images. Our algorithm starts with detecting candidate locations by taking the density of bone-like structures into account. Afterwards, the candidate locations are extended into candidate regions for which certain image features are extracted. The resulting feature vectors are compared to a sample set of previously annotated and processed images in order to determine the best candidate region. In a final step, the result region is readjusted until convergence to a locally optimal position. Our new method is validated on a real world data set of more than 9 329 images of 34 patients being annotated by a clinician in order to provide a realistic ground truth.

  1. [Video-assisted thoracic surgery, lung transplantation and mediastinitis: major issues in thoracic surgery in 2010].

    PubMed

    Borro, José M; Moreno, Ramón; Gómez, Ana; Duque, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the major issues in thoracic surgery relating to the advances made in our specialty in 2010. To do this, the 43(rd) Congress of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery held in La Coruña and the articles published in the Society's journal, Archivos de Bronconeumología, were reviewed. The main areas of interest were related to the development of video-assisted thoracic surgery, lung transplantation and descending mediastinitis. The new tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (7(th) edition), presented last year, was still a topical issue this year. The First Forum of Thoracic Surgeons and the Update in Thoracic Surgery together with the Nurses' Area have constituted an excellent teaching program. PMID:21300211

  2. Dynamic properties of the upper thoracic spine-pectoral girdle (UTS-PG) system and corresponding kinematics in PMHS sled tests.

    PubMed

    Stammen, Jason A; Herriott, Rodney; Kang, Yun-Seok; Dupaix, Rebecca; Bolte, John

    2012-10-01

    Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine properties have been demonstrated to affect those kinematics. To investigate the relationships between thoracic spine system dynamics and upper thoracic kinematics in crash-level scenarios, three adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were tested in both Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM) and sled configurations. In frontal sled tests, the T6-T8 vertebrae of the PMHS were coupled through a novel fixation technique to a rigid seat to directly measure thoracic spine loading. Mid-thoracic spine and belt loads along with head, spine, and pectoral girdle (PG) displacements were measured in 12 sled tests conducted with the three PMHS (3-pt lap-shoulder belted/unbelted at velocities from 3.8 - 7.0 m/s applied directly through T6-T8). The sled pulse, ISM- derived characteristic properties of that PMHS, and externally applied forces due to head-neck inertia and shoulder belt constraint were used to predict kinematic time histories of the T1-T6 spine segment. The experimental impulse applied to the upper thorax was normalized to be consistent with a T6 force/sled acceleration sinusoidal profile, and the result was an improvement in the prediction of T3 X-axis displacements with ISM properties. Differences between experimental and model-predicted displacement-time history increases were quantified with respect to speed. These discrepancies were attributed to the lack of rotational inertia of the head-neck late in the event as well as restricted kyphosis and viscoelasticity of spine constitutive structures through costovertebral interactions and mid-spine fixation. The results indicate that system dynamic properties from sub-injurious ISM testing could be useful for characterizing forward trajectories of the upper thoracic spine in higher energy crash simulations, leading to improved biofidelity for both ATDs and finite element models.

  3. Asian perspective in surgery: thoracic surgery in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Turkey with a population of 78 million is located between Asia and Europe geographically and culturally. There are 577 active pure thoracic surgeon and 37 thoracic surgery teaching units. Thoracic surgeons usually deal with lung cancer patients due to relatively higher rate of tobacco usage as well as inflammatory diseases such as pulmonary hydatid disease, bronchiectasis and empyema. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has been a new approach which is being adapted by increasingly more surgeons. There are a number of reasons to predict that the number of thoracic surgical cases will be increased and new generation of thoracic surgeons will be operating more minimally invasive resectional surgeries for most lung cancer in future.

  4. Asian perspective in surgery: thoracic surgery in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turna, Akif

    2016-08-01

    Turkey with a population of 78 million is located between Asia and Europe geographically and culturally. There are 577 active pure thoracic surgeon and 37 thoracic surgery teaching units. Thoracic surgeons usually deal with lung cancer patients due to relatively higher rate of tobacco usage as well as inflammatory diseases such as pulmonary hydatid disease, bronchiectasis and empyema. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has been a new approach which is being adapted by increasingly more surgeons. There are a number of reasons to predict that the number of thoracic surgical cases will be increased and new generation of thoracic surgeons will be operating more minimally invasive resectional surgeries for most lung cancer in future.

  5. Thoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Julia; Grimberg, Alexandre; Thompson, Bruna M; Antunes, Viviane B; Jasinowodolinski, Dany; Meirelles, Gustavo S P

    2012-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases are a diverse group of immunologically mediated systemic disorders that often lead to thoracic changes. The collagen vascular diseases that most commonly involve the lung are rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Sjögren syndrome. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the main causes of mortality and morbidity among patients with collagen vascular diseases. Given the broad spectrum of possible thoracic manifestations and the varying frequency with which different interstitial lung diseases occur, the interpretation of thoracic images obtained in patients with collagen vascular diseases can be challenging. The task may be more difficult in the presence of treatment-related complications such as drug toxicity and infections, which are common in this group of patients. Although chest radiography is most often used for screening and monitoring of thoracic alterations, high-resolution computed tomography can provide additional information about lung involvement in collagen vascular diseases and may be especially helpful for differentiating specific disease patterns in the lung. General knowledge about the manifestations of thoracic involvement in collagen vascular diseases allows radiologists to provide better guidance for treatment and follow-up of these patients.

  6. Heterogeneous computing for vertebra detection and segmentation in x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Lecron, Fabian; Mahmoudi, Sidi Ahmed; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The context of this work is related to the vertebra segmentation. The method we propose is based on the active shape model (ASM). An original approach taking advantage of the edge polygonal approximation was developed to locate the vertebra positions in a X-ray image. Despite the fact that segmentation results show good efficiency, the time is a key variable that has always to be optimized in a medical context. Therefore, we present how vertebra extraction can efficiently be performed in exploiting the full computing power of parallel (GPU) and heterogeneous (multi-CPU/multi-GPU) architectures. We propose a parallel hybrid implementation of the most intensive steps enabling to boost performance. Experimentations have been conducted using a set of high-resolution X-ray medical images, showing a global speedup ranging from 3 to 22, by comparison with the CPU implementation. Data transfer times between CPU and GPU memories were included in the execution times of our proposed implementation.

  7. Cervical vertebrae anomalies in orthodontic patients: a growth-based superimpositional approach.

    PubMed

    Koletsis, Despina D; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a growth-based structural superimposition method for assessment of cervical vertebral fusion and evaluate variations and abnormalities of the upper cervical vertebrae. Standardized lateral cephalograms of 156 patients (69 males and 87 females, age range 6-20 years), representing a skeletally heterogeneous orthodontic population, were used. Primary criterion for sample selection was the existence of at least two lateral cephalograms, one taken before orthodontic treatment, which depicted the first four cervical vertebrae. The abnormalities of the vertebrae were estimated by visual assessment and structural superimposition. Lateral cephalometric analysis was conducted in order to correlate vertebral anomalies to skeletal pattern. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables and interobserver agreement was evaluated using the kappa statistic. Four patients (2.6 per cent) were found to have secondary ossicles in close relationship to the first cervical vertebra, while in 7.4 per cent, the vertebral arteries of the atlas were surrounded by a complete ring-shaped osseous structure. Three cephalograms showed atlas posterior arch dehiscence. After visual examination, 14 patients were provisionally identified as presenting fusion between the second and third cervical vertebrae. However, growth-based superimposition of the radiographs disclosed that no patient showed actual fusion, even though the lateral cephalometric analysis revealed sufficient extreme skeletal patterns, which have been previously related to vertebral fusion. The findings of this study demonstrated a low percentage of atlas anomalies. It was not possible to correlate skeletal pattern to fusion of cervical vertebrae because no fusions were found. Subjective visual examination of a single cephalogram may result in false-positive findings of fusion and growth-based superimposition is recommended.

  8. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-01-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  9. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Serpil; Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-03-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  10. Acute Shingles after Resection of Thoracic Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Muesse, Jason L.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Harris, Richard L.; Kim, Min P.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster is relatively uncommon after surgery in immunocompetent patients. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of herpes zoster after the resection of a thoracic schwannoma. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman in whom acute shingles developed after the video-assisted thoracic surgical resection of a posterior mediastinal schwannoma adjacent to the 4th thoracic vertebral body. The patient recovered after receiving timely antiviral therapy. Rash and pain are common in patients who have wound infections and contact dermatitis after surgery, so the possible reactivation of varicella virus might not be prominent in the surgeon's mind. This case serves as a reminder that viral infections such as shingles should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative erythema and pain. PMID:22740749

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial TAAD familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection ( familial TAAD ) involves problems with the ...

  12. Long thoracic neuropathy from athletic activity.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J S; Leonard, J A

    1992-01-01

    Four cases of long thoracic mononeuropathy associated with sports participation are presented. Each patient developed shoulder pain or dysfunction after an acute event or vigorous activity, and demonstrated scapular winging consistent with serratus anterior weakness. The diagnosis was confirmed with electromyography in each case. It is suggested that the athletic activity caused a stretch injury to the long thoracic nerve. Conservative management, consisting of range of motion exercises for the shoulder and strengthening of the serratus anterior muscle, resulted in a favorable outcome in all patients.

  13. Biomechanical examination of the thoracic spine--the axial rotation moment and vertical loading capacity of the transverse process.

    PubMed

    Csernátony, Zoltán; Molnár, Szabolcs; Hunya, Zsolt; Manó, Sándor; Kiss, László

    2011-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the load-bearing capacity of the transverse processes of human cadaveric thoracic vertebrae to vertical loads and axial rotation moments (i.e., moment applied in the transverse plane). A secondary objective was to examine the effect of the attached rib stumps. We wanted to demonstrate that the transverse process is durable enough to support the CAB hook--a complementary hook to the CD system--and can handle the vertical load or axial rotation moment during correction of scoliosis. We used 107 thoracic vertebrae removed from 10 cadavers. They were prepared in vertebral pairs, and were fixed into a material testing apparatus. Superoinferior vertical loads and axial rotation moments were applied to the transverse process using the CAB hooks at a rate of 30 mm/min and 8.5°/s respectively until it fractured. We recorded 142 measurements, 99 were for vertical load and 43 for axial rotation moment. The average ultimate vertical load was 338 (SD = 128) N and the average ultimate axial rotation moment was 14.4 (SD = 4.52) Nm. The ultimate axial rotation moment for specimens with rib stumps attached was significantly greater than for specimens without rib stumps 15.9 (SD = 4.1) Nm versus 12.5 (SD = 4.4) Nm. Our results showed that both the vertical and axial rotation loading capability of the transverse process are large enough to withstand significant correctional forces, without fracture, through the CAB hooks.

  14. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery. PMID:26811041

  15. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery.

  16. Minimally Invasive Direct Thoracic Interbody Fusion (MIS-DTIF): Technical Notes of a Single Surgeon Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive direct thoracic interbody fusion (MIS-DTIF) is a new single surgeon procedure for fusion of the thoracic vertebrae below the scapula (T6/7) to the thoracolumbar junction. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique for MIS-DTIF and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first four patients who underwent this procedure. Study design/setting In this study we attempt to establish the safety and efficacy of MIS-DTIF. We have performed MIS-DTIF on six spinal levels in four patients with degenerative disk disease or disk herniation. We recorded surgery time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time, complications, and patient-reported pain. Methods Throughout the MIS-DTIF procedure, the surgeon is aided by biplanar fluoroscopic imaging and electrophysiological monitoring. The surgeon approaches the spine with a series of gentle tissue dilations and inserts a working tube that establishes a direct connection from the outside of the skin to the disk space. Through this working tube, the surgeon performs a discectomy and inserts an interbody graft or cage. The procedure is completed with minimally invasive (MI) posterior pedicle screw fixation. Results For the single level patients the mean blood loss was 90 ml, surgery time 43 minutes, fluoroscopy time 293 seconds, and hospital stay two days. For the two-level surgeries, the mean blood loss was 27 ml, surgery time 61 minutes, fluoroscopy time 321 seconds, and hospital stay three days. We did not encounter any clinically significant complications. Thirty days post-surgery, the patients reported a statistically significant reduction of 5.3 points on a 10-point sliding pain scale. Conclusions MIS-DTIF with pedicle screw fixation is a safe and clinically effective procedure for fusions of the thoracic spine. The procedure is technically straightforward and overcomes many of the limitations of the current minimally invasive (MI) approaches to the thoracic spine. MIS

  17. Coil embolization of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of right internal thoracic artery.

    PubMed

    Tourmousoglou, Christos; Zambakis, Peter; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Charoulis, Nikolaos; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic injury to the chest and internal thoracic artery is a perplexing problem that is difficult to diagnose and open to different treatment options. Internal thoracic artery pseudoaneurysms are an extremely rare vascular abnormality. We report the case of a patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the musculophrenic artery, a branch of right internal thoracic artery, caused by a penetrating injury of the chest.

  18. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  19. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:20056364

  1. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    PubMed

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation.

  3. From autoantibody research to standardized diagnostic assays in the management of human diseases - report of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, K; Andrade, L E C; Chan, E K L; Mahler, M; Meroni, P L; Pruijn, G J M; Steiner, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2016-07-01

    Testing for autoantibodies (AABs) is becoming more and more relevant, not only for diagnosing autoimmune diseases (AIDs) but also for the differentiation of defined AID subtypes with different clinical manifestations, course and prognosis as well as the very early diagnosis for adequate management in the context of personalized medicine. A major challenge to improve diagnostic accuracy is to harmonize or even standardize AAB analyses. This review presents the results of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies that focused on several aspects of improving autoimmune diagnostics. Topics that are addressed include the International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) and the International Autoantibody Standardization (IAS) initiatives, the optimization of diagnostic algorithms, the description and evaluation of novel disease-specific AABs as well as the development and introduction of novel assays into routine diagnostics. This review also highlights important developments of recent years, most notably the improvement in diagnosing and predicting the course of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and of autoimmune neurological, gastrointestinal and liver diseases; the potential diagnostic role of anti-DFS70 antibodies and tumor-associated AABs. Furthermore, some hot topics in autoimmunity regarding disease pathogenesis and management are described. PMID:27252254

  4. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  5. Longitudinal Study of Career Cluster Persistence from 8th Grade to 12th Grade with a Focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math Career Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Judson

    Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.

  6. High-resolution time-lapse tomography of rat vertebrae during compressive loading: deformation response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fíla, T.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Kumpová, I.; Doktor, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jiroušek, O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is focused on investigation of mechanical properties of rat vertebrae during compressive loading in the longitudinal direction of rat's spine. High-resolution time-lapse micro-tomography was used as a tool to create models of the inner structure and deformed shape in pre-defined deformation steps. First, peripheral areas of vertebra specimen were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate to obtain proper boundary conditions of contact between specimen and loading plattens. Experimental loading device designed for application in X-ray setups was utilized to compress the vertebrae in several deformation steps. High-resolution micro-tomography scanning was carried out at each deformation step. Specimen was irradiated in tomography device equipped with microfocus X-ray tube with 5μm focal spot size and large area flat panel detector. Spatial resolution of reconstructed three-dimensional images was approximately 10μm. Digital volume correlation algorithm was utilized in order to assess displacements in the microstructure in every loading increment. Finite element model of vertebra was created from volumetric data reconstructed from tomography of the undeformed specimen. Simulated compressive test of the developed finite element model was performed in order to compare stiffness and displacements obtained by digital volume correlation and finite element simulation.

  7. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  8. The metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in South Asian litter frogs (Anura: Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Tadpoles of the Megophryidae, a South Asian family of litter frogs, are unique among anurans by virtue of their expanded caudal skeletons, which include supernumerary vertebral centra. The number of these vertebrae varies widely within the family, with tadpoles of Leptobrachella having as many as 30 and Leptolalax only five. Vertebral morphology is also quite variable, ranging from complete, perichordal centra to fragmentary ossifications. This variation in the caudal osteology of larval megophryids, however, is not manifested in the adult morphology. Post-metamorphic litter frogs have a typical anuran axial skeleton, invariably comprising eight presacral vertebrae, a single sacral vertebra and, postsacrally, the urostyle. To resolve this incongruity between life phases and to determine the precise metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in megophryids, we examined metamorphic specimens from the genera Leptobrachella, Leptolalax, Ophryophryne and Megophrys. In all four, the caudal larval skeleton undergoes massive reduction, leaving only the coccyx and hypochord untouched. Caudal centra are apparently degraded by osteoclasts, which have not previously been implicated in vertebral remodelling during anuran metamorphosis. In Megophrys and Ophryophryne metamorphs, presacral centra also undergo resorption, consistent with an epichordal mode of centrum formation. The conservation of megophryid adult axial osteology in the face of extensive larval skeletal diversity reveals the role of metamorphosis in constraining anuran morphology.

  9. Reliability and reproducibility of interapical distance assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae in scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of interapical distance (IAD) and to analyze its correlation with the Cobb angle (CA). [Subjects and Methods] IAD, a handy tool for assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae with a metric scale, was defined as the horizontal distance between one apical vertebra and its counterpart, the opposite apical vertebra in the case of a double curve and the farthest vertebra in the case of a single curve. Fifty full-length, standing anteroposterior radiographs of "idiopathic scoliosis" were reviewed. Three investigators independently measure the CA and IAD at the same time and remeasured the IAD on the same radiograph a week later. [Results] There was no interobserver difference (reliability) in the measurement of IAD or statistical differences in intraobserver reproducibility for each observer. IAD was well correlated with the CA for each observer (r=0.765, r=0.737, and r=0.764). [Conclusion] IAD is useful when assessing lateral deviation in scoliosis and may be a reliable and reproducible index that is well correlated with the CA, and it can be used as a supplementary measure to describe the overall derangement of scoliosis in the coronal plane. PMID:25995588

  10. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the association of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals. The strict control of this process has resulted in little variation in number of vertebrae across mammalian species and no variation within most mammalian species. The pig is quite unique as considerable vari...

  11. Functional chiral asymmetry in descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Frazin, L J; Lanza, G; Vonesh, M; Khasho, F; Spitzzeri, C; McGee, S; Mehlman, D; Chandran, K B; Talano, J; McPherson, D

    1990-12-01

    To determine whether rotational blood flow or chiral asymmetry exists in the human descending thoracic aorta, we established the ability of color Doppler ultrasound to detect rotational flow in a tornado tube model of a vortex descending fluid column. In a model of the human aortic arch with a pulse duplicator, color Doppler was then used to demonstrate that rotational flow occurs first in the transverse arch and then in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. With the use of color Doppler esophageal echocardiography, 53 patients (age range, 25-78 years; mean age, 56.4 years) were prospectively examined for rotational flow in the descending thoracic aorta. At 10 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 22 of 38 patients (58%) revealed rotational flow with obvious diastolic counterclockwise rotation but less obvious systolic clockwise rotation. At 5 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 29 of 46 patients (63%) revealed rotational flow with a tendency toward systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise rotation. At the retro-left ventricular position, 47 of 53 patients (89%) revealed rotational flow, usually of a clockwise direction, occurring in systole. Our data suggest that aortic flow is not purely pulsatile and axial but has a rotational component. Rotational flow begins in the aortic arch and is carried through to the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is chirally asymmetric with systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise components. These data demonstrate an aortic rotational flow component that may have physiological implications for organ perfusion. PMID:2242523

  12. Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, D A

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves. PMID:7647599

  13. Thoracic BB injuries in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L G; Radhakrishnan, J; Gordon, R T; Shah, M R; Lain, K Y; Messersmith, R N; Roettger, R H; Norwood, S H

    1995-03-01

    Penetrating thoracic injury from BB shot remains an innocuous event in most patients, but factors including location, proximity, gun type, and patient weight may identify groups at risk. The following cases demonstrate morbidity and mortality in two patients, and this experience may suggest the need for reassessment of this injury.

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Thoracic Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Yu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSFL) after thoracic decompression and describe its regular and special features. Data Sources: Literature cited in this review was retrieved from PubMed and Medline and was primarily published during the last 10 years. “Cerebrospinal fluid”, “leakage”, “dural tears”, and “thoracic decompression” were the indexed terms. Relevant citations in the retrieved articles were also screened to include more data. Study Selection: All retrieved literature was scrutinized, and four categories were recorded: incidence and risk factors, complications, treatment modalities, and prognosis. Results: CSFL is much more frequent after thoracic decompression than after cervical and lumbar spinal surgeries. Its occurrence is related to many clinical factors, especially the presence of ossified ligaments and the adhesion of the dural sac. While its impact on the late neurological recovery is currently controversial, CSFL increases the risk of other perioperative complications, such as low intracranial pressure symptoms, infection, and vascular events. The combined use of primary repairs during the operation and conservative treatment postoperatively is generally effective for most CSFL cases, whereas lumbar drains and reoperations should be implemented as rescue options for refractory cases only. Conclusions: CSFL after thoracic decompression has not been specifically investigated, so the present study provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the issue. CSFL is a multi-factor-related complication, and pathological factors play a decisive role. The importance of CSFL is in its impact on the increased risk of other complications during the postoperative period. Methods to prevent these complications are in need. In addition, though the required treatment resources are not special for CSFL after thoracic decompression, most CSFL cases are conservatively curable, and surgeons should be

  15. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in

  16. Non-intubated anesthesia in thoracic surgery—technical issues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Performing awake thoracic surgery (ATS) is technically more challenging than thoracic surgery under general anesthesia (GA), but it can result in a greater benefit for the patient. Local wound infiltration and lidocaine administration in the pleural space can be considered for ATS. More invasive techniques are local wound infiltration with wound catheter insertion, thoracic wall blocks, selective intercostal nerve blockade, thoracic paravertebral blockade and thoracic epidural analgesia, offering the advantage of a catheter placement which can also be continued for postoperative analgesia. PMID:26046050

  17. Interpreting 12th-Graders' NAEP-Scaled Mathematics Performance Using High School Predictors and Postsecondary Outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie A.; Ingels, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The search for an understandable reporting format has led the National Assessment Governing Board to explore the possibility of measuring and interpreting student performance on the 12th-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Nation's Report Card, in terms of readiness for college, the workplace, and the military. This…

  18. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (12th, Portland, Oregon, June 23-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Lyn, Ed.; Bradley, Jennifer, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The 12th Annual Building on Family Strengths Conference was held from June 23rd through June 25th 2005 in Portland, Oregon. Highlights included: (1) An information-packed keynote address by Dr. Richard M. Lerner on promoting positive youth development through enhancing the assets of communities; (2) An exciting research plenary panel session that…

  19. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  20. Documentation of Assessment Instrumentation--The NORC/CRESST 12th Grade Science Assessment, Item Databases, and Test Booklets. Project 2.6: Analytic Models To Monitor Status & Progress of Learning & Performance & Their Antecedents: The School Science Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, H. Darrell

    The hardware and software system used to create the National Opinion Research Center/Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (NORC/CRESST) item databases and test booklets for the 12th-grade science assessment are described. A general description of the capabilities of the system is given, with some specific information…

  1. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  2. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  3. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars.

  4. An analysis of 12th-grade students' reasoning styles and competencies when presented with an environmental problem in a social and scientific context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    This study examined reasoning and problem solving by 182 12th grade students in Taiwan when considering a socio-scientific issue regarding the use of nuclear energy. Students' information preferences, background characteristics, and eleven everyday scientific thinking skills were scrutinized. It was found most participants displayed a willingness to take into account both scientific and social information in reasoning the merits of a proposed construction of a nuclear power plant. Students' reasoning scores obtained from the "information reasoning style" test ranged from -0.5 to 1.917. And, the distribution was approximately normal with mean and median at around 0.5. For the purpose of categorization, students whose scores were within one standard deviation from the mean were characterized as having a "equally disposed" reasoning style. One hundred and twenty-five subjects, about 69%, belonged to this category. Students with scores locating at the two tails of the distribution were assigned to either the "scientifically oriented" or the "socially oriented" reasoning category. Among 23 background characteristics investigated using questionnaire data and ANOVA statistical analysis, only students' science performance and knowledge about nuclear energy were statistically significantly related to their information reasoning styles (p < 0.05). The assessed background characteristics addressed dimensions such as gender, academic performances, class difference, future education, career expectation, commitment to study, assessment to educational enrichment, family conditions, epistemological views about science, religion, and the political party preference. For everyday scientific thinking skills, interview data showed that both "scientifically oriented" students and those who were categorized as "equally disposed to using scientific and social scientific sources of data" displayed higher frequencies than "socially oriented" ones in using these skills, except in the use of

  5. TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake (M=6.2) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 9 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th of October 2013, Which occur in western of Crete, Greece. In accordance to the results of similar analysis on the occasion of earthquakes in the area (Contadakis et al 2008, 2012a,2012b) the main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Key words: GPS network, ionospheric total electron content, wavelet analysis References Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N. G. Asteriadis, S.D. Spatalas and Ch. Pikridas, 2008. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276 M.E. Contadakis, D.N. Arabelos, Ch. Pikridas and S.D. Spatalas, 2012a,TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, Vol.55,1, p.83-93 M.E.Contadakis, D.N.Arabelos, and G.Vergos, 2012b, TEC variations over North-western Balkan peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009, EGU GA, Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 14, EGU2012-2319-2

  6. The European educational platform on thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Massard, Gilbert; Rocco, Gaetano; Venuta, Federico

    2014-05-01

    As the largest scientific organisation world-wide exclusively dedicated to general thoracic surgery (GTS), the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) recognized that one of its priorities is education. The educational platform designed ESTS addresses not only trainees, but also confirmed thoracic surgeons. The two main aims are (I) to prepare trainees to graduation and to the certification by the European Board of Thoracic Surgery and (II) to offer opportunities for continuous medical education in the perspective of life-long learning and continuous professional development to certified thoracic surgeons. It is likely that recertification will become an obligation during the coming decade. At its inception, the platform differentiated two different events. A 6-day course emphasizing on theoretic knowledge was created in Antalya in 2007. The same year, a 2-day school oriented to practical issues with hands-on in the animal lab was launched in Antalya. These two teaching tracks need further development. In the knowledge track, we intend to organize highly specialized 2-day courses to deepen insight into theoretical questions. The skill track will be implemented by specialized courses for high technology such as tracheal surgery, ECMO, robotics or chest wall reconstruction. In order to promote tomorrows' leadership, we created an academic competence track giving an insight into medical communication, methodology and management. We also had to respond to an increasing demand from the Russian speaking countries, where colleagues may face problems to attend western meetings, and where the language bareer may be a major impediment. We initiated a Russian school with three events yearly in 2012. Contemporary teaching must be completed with an e-learning platform, which is currently under development. The school activities are organized by the educational committee, which is headed by the ESTS Director of Education, assisted by coordinators of the teaching tracks and

  7. Comparison between percutaneous fluoroscopic-guided and conventional open pedicle screw placement techniques for the thoracic spine: a safety evaluation in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Kwan, M K; Chiu, C K; Lee, C K; Chan, C Y W

    2015-11-01

    Percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is a well-established technique, however, no studies have compared percutaneous and open placement of screws in the thoracic spine. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the accuracy and safety of these techniques at the thoracic spinal level. A total of 288 screws were inserted in 16 (eight cadavers, 144 screws in percutaneous and eight cadavers, 144 screws in open). Pedicle perforations and fractures were documented subsequent to wide laminectomy followed by skeletalisation of the vertebrae. The perforations were classified as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: < 2 mm perforation, grade 2: 2 mm to 4 mm perforation and grade 3: > 4 mm perforation. In the percutaneous group, the perforation rate was 11.1% with 15 (10.4%) grade 1 and one (0.7%) grade 2 perforations. In the open group, the perforation rate was 8.3% (12 screws) and all were grade 1. This difference was not significant (p = 0.45). There were 19 (13.2%) pedicle fractures in the percutaneous group and 21 (14.6%) in the open group (p = 0.73). In summary, the safety of percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine between T4 and T12 is similar to that of the conventional open technique.

  8. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  9. Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Veritable Pandora's Box.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sobha S; Nayar, Jayashree

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma, airways, and/or encompasses mainly four clinical entities-catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial haemothorax, catamenial haemoptysis and lung nodules. The cases were studied retrospectively by reviewing the records at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for duration of five years i.e., form March 2010-2014 and analysed for the clinical presentation and management of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. Catamenial breathlessness was the main symptom. Pneumothorax and pleural effusion were the findings on investigations. Histopathology report of endometriosis was present in three cases (50%). Conditions with excess oestrogen like endometriosis, fibroid, adenomyosis were diagnosed in these patients by pelvic scan. After the initial supportive treatment with hormones, pleurodesis, hysterectomy and lung decortication were the treatment modalities. Two cases that had multiple recurrences were diagnosed as disseminated TES. They underwent combined treatment of surgery and hormones.

  10. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing. PMID:11567193

  11. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  12. Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Ibrahim; Kische, Stephan; Rehders, Tim C.; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Rauchhaus, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    A thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition with structural weakness of the aortic wall, which can progress to arterial dilatation and rupture. Today, both an increasing awareness of vascular disease and the access to tomographic imaging facilitate the diagnosis of TAA even in an asymptomatic stage. The risk of rupture for untreated aneurysms beyond a diameter of 5.6 cm ranges from 46% to 74% and the two-year mortality rate is greater than 70%, with most deaths resulting from rupture. Treatment options include surgical and non-surgical repair to prevent aneurysm enlargement and rupture. While most cases of ascending aortic involvement are subject to surgical repair (partially with valve-preserving techniques), aneurysm of the distal arch and descending thoracic aorta are amenable to emerging endovascular techniques as an alternative to classic open repair or to a hybrid approach (combining debranching surgery with stent grafting) in an attempt to improve outcomes. PMID:22419919

  13. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country.

  14. [Septic arthritis of thoracic facet joint].

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelghani, K; Gérard-Dran, D; Combe, B

    2009-08-01

    Septic arthritis of the facet joint is a rare condition. We report a case of septic arthritis of both a thoracic facet joint and a wrist. Clinical manifestations were consistent with a spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated infection of facet joints of T1 and T2. A surgical biopsy of the wrist isolated a type B streptococcus. The same organism was found in urine culture. The patient had an uneventful recovery on antibiotics.

  15. Endovascular intervention in thoracic arterial trauma.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Eric K

    2008-11-01

    The management of thoracic vascular injury has improved dramatically over the past two decades. The availability of multi-row detector CT has facilitated early diagnosis and incorporation of minimally invasive endograft repair for traumatic aortic injury has improved mortality and paraplegia rates. This review evaluates the available data on stent-graft repair of acute blunt traumatic aortic injury and traumatic great vessel injury with regard to safety and efficacy in comparison with conventional open surgical repair. PMID:18842261

  16. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    2012-05-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002, registered in 89 population-based cancer registries (CRs) and followed-up to 31st December 2003. Over 17,688 cases of rare thoracic cancers were selected based on the list of the RACECARE project. Mesothelioma was the most common tumour (19 per million per year) followed by epithelial tumours of the trachea and thymus (1.3 and 1.7, respectively). The age standardised incidence rates of epithelial tumours of the trachea was double in Eastern and Southern Europe versus the other European regions: 2 per million per year. Epithelial tumours of the thymus had the lowest incidence in Northern and Eastern Europe and UK and Ireland(1) and somewhat higher incidence in Central and Southern Europe.(2) Highest incidence in mesothelioma was seen in UK and Ireland(23) and lowest in Eastern Europe.(4) Patients with tumours of the thymus had the best prognosis (1-year survival 85%, 66% at 5 years). Five year survival was lowest for the mesothelioma 5% compared to 14% of patients with tumours of the trachea. Mesothelioma was the most prevalent rare cancer (12,000 cases), followed by thymus (7000) and trachea (1400). Cancer Registry (CR) data play an important role in revealing the burden of rare thoracic cancers and monitoring the effect of regulations on asbestos use and smoking related policies.

  17. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  18. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yendamuri, Sai

    2016-08-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world's second most populous country.

  19. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yendamuri, Sai

    2016-08-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world's second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  20. The European general thoracic surgery database project.

    PubMed

    Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the "backbone" of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe.

  1. [Thoracic surgery for patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y

    2012-07-01

    Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks. PMID:22868432

  2. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  3. Measurement and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Vertebra Shape by Freehand Ultrasound Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Moroi, Keishichiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-06-01

    Paracentesis is a common operation for pain clinics and spinal anesthetics administration and requires empirical training and flexible skills to cope with the various cases of individual patients. We propose a method of measuring and visualizing three-dimensional vertebra shapes for assisting anesthesiologists, by an ultrasound imaging technique that is prevalent in many hospitals and has no harmful risks to the human body. The proposed system enables anesthesiologists to investigate vertebra shapes by freehand probing. Three-dimensional reconstruction and graphical rendering can be performed by monitoring the motion of the ultrasound probe and registering the scanned echography into the identical three-dimensional space. Considering the echography imaging features, volume rendering of hard tissue surfaces is achieved and interactive measurement is possible. This paper describes the practicability of the proposed method based on experimental measurement of both phantom and real lumbar vertebre and sacra.

  4. Chondromyxoid Fibroma of Two Cervical Vertebrae with Involvement of Surrounding Soft Tissue: Radiologic Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour Zahir, Shokouh; Sefidrokh Sharahjin, Naser; Sadlu Parizi, Farzad; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign cartilaginous neoplasm that mostly affects the metaphyseal region of the long bones. The tibia, small tubular bones of the foot, the distal femur and pelvis are common locations, but involvement of the vertebral bones, especially the cervical vertebra, is very rare. Radiographic features show typical characteristics and this tumor often presents as a lobulated, eccentric radiolucent lesion with no periosteal reaction. In addition, geographic bone destruction is seen in all cases. We present an adult female with a one-year history of neck pain, and ultrasound findings that suggest a right paravertebral muscular lesion due to inflammatory or neoplastic origins. The histopathological studies confirmed that the biopsied specimen was a chondromyxoid fibroma of the cervical vertebrae laminae and spinous processes (C3 and C4) with abutting soft tissue. Despite the unusual location and soft tissue presentation, a chondromyxoid fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cervical bone lesion. PMID:26587204

  5. Lower Extremity Radicular Pain Caused by Entrapped Sigmoid Colon Between L5 and S1 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145

  6. Hierarchical model-based tracking of cervical vertebrae from dynamic biplane radiographs.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Abedul; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott; Marai, G Elisabeta

    2013-07-01

    We present a novel approach for automatically, accurately and reliably determining the 3D motion of the cervical spine from a series of stereo or biplane radiographic images. These images could be acquired through a variety of different imaging hardware configurations. We follow a hierarchical, anatomically-aware, multi-bone approach that takes into account the complex structure of cervical vertebrae and inter-vertebrae overlapping, as well as the temporal coherence in the imaging series. These significant innovations improve the speed, accuracy, reliability and flexibility of the tracking process. Evaluation on cervical data shows that the approach is as accurate (average precision 0.3 mm and 1°) as the expert human-operator driven method that was previously state of the art. However, unlike the previously used method, the hierarchical approach is automatic and robust; even in the presence of implanted hardware. Therefore, the method has solid potential for clinical use to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical interventions.

  7. Differentiating between Traumatic Pathology and Congenital Variant: A Case Report of Butterfly Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Karargyris, Orestis; Morassi, Lampros-Guiseppe; Stathopoulos, Ioannis P.; Chatziioannou, Sofia N.; Pneumaticos, Spyros G.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital malformation of the spine, which is usually reported in the literature as an isolated finding. We describe a 40-year-old woman that presented to our emergency department with back pain and sciatica. Initial radiological evaluation revealed an incidental finding of a L4 butterfly vertebra in the anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs. The patient presented with no neurological deficit. This rare congenital anomaly is usually asymptomatic, and awareness of its non-traumatic nature is critical in order to establish a correct diagnosis. Further evaluation of the patient is necessary to exclude pathologic fracture, infection, or associated vertebral anomalies and syndromes, such as Alagille, Jarcho-Levin, Crouzon, and Pfeiffer syndromes. Furthermore, in the emergency setting, awareness of this entity is needed so that a correct diagnosis can be established. PMID:26330967

  8. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  9. Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Failures caused by the 8.0R Earthquake on the 12th May 2008 (Chengdu, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, E.

    2009-04-01

    The 8.0R earthquake that struck Sichuan on the 12th of May 2008, in the district of Chengdu of Southern China resulted in tenths of thousands casualties, the complete destruction of many towns and extended damages to public works. The earthquake was triggered by a reverse fault of NE-SW trend, more than 100 km long, that divides morphologically the affected area in two sections, the eastern one with mild low topography and the western one with intense relief representing the boundary of Tibet Mountains. This mountainous section is characterized by a rich drainage network that drains the greater region of the Tibet plateau. Along the trace of this high-stand for thousands of years numerous hydraulic works have been attempted in order to manage the water supply. Especially during the past decades, 400 small and large dams have been constructed. The main dam is the Zipingpu dam. It is a Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD) that has a height of 150m, a capacity of 1.2 billion m3 and includes a hydroelectric plant of 3.4 billion Kwh power. The Zipingpu dam is located 10km east of the earthquake epicenter and after the earthquake of 8.0R, the following failures were recorded: (i) Subsidence of the crown in the central part of the dam, of the order of 50cm in relation to the side survey control points, (ii) Deformation of the lower face of the dam, an area of approximately 1000 m2, (iii) Deviations and deformations of the construction elements throughout the face of the dam, (iv) Widening of construction joints (approximately 15 cm on the upper face), (v) Extended massive landslides throughout the reservoir, and (vi) Landslides on both left and right abutments of the dam causing further damages to secondary constructions. After the evaluation of the dam damages, the discharge of the reservoir was ordered through the emergency spillway in order to minimize the risk of a potential disaster for the nearby towns and especially Dujiangyan. Finally, the causes of the failures are

  10. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education: STEM Graduate Students Bring Current Research into 7th-12th Grade Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Jackson, B. S.; Walker, R. M.; Schmitz, D.; Pierce, D.; Funderburk, W. K.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE), a NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) program at Mississippi State University, pairs STEM graduate students with local K-12 teachers to bring new inquiry and technology experiences to the classroom (www.gk12.msstate.edu). The graduate fellows prepare lessons for the students incorporating different facets of their research. The lessons vary in degree of difficulty according to the content covered in the classroom and the grade level of the students. The focus of each lesson is directed toward the individual research of the STEM graduate student using inquiry based designed activities. Scientific instruments that are used in STEM research (e.g. SkyMaster weather stations, GPS, portable SEM, Inclinometer, Soil Moisture Probe, Google Earth, ArcGIS Explorer) are also utilized by K-12 students in the activities developed by the graduate students. Creativity and problem solving skills are sparked by curiosity which leads to the discovery of new information. The graduate students work to enhance their ability to effectively communicate their research to members of society through the creation of research linked classroom activities, enabling the 7-12th grade students to connect basic processes used in STEM research with the required state and national science standards. The graduate students become respected role models for the high school students because of their STEM knowledge base and their passion for their research. Sharing enthusiasm for their chosen STEM field, as well as the application techniques to discover new ideas, the graduate students stimulate the interests of the classroom students and model authentic science process skills while highlighting the relevance of STEM research to K-12 student lives. The measurement of the student attitudes about science is gathered from pre and post interest surveys for the past four years. This partnership allows students, teachers, graduate students, and the public to

  11. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  12. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus.

  13. Effect of treadmill exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats: anthropometrical and mechanical analyses.

    PubMed

    Simões, P A; Zamarioli, A; Blóes, P; Mazzocato, F C; Pereira, L H A; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (A, n = 10); non-exercised ovariectomized group (B, n = 7) and exercised ovariectomized group (C, n = 7). The rats from group C were subjected to treadmill exercise (15 m/minute in the initial six weeks and 19 m/minute in the next six weeks, 1 hour/day, 4 days/week) for 12 weeks. At death, the fourth lumbar vertebrae were removed and an anthropometrical analysis by a paquimeter and a mechanical compression test by a universal test machine were performed. After 12 weeks, the ovariectomy decreased the superior-inferior vertebral height and the maximal braking load in group B compared to group A, while the exercise increased the vertebral mass in group C compared to both groups A and B (rho< 0.01) and the stiffness compared to group B. We concluded the physical activity has an important role to prevent the osteopenia in lumbar vertebrae. PMID:19031996

  14. Enhanced detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Greil, Robert; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, a considerable amount of methods have been proposed for detecting and reconstructing the spine and the vertebrae from CT and MR scans. The results are either used for examining the vertebrae or serve as a preprocessing step for further detection and annotation tasks. In this paper, we propose a method for reliably detecting the position of the vertebrae on a single slice of a transversal body CT scan. Thus, our method is not restricted by the available portion of the 3D scan, but even suffices with a single 2D image. A further advantage of our method is that detection does not require adjusting parameters or direct user interaction. Technically, our method is based on an imaging pipeline comprising five steps: The input image is preprocessed. The relevant region of the image is extracted. Then, a set of candidate locations is selected based on bone density. In the next step, image features are extracted from the surrounding of the candidate locations and an instance-based learning approach is used for selecting the best candidate. Finally, a refinement step optimizes the best candidate region. Our proposed method is validated on a large diverse data set of more than 8 000 images and improves the accuracy in terms of area overlap and distance from the true position significantly compared to the only other method being proposed for this task so far.

  15. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  16. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  17. Burnei’s anterior transthoracic retropleural approach of the thoracic spine: a new operative technique in the treatment of spinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gavriliu, TS; Japie, EM; Ghiță, RA; Hamei, Ș; Dughilă, C; Țiripa, IL; Elnayef, T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Up to the middle of the last century, the thoracic spine, especially in its upper part, has been considered an unapproachable site, a no-man’s land, but the constant evolution of medicine imposed techniques of the spine at these levels in order to solve a large area of pathology (infectious, tumoral, traumatic, and last but not least, deformative). This way, a series of anterior approaches allowed surgeons to gain access to the anterior part of the spine and the posterior mediastinum. The approaches described by Hodgson, Mirbaha or transthoracic transpleural approach (T4-T11), are enumerated. The idea to allow a more visible and extensive approach, but to avoid respiratory issues due to the lesion of the pleura, led to the description of a new anterior approach by Burnei in 2000. Material and method: Burnei’s approach represents an anterior approach to the thoracic spine, being a transthoracic and retropleural one. This approach allows a large area of spinal pathology due to infectious, traumatic, tumoral and degenerative (idiopathic or congenital scoliosis) causes. Statistically, this approach has been performed more frequently in cases of spinal instrumentation after diskectomy, in order to perform a partial correction of severe, rigid idiopathic scoliosis with more than 70 degrees Cobb and in cases of congenital scoliosis for hemivertebra resection and somatic synthesis to correct the scoliotic curve. Results: This kind of anterior approach allows the surgeon a large visibility of the anterior thoracic spine, diskectomies of up to 5 levels to tender the curve of the deformity and to ensure somatic or/ and transpedicular synthesis of up to 6 thoracic vertebrae. By performing a thoracotomy involving the resection of the posterior arches of the ribs, a thoracoplasty is also ensured with functional and aesthetic effects, by ameliorating the thoracic hump due to the scoliotic deformity. Conclusions: Burnei’s approach joins all the other anterior

  18. Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1980-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different. Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrail burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions. PMID:7452726

  19. Asian perspective in surgery: thoracic surgery in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turna, Akif

    2016-08-01

    Turkey with a population of 78 million is located between Asia and Europe geographically and culturally. There are 577 active pure thoracic surgeon and 37 thoracic surgery teaching units. Thoracic surgeons usually deal with lung cancer patients due to relatively higher rate of tobacco usage as well as inflammatory diseases such as pulmonary hydatid disease, bronchiectasis and empyema. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has been a new approach which is being adapted by increasingly more surgeons. There are a number of reasons to predict that the number of thoracic surgical cases will be increased and new generation of thoracic surgeons will be operating more minimally invasive resectional surgeries for most lung cancer in future. PMID:27651934

  20. Asian perspective in surgery: thoracic surgery in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Turkey with a population of 78 million is located between Asia and Europe geographically and culturally. There are 577 active pure thoracic surgeon and 37 thoracic surgery teaching units. Thoracic surgeons usually deal with lung cancer patients due to relatively higher rate of tobacco usage as well as inflammatory diseases such as pulmonary hydatid disease, bronchiectasis and empyema. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has been a new approach which is being adapted by increasingly more surgeons. There are a number of reasons to predict that the number of thoracic surgical cases will be increased and new generation of thoracic surgeons will be operating more minimally invasive resectional surgeries for most lung cancer in future. PMID:27651934

  1. The variation of cancellous bones at lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (p<0.05). The results of micro-CT showed that the bone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (p<0.05) respectively. The trabecular number showed the same downtrend (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed trabecular area/tissue area decreased by 32.1%, 23.2% and 20.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks and mandibular angles respectively (p<0.05), but no significant difference in ribs. Specimens elastic modulus from lumbar vertebra, femoral neck and mandibular angle were 952±76MPa (628±70MPa), 961±173MPa (610±72MPa) and 595±60MPa (444±31MPa) in control group (experimental group) respectively. These datum indicated that the sensibility of cancellous bones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib.

  2. Thoracic Endovascular Stent Graft Repair of Middle Aortic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Taek; Lee, Mina; Kim, Young Sam; Yoon, Yong Han; Baek, Wan Ki

    2016-09-01

    Middle aortic syndrome is a rare disease defined as a segmental narrowing of the distal descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. A thoracoabdominal bypass or endovascular treatment is the choice of treatment. Endovascular therapy consists of a balloon dilatation and stent implantation. Recently, thoracic endovascular aortic repair has been widely used in a variety of aortic diseases. We report a case of middle aortic syndrome treated with a thoracic endovascular stent graft. PMID:27549552

  3. Thoracic Kidney: Extremely Rare State of Aberrant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Khoshchehreh, Mahdi; Paknejad, Omalbanin; Bakhshayesh-Karam, Mehrdad; Pazoki, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    The thorax is the rarest place among all forms of renal ectopia. We report a rare case of an unacquired thoracic kidney. Only about 200 cases of the thoracic kidney have ever been reported in medical literature worldwide. In this paper we present the rarest form of nontraumatic nonhernia associated, truly ectopic thoracic kidney. The differential diagnosis and management options and classification of this rare form of aberrant kidney are discussed. PMID:26301113

  4. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  5. Noninvasive Failure Load Prediction of Vertebrae with Simulated Lytic Defects and Biomaterial Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2016-08-01

    The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate

  6. Noninvasive Failure Load Prediction of Vertebrae with Simulated Lytic Defects and Biomaterial Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2016-08-01

    The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate

  7. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    PubMed

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (p<0.001). As expected, BMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice. PMID:15616862

  8. National Society of Black Physicists XXV Annual Day of Scientific Lectures and 21st Annual Meeting - NSBP '98: The Next Generation/12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students - NCPBS '98: Physics/Life in Motion

    SciTech Connect

    MacKellar, Alan

    1999-02-28

    The 12th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) March 4-8, 1998 in Lexington, Ky. The Proceedings consists of scientific talks and abstracts given by NSBP members and students attending the NCBPS meeting. One joint session of general scientific interest was held, with NCBPS students, NSBP members, and about 75 high school students from the state of Kentucky present. NCBPS session included ''How to get into Graduate School'', ''How to Survive in Graduate School'', and a Panel on ''Opportunities for Physics Graduates.'' The report by AIP: ''Survey of Participants of the 12th Annual NCBPS'' is included in the Proceedings.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Datana, Sanjeev; Kumar, Prasanna; Kumar Roy, Supriya; Londhe, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Purpose: The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts. Procedures: Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions. Main findings: Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171. PMID:25709295

  10. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  11. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  12. Video-Assisted Thoracic Sympathectomy for Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Milanez de Campos, Jose Ribas; Kauffman, Paulo; Gomes, Oswaldo; Wolosker, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    By the 1980s, endoscopy was in use by some groups in sympathetic denervation of the upper limbs with vascular indications. Low morbidity, cosmetic results, reduction in the incidence of Horner syndrome, and the shortened time in hospital made video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS) better accepted by those undergoing treatment for hyperhidrosis. Over the last 25 years, this surgical procedure has become routine in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, leading to a significant increase in the number of papers on the subject in the literature. PMID:27427529

  13. Video-assisted thoracic surgery complications

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a miniinvasive technique commonly applied worldwide. Indications for VATS are very broad and include the diagnosis of mediastinal, lung and pleural diseases, as well as large resection procedures such as pneumonectomy. The most frequent complication is prolonged postoperative air leak. The other significant complications are bleeding, infections, postoperative pain and recurrence at the port site. Different complications of VATS procedures can occur with variable frequency in various diseases. Despite the large number of their types, such complications are rare and can be avoided through the proper selection of patients and an appropriate surgical technique. PMID:25561984

  14. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  15. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  17. [Extra-thoracic solitary fibrous tumor. Report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Amel; Mestiri, Sarra; Mokni, Moncef; Stita, Wided; Ikram, Bellara; Sriha, Badreddine; Korbi, Sadok

    2006-09-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), is an unusual entity, first described in the pleura, but can involve other serosal surfaces and viscera. We report two cases of extra-thoracic SFT involving the retro-peritoneum and the upper arm. Extra-thoracic TFS is a rarily wide morphologic and evolutive spectrum.

  18. Thoracic-pelvic dysostosis: a 'new' autosomal dominant form.

    PubMed Central

    Bankier, A; Danks, D M

    1983-01-01

    A form of thoracic and pelvic dysostosis is reported in a mother and her son. The short ribs caused respiratory distress in the baby and raised the possibility of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD). The radiological features, however, distinguish this benign condition from ATD and other described skeletal dysplasias. Images PMID:6620328

  19. Thoracic aortopathies in the military patient.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, David; White, S; Wilson, D; Haworth, K; Williams, A

    2015-09-01

    Thoracic aortic disease is an important contributor to arterial disease and therefore, mortality in the UK. It has close associations with hypertension, atherosclerosis and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome. The cardiovascular consequences of acute aortic dissection or the rupture of a thoracic aneurysm are life threatening with a 1% increase in mortality per hour with a type A aortic dissection and a high 30-day mortality rate. The clinical diagnosis can be difficult for the general physician as the symptoms can mimic more common conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism or acute abdomen. The investigations that carry the highest sensitivity and specificity, CT, transoesophageal echocardiography and MRI are not usually first-line investigations in most patients so a high index of clinical suspicion is key. The management of acute aortic syndromes involves good initial resuscitation and early discussion with the cardiothoracic surgeons. Given the serious consequences of acute aortic syndromes, it is important for all military doctors to be aware of these presentations and to appreciate the difficulties that can be encountered when trying to accurately diagnose them. Routine medicals, particularly entrance medicals, present a unique clinical opportunity to recognise the clinical features that would warrant further investigation and specialist advice. PMID:26243806

  20. Thoracic aortopathies in the military patient.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, David; White, S; Wilson, D; Haworth, K; Williams, A

    2015-09-01

    Thoracic aortic disease is an important contributor to arterial disease and therefore, mortality in the UK. It has close associations with hypertension, atherosclerosis and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome. The cardiovascular consequences of acute aortic dissection or the rupture of a thoracic aneurysm are life threatening with a 1% increase in mortality per hour with a type A aortic dissection and a high 30-day mortality rate. The clinical diagnosis can be difficult for the general physician as the symptoms can mimic more common conditions such as acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism or acute abdomen. The investigations that carry the highest sensitivity and specificity, CT, transoesophageal echocardiography and MRI are not usually first-line investigations in most patients so a high index of clinical suspicion is key. The management of acute aortic syndromes involves good initial resuscitation and early discussion with the cardiothoracic surgeons. Given the serious consequences of acute aortic syndromes, it is important for all military doctors to be aware of these presentations and to appreciate the difficulties that can be encountered when trying to accurately diagnose them. Routine medicals, particularly entrance medicals, present a unique clinical opportunity to recognise the clinical features that would warrant further investigation and specialist advice.

  1. Basic thoracic ultrasound for the respiratory physician.

    PubMed

    Jimborean, Gabriela; Ianoşi, Edith Simona; Nemeş, Roxana Maria; Toma, Tudor P

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic ultrasound (TUS) evolved in the last ten years as the method of choice for evaluating pleural abnormalities and for guiding lung procedures. TUS can "see" almost all structures in the chest, including thoracic wall, pleura, pleural space, the heart, the great vessels and the peripheral layers of the lungs. However, there is still a great need to develop TUS services in respiratory departments in Romania. To facilitate this development we reviewed the literature and selected what we considered to be essential practical information for the beginner in TUS, including technique, normal findings, and common abnormalities. Moreover, we describe here a step-by-step scanning technique for chest physicians. Our aim is to raise awareness of TUS. Because TUS is rapid, accurate, noninvasive and can be applied in any ward, we recommend facilitating the training of all junior respiratory doctors in this technique, as it is likely to improve patient experience, clinical effectiveness and to reduce costs with chest radiographs or CT scans in the future. PMID:26738366

  2. The thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Dineen, R; White, B; Jaspan, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study included a series of middle-aged male and female patients who presented with chronic anterior hemicord dysfunction progressing to paraplegia. Imaging of anterior thoracic cord displacement by either a dural adhesion or a dural defect with associated cord herniation is presented. Methods This is a retrospective review of cases referred to a tertiary neuroscience centre over a 19-year period. Imaging series were classified by two experienced neuroradiologists against several criteria and correlated with clinical examination and/or findings at surgery. Results 16 cases were available for full review. Nine were considered to represent adhesions (four confirmed surgically) and four to represent true herniation (three confirmed surgically). In the three remaining cases the diagnosis was radiologically uncertain. Conclusion The authors propose “thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome” as a novel term to describe this patient cohort and suggest appropriate clinicoradiological features for diagnosis. Several possible aetiologies are also suggested, with disc rupture and inflammation followed by disc resorption and dural pocket formation being a possible mechanism predisposing to herniation at the extreme end of a clinicopathological spectrum. PMID:22665931

  3. Group-wise registration of ultrasound to CT images of human vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Sean; Mousavi, Parvin; Fichtinger, Gabor; Pichora, David; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2009-02-01

    Automatic registration of ultrasound (US) to computed tomography (CT) datasets is a challenge of considerable interest, particularly in orthopaedic and percutaneous interventions. We propose an algorithm for group-wise volume-to-volume registration of US to CT images of the lumbar spine. Each vertebra in CT is treated as a sub-volume and transformed individually. The sub-volumes are then reconstructed into a single volume. The algorithm dynamically combines simulated US reflections from the vertebrae surfaces and surrounding soft tissue in the reconstructed CT, with scaled CT data to simulate US images of the spine anatomy. The simulated US data is used to register preoperative CT data to intra-operative US images. Covariance Matrix Adaption - Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) is utilized as the optimization strategy. The registration is tested using a phantom of the lumbar spine (L3-L5). Initial misalignments of up to 8 mm were registered with a mean target registration error of 1.87+/-0.73 mm for L3, 2.79+/-0.93 mm for L4, 1.72+/-0.70 mm for L5, and 2.08+/-0.55 mm across the entire volume. To select an appropriate optimization strategy, we performed a volume-to- volume registration of US to CT of the lumbar spine, allowing no relative motion between vertebrae. We compare the results of this registration using three optimization strategies: simplex, gradient descent and CMA-ES. CMA-ES was found to converge slower than gradient descent and simplex, but was more robust for rigid volume-to-volume registration for initial misalignments up to 20 mm.

  4. [Highlateral approach to the lesions around the upper cervical vertebrae and foramen magnum].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, K; Asano, T; Shigeno, T; Matsui, T; Itoh, S; Kaneko, K

    1995-04-01

    In the present paper, we describe the surgical techniques of high lateral cervical approach and its feasibility for the excision of tumors located in the ventral or lateral aspect of the upper cervical vertebrae and of the craniovertebral junction. The patient is positioned laterally on the operating table, but the operator's position and the skin incision are slightly altered depending on the location of the tumor. When the lesion is situated below C1, the ipsilateral shoulder is pulled down toward the back. The operator stands rostral to the head. The attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the mastoid is detached and reflected anteriorly through a retroauricular curved skin incision. The posterior cervical muscles such as the splenius capitis, longissimus capitis, semi-spinalis capitis are detached from the occipit and retracted posteriorly. At this point, the transverse process of C1 and the articular facet of the vertebrae of C2-C4 are identified by palpation. According to the tumor location, the muscles attached to the relevant transverse processes and facets are divided and reflected posteriorly. Through careful dissection, the cervical nerve roots and the vertebral artery are exposed. The root sleeves as well as thecal sac may be exposed by resecting the posterior two-thirds of the superior and inferior articular facets and the adjacent laminae of the vertebrae. In case the whole facet was removed, an iliac bone graft is placed between the remaining transverse processes and the laminae above and below for fixation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7739768

  5. The Mammalian Cervical Vertebrae Blueprint Depends on the T (brachyury) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kromik, Andreas; Ulrich, Reiner; Kusenda, Marian; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.; Hellige, Maren; Dziallas, Peter; Hadlich, Frieder; Widmann, Philipp; Goldammer, Tom; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Rehage, Jürgen; Segelke, Dierck; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    A key common feature of all but three known mammalian genera is the strict seven cervical vertebrae blueprint, suggesting the involvement of strong conserving selection forces during mammalian radiation. This is further supported by reports indicating that children with cervical ribs die before they reach reproductive age. Hypotheses were put up, associating cervical ribs (homeotic transformations) to embryonal cancer (e.g., neuroblastoma) or ascribing the constraint in cervical vertebral count to the development of the mammalian diaphragm. Here, we describe a spontaneous mutation c.196A > G in the Bos taurus T gene (also known as brachyury) associated with a cervical vertebral homeotic transformation that violates the fundamental mammalian cervical blueprint, but does not preclude reproduction of the affected individual. Genome-wide mapping, haplotype tracking within a large pedigree, resequencing of target genome regions, and bioinformatic analyses unambiguously confirmed the mutant c.196G allele as causal for this previously unknown defect termed vertebral and spinal dysplasia (VSD) by providing evidence for the mutation event. The nonsynonymous VSD mutation is located within the highly conserved T box of the T gene, which plays a fundamental role in eumetazoan body organization and vertebral development. To our knowledge, VSD is the first unequivocally approved spontaneous mutation decreasing cervical vertebrae number in a large mammal. The spontaneous VSD mutation in the bovine T gene is the first in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the T protein is directly involved in the maintenance of the mammalian seven-cervical vertebra blueprint. It therefore furthers our knowledge of the T-protein function and early mammalian notochord development. PMID:25614605

  6. Women in Thoracic Surgery: 30 Years of History.

    PubMed

    Antonoff, Mara B; David, Elizabeth A; Donington, Jessica S; Colson, Yolonda L; Litle, Virginia R; Lawton, Jennifer S; Burgess, Nora L

    2016-01-01

    Women in Thoracic Surgery was founded in 1986, with 2016 marking its 30th anniversary. Reflecting back on the last 3 decades of history, accomplishments, and enormous strides in our field, we review the past, present, and future of this organization. Although women still constitute a small minority of practicing surgeons in our field today, opportunities currently abound for women in thoracic surgery. Owing much to the early female pioneers in the field and to the support of male sponsors and our national societies, Women in Thoracic Surgery has grown and prospered, as have its members and the global community of female thoracic surgeons as a whole. In celebration of our 30th anniversary, we share with the readership the rich history of Women in Thoracic Surgery and its goals for the future.

  7. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future. PMID:27273987

  8. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  9. [Auriculotemporal syndrome in patient with prostatic secondaries to the cervical vertebrae and neck lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Bouros, C

    1989-01-01

    Auriculotemporal syndrome is characterized by flushing sweating and hypersensitivity in the temporal, parotid and preauricular area during mastication. The syndrome is a rare complication after 1) injuries in this area, 2) parotidectomy, 3) surgery of fractures of the temporomandibular articulation 4) neoplasms of the parotid gland. It usually appears a few days to 1-2 years after the appearance of the above mentioned causes. A case of auriculotemporal syndrome in a 70 year old man with metastatic Ca from the prostate to the cervical vertebrae and neck lymphnodes is reported. On this occasion, the literature is reviewed and emphasis is given in pathogenesis and treatment of the syndrome. PMID:2640536

  10. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future.

  11. Induction of osteosarcomas in mouse lumbar vertebrae by repeated external beta-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsuyama, A.; Tanooka, H.

    1989-03-15

    Besides skin tumors, osteosarcomas were induced at high frequency in the lumbar vertebrae of ICR mice by repeated local external irradiation of the back with /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta-rays when irradiation was repeated three times a week until tumors appeared. The optimum dose range for osteosarcoma induction was 250-350 cGy per exposure at the surface of the back, or 125-175 cGy at the depth of the center of the bone. With the same irradiation schedule, the optimal dose of radiation for induction of osteosarcomas was much lower than that for induction of skin tumors.

  12. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  13. Automatic construction of patient-specific finite-element mesh of the spine from IVDs and vertebra segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-03-01

    Computational medicine aims at developing patient-specific models to help physicians in the diagnosis and treatment selection for patients. The spine, and other skeletal structures, is an articulated object, composed of rigid bones (vertebrae) and non-rigid parts (intervertebral discs (IVD), ligaments and muscles). These components are usually extracted from different image modalities, involving patient repositioning. In the case of the spine, these models require the segmentation of IVDs from MR and vertebrae from CT. In the literature, there exists a vast selection of segmentations methods, but there is a lack of approaches to align the vertebrae and IVDs. This paper presents a method to create patient-specific finite element meshes for biomechanical simulations, integrating rigid and non-rigid parts of articulated objects. First, the different parts are aligned in a complete surface model. Vertebrae extracted from CT are rigidly repositioned in between the IVDs, initially using the IVDs location and then refining the alignment using the MR image with a rigid active shape model algorithm. Finally, a mesh morphing algorithm, based on B-splines, is employed to map a template finite-element (volumetric) mesh to the patient-specific surface mesh. This morphing reduces possible misalignments and guarantees the convexity of the model elements. Results show that the accuracy of the method to align vertebrae into MR, together with IVDs, is similar to that of the human observers. Thus, this method is a step forward towards the automation of patient-specific finite element models for biomechanical simulations.

  14. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injuries in complex aortic arch vessels anatomies.

    PubMed

    Piffaretti, Gabriele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Macchi, Edoardo; Castelli, Patrizio; Tozzi, Matteo; Franchin, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report the use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAIs) presenting with complex anatomies of the aortic arch vessels. Two patients were admitted to our hospital for the management of BTAI. Anomalies were as follow: aberrant right subclavian artery (n = 1) and right-sided aortic arch with 5 vessels anatomy variant (n = 1). TEVAR was accomplished using parallel graft with periscope configuration in the patient with the aberrant right subclavian artery. At 12-month follow-up, computed tomography angiographies confirmed the exclusion of the BTAI, the stability of the endograft, the resolution of the pseudoaneurysm, and the patency of the parallel endograft. Aortic arch vessels variants and anomalies are not rare, and should be recognized and studied precisely to plan the most appropriate operative treatment. TEVAR proved to be effective even in complex anatomies.

  15. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  16. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    PubMed

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant.

  17. Comparisons of Anterior Plate Screw Pullout Strength Between Polyurethane Foams and Thoracolumbar Cadaveric Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Palepu, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic polyurethane foams are frequently used in biomechanical testing of spinal medical devices. However, it is unclear what types of foam are most representative of human vertebral trabecular bone behavior, particularly for testing the bone-implant interface. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare polyurethane foam microstructure and screw pullout properties to human vertebrae. Cadaveric thoracolumbar vertebrae underwent microcomputed tomography to assess trabecular bone microstructure. Spine plate screws were implanted into the vertebral body and pullout testing was performed. The same procedure was followed for eight different densities (grades 5-30) of commercially available closed cell (CCF) and open cell foams (OCF). The results indicated that foam microstructural parameters such as volume fraction, strut thickness, strut spacing, and material density rarely matched that of trabecular bone. However, certain foams provided mechanical properties that were comparable to the cadavers tested. Pullout force and work to pullout for screws implanted into CCF grade 5 were similar to osteoporotic female cadavers. In addition, screw pullout forces and work to pullout in CCF grade 8, grade 10, and OCF grade 30 were similar to osteopenic male cadavers. All other OCF and CCF foams possessed pullout properties that were either significantly lower or higher than the cadavers tested. This study elucidated the types and densities of polyurethane foams that can represent screw pullout strength in human vertebral bone. Synthetic bone surrogates used for biomechanical testing should be selected based on bone quantity and quality of patients who may undergo device implantation. PMID:27536905

  18. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Banić, Tihomir; Banić, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bilić, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavić, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Kokić, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  19. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-02-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically. In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged cranial base angle and a retrognathic position of the mandible were documented cephalometrically on radiographs of all cases. Histologically, malformations were observed in the cranial base as well as in the spine. These are new findings indicating the association between the occipital bone and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base.

  20. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces.

  1. Non-intubated thoracic surgery—A survey from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Roberto; Akopov, Andrej; Congregado, Miguel; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background A survey amongst the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) members has been performed to investigate the currents trends, rates of adoption as well as potential for future expansion of non-intubated thoracic surgery (NITS) performed under spontaneous ventilation. Methods A 14-question-based questionnaire has been e-mailed to ESTS members. To facilitate the completion of the questionnaire, questions entailed either quantitative or multiple-choice answers. Investigated issues included previous experience with NITS and number of procedures performed, preferred types of anesthesia protocols (i.e., thoracic epidural anesthesia, intercostal or paravertebral blocks, laryngeal mask, use of additional sedation), type of procedures, ideal candidates for NITS, main advantages and technical disadvantages. Non-univocal answer to multiple-choice questions was permitted. Results Out of 105 responders, 62 reported an experience with NITS. The preferred types of anesthesia were intercostal blocks with (59%) or without (50%) sedation, followed by laryngeal mask with sedation (43%) and thoracic epidural anesthesia with sedation (20%). The most frequently performed procedures included thoracoscopic management of recurrent pleural effusion (98%), pleural decortication for empyema thoracis and lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease (26% each); pericardial window and mediastinal biopsy (20% each). More complex procedures such as lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and thymectomy have been performed by a minority of responders (2% each). Poor-risk patients due to co-morbidities (70%) and patients with poor pulmonary function (43%) were considered the ideal candidates. Main advantages included faster, recovery (67%), reduced morbidity (59%) and shorter hospital stay with decreased costs (43% each). Reported technical disadvantages included coughing (59%) and poor maneuverability due to diaphragmatic and lung movements (56%). Overall, 69% of responders indicated

  2. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  3. Thoracic spinal cord compression by a tophus.

    PubMed

    Ntsiba, Honoré; Makosso, Edouard; Moyikoua, Armand

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic (T10) spinal cord compression by a tophus in a patient with known chronic gout. Spastic paraplegia developed gradually over 6 months in this 43-year-old man with hypertension, alcohol abuse, and chronic gouty arthritis with tophi. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography visualized an intradural nodule measuring 1.5cm in diameter at the level of T10, as well as geodes in the left T10 lamina and left T9-T10 articular processes. The nodule was removed surgically and shown by histological examination to be a tophus. The neurological impairments resolved rapidly and completely. We found about 60 similar cases in the literature. Spinal cord compression in a patient with chronic gout can be caused by a tophus.

  4. Tophaceous pseudogout of the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vasisht; Kesler, Henry; Johnson, Mahlon; Dorfman, Howard; Walter, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPDD, tophaceous pseudogout) is a rare crystal arthropathy characterized by pyrophosphate crystal deposition in joints, synovitis and chondrocalcinosis on imaging. We present the case of a 72-year-old man with 6 months of left chest pain; magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T9/T10 herniated disc. Intraoperatively, the material was sent for pathological analysis revealing pseudogout. Axial calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition is rare but reported in the literature and found at the craniocervical junction and skull. Spinal calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition is rare in the thoracic spine. It is often asymptompatic and can involve the disc or ligaments. This case demonstrates a unique presentation of CPDD.

  5. Current status of thoracic dorsal sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Welch, E; Geary, J

    1984-01-01

    This article summarizes over 20 years of experience (1962 to 1982) with cervical sympathectomy (thoracic dorsal sympathectomy) in 46 patients undergoing 68 sympathectomies. All operations were performed through an anterior supraclavicular approach. Indications for surgery were intractable Raynaud's disease (26 patients), atherosclerotic obliterative arterial disease (five), causalgia (five), posttraumatic sympathetic dystrophy (seven), collagen vascular disorders (eight), hyperhidrosis (12), occupational-related digital thrombosis (four), and thrombosis secondary to intra-arterial injection (one). The incidence of complications and side effects, both temporary and permanent, including Horner's syndrome, is reviewed in detail. Particular reference is made to the various surgical techniques of managing the stellate ganglion; four patients had two-third to three-fourth resection of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-3 thoracic ganglion, two had preservation of the stellate ganglion and resection of the T-2 through T-4 ganglia, seven had excision of the entire stellate ganglion down to and including the T-4 ganglion, seven had resection of the lower third of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-4 ganglion, and 48 had removal of the lower half of the stellate ganglion down to and including the T-3 ganglion. The study reviews the literature germane to anatomic considerations and suggests revisions in current texts and atlases. By retrospective analysis of the records and a follow-up questionnaire, which provided an 86% follow-up (average 8.4 years), the paper points to the distinctive clinical characteristics of the different groups within the population undergoing the operation and provides guidelines for patient selection and conclusions on the place for this operation in the management of vascular diseases involving the upper extremity. PMID:6481864

  6. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  7. Nearly Asymptomatic Eight-Month Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arjun; Kumar, Krishan; Zeltser, Roman; Makaryus, Amgad N.

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is a rare, but lethal, medical condition that is either misdiagnosed as a myocardial infarction or overlooked completely. Though thoracic aortic dissections are commonly diagnosed in patients exhibiting sharp chest pain, there are some notable cases where patients do not report the expected severity of pain. We report a unique case of a patient with a thoracic aortic dissection who was initially nearly asymptomatic for eight months, in order to heighten awareness, highlight diagnosis protocol, and improve prognosis for this commonly misdiagnosed, but fatal, condition. PMID:27257400

  8. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Freeman, Richard K; Krasna, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  9. Rare case of thoracic kidney detected by renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Aravintho; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital abnormality with lowest frequency among all renal ectopias. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic, and the condition is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation for other conditions or during thoracic surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who was referred to our department for renal scintigraphy for a nonvisualized left kidney on ultrasonography report. Both Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans revealed a left thoracic kidney which was confirmed by CT scan of the thorax and abdomen. PMID:27385896

  10. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Richard K.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  11. Thoracic and lumbar extradural structure examined by extraduroscope.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Shimizu, R; Saitoh, K; Fukuda, H

    1998-08-01

    We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount of air and that the amount of fatty and fibrous connective tissue is less in the thoracic extradural space compared with the lumbar extradural space. We suggest that differences between the structure of these two vertebral regions may affect the spread of local anaesthetics in the extradural space. PMID:9813508

  12. Investigation of the osteitis deformans phases in snake vertebrae by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galiová, M; Kaiser, J; Novotný, K; Ivanov, M; Nývltová Fisáková, M; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Vaculovic, T; Liska, M; Kanický, V

    2010-09-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was optimized for microspatial analyses of fossil and recent snake vertebrae. As complimentary techniques, solution analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography was utilized in order to determine the overall concentration of the selected elements in the samples and to visualize nondestructively the fossil sample microstructure, respectively. Elemental mapping of pathological bony tissue by DP-LIBS has been proven as a powerful tool for considering the osteitis deformans phases in fossil vertebrae.

  13. Initial experience in the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysmal disease with a thoracic aortic endograft at Baylor University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jeffrey; McQuade, Karen L.; Hamman, Baron L.; Hebeler, Robert F.; Shutze, William P.

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent endovascular repair of thoracic aneurysms and of other thoracic aortic pathology with the thoracic aortic endograft (Gore Medical, Flagstaff, AZ) from June 2005 to July 2007 was performed. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months (range, 2–25 months). Indications for thoracic endografting included descending thoracic aneurysms (n = 18), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (n = 3), traumatic aortic injuries (n = 3), penetrating aortic ulcers (n = 2), and contained rupture of a type B dissection (n = 1). One patient died during the procedure, for an overall mortality rate of 3.7%. The average length of stay was 8.1 days, with an average stay in the intensive care unit of 4.2 days. If patients with traumatic aortic injuries were excluded, the average overall and intensive care unit length of stay were 5.6 and 1.8 days, respectively. There was one incident of spinal cord ischemia (3.7%). There were five type I or type III endoleaks, three of which required revision (11.1%). In conclusion, thoracic endografting is a safe and viable option for the repair of descending thoracic aneurysms and other aortic pathologies. We have found it to be less invasive, even in conjunction with preoperative debranching procedures, with a shorter recovery time, decreased perioperative morbidity and blood loss, and decreased peri-operative mortality compared with standard open repair. PMID:18382748

  14. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst of the thoracic spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, and only 13 cases involving the spine have been reported to date, including seven in the thoracic vertebrae. The diagnosis is difficult to secure radiographically before biopsy or surgery. Case report An 18-year-old Hispanic man presented to our facility with a one-year history of left chest pain without any significant neurological deficits. An MRI scan demonstrated a 6 cm diameter enhancing multi-cystic mass centered at the T6 vertebral body with involvement of the left proximal sixth rib and extension into the pleural cavity; the spinal cord was severely compressed with evidence of abnormal T2 signal changes. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a total spondylectomy of T6 with resection of the left sixth rib from a single-stage posterior-only approach. The vertebral column was reconstructed in a 360° manner with an expandable titanium cage and pedicle screw fixation. Histologically, the resected specimen showed predominant solid fibroblastic proliferation, with minor foci of reactive osteoid formation, an area of osteoclastic-like giant cells, and cyst-like areas filled with erythrocytes and focal hemorrhage, consistent with a predominantly solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst. At 16 months after surgery, our patient remains neurologically intact with resolution of his chest and back pain. Conclusions Because of its rarity, location, and radical treatment approach, we considered this case worthy of reporting. The solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst is difficult to diagnose radiologically before biopsy or surgery, and we hope to remind other physicians that it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any lytic expansile destructive lesion of the spine. PMID:21718507

  15. The immediate effects of spinal thoracic manipulation on respiratory functions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Doo Chul; Lee, Yong Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thoracic spinal manipulation therapy on respiratory function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second in young healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young healthy subjects recruited from a local university participated in this study. Subjects were randomly allocated into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group received thoracic spinal manipulation and the control group received placebo thoracic spinal manipulation. Respiratory function tests, including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, were measured before and after intervention. [Results] The values for both tests were significantly higher in the experimental group. The control group showed no changes after the intervention. Differences in pre- and post-intervention values for both tests were significantly different between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Spinal manipulation therapy applied to the thoracic region improved respiratory function test results of participants in this study. PMID:27799691

  16. An improved retractor for cardiac and thoracic operations.

    PubMed

    McEnany, M T

    1980-10-01

    Several standard abdominal wall retractors have been modified to improve exposure at the extremes of thoracic and groin incisions and to enhance the efficiency and comfort of the assistant in supplying adequate visibility in these areas.

  17. Thoracic and respirable particle definitions for human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides estimates of the thoracic and respirable fractions, for adults and children during typical activities during both nasal and oral inhalation, that may be used in the design of experimental studies and interpretation of evidence of health effects.

  18. Clinical pathway for thoracic surgery in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm for postoperative care for thoracic surgical patients in the United States has shifted with efforts to reduce hospital length of stay and improve quality of life. The increasing usage of minimally invasive techniques in thoracic surgery has been an important part of this. In this review we will examine our standard practices as well as the evidence behind both general contemporary postoperative care principles and those specific to certain operations. PMID:26941967

  19. Unilateral anhidrosis: A rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Alkan, Güzide; Baysalman, Hatice Baran; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-02-01

    Management of pain following thoracotomy is an important issue for the control of early morbidity. We herein present the case of a patient who was referred to our hospital after a fall from a height. Right-sided multiple rib fractures, hemopneumothorax, and diaphragmatic rupture were detected. Thoracic epidural catheterization was performed for pain management just before thoracotomy. The patient developed unilateral anhidrosis postoperatively. We discuss this rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia with a review of relevant literature.

  20. Critical decisions in trauma of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Degiannis, E; Boffard, K

    2002-05-01

    Trauma to the thoracic aorta is a significant injury with a high mortality. This mortality is partly due to the delayed recognition of the condition. The increase of motor vehicle accidents and the use of firearms worldwide has resulted in an increase of the incidence of trauma to the thoracic aorta. Certain new developments in diagnosis and management have resulted in traditional methods being questioned. This review analyses current literature and data which we attempt to evaluate.

  1. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  2. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  3. Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2008-01-01

    This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

  4. Costal process of the first sacral vertebra: sexual dimorphism and obstetrical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tague, Robert G

    2007-03-01

    The human sacrum is sexually dimorphic, with males being larger than females in most dimensions. Previous studies, though, suggest that females may have a longer costal process of the first sacral vertebra (S1) than males. However, these studies neither quantified nor tested statistically the costal process of S1. This study compares S1 with the five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) for a number of metric dimensions, including costal process length. Four issues are addressed, the: 1) hypothesis that females have a longer costal process of S1 than males; 2)hypothesis that homologous structures (i.e., costal processes of L1 to S1) differ in their direction of sexual dimorphism; 3) importance of the costal process of S1 to the obstetrical capacity of the pelvis; and 4) evolution of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1. One hundred ninety-seven individuals, including males and females of American blacks and whites, from the Hamann-Todd and Terry Collections were studied. Results show that males are significantly larger than females for most vertebral measurements, except that females have a significantly longer costal process of S1 than males. Costal process length of S1 is positively correlated with the transverse diameter and circumference of the pelvic inlet. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1 ranks this measure among the most highly dimorphic of the pelvis. Compared with the humans in this study, australopithecines have a relatively long costal process of S1, but their broad sacrum was not associated with obstetrical imperatives. PMID:17266155

  5. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE.

    PubMed

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon-Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT variations in left-right symmetry and morphology of the cervical and cervicothoracic vertebrae in a sample of horses. Postmortem CT examinations of the cervical spine for horses without congenital growth disorders were prospectively and retrospectively recruited. A total of 78 horses (27 foals, 51 mature horses) were evaluated. Twenty-six horses (33.3%) had homologous changes in which a transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process (caudal ventral tubercle) of C6 toward the ventral aspect of the transverse process of C7 was present (n = 10 bilateral, n = 12 unilateral left-sided, n = 4 unilateral right-sided). There was one horse with occipito-atlantal malformation, two horses with rudimentary first ribs bilaterally, and one horse with bilateral transverse processes at Th1, representing homeotic (transitional) vertebral changes. Chi-square tests identified no significant differences in the number of conformational variations between the group of mature horses with or without clinical signs (P = 0.81) or between the group of mature horses and the group of foals (P = 0.72). Findings indicated that, in this sample of horses, the most frequently identified variations were homologous variations (transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process of C6-C7) in the caudal equine cervical vertebral column. Homeotic (transitional) variations at the cervicothoracic vertebral column were less common. PMID:27438135

  6. Correlative analyses of isolated upper lumbar disc herniation and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Xin; Yang, Si-Dong; Wang, Bao-Lin; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) is easy to be misdiagnosed due to its special anatomical and atypical clinical features. Few studies have identified the relationship between ULDH and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae (WSV). Hypothesis: WSV may have some indicative relations withULDH. Patients and methods: Between January 2003 and October 2013, 47 patients (27 males and 20 females; mean age, 41.2 years) with single-level ULDH (as study group) and 47 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (as control group) were studied by radiograph. The two groups were compared with respect to age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), kyphotic angle, and the proportion of WSV. Also, correlative analyses were conducted in the study group to investigate the relation between the kyphotic angle of target vertebrae and other factors including age, BMI, Cobb angle, JOA score and bone mineral density (BMD). Results: The average kyphotic angle in the study group was 11° (4°-22°), while the average kyphotic angle in the control group was 2° (0°-7°). Obviously, the mean kyphotic angle in the study group was statistically larger than that in the control group (t=13.797, P<0.001). The proportion of WSV in the study group was significantly larger than that in the control group (x2=36.380, P<0.0001). The correlations between kyphotic angles and other items (i.e., age, BMI, BMD, Cobb angle and JOA score) in the study group and the control group were low or uncorrelated. Conclusions: WSV are indicatively associated with adjacent ULDH. Thus, ULDH should be alerted when WSV are first found in radiograph and accompanied by clinical symptoms. PMID:25785106

  7. Costal process of the first sacral vertebra: sexual dimorphism and obstetrical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tague, Robert G

    2007-03-01

    The human sacrum is sexually dimorphic, with males being larger than females in most dimensions. Previous studies, though, suggest that females may have a longer costal process of the first sacral vertebra (S1) than males. However, these studies neither quantified nor tested statistically the costal process of S1. This study compares S1 with the five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) for a number of metric dimensions, including costal process length. Four issues are addressed, the: 1) hypothesis that females have a longer costal process of S1 than males; 2)hypothesis that homologous structures (i.e., costal processes of L1 to S1) differ in their direction of sexual dimorphism; 3) importance of the costal process of S1 to the obstetrical capacity of the pelvis; and 4) evolution of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1. One hundred ninety-seven individuals, including males and females of American blacks and whites, from the Hamann-Todd and Terry Collections were studied. Results show that males are significantly larger than females for most vertebral measurements, except that females have a significantly longer costal process of S1 than males. Costal process length of S1 is positively correlated with the transverse diameter and circumference of the pelvic inlet. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1 ranks this measure among the most highly dimorphic of the pelvis. Compared with the humans in this study, australopithecines have a relatively long costal process of S1, but their broad sacrum was not associated with obstetrical imperatives.

  8. [Effects of ovariectomy and estradiol on microarchitecture and biomechanical properties in rat vertebrae].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Yun, Xiaofei; Chen, Tianhua; Chen, Mengshi; He, Xueling; Long, Weifu; Chen, Shiqian; Li, Liang

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed at observing the effects of ovariectomy and estradiol on the microarchitecture of cancellous bone and exploring the influence of microarchitectural change on the biomechanical properties. Thirty 6-month-old unmated female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rat each): sham-operated control group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX)and Estradiol Benzoate treated group (EBT). All rats were housed in standard environmental conditions. Five months after operation, the rats were sacrificed. The biomechanical properties of the third lumbar vertebras (L3) were measured with compression testing in vitro. Micro-CT scanning was performed on the fourth lumbar vertebras (L4) in vitro. In comparison with the corresponding variables of Sham, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the trabecular number (Tb. N) of OVX were reduced remarkably, and the trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) and the structural model index (SMI) of OVX were enhanced obviously. These facts implicated that the bone trabecular plate-like structure of OVX were decreased. BV/TV, Tb. N and the trabecular thickness (Tb. Th) of EBT were greater than those of OVX. Tb. Sp and SMI of EBT were much smaller than those of OVX. The results of mechanical test showed that the maximum forioe (Fmax), the maximum stress (sigmamax) and the elastic modeulus (E) of the lumbar vertebral cancellous bone of OVX were declined sharply, while the aforesaid biomechanical index of EBT was improved distinctly. The performance of three-dimensional micro-CT and the mechanical testing to assess microarchitecture of cancellous bone are useful for evaluating the state of osteoporosis and the antiosteoporotic effect of agents. PMID:18693445

  9. Treatment of symptomatic thoracic disc herniations with lateral interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Rhiannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic thoracic herniated discs have historically been treated using open exposures (i.e., thoracotomy), posing a clinical challenge given the approach related morbidity. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is one modern minimally disruptive alternative to thoracotomy. The direct lateral technique for lumbar pathologies has seen a sharp increase in procedural numbers; however application of this technique in thoracic pathologies has not been widely reported. Methods This study presents the results of three cases where LIF was used to treat symptomatic thoracic disc herniations. Indications for surgery included thoracic myelopathy, radiculopathy and discogenic pain. Patients were treated with LIF, without supplemental internal fixation, and followed for 24 months postoperatively. Results: Average length of hospital stay was 5 days. One patient experienced mild persistent neuropathic thoracic pain, which was managed medically. At 3 months postoperative all patients had returned to work and by 12 months all patients were fused. From preoperative to 24-month follow-up there were mean improvements of 83.3% in visual analogue scale (VAS), 75.3% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 79.2% and 17.4% in SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS), respectively. Conclusions LIF is a viable minimally invasive alternative to conventional approaches in treating symptomatic thoracic pathology without an access surgeon, rib resection, or lung deflation.

  10. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  11. Age and growth of endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) verified with LA-ICP-MS analysis of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Rachel M; Patterson, William F; Carlson, John K; Poulakis, Gregg R

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n=15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L(∞), 0.219 y(-1)for k, and -0.81 y for t(0). Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae.

  12. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  13. Comparison between Thoracic Epidural Block and Thoracic Paravertebral Block for Post Thoracotomy Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Soniya; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Chandra, Girish; Prakash, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative pain after thoracotomy is being considered one of the most severe pain and if not treated well, can result in various respiratory and other complications. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to compare continuous thoracic epidural infusion with continuous paravertebral infusion for postoperative pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and four point observer ranking. The secondary outcomes measured were pulmonary functions and any complication like hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and neurological complications if any. Materials and Methods Sixty patients of age group 18-60 years posted for anterolateral thoracotomy surgery for lung resection were randomised either to epidural or paravertebral group in this randomised prospective double blind study. In Epidural group 7.5ml bolus of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 50μg Fentanyl and in Paravertebral group 15ml bolus of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 50μg Fentanyl was given 30 minutes before the anticipated end of surgery. Bolus dose was followed by infusion of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 2μg/ml Fentanyl at the rate of 5 ml/hr in both groups. Parameters noted were Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Heart Rate (HR), Oxygen Saturation (SpO2), Arterial Blood Gas (PaCO2, P/F ratio), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Four Point Observer Ranking Scale (FPORS) for pain, number of sensory segments blocked (by checking for pinprick sensation), requirement of infusion top ups and rescue analgesia (Tramadol), pre and postoperative pulmonary function test {(Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)1, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)} and complications from start of infusion till 24 hours in the postoperative period. Results Both the techniques were effective in relieving pain but pain relief was significantly better with epidural. Postoperatively, HR, SpO2, P/F ratio and PaCO2 were comparable between group E and P. There was significant decline in FeV1

  14. Acute lung injury after thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Kenneth D; Neustein, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    In this review, the authors discussed criteria for diagnosing ALI; incidence, etiology, preoperative risk factors, intraoperative management, risk-reduction strategies, treatment, and prognosis. The anesthesiologist needs to maintain an index of suspicion for ALI in the perioperative period of thoracic surgery, particularly after lung resection on the right side. Acute hypoxemia, imaging analysis for diffuse infiltrates, and detecting a noncardiogenic origin for pulmonary edema are important hallmarks of acute lung injury. Conservative intraoperative fluid administration of neutral to slightly negative fluid balance over the postoperative first week can reduce the number of ventilator days. Fluid management may be optimized with the assistance of new imaging techniques, and the anesthesiologist should monitor for transfusion-related lung injuries. Small tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg and low plateau pressures of < or =30 cmH2O may reduce organ and systemic failure. PEEP may improve oxygenation and increases organ failure-free days but has not shown a mortality benefit. The optimal mode of ventilation has not been shown in perioperative studies. Permissive hypercapnia may be needed in order to reduce lung injury from positive-pressure ventilation. NO is not recommended as a treatment. Strategies such as bronchodilation, smoking cessation, steroids, and recruitment maneuvers are unproven to benefit mortality although symptomatically they often have been shown to help ALI patients. Further studies to isolate biomarkers active in the acute setting of lung injury and pharmacologic agents to inhibit inflammatory intermediates may help improve management of this complex disease.

  15. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This second report in the series on coronary artery bypass presents the authors experience and personal views on the internal thoracic artery (ITA) which date to 1966. There has been a very gradual evolution in the acceptance of this conduit which was initially compared with the saphenous vein and viewed as an improbable alternative to it. As is common with concepts and techniques which are 'outside the box' there was skepticism and criticism of this new conduit which was more difficult and time consuming to harvest for the surgeon who had to do it all. It was viewed as small, fragile, spastic and its flow capacity was questioned. Only a few surgeons employed it because of these issues and some of them would frequently graft it to the diagonal artery as it was thought not to supply adequate flow for the left anterior descending unless it was small. After a decade, angiographic data revealed superior patency to vein grafts. Even this evidence and survival benefit reported a few years later did not convince many surgeons that their concerns about limitations justified its use. Thus widespread adaption of the ITA as the conduit of choice for the anterior descending required another decade and bilateral use is only now expanding to more than 5% of patients in the US and somewhat faster in other countries. PMID:23275918

  16. Computer modeling of thoracic response to blast.

    PubMed

    Stuhmiller, J H; Chuong, C J; Phillips, Y Y; Dodd, K T

    1988-01-01

    Primary blast injury affects the gas-containing structures of the body. Damage to the lungs with resultant respiratory insufficiency and arterial embolization of air from alveolar pulmonary venous fistulae is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality following high-level blast exposure. In an effort to generate a widely applicable damage-risk criterion for thoracic injury from blast we are developing a complex computer finite element model (FEM) of the thorax. Taking an engineering approach, a horizontal cross-section of the thorax is divided into small discrete units (finite elements) of homogeneous structure. The necessary physical properties (density, bulk modulus, etc.) are then determined for each element. Specifying the material constants and geometry of the elements, the computer can load the surface of the structure with some force-time function (blast pressure-time history) and calculate the resultant physical events such as displacement, compression, stress, strain, etc. Computer predictions of pressure wave phenomena in the lung parenchyma are compared with trans-bronchially measured pressures in blast-exposed animals. The model should prove useful in assessing the risk of blast injury in diverse overpressure environments and may give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms and strategies for protection.

  17. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi; Buttazzi, Katia; Rinaldi, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving the visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R-). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Darrell; Shen, Ying H.; Russell, Ludivine; Coselli, Joseph S.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a highly lethal vascular disease. In many patients with TAD, the aorta progressively dilates and ultimately ruptures. Dissection formation, progression, and rupture cannot be reliably prevented pharmacologically because the molecular mechanisms of aortic wall degeneration are poorly understood. The key histopathologic feature of TAD is medial degeneration, a process characterized by smooth muscle cell depletion and extracellular matrix degradation. These structural changes have a profound impact on the functional properties of the aortic wall and can result from excessive protease-mediated destruction of the extracellular matrix, altered signaling pathways, and altered gene expression. Review of the literature reveals differences in the processes that lead to ascending versus descending and sporadic versus hereditary TAD. These differences add to the complexity of this disease. Although tremendous progress has been made in diagnosing and treating TAD, a better understanding of the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms that cause this disease is necessary to developing more effective preventative and therapeutic treatment strategies. PMID:23856125

  20. Selective lung intubation during paediatric thoracic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mixa, V; Nedomova, B; Rygl, M

    2016-01-01

    Selective lung intubation is a necessary prerequisite for the completion of most interventions comprising thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. In paediatric care, our site uses Univent tubes for children up to the age of three years and double-lumen tubes (DLT) for children from 6-8 years of age. In younger children, we usually use regular endotracheal intubation, with the lung being held in the hemithorax position being operated on using a surgical retractor. The article presents the analysis of 860 thoracic surgeries, of which 491 comprised selective intubation (Univent 57 cases, DLT 434 cases). The use of the aforementioned devices is connected with certain complications. Univent tube can be connected with intraoperative dislocation of the obturating balloon (29.8%) and balloon perforation (5.2%). DLT insertion may be connected with failure of tube fitting. In 84 cases we had to repeat DLT insertion (20.6%). In 8 cases we were not able to insert DLT at all (1.8%). Standard use of selective intubation methods in paediatric patients from two years of age improved the conditions for surgical interventions (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 19). PMID:27546541

  1. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  2. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  3. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  4. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  5. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  6. Mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming-Xing; Xiao, Qiu-Jin; Cui, Chao-Ying; Kuang, Nan-Zhen; Hong, Wen-Qin; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change. On the basis of Ohm's law and the electrical field distribution in the cylindrical volume conductor, the formula about the thoracic impedance change are deduced, and they are demonstrated with the model experiment. The results indicate that the thoracic impedance change caused by single blood vessel is directly proportional to the ratio of the impedance change to the basal impedance of the blood vessel itself, to the length of the blood vessel appearing between the current electrodes, and to the basal impedance between two detective electrodes on the chest surface, while it is inversely proportional to the distance between the blood vessel and the line joining two detective electrodes. The thoracic impedance change caused by multiple blood vessels together is equal to the algebraic addition of all thoracic impedance changes resulting from the individual blood vessels. That is, the impedance changes obey the principle of adding scalars in the measurement of the electrical impedance graph. The present study can offer the theoretical basis for the waveform reconstruction of Impedance cardiography (ICG).

  7. Regional interdependence and manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Amy; Young, Jodi; Mintken, Paul; Cleland, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation is commonly used by physical therapists for the management of patients with upper quarter pain syndromes. The theoretical construct for using thoracic manipulation for upper quarter conditions is a mainstay of a regional interdependence (RI) approach. The RI concept is likely much more complex and is perhaps driven by a neurophysiological response including those related to peripheral, spinal cord and supraspinal mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that thoracic spine manipulation results in neurophysiological changes, which may lead to improved pain and outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. The intent of this narrative review is to describe the research supporting the RI concept and its application to the treatment of individuals with neck and/or shoulder pain. Treatment utilizing both thrust and non-thrust thoracic manipulation has been shown to result in improvements in pain, range of motion and disability in patients with upper quarter conditions. Research has yet to determine optimal dosage, techniques or patient populations to which the RI approach should be applied; however, emerging evidence supporting a neurophysiological effect for thoracic spine manipulation may negate the need to fully answer this question. Certainly, there is a need for further research examining both the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions utilized in the RI model as well as the neurophysiological effects resulting from this intervention. PMID:26309384

  8. Regional interdependence and manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Amy; Young, Jodi; Mintken, Paul; Cleland, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation is commonly used by physical therapists for the management of patients with upper quarter pain syndromes. The theoretical construct for using thoracic manipulation for upper quarter conditions is a mainstay of a regional interdependence (RI) approach. The RI concept is likely much more complex and is perhaps driven by a neurophysiological response including those related to peripheral, spinal cord and supraspinal mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that thoracic spine manipulation results in neurophysiological changes, which may lead to improved pain and outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. The intent of this narrative review is to describe the research supporting the RI concept and its application to the treatment of individuals with neck and/or shoulder pain. Treatment utilizing both thrust and non-thrust thoracic manipulation has been shown to result in improvements in pain, range of motion and disability in patients with upper quarter conditions. Research has yet to determine optimal dosage, techniques or patient populations to which the RI approach should be applied; however, emerging evidence supporting a neurophysiological effect for thoracic spine manipulation may negate the need to fully answer this question. Certainly, there is a need for further research examining both the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions utilized in the RI model as well as the neurophysiological effects resulting from this intervention. PMID:26309384

  9. Imaging features of thoracic metastases from gynecologic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Walker, Christopher M; Kunin, Jeffery R; Betancourt, Sonia L; Shoup, Brenda L; Pettavel, Paul P

    2014-10-01

    Gynecologic malignancies are a heterogeneous group of common neoplasms and represent the fourth most common malignancy in women. Thoracic metastases exhibit various imaging patterns and are usually associated with locally invasive primary neoplasms with intra-abdominal spread. However, thoracic involvement may also occur many months to years after initial diagnosis or as an isolated finding in patients without evidence of intra-abdominal neoplastic involvement. Thoracic metastases from endometrial carcinoma typically manifest as pulmonary nodules and lymphadenopathy. Thoracic metastases from ovarian cancer often manifest with small pleural effusions and subtle pleural nodules. Thoracic metastases to the lungs, lymph nodes, and pleura may also exhibit calcification and mimic granulomatous disease. Metastases from fallopian tube carcinomas exhibit imaging features identical to those of ovarian cancers. Most cervical cancers are of squamous histology, and while solid pulmonary metastases are more common, cavitary metastases occur with some frequency. Metastatic choriocarcinoma to the lung characteristically manifests with solid pulmonary nodules. Some pulmonary metastases from gynecologic malignancies exhibit characteristic features such as cavitation (in squamous cell cervical cancer) and the "halo" sign (in hemorrhagic metastatic choriocarcinoma) at computed tomography (CT). However, metastases from common gynecologic malignancies may be subtle and indolent and may mimic benign conditions such as intrapulmonary lymph nodes and remote granulomatous disease. Therefore, radiologists should consider the presence of locoregional disease as well as elevated tumor marker levels when interpreting imaging studies because subtle imaging findings may represent metastatic disease. Positron emission tomography/CT may be helpful in identifying early locoregional and distant tumor spread. PMID:25310428

  10. Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Clinical Need Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition. The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases. The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia. The Technology Endovascular aortic aneurysm

  11. The experimental validation of free fat grafts in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masataro; Kondo, Tomoko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the viability of free fat grafts in the thoracic cavity using 3-month old male swine (n = 2). After left caudal lobectomy, 1-3 g of subcutaneous fat tissue harvested via the thoracotomy site was implanted in the chest cavity. At re-thoracotomy 6 weeks after implantation, all of the implanted fat grafts (n = 15) were found to have closely adhered to the parietal pleura and visceral pleura. There was a significant decrease by ∼30% in the weight of the fat grafts after implantation. Regardless of the weight loss, the implanted fat graft showed normal structuring without scar formation in the central area. Our results may suggest that free fat pads, which weighed up to 3 g, were successfully cultured in the thoracic cavity until the implanted tissues integrated into the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the free fat pad can be used as a biomaterial for some purposes in thoracic surgery.

  12. A comparison of thoracic or lumbar patient-controlled epidural analgesia methods after thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare patient-controlled thoracic or lumbar epidural analgesia methods after thoracotomy operations. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were prospectively randomized to receive either thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA group) or lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA group). In both groups, epidural catheters were administered. Hemodynamic measurements, visual analog scale scores at rest (VAS-R) and after coughing (VAS-C), analgesic consumption, and side effects were compared at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively. Results The VAS-R and VAS-C values were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours after surgery (for VAS-R, P = 0.001, P = 0.01, P = 0.008, and P = 0.029, respectively; and for VAS-C, P = 0.035, P = 0.023, P = 0.002, and P = 0.037, respectively). Total 24-hour analgesic consumption was different between groups (175 +/- 20 mL versus 185 +/- 31 mL; P = 0.034). The comparison of postoperative complications revealed that the incidence of hypotension (21/57, 36.8% versus 8/63, 12.7%; P = 0.002), bradycardia (9/57, 15.8% versus 2/63, 3.2%; P = 0.017), atelectasis (1/57, 1.8% versus 7/63, 11.1%; P = 0.04), and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment (0/57, 0% versus 5/63, 7.9%; P = 0.03) were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group. Conclusions TEA has beneficial hemostatic effects in comparison to LEA after thoracotomies along with more satisfactory pain relief profile. PMID:24885545

  13. Micro-CT Imaging of Rat Bone and Lumber Vertebra using Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsyua; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-03-01

    Micro-tomographic imaging with a spatial resolution on the micrometer scale offers owes a high potential to perform certain types of measurements that were not feasible with other techniques or conventional laboratory methods. The synchrotron X-ray source gives substantial advantages because of its high brilliance and continuous X-ray spectrum. Based on this, visualized the microstructure of rat bone and lumber vertebra was visualized using 20, 25 and 30 keV synchrotron X-rays. We utilized the data which was acquired at different energies for multi-model imaging and to estimate the Ca/P ratio. Up to now there has been no research carried out using these images for the estimation of the calcium content, with synchrotron X-rays. The results are based on the analysis of images and gray values obtained at different energies. We introduce this new method in order to measure the calcium content by means of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT.

  14. Remodelling of bone and bones: effects of altered mechanical stress on caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Storey, E; Feik, S A

    1985-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 50 g were divided into two groups: (i) control, (ii) rats with tails bent in situ incorporating 7, 5 and 3 caudal vertebrae in the loop. Tails were radiographed weekly up to six weeks and a microradiographic and histological study undertaken on selected specimens. Results showed that the bones in the apex of the loop of the bent tail moved through their investing soft tissues towards the outer side of the bend, the joints became V-shaped and in tails bent acutely the epiphyses and metaphyses tilted. By six weeks the bones appeared bent with a thinner straight to convex shaft on the outer side and a thicker, more concave one on the inner side. The changes observed can be explained by taking into account (i) strain within the bone, (ii) altered growth and (iii) the translation of bones through their investing soft tissues. The results are consistent with the supposition that, on application of a continuous moderate stress, tension induces formation and pressure resorption of bone.

  15. Prospective Evaluation of Thoracic Ultrasound in the Detection of Pneumothorax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. W.; Hamilton, D. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Billica, R. D.; Williams, D. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Sargysan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumothorax (PTX) occurs commonly in trauma patients and is confirmed by examination and radiography. Thoracic ultrasound (VIS) has been suggested as an alternative method for rapidly diagnosing PTX when X-ray is unavailable as in rural, military, or space flight settings; however, its accuracy and specificity are not known. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of thoracic U/S detection of PTX compared to radiography in stable, emergency patients with a high suspicion of PTX at a Level-l trauma center over a 6-month period. Following University and NASA Institutional Review Board approval, informed consent was obtained from patients with penetrating or blunt chest trauma, or with a history consistent with PTX. Whenever possible, the presence or absence of the " lung sliding" sign or the "comet tail" artifact were determined by U/S in both hemithoraces by residents instructed in thoracic U/S before standard radiologic verification of PTX. Results were recorded on data sheets for comparison to standard radiography. Results: Thoracic VIS had a 94% sensitivity; two PTX could not be reliably diagnosed due to subcutaneous air; the true negative rate was 100%. In one patient, the VIS exam was positive while X ray did not confirm PTX; a follow-up film 1 hour later demonstrated a small PTX. The average time for bilateral thoracic VIS examination was 2 to 3 minutes. Conclusions: Thoracic ultrasound reliably diagnoses pneumothorax. Presence of the "lung sliding" sign conclusively excludes pneumothorax. Expansion of the FAST examination to include the thorax should be investigated.

  16. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  17. Medical students' views on thoracic surgery residency programs in a Japanese medical school.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Kiyofumi; Naraoka, Shu-ichi; Miyajima, Masahiro; Uzuka, Takeshi; Saito, Tatsuya; Abe, Tomio

    2003-09-01

    There has been a decline in the number of medical students applying for thoracic surgery training programs. We obtained knowledge of medical students' views on thoracic surgery residency programs. After completion of thoracic surgery clerkship, 17 students were asked to fill out questionnaires on first-year thoracic surgery residency programs. The majority of students considered thoracic surgery to be held in high regard by the general public, and felt that the salary was sufficient. However, only one student chose a thoracic surgery training program. The main reason for not applying for thoracic surgery residency was lifestyle issues. The factors in determining career choice included quality of education and work hours. Medical students are likely to select specialties other than thoracic surgery. Since the main factor influencing medical students' career is the quality of education in a residency program, efforts should be made to improve the quality of education.

  18. Prevention and Management of Nerve Injuries in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Hugh G; Donahue, Dean M

    2015-11-01

    Nerve injuries can cause substantial morbidity after thoracic surgical procedures. These injuries are preventable, provided that the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the anatomy and follows important surgical principles. When nerve injuries occur, it is important to recognize the options available in the immediate and postoperative settings, including expectant management, immediate nerve reconstruction, or auxiliary procedures. This article covers the basic anatomy and physiology of nerves and nerve injuries, an overview of techniques in nerve reconstruction, and a guide to the nerves most commonly involved in thoracic operative procedures.

  19. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction (hidebound chest) complicating eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Chalker, R B; Dickey, B F; Rosenthal, N C; Simms, R W

    1991-11-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is an unusual disorder characterized by diffuse skin thickening and induration due to inflammation within the deep fascia; visceral involvement is generally mild or absent. A patient with biopsy-proved EF developed progressive respiratory limitation. Physical examination revealed marked induration of the thoracic integument with a severely limited chest wall excursion. Total lung capacity was 62 percent of predicted with a normal corrected Dco and maximal inspiratory force; a chest computed tomogram with thin sections showed no evidence of parenchymal lung disease. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction ("hidebound chest") has not been previously reported to complicate EF.

  20. Modified uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Seims, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been traditionally performed by a multi-port approach, but uniportal VATS is gaining popularity among thoracic surgeons. The use of only one intercostal space may result in less pain, but competition among camera and operating instruments may be a disadvantage. In children, the limited space in the thorax makes the uniportal VATS difficult to accomplish. We present a modification of the uniportal VATS, using a single skin incision but placing the thoracoscope in the superior or inferior intercostal space relative to the working instruments to increase instrument range of motion within a single intercostal space. PMID:27251823

  1. Dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyong Shil; Choi, Min Kyung; Jeon, Yong Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with the tuberculous pleural effusion. An 82-year-old woman underwent emergency stent graft under a diagnosis of dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm. Preoperative computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion supposed to the hemothorax caused by the dissecting aneurysm. But, the effusion was sanguineous color fluid and it was determined to result from pulmonary tuberculosis. The medical team was exposed to the pulmonary tuberculosis; fortunately no one became infected. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of an infected aortic aneurysm and prepare for pathogen transmission. PMID:27499987

  2. Surgical Strategy for Thoracic Aortic Pseudoaneurysm with Sternal Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Sachiko; Iida, Yasunori; Misumi, Takahiko; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    A thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a life-threatening complication following thoracic aortic surgery. We describe a surgical strategy for this pseudoaneurysm with a high risk for rupture during median sternotomy. The pseudoaneurysm was distended and widely adherent to the posterior sternum. Elective cardiopulmonary bypass and moderate hypothermia were established, and sternotomy was performed without left ventricle distention or brain ischemia. Total arch replacement was successful and the patient was discharged on post operative day (POD) 18. A key surgical strategy was to avoid ventricular fibrillation before sternotomy. Appropriate sternotomy timing and perfusion strategy are crucial for successful treatment.

  3. Skeletal Dysplasias That Cause Thoracic Insufficiency in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    İpek, Mehmet Sah; Akgul Ozmen, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with various abnormalities of the skeleton. Some of them are perinatally lethal and can be diagnosed at birth. Lethality is usually due to thoracic underdevelopment and lung hypoplasia. A correct diagnosis and typing of the skeletal disorder is essential for the prognosis as is genetic counseling of the family. A retrospective review of 12 cases of clinico-radiologic diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia, leading to thoracic insufficiency, was conducted. We aimed to make differential diagnosis with special emphasis on radiological findings, and to emphasize the importance of parental counseling. PMID:27057899

  4. Pericardial fat flap for mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kawatani, Yohei; Ito, Yujiro; Hori, Takaki

    2016-07-01

    Standard treatment for mycotic aneurysm of thoracic aorta is complete debridement with replacement of the aneurysm with a homograft or Dacron graft. However, contamination from surrounding tissues may occur after the graft replacement. Transposition of the viable, well-vascularized tissues should be used to fill surrounding dead space and isolate the graft to prevent reinfection. Although the omentum is regarded as the best tissue, it is not always available for use. We describe here a new alternative technique for such situations, that is, the use of a pericardial fat flap for patients with a mycotic descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. PMID:27059067

  5. Reasons to participate in European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The process of data collection inevitably involves costs at various levels. Nevertheless, this effort is essential to base our knowledge and the consequent decision making on solid foundations. The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) database collects a large amount of data on general thoracic surgery derived from about 60 units representative of 11 nations. Since its beginning in 2001, the ESTS database has contributed to increase the knowledge and the quality of care in our specialty. The present paper illustrates the ultimate finalities and the obtained results of this data collection, providing a broad overview of the motivations to participate to the ESTS database. PMID:25984355

  6. Modified uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Seims, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been traditionally performed by a multi-port approach, but uniportal VATS is gaining popularity among thoracic surgeons. The use of only one intercostal space may result in less pain, but competition among camera and operating instruments may be a disadvantage. In children, the limited space in the thorax makes the uniportal VATS difficult to accomplish. We present a modification of the uniportal VATS, using a single skin incision but placing the thoracoscope in the superior or inferior intercostal space relative to the working instruments to increase instrument range of motion within a single intercostal space.

  7. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  8. Age-related changes in osteometry, bone mineral density and osteophytosis of the lumbar vertebrae in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Pomchote, Porrawee

    2015-01-01

    The age-related changes in lumbar vertebrae were studied in 77 young/full adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) (40 females, 37 males), in terms of their morphometry, density and osteophytosis, and the interrelationship between these three aspects. The most common age-related pattern of morphometric changes was an initial increase during young adulthood until reaching the peak and then a subsequent decrease with age. Most of the peaks were in the age group 15-20 and 10-15 years in females and males, respectively. In both sexes, the age-related decrease in the vertebral body depth (ventro-dorsal) was greater than in the height and width. The ventral height of the vertebral body relative to the dorsal height continuously decreased with age. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) continuously decreased after young adulthood. However, the magnitude of the decreased trabecular BMD with age was greater in females than in males, especially in the older age groups. Osteophytosis clearly increased with age in both sexes, but males showed an earlier appearance of osteophytes and females tended to have more severe osteophytes from 15 years old upwards. A correlation between the osteometry, density, and osteophytosis severity appeared in all vertebrae, but not all of these reached statistical significance after controlling for the influence of age. Although Japanese macaques showed the higher prevalence and rapid increase of osteophytosis, a similar age change profile was observed in the lumbar vertebrae of Japanese macaques and humans.

  9. Differential gene expression of bgp and mgp in trabecular and compact bone of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Krossøy, Christel; Ornsrud, Robin; Wargelius, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The tissue-specific gene expression of the vitamin K-dependent proteins bone gamma-carboxyglutamate-protein (BGP) and matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate-protein (MGP) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was investigated. In previous studies, BGP, the most abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, was almost exclusively associated with bone, whereas the non-structural protein MGP has a more widespread tissue distribution. In-situ hybridization of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( approximately 40 g, fresh water) vertebrae demonstrated expression of bgp and mgp mRNA in osteoblasts lining the trabecular bone, whereas no staining was observed in the compact bone. By separating the trabecular and compact bone of both juvenile ( approximately 40 g, fresh water) and adult ( approximately 1000 g, sea water) Atlantic salmon, we observed that the two vertebral bone compartments displayed different levels of bgp, whereas no such differences were seen for mgp. Measurements of the mineral content and Ca/P molar ratio in adult salmon revealed no significant differences between trabecular and compact bone. In conclusion, the osteoblasts covering the salmon vertebrae have unique gene expression patterns and levels of bgp and mgp. Further, the study confirms the presence of mRNA from the vitamin K-dependent proteins BGP and MGP in the vertebrae, fin and gills of Atlantic salmon.

  10. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Carinhena, Glauber; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. Methods The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS), 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. Results and Conclusions Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance. PMID:25279522

  11. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  12. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  13. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  14. 12th Annual School Construction Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    School construction completed in 2006 totaled just more than $20 billion, a drop of seven percent from the record $21.6 billion put in place in 2005. Even so, it was the sixth year in the last seven that annual construction exceeded $20 billion. During the seven years of the present century, school districts have completed construction projects…

  15. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

  16. [Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in clinical practice: effects, technique, complications and suggestions during anticoagulant treatment].

    PubMed

    Passarani, S; Pedrazzini, G; Paino, R; Paleari, G

    2001-03-01

    The effects of thoracic peridural analgesia (TEA) on the neuroendocrine response to surgery are well known, but, at the present this technique is not widely used especially in Italy. The aim of this paper is to give information and suggestions on thoracic epidural analgesia in thoracic and cardiac surgery, and to discuss how anticoagulant therapy may interfere on this technique.

  17. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density in rabbit vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Norris, S A; Pettifor, J M; Gray, D A; Biscardi, A; Buffenstein, R

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit could be a superior animal model to use in bone physiology studies, for the rabbit does attain true skeletal maturity. However, there are neither normative bone mineral density (BMD) data on the rabbit nor are there any validation studies on the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure spinal BMD in the rabbit. Therefore, our aim was twofold: first, to investigate whether DXA could be used precisely and accurately to determine the bone mineral content (BMC). bone area (BA). and BMD of the rabbit lumbar spine: Second. to evaluate the new generation fan-beam DXA (Hologic QDR-4500) with small animal software by comparing two DXA methodologies QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 with each other, as well as against volumetric bone density (VBMD) derived from Archimedes principle. As expected. there was a magnification error in the QDR-4500 (BMC, BA. and BMD increased by 52%. 38%. and 10%, respectively, when the vertebrae were positioned flat against the scanning table). With the magnification error kept constant (vertebrae positioned 10 cm above the scanning table to match the height in vivo). there were no differences among the mean BMC. BA. and BMD of the rabbit vertebrae (Ll-L7) in vivo and in vitro using the QDR-4500 (p > 0.05). BMC, BA, and BMD differed between QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 in vitro because of a magnification error when the vertebrae were flat on the table (p <0.0001). and, consequently. the machines did not correlate with one another (p > 0.05). However, the BMC, BA, and BMD of the two DXAs did significantly correlate with each other in vivo and in vitro when the magnification error was compensated for (r = 0.44 and 0.52. i2 = 0.45 and 0.63. and 12 = 0.41 and 0.60. respectively. p < 0.05-0.008). The BMC and BMD (in vivo and in vitro) of the rabbit vertebrae measured by QDR-4500 was significantly correlated with VMBD, ash weight, and mineral content (,2 = 0.67-0.90,j <0.01-0.0001). Therefore, the QDR-4500 can be used to yield precise and

  18. Mechanical properties of rat thoracic and abdominal aortas.

    PubMed

    Assoul, N; Flaud, P; Chaouat, M; Letourneur, D; Bataille, I

    2008-07-19

    Mechanical properties of abdominal and thoracic arteries of 2mm in diameter were determined from adults Wistar rats. A tensile testing instrument was used to obtain stress/strain curves with arteries immersed in physiological buffer at 37 degrees C. A displacement was applied on all arteries with various frequencies (1-7.5Hz) and strains (5-60%). From each curve a Young modulus was obtained using a mathematical model based on a nonlinear soft tissue model. No influence of frequency on modulus was evidenced in the tested range. Abdominal aortas, which were found slightly thicker than thoracic aortas, were characterized by a higher modulus. Due to the interest of decellularized biological materials, we also used SDS/Triton treated arteries, and found that the chemical treatment increased modulus of thoracic arteries. Tensile tests were also performed on thoracic aortas in the longitudinal and transversal directions. Longitudinal moduli were found higher than transversal moduli and the difference could be related to the longitudinal orientation of collagen fibers. These data and mathematical model seem useful in the design of new vascular synthetic or biological prostheses for the field of tissue engineering.

  19. Normal Range of Thoracic Kyphosis in Male School Children

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Veisi, Korosh; Karimi, Loghman; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Najafi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although there are frequent studies about normal range of thoracic kyphosis, there is still a controversy about the exact values of this curve. In nine reported studies on 10 to 20 years of age boys, the value ranged from 25.1° to 53.3°. Objective for the Study. The aim of the present research was investigation of normal ranges of thoracic kyphosis in school children in Kermanshah, western Iran. Methods. 582 male students aged 13 to 18 years old using cluster random sampling were recruited from schools in Kermanshah city, 97 students for each age. Thoracic curves were measured using the flexicurve method. Results. Mean thoracic kyphosis for whole population was 35.49° SD 7.83 and plus or minus two standard deviations ranged from 19.83° to 51.15°. It increased gradually from 13 to 16 and then there was a little decrease to 18 years. Mean values for each age (13–16) were 13 (34.41 SD 7.47°), 14 (34.86 SD 8.29°), 15 (35.79 SD 7.93°), 16 (36.49 SD 7.85°), 17 (35.84 SD 8.33°), and 18 (35.55 SD 7.07°). Conclusions. Our results are in agreement with previous reports and can be used as normal values for local and regional purposes. PMID:24967122

  20. Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual complication of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Olushola; Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Iqbal, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Crohn's disease is a rare occurrence and mostly occurred in patients with Crohn's disease complicated by an abscess or fistulising disease. We report a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, occurring in a refractory Crohn's disease without contiguous abscess or fistula with the bowel. PMID:24916975

  1. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-06-14

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection or rupture. However, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysm has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified several major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies. The second set of genes encode components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group called the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies. Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review discusses published data on genes involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm and attempts to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm origin. PMID:27297344

  2. Spinal cord injury following an attempted thoracic epidural.

    PubMed

    Mayall, M F; Calder, I

    1999-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts were made to insert a thoracic epidural in an anaesthetised patient. Signs of spinal cord damage were observed the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a haematoma anterior to the spinal cord. Surgical exploration revealed an intradural haematoma and a needle puncture of the cord. The patient suffered a permanent paraparesis.

  3. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael; Lewis, Jaime; Guitron, Julian; Reed, Michael; Pritts, Timothy; Starnes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13%) following blunt injury and 20 (87%) after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury. PMID:23723618

  4. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-06-14

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection or rupture. However, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysm has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified several major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies. The second set of genes encode components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group called the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies. Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review discusses published data on genes involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm and attempts to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm origin.

  5. Thoracic aortic dissection in a 38-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Tilney, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A few days before Christmas, a flight team was activated for an interfacility transfer of a 38-year-old man with a history of hypertension and spinal stenosis diagnosed with a thoracic aortic dissection. The patient was presented to a local community hospital complaining of nearly 5 days of left-sided rib pain. This afternoon when he stood up from a chair, he experienced a near-syncopal episode. Concurrently, he had an abrupt onset of a tearing sensation in his chest that radiated to thoracic spine in the region between his shoulder blades. Ground emergency medical services (EMS) was called, and the patient was transported to the community hospital. During the initial transport and evaluation by the emergency department (ED) staff, the patient was noted to be hypertensive, with a systolic blood pressure greater than 180 mmHg. In the ED, the patient received aspirin, morphine, and Lopressor. He underwent a chest x-ray (Figure 1) and computed tomography (CT) scan and was diagnosed with a type B thoracic aorta dissection, which was noted to start on the descending thoracic aorta distal to the left subclavian artery and extend to the level of the celiac trunk (Figure 2). Despite the initial beta blockade, the patient was noted to be profoundly hypertensive, with initial blood pressure greater than 190 mmHg systolic. The flight team was activated for hemodynamic management and rapid transport to a facility capable of vascular and cardiothoracic surgery.

  6. Effect of Atlas Vertebrae Realignment in Subjects with Migraine: An Observational Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, H Charles; Hasick, D Gordon; Becker, Werner J; Rose, Marianne S; Scott, James N

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In a migraine case study, headache symptoms significantly decreased with an accompanying increase in intracranial compliance index following atlas vertebrae realignment. This observational pilot study followed eleven neurologist diagnosed migraine subjects to determine if the case findings were repeatable at baseline, week four, and week eight, following a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association intervention. Secondary outcomes consisted of migraine-specific quality of life measures. Methods. After examination by a neurologist, volunteers signed consent forms and completed baseline migraine-specific outcomes. Presence of atlas misalignment allowed study inclusion, permitting baseline MRI data collection. Chiropractic care continued for eight weeks. Postintervention reimaging occurred at week four and week eight concomitant with migraine-specific outcomes measurement. Results. Five of eleven subjects exhibited an increase in the primary outcome, intracranial compliance; however, mean overall change showed no statistical significance. End of study mean changes in migraine-specific outcome assessments, the secondary outcome, revealed clinically significant improvement in symptoms with a decrease in headache days. Discussion. The lack of robust increase in compliance may be understood by the logarithmic and dynamic nature of intracranial hemodynamic and hydrodynamic flow, allowing individual components comprising compliance to change while overall it did not. Study results suggest that the atlas realignment intervention may be associated with a reduction in migraine frequency and marked improvement in quality of life yielding significant reduction in headache-related disability as observed in this cohort. Future study with controls is necessary, however, to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number is NCT01980927. PMID:26783523

  7. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available.

  8. Effect of Atlas Vertebrae Realignment in Subjects with Migraine: An Observational Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, H. Charles; Hasick, D. Gordon; Becker, Werner J.; Rose, Marianne S.; Scott, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In a migraine case study, headache symptoms significantly decreased with an accompanying increase in intracranial compliance index following atlas vertebrae realignment. This observational pilot study followed eleven neurologist diagnosed migraine subjects to determine if the case findings were repeatable at baseline, week four, and week eight, following a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association intervention. Secondary outcomes consisted of migraine-specific quality of life measures. Methods. After examination by a neurologist, volunteers signed consent forms and completed baseline migraine-specific outcomes. Presence of atlas misalignment allowed study inclusion, permitting baseline MRI data collection. Chiropractic care continued for eight weeks. Postintervention reimaging occurred at week four and week eight concomitant with migraine-specific outcomes measurement. Results. Five of eleven subjects exhibited an increase in the primary outcome, intracranial compliance; however, mean overall change showed no statistical significance. End of study mean changes in migraine-specific outcome assessments, the secondary outcome, revealed clinically significant improvement in symptoms with a decrease in headache days. Discussion. The lack of robust increase in compliance may be understood by the logarithmic and dynamic nature of intracranial hemodynamic and hydrodynamic flow, allowing individual components comprising compliance to change while overall it did not. Study results suggest that the atlas realignment intervention may be associated with a reduction in migraine frequency and marked improvement in quality of life yielding significant reduction in headache-related disability as observed in this cohort. Future study with controls is necessary, however, to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number is NCT01980927. PMID:26783523

  9. Early Trabecular Development in Human Vertebrae: Overproduction, Constructive Regression, and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Acquaah, Frank; Robson Brown, Katharine A.; Ahmed, Farah; Jeffery, Nathan; Abel, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Early bone development may have a significant impact upon bone health in adulthood. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass are important determinants of adult bone strength. However, several studies have shown that BMD and bone mass decrease after birth. If early development is important for strength, why does this reduction occur? To investigate this, more data characterizing gestational, infant, and childhood bone development are needed in order to compare with adults. The aim of this study is to document early vertebral trabecular bone development, a key fragility fracture site, and infer whether this period is important for adult bone mass and structure. A series of 120 vertebrae aged between 6 months gestation and 2.5 years were visualized using microcomputed tomography. Spherical volumes of interest were defined, thresholded, and measured using 3D bone analysis software (BoneJ, Quant3D). The findings showed that gestation was characterized by increasing bone volume fraction whilst infancy was defined by significant bone loss (≈2/3rds) and the appearance of a highly anisotropic trabecular structure with a predominantly inferior–superior direction. Childhood development progressed via selective thickening of some trabeculae and the loss of others; maintaining bone volume whilst creating a more anisotropic structure. Overall, the pattern of vertebral development is one of gestational overproduction followed by infant “sculpting” of bone tissue during the first year of life (perhaps in order to regulate mineral homeostasis or to adapt to loading environment) and then subsequent refinement during early childhood. Comparison of early bone developmental data in this study with adult bone volume values taken from the literature shows that the loss in bone mass that occurs during the first year of life is never fully recovered. Early development could therefore be important for developing bone strength, but through structural changes in trabecular

  10. Role of trabecular microfractures in failure of human vertebrae estimated by the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Müller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Räth, Christoph W.

    2009-02-01

    Spine fractures are the most frequent complication of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. In case of the spine, the trabecular network plays the main role in load carrying and distribution. A correct description of mechanical properties of this bone structure helps to differentiate between strong and weak bones and can be useful for fracture prediction and treatment monitoring. By means of the finite element method (FEM), applied to μCT images, we modelled biomechanical processes in probes during loading and correlated the estimated failure load with the maximum compressive strength (MCS), obtained in real biomechanical tests. We studied a sample of 151 specimens taken from the trabecular part of human vertebrae in vitro, visualised using μCT imaging at an isotropic resolution of 26μm and tested by uniaxial compression. Besides the standard way of estimating failure load, which takes into account only strong micro-fractures, we also included small micro-fractures, what improved the correlation with MCS (Pearson's correlation coefficient r=0.78 vs. r=0.58). This correlation coefficient was larger than that for both the standard morphometric parameters (r=0.73 for bone volume fraction) and for texture measures defined by the local (an-) isotropic scaling indices method (r=0.55) and Minkowski Functionals (r=0.61). However, the performance of the FEM was different for subsamples selected according to the MCS value. The correlation increased for strong specimens (r=0.88), slightly decreased for weak specimens (r=0.68) and markedly dropped for specimens with medium MCS, e.g. between 60

  11. Stent-graft repair for acute traumatic thoracic aortic rupture.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, B; Czermak, B; Jaschke, W; Waldenberger, P; Fraedrich, G; Perkmann, R

    2004-12-01

    Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta is potentially life-threatening and leads to death in 75 to 90 per cent of cases at the time of injury. In high-risk patients, as traumatic injuries of the aorta combine with multiple associated injuries, endoluminal repair is now reported as a promising therapeutic strategy with encouraging results. This study determined the outcome of patients with traumatic thoracic aortic injury treated endovascularly during the past 7 years at our institution. Thirteen patients, 11 males and 2 females (mean age, 39 years; range, 19-82), with traumatic rupture of the otherwise unremarkable descending aorta (10 acute, 3 chronic), out of a series of 64 endovascular thoracic stent-graft procedures, were treated by implantation of Talent (n = 8), Vanguard (n = 5), and Excluder (n = 2) self-expanding devices between January 1996 and August 2003. The immediate technical success rate was 92 per cent (12/13). One patient showed a proximal endoleak type I, which was treated successfully by an additional stent-graft procedure. Secondary success rate was 100 per cent. The mortality rate was 0 per cent. Two additional stent-graft procedures were performed due to type I endoleaks after 18 and 28 months. There was no other intervention-related morbidity or mortality during the mean follow-up time of 26.4 months' (range, 6-86). Endovascular stent-graft repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries is a safe, effective, and low-morbidity alternative to open thoracic surgery and has promising midterm results.

  12. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  13. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Chan, Herman H M; Lau, Rainbow W H; Capili, Freddie G; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wan, Innes Y P

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  14. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Chan, Herman H M; Lau, Rainbow W H; Capili, Freddie G; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wan, Innes Y P

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies.

  15. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies.

  16. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  17. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Melodie F.; Robinson, Samuel T.; Svet, Mark T.; Liu, John C.; Acosta, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical cadaveric study. Objective Clinical studies indicate that using less-rigid fixation techniques in place of the standard all-pedicle screw construct when correcting for scoliosis may reduce the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a biomechanical advantage to using supralaminar hooks in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented vertebrae in a multilevel thoracic construct. Methods T7–T12 spines were biomechanically tested: (1) intact; (2) following a two-level pedicles screw fusion from T9 to T11; and after proximal extension of the fusion to T8–T9 with (3) bilateral supra-laminar hooks, (4) a unilateral hook + unilateral screw hybrid, or (5) bilateral pedicle screws. Specimens were nondestructively loaded while three-dimensional kinematics and intradiscal pressure at the supra-adjacent level were recorded. Results Supra-adjacent hypermobility was reduced when bilateral hooks were used in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented level, with statistically significant differences in lateral bending and torsion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Disk pressures in the supra-adjacent segment were not statistically different among top-off techniques. Conclusions The use of supralaminar hooks at the top of a multilevel posterior fusion construct reduces the stress at the proximal uninstrumented motion segment. Although further data is needed to provide a definitive link to the clinical occurrence of PJK, this in vitro study demonstrates the potential benefit of “easing” the transition between the stiff instrumented spine and the flexible native spine and is the first to demonstrate these results with laminar hooks. PMID:27190735

  18. Radiographic detection of thoracic lesions in adult cows: A retrospective study of 42 cases (1995–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, Isabelle; Fecteau, Gilles; Breton, Luc; Hélie, Pierre; Beauregard, Guy; Blond, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of 42 cows that underwent both thoracic radiographic and postmortem examinations within a period of 7 days were reviewed to develop an evaluation grid to interpret bovine thoracic radiographs and to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of thoracic radiographs for detection of thoracic lesions, based on postmortem examination. Most cows (64%) had clinical signs of respiratory disease, whereas 19% showed signs of cardiac problems. The sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for identifying cows with thoracic lesions were 94% and 50%, respectively. In this study, with a prevalence of thoracic lesions of 86%, the positive- and negative-predictive values were 92% and 57%, respectively. This study provides an evaluation grid that allows standardization of the reading of bovine thoracic radiographs and the identification of most thoracic lesions. Bovine thoracic radiographs are useful in detecting thoracic lesions in cows. PMID:18390098

  19. Age estimation in children and young adolescents for forensic purposes using fourth cervical vertebra (C4).

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Giuliodori, A; Zampi, M; Galić, I; Cingolani, M; Pagliara, F; Ferrante, L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of using the growth of the body of C4 vertebra for the estimation of age in children and young adolescents. We used the fact that the proportions between the radiologic projections of the posterior and anterior sides of the C4 vertebral body, which forms a trapezoidal shape, differ with age: in younger individuals, the posterior side is higher, whereas in older individuals, the projections of the sides of the vertebral body form a rectangular shape with the two sides equal or with the anterior side slightly higher. Cephalograms of 444 Italian subjects (214 female and 230 male individuals) aged between 5 and 15 years and with no obvious development abnormalities were analyzed. The projections of the anterior side (a) and of the posterior side (b) of each C4 body were measured, and their ratio (Vba), as a value of the C4 body development, was used for age estimation. Distribution of the Vba suggested that it does not change after 13 years in female and 14 years in male subjects. Consequently, we restricted our analysis of the Vba growing model until 14 years in both sexes. We used a Bayesian calibration method to estimate chronological age as function of Vba as a predicting variable. The intra- and inter-observer agreement was satisfactory, using intra-class correlation coefficient of Vba on 30 randomly selected cephalograms. The mean absolute errors were 1.34 years (standard deviation 0.95) and 1.01 years (standard deviation 0.71), and the mean inter-quartile ranges of the calibrating distribution were 2.32 years (standard deviation 0.25) in male and 1.72 years (standard deviation 0.39) in female individuals, respectively. The slopes of the regression of the estimated age error to chronological age were 0.02 in male and 0.06 in female individuals, where both values did not result significantly different from 0 (p > 0.12). In conclusion, although our Bayesian calibration method might not really

  20. The management of pain from collapse of osteoporotic vertebrae with continuous intrathecal morphine infusion.

    PubMed

    Saltari, Maria Rita; Shaladi, Alì; Piva, Bruno; Gilli, Giuseppe; Tartari, Stefano; Dall'ara, Roberto; Bevilacqua, Marzio; Micheletto, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    Objectives.  Vertebral fractures are the most common consequences of severe osteoporosis. The chronic pain from collapse of osteoporotic vertebrae affects quality of life (QoL) and autonomy of patients. The management of pain with oral or transdermal opiates can cause severe side-effects. Continuous intrathecal administration of morphine through an implantable pump might represent an alternative therapy to conventional oral or transdermal administration of opioids and has some advantages and disadvantages for pain relief and improvement in QoL when compared to conventional opioid delivery. It is our objective to report our experience using intrathecal delivery of analgesics in a population of patients with refractory pain due to vertebral fractures. Materials and Methods.  In 24 patients, refractory to conventional delivery of opioids, we used intrathecal analgesic therapy. To test for efficacy and improvement in QoL, we administered the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO). Before patients were selected for pump implantation, an intraspinal drug delivery trial was performed to monitor side-effects and responses to intrathecal therapy. Results.  Significant pain relief was obtained in all implanted patients. Using the QUALEFFO, we observed significant improvement of all variables such as QDL (quality of daily life), DW (domestic work), ambulation, and PHS (perception of health status), before and after one year after pump implantation. With intrathecal morphine infusion, none of the 24 patients required additional systemic analgesic medication. The mean morphine dose during the spinal trial was 11.28 mg/day, 7.92 mg/day at pump implantation, and 16.32 mg/day at one-year follow-up. Conclusions.  Our results show that intrathecal administration of morphine efficiently relieves the symptoms of pain and improves QoL. Continuous intrathecal administration of morphine

  1. Feasibility of C2 Vertebra Screws Placement in Patient With Occipitalization of Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Wenhan; Huang, Zucheng; Li, Xueshi; Chen, Jianting; Wu, Zenghui; Zhu, Qingan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Occipitalization of atlas (OA) is a congenital disease with the possibility of anomalous bony anatomies and the C2 pedicle screw insertion is technically challenging. However, there are no existing literatures clarified the dimensions and angulations of the C2 pedicles, lamina and lateral masses for screw insertion in patients with OA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the morphometric features of C2 for screw placement in OA to guide the use of surgical screws. Measurements of the OA patients on the computer tomography (CT) images including lamina angle, length and thickness, pedicle angle, length and thickness, and lateral mass thickness and length of the axis vertebra. The OA patients data were compared with age and gender matched cohort of randomly selected patients in a control group without OA. The picture archiving and communication system was used for all patients who had received cervical CT scanning between January 2001 and January 2015. Measurements were performed independently by 2 experienced observers who reviewed the CT scans and recorded the patients with OA. Statistical analysis was performed at a level of significance P < 0.05. A total of 73 patients (29 males and 44 females) were eligible to be included in the OA group. In most of the measurements the pathological cohort had significantly smaller values compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In the OA group, only 45% of the pedicles and 88% of the lamina had thicknesses bigger than 3.5 mm. Both groups had all pedicle and lamina lengths bigger than 12 mm. Regarding the length of the lateral mass, no value was bigger than 12 mm in the OA group, whereas 40% of the values in the control group were bigger than 12 mm. The average pedicle and laminar angles were 37° and 49° in the patients with OA, respectively. The variable anatomy in patients with OA needs to be taken into account when performing spinal stabilization as the C2 bony architectures are

  2. Quantitative Anatomy of C7 Vertebra in Southern Chinese for Insertion of Lateral Mass Screws and Pedicle Screws

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Hin; Wong, Kam Kwong; Wong, Wing Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To analyze the quantitative anatomy of C7 vertebra for insertion of lateral mass screws and pedicle screws in Southern Chinese patients. Overview of Literature C7 lateral mass is smaller when compared to other subaxial cervical levels, which limits the length of lateral mass screws that can be used. Some studies have suggested pedicle screws for better fixation. But, this option is limited by the narrow pedicle width. Methods We have obtained computed tomography (CT) cervical spine data in 0.625 mm slices from our radiology department. The patients were adults. CTs were from May to August, 2015. The lateral mass screw length was measured using Margerl's technique and pedicle width and pedicle screw trajectory were determined in three-dimensional reformated images. Results CT scans of cervical spines of 94 patients were obtained and 188 lateral masses and pedicles of C7 vertebrae were measured. The mean lateral mass screw length was 13.2 mm (standard deviation [SD] 1.6 mm), mean outer pedicle width was 5.9 mm (SD 1.0 mm) and mean pedicle screw trajectory was 29.4 degrees (SD 3.6 degrees). Most (91.0%) of the pedicles had an outer diameter ≥4.5 mm. Conclusions The mean lateral mass screw length was longer when compared with other similar studies, while the mean outer pedicle width was narrower. Nearly 10% of the pedicles were unable to accommodate 3.5 mm screws. These findings favor the use of lateral mass screws to provide a safe and stable fixation for C7 vertebrae in Southern Chinese patients, while the final choice of fixation method should only be confirmed after careful preoperative planning with CT scan. PMID:27559451

  3. Patient safety in thoracic surgery and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons checklist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Improving patient safety seems to be a new interesting clinical subject but, in fact, it is no new. It has to do with one of the oldest ethical principles of our profession: curing and not harming. The important research that has been done in a short period of time has brought in new insight to this complex area that is fast developing. The creation of safety managing systems will allow coordinating efforts from very different, although complementary, areas to create real safety culture and safety climate in every organization. In the surgical settings, teamwork is basic to provide good quality of care. Safety leaders in every team have an important role in establishing priorities, summarizing proposals, coordinating efforts, launching new initiatives and transmitting that safety efforts are worth taken. Preparedness and anticipation are key points for avoiding most of the diverse types of patient harm that can occur. As has been published, a great number of errors can be avoided simply using crosscheck based on specialized checklist that reviews every important detail of the procedure. This strategy has been demonstrated very useful at other high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear or food management. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives program launched in 2002 by the WHO has taught us that improvement is possible using a simple checklist. More complex and detail checklist can be more adequate for more complex procedures and settings. The proposed ESTS checklist reviews different areas of possible error in deeper detail allowing the finest adjustment of the patient before the skin incision. It has been recently released to the general thoracic community and monitors its use and usefulness has to be warrantied. PMID:25984360

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between Parental Education and Substance Use Among U.S. 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students: Findings From the Monitoring the Future Project*

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Wallace, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Secondary school students' rates of substance use vary significantly by race/ethnicity and by their parents' level of education (a proxy for socioeconomic status). The relationship between students' substance use and race/ethnicity is, however, potentially confounded because parental education also differs substantially by race/ethnicity. This report disentangles the confounding by examining White, African American, and Hispanic students separately, showing how parental education relates to cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Method: Data are from the 1999-2008 Monitoring the Future nationally representative in-school surveys of more than 360,000 students in Grades 8, 10, and 12. Results: (a) High proportions of Hispanic students have parents with the lowest level of education, and the relatively low levels of substance use by these students complicates total sample data linking parental education and substance use. (b) There are clear interactions: Compared with White students, substance use rates among African American and Hispanic students are less strongly linked with parental education (and are lower overall). (c) Among White students, 8th and 1 0th graders show strong negative relations between parental education and substance use, whereas by 12th grade their heavy drinking and marijuana use are not correlated with parental education. Conclusions: Low parental education appears to be much more of a risk factor for White students than for Hispanic or African American students. Therefore, in studies of substance use epidemiology, findings based on predominantly White samples are not equally applicable to other racial/ethnic subgroups. Conversely, the large proportions of minority students in the lowest parental education category can mask or weaken findings that are clearer among White students alone. PMID:21388601

  5. Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by synostosis of the first and second thoracic ribs: 2 case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reidler, Jay S; Das De, Soumen; Schreiber, Joseph J; Schneider, Darren B; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    We present 2 cases of combined arterial and neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome triggered by trauma in patients with congenital synostoses of the first and second ribs. These patients were successfully treated with supraclavicular resection of the first and second ribs and scalenectomy. We review these cases and the associated literature on thoracic outlet syndrome and rib synostosis.

  6. Image segmentation and registration algorithm to collect thoracic skeleton semilandmarks for characterization of age and sex-based thoracic morphology variation.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Nguyen, Callistus M; Schoell, Samantha L; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic anthropometry variations with age and sex have been reported and likely relate to thoracic injury risk and outcome. The objective of this study was to collect a large volume of homologous semilandmark data from the thoracic skeleton for the purpose of quantifying thoracic morphology variations for males and females of ages 0-100 years. A semi-automated image segmentation and registration algorithm was applied to collect homologous thoracic skeleton semilandmarks from 343 normal computed tomography (CT) scans. Rigid, affine, and symmetric diffeomorphic transformations were used to register semilandmarks from an atlas to homologous locations in the subject-specific coordinate system. Homologous semilandmarks were successfully collected from 92% (7077) of the ribs and 100% (187) of the sternums included in the study. Between 2700 and 11,000 semilandmarks were collected from each rib and sternum and over 55 million total semilandmarks were collected from all subjects. The extensive landmark data collected more fully characterizes thoracic skeleton morphology across ages and sexes. Characterization of thoracic morphology with age and sex may help explain variations in thoracic injury risk and has important implications for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  8. Treatment of Descending Thoracic Aneurysm with an Intraaortic Occluder

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, Domingo; Frank, L.; Del Rio, M.; Gallo, A.; Navia, J.; Bertolozzi, E.; Bracco, D.; Cesareo, V.

    1987-01-01

    Elective treatment of descending thoracic aneurysms involves direct surgery, with Dacron graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. When the patient's condition contraindicates major surgery, however, the surgeon should consider using an extraanatomic approach—implanting an ascending aorta-to-abdominal aorta Dacron bypass graft in a ventral position and leaving the diseased segment undisturbed. After such a procedure, the descending thoracic aorta must be excluded from the normal circulation. For this purpose, we have designed an intraaortic occluding technique in which an umbrella-like device is implanted immediately distal to the left subclavian artery. This technique has proved safe and uncomplicated in canine experiments and is ready for clinical trials. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:196-205) Images PMID:15229741

  9. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter H; Huynh, Tam T; Kougias, Panagiotis; Wall, Mathew J; Coselli, Joseph S; Mattox, Kenneth L

    2008-08-01

    Blunt trauma to the thoracic aorta is life-threatening, with instant fatality in at least 75% of victims. If left untreated, nearly half of those who survive the initial injury will die within the first 24 hours. Surgical repair has been the standard treatment of blunt aortic injury, but immediate operative intervention is frequently difficult due to concomitant injuries. Although endovascular treatment of traumatic aortic disruption is less invasive than conventional repair via thoracotomy, this strategy remains controversial in young patients due to anatomical considerations and device limitations. This article reviews the likely advantages of endovascular interventions for blunt thoracic aortic injuries. Potential limitations and clinical outcomes of this minimally invasive technique are also discussed.

  10. Palmar hyperhidrosis CT guided chemical percutaneous thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Adler, O B; Engel, A; Rosenberger, A; Dondelinger, R

    1990-10-01

    Palmar hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating of the hands causes, to those affected, emotional and physical disturbance and impediment in professional and social life. The cause is unknown. Sweat glands are innervated by the sympathetic chain of the autonomous nervous system. The center of sympathetic regulation of the upper extremities is located between the segments of D.2-D.9 of the spinal cord. Accepted treatment consists of surgery aimed to excise the third thoracic sympathetic ganglion. Besides the surgical procedure as such, and its complications, there are complications inherent to the excision of the ganglion. These are Horner's syndrome, compensatory sweating in other parts of the body, and recurrence of sweating. CT guided chemical percutaneous thoracic sympathectomy presents an alternative, which in the event of failure does not prevent ensuing surgery. The preliminary experience with this procedure in 50 patients is presented and discussed.

  11. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Isolated to the Thoracic Epidural Spine.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Benjamin; Talbott, Jason; Uzelac, Alina; Rehani, Bhavya

    2015-11-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare benign histiocytic disease that infrequently presents in the spine. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the epidural thoracic spine in a 26-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the 15th reported case of isolated spinal disease and only the fourth case of isolated thoracic epidural disease. Given its rarity as well as non-specific symptoms and imaging findings, Rosai-Dorfman disease is often not considered and misdiagnosed on imaging studies. To help improve awareness of Rosai-Dorfman spinal disease, we review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. PMID:27252790

  12. Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Veritable Pandora’s Box

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma, airways, and/or encompasses mainly four clinical entities–catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial haemothorax, catamenial haemoptysis and lung nodules. The cases were studied retrospectively by reviewing the records at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for duration of five years i.e., form March 2010-2014 and analysed for the clinical presentation and management of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. Catamenial breathlessness was the main symptom. Pneumothorax and pleural effusion were the findings on investigations. Histopathology report of endometriosis was present in three cases (50%). Conditions with excess oestrogen like endometriosis, fibroid, adenomyosis were diagnosed in these patients by pelvic scan. After the initial supportive treatment with hormones, pleurodesis, hysterectomy and lung decortication were the treatment modalities. Two cases that had multiple recurrences were diagnosed as disseminated TES. They underwent combined treatment of surgery and hormones. PMID:27190904

  13. [Prevention and treatment of intraoperative complications of thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Lampl, L

    2015-05-01

    In order to achieve a minimal complication rate there is a need for a comprehensive strategy. This means in the first line preventive steps which include patient positioning, suitable approaches and access, an appropriately qualified surgical team as well as a carefully planned dissection and preparation. Furthermore, a supply of additional instrumentation, such as thrombectomy catheters, special vascular clamps and even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and a heart-lung machine (HLM) in cases of centrally located lesions should be on stand-by. Control instruments, such as a bronchoscope and esophagoscope should not be forgotten. In selected cases a preoperative embolization (vascular malformation) or cream swallow (thoracic duct injury) can be helpful. Special interventions to overcome complications arising are described for the chest wall, lung parenchyma, pulmonary vessels, great vessels, bronchial arteries, trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thoracic duct, heart, vertebral column and sternum corresponding to the topography.

  14. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  15. Single-Port Thoracic Surgery: A New Direction

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Calvin S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has slowly established itself as an alternate surgical approach for the treatment of an increasingly wide range of thoracic conditions. The potential benefits of fewer surgical incisions, better cosmesis, and less postoperative pain and paraesthesia have led to the technique’s popularity worldwide. The limited single small incision through which the surgeon has to operate poses challenges that are slowly being addressed by improvements in instrument design. Of note, instruments and video-camera systems that are narrower and angulated have made single-port VATS major lung resection easier to perform and learn. In the future, we may see the development of subcostal or embryonic natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery access, evolution in anaesthesia strategies, and cross-discipline imaging-assisted lesion localization for single-port VATS procedures. PMID:25207240

  16. Primary Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Melanoma in the Lower Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Kathrin; Bresch, Anke; Lobsien, Donald; Mueller, Wolf; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Seidel, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Background Context. Up to date, only four cases of primary intradural extramedullary spinal cord melanoma (PIEM) have been reported. No previous reports have described a case of PIEM located in the lower thoracic spine with long-term follow-up. Purpose. Demonstrating an unusual, extremely rare case of melanoma manifestation. Study Design. Case report. Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old female suffering from increasing lower extremity pain, left-sided paresis, and paraesthesia due to spinal cord compression caused by PIEM in the lower thoracic spine. Results. Extensive investigation excluded other possible primary melanoma sites and metastases. For spinal cord decompression, the tumor at level T12 was resected, yet incompletely. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered two weeks after surgery. The patient was recurrence-free at 104 weeks after radiotherapy but presents with unchanged neurological symptoms. Conclusion. Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma (PIEM) is extremely rare and its clinical course is unpredictable. PMID:27127667

  17. [A Dumbbell-Type Thoracic Spinal Lipoma: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Soichiro; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Sasamori, Toru; Seki, Toshitaka; Saito, Hisatoshi

    2016-06-01

    Spinal lipomas are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all spinal tumors. Most are associated with spinal dysraphism. Spinal lipomas without spinal dysraphism are uncommon;they are typically subpial tumors. Some tumors are located both inside and outside the dura mater (so-called "dumbbell-type"). Herein, we report a patient with a dumbbell-type thoracic spinal lipoma. A man in his 50's complained of progressive gait disturbance, dysesthesia in his left leg, and hyperesthesia in his right leg. His symptoms were worsened by exercise. CT and MRI revealed a thoracic spinal lipoma extending from the spinal cord to the intervertebral foramen at the Th 6-8 level. He underwent partial tumor removal and untethering. Postoperatively he reported gradual symptom abatement. Dumbbell-type spinal lipomas are very rare. Besides partial removal of the tumor, untethering should be considered when symptoms are associated with tethering of the spinal cord. PMID:27270148

  18. The history of surgery of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cooley, D A

    1999-11-01

    Until the late 19th century, treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms relied on ligation of the parent vessel or introduction of foreign materials to promote coagulation or fibrosis. A major breakthrough occurred in 1888, when Rudolph Matas reported an internal repair technique known as endoaneurysmorrhaphy. In this approach, the clot was excised from the aneurysmal sac, and the orifices of the arteries that entered the sac were sutured from within, reestablishing continuous blood flow. At the beginning of the 20th century, Alexis Carrel and Charles Guthrie began to lay the foundation for modern vascular anastomotic techniques. Although isolated successes were reported, optimal treatment of thoracic aortic disease awaited the development of reliable synthetic grafts in the 1950s and 1960s. During the past 15 years, the treatment goal has reverted to endoaneurysmorrhaphy, involving the use of a suitable graft to restore aortic continuity. PMID:10589335

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of lumbar pedicle screws in spondylolytic vertebrae: comparison of fixation strength between the traditional trajectory and a cortical bone trajectory.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Keitaro; Yato, Yoshiyuki; Imabayashi, Hideaki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Asazuma, Takashi; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In the management of isthmic spondylolisthesis, the pedicle screw system is widely accepted surgical strategy; however, there are few reports on the biomechanical behavior of pedicle screws in spondylolytic vertebrae. The purpose of the present study was to compare fixation strength between pedicle screws inserted through the traditional trajectory (TT) and those inserted through a cortical bone trajectory (CBT) in spondylolytic vertebrae by computational simulation. METHODS Finite element models of spondylolytic and normal vertebrae were created from CT scans of 17 patients with adult isthmic spondylolisthesis (mean age 54.6 years, 10 men and 7 women). Each vertebral model was implanted with pedicle screws using TT and CBT techniques and compared between two groups. First, fixation strength of a single screw was evaluated by measuring axial pullout strength. Next, vertebral fixation strength of a paired-screw construct was examined by applying forces simulating flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to vertebrae. RESULTS Fixation strengths of TT screws showed a nonsignificant difference between the spondylolytic and the normal vertebrae (p = 0.31-0.81). Fixation strength of CBT screws in the spondylolytic vertebrae demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in pullout strength (21.4%, p < 0.01), flexion (44.1%, p < 0.01), extension (40.9%, p < 0.01), lateral bending (38.3%, p < 0.01), and axial rotation (28.1%, p < 0.05) compared with those in the normal vertebrae. In the spondylolytic vertebrae, no statistically significant difference was observed for pullout strength between TT and CBT (p = 0.90); however, the CBT construct showed lower vertebral fixation strength in flexion (39.0%, p < 0.01), extension (35.6%, p < 0.01), lateral bending (50.7%, p < 0.01), and axial rotation (59.3%, p < 0.01) compared with the TT construct. CONCLUSIONS CBT screws are less optimal for stabilizing the spondylolytic vertebra due to their lower

  20. Comparative study of the density of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae in menopausal women aged over 50 years with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Tavakoli, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Index used for osteoporosis detection was BMD measured in L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae. We compared the density of the vertebrae to select the one with maximum change in the density for decreasing the cost and the time. Methods and Materials: Ninety seven osteoporotic post-menopausal women with a mean age of 61.78 ± 8.48 (50 - 86) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.75 ± 2.66 (kg/m2) (18 - 30) without any known diseases and on any medication affecting bone mineral density (BMD) were examined at osteoporosis section of a teaching hospital. The vertebral bodies (L2 - L4) of participants were measured by using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry system (DEXA). To investigate if the BMD measurement of a single vertebra could replace the total L2 - L4 measurement, the mean BMDs and the correlations of the L2 - L4 were compared. Results: Among the 97 studied women, the mean BMI was 24.75 ± 2.66. The mean BMD of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were 0.7199, 0.7258, and 0.7402, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean BMD of L2 and L3 vertebrae (P > 0.05), suggesting a strong relationship between L2 and L3. The mean BMD in the L4 vertebra was significantly higher than the other two vertebrae (P < 0.05), Statistical analysis showed that the BMD in all three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were associated with BMI (r > 0 and P < 0.05), but there was no significant relationship between BMD and age in the three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae (r ≅ 0 and P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the mean BMDs of L2 and L3 were not significantly different, and due to a very high correlation between L2 and L3, we recommend the measurement of L2 rather than L2 - L4 in order to save patient scanning time, cost, and the patient X-ray exposure. PMID:26097857

  1. Long-term sequelae following blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T P

    2001-01-01

    People experiencing blunt thoracic trauma may sustain multiple rib fractures, flail chest, cardiac or pulmonary contusions, injury to the great vessels, sternal fractures, clavicular fractures, neck injuries, and lacerations of the liver and/or spleen. Long-term sequelae from blunt chest trauma include chest wall deformities, persistent dyspnea, and cardiac, neurologic, or esophageal complications. Chronic pain, depression, and loss of functional status are also frequent components of recovery from trauma. PMID:12025303

  2. Immediate effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on hypertensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John; Tyer, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Williams, Gabbrielle; Kulcak, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. Introduction: Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT. Methods: Fifty hypertensive participants (age = 45.5±13.9 years, height = 1.69±0.10 m, body mass = 93.9±21.5 kg: mean±standard deviation (SD)) were equally randomized into a single-blind, controlled trial involving two study groups: supine diversified anterior upper thoracic SMT of T1–4, or a ‘no T-spine contact’ control. Outcome measures were electrocardiogram, bilateral pulse oximetry, and bilateral blood pressure measurement performed at baseline, post 1-minute intervention, and post 10-minute intervention. An independent samples t-test was used to compare between-group differences at baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare within-group changes over time. Results: Within-group changes in PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated that the atria were transiently less active post-SMT and the ventricles were more active post-SMT, however the changes were clinically minimal. Conclusion: The results of this study, and the limited existing normotensive, thoracic-specific SMT research in this field, suggest that cardiovascular physiology, short-term, is not affected by upper thoracic spine SMT in hypertensive individuals to a clinically relevant level. PMID:26309381

  3. Calibration of high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Cauda, Emanuele; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    High flow rate respirable size selective samplers, GK4.126 and FSP10 cyclones, were calibrated for thoracic-size selective sampling in two different laboratories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) utilized monodisperse ammonium fluorescein particles and scanning electron microscopy to determine the aerodynamic particle size of the monodisperse aerosol. Fluorescein intensity was measured to determine sampling efficiencies of the cyclones. The Health Safety and Laboratory (HSL) utilized a real time particle sizing instrument (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) and poly-disperse glass sphere particles and particle size distributions between the cyclone and reference sampler were compared. Sampling efficiency of the cyclones were compared to the thoracic convention defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)/Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN)/International Standards Organization (ISO). The GK4.126 cyclone showed minimum bias compared to the thoracic convention at flow rates of 3.5 l min−1 (NIOSH) and 2.7–3.3 l min−1 (HSL) and the difference may be from the use of different test systems. In order to collect the most dust and reduce the limit of detection, HSL suggested using the upper end in range (3.3 l min−1). A flow rate of 3.4 l min−1 would be a reasonable compromise, pending confirmation in other laboratories. The FSP10 cyclone showed minimum bias at the flow rate of 4.0 l min−1 in the NIOSH laboratory test. The high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers might be used for higher sample mass collection in order to meet analytical limits of quantification. PMID:26891196

  4. Calibration of high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Cauda, Emanuele; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    High flow rate respirable size selective samplers, GK4.126 and FSP10 cyclones, were calibrated for thoracic-size selective sampling in two different laboratories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) utilized monodisperse ammonium fluorescein particles and scanning electron microscopy to determine the aerodynamic particle size of the monodisperse aerosol. Fluorescein intensity was measured to determine sampling efficiencies of the cyclones. The Health Safety and Laboratory (HSL) utilized a real time particle sizing instrument (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) and polydisperse glass sphere particles and particle size distributions between the cyclone and reference sampler were compared. Sampling efficiency of the cyclones were compared to the thoracic convention defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)/Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN)/International Standards Organization (ISO). The GK4.126 cyclone showed minimum bias compared to the thoracic convention at flow rates of 3.5 l min(-1) (NIOSH) and 2.7-3.3 l min(-1) (HSL) and the difference may be from the use of different test systems. In order to collect the most dust and reduce the limit of detection, HSL suggested using the upper end in range (3.3 l min(-1)). A flow rate of 3.4 l min(-1) would be a reasonable compromise, pending confirmation in other laboratories. The FSP10 cyclone showed minimum bias at the flow rate of 4.0 l min(-1) in the NIOSH laboratory test. The high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers might be used for higher sample mass collection in order to meet analytical limits of quantification. PMID:26891196

  5. The wide spectrum of the asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cortina, H; Beltran, J; Olague, R; Ceres, L; Alonso, A; Lanuza, A

    1979-04-19

    Seven cases of A. T. D. are presented. Radiological findings were extraordinarily diverse. The prognosis of the disease is difficult for each individual case, because of the frequent pulmonary complications and cystic renal lesions are not always directly related to the severity of the bone changes. The authors believe that the term "thoracic-pelvic-phalangeal dysplasia" proposed by Langer, is the most adequate, since it points to the key factors in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:450492

  6. Acute postoperative shingles after thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Massad, Malek G; Navarro, Rafael A; Rubeiz, Helene; Kpodonu, Jacques; Karol, Janet; Blacha, Mathew; Evans, Alexander

    2004-12-01

    Shingles secondary to reactivation of a previous varicella-zoster virus infection has been reported to develop within surgical wounds and after trauma. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with history of chicken pox in childhood who had acute postoperative shingles develop along the T3-T4 dermatomes after thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. The possible causes and precipitating factors are discussed. PMID:15561060

  7. Thoracic surgical training in Europe: what has changed recently?

    PubMed Central

    Lerut, Antoon E. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Training in thoracic surgery (TS) traditionally varies amongst countries in Europe. The theoretical content of the training, the length of training, the amount of self-performed procedures to be done and the definition of training units all differ in European countries. However, in the past two decades, several initiatives were taken to harmonize TS training in Europe. The purpose of this paper is to highlight these initiatives and their impact on today’s TS training in Europe. PMID:27047948

  8. Neurological Complications Following Endoluminal Repair of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J. P.; Taylor, P. R.; Bell, R. E.; Chan, Y. C.; Sabharwal, T.; Carrell, T. W. G.; Reidy, J. F.

    2007-09-15

    Open surgery for thoracic aortic disease is associated with significant morbidity and the reported rates for paraplegia and stroke are 3%-19% and 6%-11%, respectively. Spinal cord ischemia and stroke have also been reported following endoluminal repair. This study reviews the incidence of paraplegia and stroke in a series of 186 patients treated with thoracic stent grafts. From July 1997 to September 2006, 186 patients (125 men) underwent endoluminal repair of thoracic aortic pathology. Mean age was 71 years (range, 17-90 years). One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated electively and 58 patients had urgent procedures. Anesthesia was epidural in 131, general in 50, and local in 5 patients. Seven patients developed paraplegia (3.8%; two urgent and five elective). All occurred in-hospital apart from one associated with severe hypotension after a myocardial infarction at 3 weeks. Four of these recovered with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. One patient with paraplegia died and two had permanent neurological deficit. The rate of permanent paraplegia and death was 1.6%. There were seven strokes (3.8%; four urgent and three elective). Three patients made a complete recovery, one had permanent expressive dysphasia, and three died. The rate of permanent stroke and death was 2.1%. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic disease is an attractive alternative to open surgery; however, there is still a risk of paraplegia and stroke. Permanent neurological deficits and death occurred in 3.7% of the patients in this series. We conclude that prompt recognition of paraplegia and immediate insertion of a CSF drain can be an effective way of recovering spinal cord function and improving the prognosis.

  9. Acute postoperative shingles after thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Massad, Malek G; Navarro, Rafael A; Rubeiz, Helene; Kpodonu, Jacques; Karol, Janet; Blacha, Mathew; Evans, Alexander

    2004-12-01

    Shingles secondary to reactivation of a previous varicella-zoster virus infection has been reported to develop within surgical wounds and after trauma. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with history of chicken pox in childhood who had acute postoperative shingles develop along the T3-T4 dermatomes after thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. The possible causes and precipitating factors are discussed.

  10. Loading simulation of lumbar spine vertebrae during a compression test using the finite elements method and trabecular bone strength properties, determined by means of nanoindentations.

    PubMed

    Bouzakis, K D; Mitsi, S; Michailidis, N; Mirisidis, I; Mesomeris, G; Maliaris, G; Korlos, A; Kapetanos, G; Antonarakos, P; Anagnostidis, K

    2004-06-01

    The mechanical strength properties of lumbar spine vertebrae are of great importance in a wide range of applications. Herein, through nanoindentations and appropriate evaluation of the corresponding results, trabecular bone struts stress-strain characteristics can be determined. In the frame of the present paper, an L2 fresh cadaveric vertebra, from which posterior elements were removed, was subjected to compression. With the aid of developed finite elements method based algorithms, the cortical shell and the cancellous core bulk elasticity moduli and stresses were determined, whereas the tested vertebra geometrical model used in these algorithms was considered as having a compound structure, consisting of the cancellous bone surrounded by the cortical shell. Moreover nanoindentations were conducted and an appropriate evaluation method of the obtained results was applied to extract stress-strain curves of individual lumbar spine vertebra trabecular bone struts. These data were used in the mathematical description of the vertebrae compression test. The vertebral cancellous bone structure was simulated by a beam elements network, possessing an equivalent porosity and different stiffnesses in vertical and horizontal direction. Thus, the measured course of the compression load versus the occurring specimen deformation was verified.

  11. Recovery Effects of a 180 mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180 mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:20953437

  12. Effect of Massage on Pain Management for Thoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428

  13. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  14. Current readings: Window-of-opportunity trials for thoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer have occurred with the identification of molecular biomarker targets and administration of novel agents with resulting improvement in clinical outcomes. In the early-stage setting, personalized therapy with novel agents and molecular profiling are being incorporated into neoadjuvant "window-of-opportunity" trials. These important studies enable biomarker research and an expedited analysis of the efficacy of the targeted agent. However, there are significant limitations to window-of-opportunity trials. The aim of this article is to review the current window-of-opportunity trials of neoadjuvant targeted agents for thoracic malignancies, discuss the benefits and limitations of these trials, and propose more optimal alternative trial end points. Neoadjuvant trials of resectable non-small cell lung cancer and mesothelioma that are ongoing or under development and relevant to thoracic surgeons are also discussed. The success of these trials will depend on a collaborative multidisciplinary effort, especially from the field of thoracic surgery.

  15. A review of enhanced recovery for thoracic anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, N L; Edmonds, L; Ghosh, S; Klein, A A

    2013-02-01

    During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of thoracic surgical procedures carried out in the UK. The current financial climate dictates that more efficient use of resources is necessary to meet escalating demands on healthcare. One potential means to achieve this is through the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols, designed to produce productivity savings by driving reduction in length of stay. These have been promoted by government bodies in a number of surgical specialties, including colorectal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. This review focuses on aspects of peri-operative care that might be incorporated into such a programme for thoracic anaesthesia, for which an enhanced recovery programme has not yet been introduced in the UK, and a review of the literature specific to this area of practice has not been published before. We performed a comprehensive search for published work relating to the peri-operative management and optimisation of patients undergoing thoracic surgery, and divided these into appropriate areas of practice. We have reviewed the specific interventions that may be included in an enhanced recovery programme, including: pre-optimisation; minimising fasting time; thrombo-embolic prophylaxis; choice of anaesthetic and analgesic technique and surgical approach; postoperative rehabilitation; and chest drain management. Using the currently available evidence, the design and implementation of an enhanced recovery programme based on this review in selected patients as a package of care may reduce morbidity and length of hospital stay, thus maximising utilisation of available resources. PMID:23121400

  16. Depth of the thoracic epidural space in children.

    PubMed

    Masir, F; Driessen, J J; Thies, K C; Wijnen, M H; van Egmond, J

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic epidural anaesthesia in anaesthetized children requires a meticulous technique and may have an increased success rate when the distance between skin and epidural space is known. The objective of this observational study was to measure the skin to epidural distance (SED) during thoracic epidural puncture in 61 children. The epidural puncture was performed using the loss of resistance technique with saline 0.9%. The distance from the needle tip to the point where the needle emerged from the skin was measured. The post-operative analgesia parameters were also measured. Skin to epidural distance correlated significantly with the age and weight of the children. The equation for the relation between SED (cm) and age was 2.15 + (0.01 x months) and for SED vs weight was 1.95 + (0.045 x kg). Despite considerable variability among individuals, the observed correlation of SED with both age and weight shows that this parameter may be helpful to guide thoracic epidural puncture in anaesthetized children. PMID:17067139

  17. Immediate reduction in temporal sensory summation after thoracic spinal manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D; Beneciuk, Jason M; George, Steven Z

    2011-01-01

    Background Context Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has shown clinical effectiveness in some patients with musculoskeletal pain. Purpose We performed the current experiment to test whether regional pain modulation is to be expected from thoracic SMT. Study Design/Setting Randomized experimental design performed in a university pain laboratory. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was experimental pain sensitivity in cervical and lumbar innervated area. Methods Ninety healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive one of three interventions (SMT, exercise or rest) to the upper thoracic spine. Participants completed questionnaires about pain-related affect and expectations regarding each of the interventions. We collected experimental pain sensitivity measures of cervical and lumbar innervated areas before and immediately after randomly assigned intervention. Mixed-model analysis of co-variance was used to test changes in measures of experimental pain sensitivity. Results No interactions or intervention (group) effects were noted for pressure or A-delta mediated thermal pain responses. Participants receiving SMT had greater reductions in temporal sensory summation (TSS). Conclusions This current study indicates thoracic SMT reduces TSS in healthy subjects. These findings extend our previous work in healthy and clinical subjects by indicating change in the nocioceptive afferent system occurred caudal to the region of SMT application. However, the duration of reduction in TSS is an unknown, and more work needs to be completed in clinical populations for confirm the relevance of these findings. PMID:21463970

  18. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method. PMID:26198231

  19. [Hemodynamic repercussion of epidural bupivacaine in thoracic injuries].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gallardo, A; Lajara Montell, A M; Manzanos Luna, A M

    1991-01-01

    Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic effects of 8 to 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine containing 1:200,000 adrenaline administered at the midthoracic level were prospectively assessed in 20 patients (aged 45 +/- 16 years) with thoracic trauma presenting 6 +/- 2 rib fractures and pulmonary contusion of different extent and radiologic density. The study was carried out at comparable evolving times, 24 h after trauma, during the second or third day of treatment, and when the hemodynamic stability of the patient was achieved. Hemodynamic measurements were performed before and 30 min after administration of the analgesic agent using a Swan-Ganz catheter. The results indicate that administration of moderate doses of epidural bupivacaine at the middle thoracic level in patients with normovolemic thoracic traumatism were not followed by alterations in the hemodynamic function except for a slight decrease in systemic arterial and pulmonary pressure. The mean arterial pressure decreased by 8% (p less than 0.05), the cardiac index showed a 4% reduction (p = 0.05), and the mean pulmonary pressure experienced a 14% decrease (p less than 0.05).

  20. Pulmonary Complications following Thoracic Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Brandon C.; Schnell, Eric C.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Oskouian, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objective To determine the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in adult patients undergoing thoracic corpectomy or osteotomy for any condition and to determine if these frequencies vary by surgical approach (i.e., anterior, posterior, or lateral). Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched through September 21, 2015, to identify studies specifically evaluating the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in patients undergoing thoracic spine surgery. Results Fourteen studies, 13 retrospective and 1 prospective, met inclusion criteria. The frequency across studies of pulmonary effusion ranged from 0 to 77%; for hemothorax, 0 to 77%; and for pneumothorax, 0 to 50%. There was no clear pattern of pulmonary complications with respect to surgical approach. Conclusions There is insufficient data to determine the risk of pulmonary complications following anterior, posterior, or lateral approaches to the thoracic spine. Methods for assessing pulmonary complications were not well reported, and data is sparse. PMID:27099821