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Sample records for 12th-rib fat thickness

  1. Early-weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of 12th-rib fat, marbling score, and feed efficiency among Angus and Wagyu heifers.

    PubMed

    Wertz, A E; Berger, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2002-01-01

    Twelve 3/4 Angus (Angus) and 12 Wagyu-cross (1/2 Wagyu x 1/2 Angus) (Wagyu) heifers were weaned at 180 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 16 mo before entering the feedlot as 2-yr-olds. Twelve 3/4 Angus heifer calves and 12 Wagyu-cross heifer calves from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 142 +/- 4.1 d of age, immediately adjusted to an 80% concentrate diet, and finished as calves. All heifers were fed a common finishing diet until an estimated 50% of their respective group would grade USDA low Prime or better based on ultrasound predictions. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat depots were recorded at 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Heifers finished as calves had higher (P = 0.02) marbling scores at any given fat thickness and gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) at any given marbling score than heifers finished as 2-yr-olds. Gain:feed decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.05) as 12th-rib fat thickness increased for Angus and Wagyu heifers. Gain:feed decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) for Wagyu calves and quadratically (P < or = 0.01) for Angus calves as 12th-rib fat thickness increased. However, these differences in slope were not different (P = 0.34) as a result of breed among heifers finished as calves. Marbling score increased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as 12th-rib fat thickness increased for Angus and Wagyu heifers finished as 2-yrolds or as calves. However, Wagyu heifers, regardless of age at feedlot entry, had a higher marbling score (P < or = 0.05) at any given 12th-rib fat thickness than Angus heifers. Finishing early-weaned heifers as calves as opposed to 2-yr-olds results in i.m. fat deposition during a period of more efficient growth. Additionally, including Wagyu genetics into the breeding of early-weaned heifers finished as calves or as 2-yr-olds results in higher marbling scores at any 12th-rib fat thickness.

  2. Mini-flank supra-12th rib incision for open partial nephrectomy for renal tumor with RENAL nephrometry score ≥10: an innovation of traditional open surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Sun, Li-an; Wang, Yiwei; Xiang, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Guomin

    2015-04-01

    The skill of supra-12th rib mini-flank approach for open partial nephrectomy (MI-OPN) provides an advanced operative method for renal tumor. Compared with laparoscopic and robotic surgery, it may be a feasible selection for the complex renal tumors. We describe our techniques and results of MI-OPN in complex renal tumors with high RENAL nephrometry score (RENAL nephrometry score ≥10). Fifty-five patients diagnosed with renal tumors between January 2009 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eligibility criteria comprised of patients with complex renal tumor (RENAL score ≥10) being candidates for partial nephrectomy (PN). All patients received MI-OPN and all surgeries were performed by a single urologist. The preoperative workup comprised of medical history, physical examination, and routine laboratory tests. Serum creatinine was recorded preoperatively and 2 to 3 months after operation. Operative time, ischemia time, blood loss, operative and postoperative complications, renal function, and pathology parameters were recorded. MI-OPN was successfully performed in all cases. Mean tumor size was 4.7 cm (range: 2.5-8.1). Mean warm ischemia time was 28.1 minutes (range: 21-39), mean operative time was 105 minutes (range: 70-150) and mean estimated blood loss was 68 mL (range: 10-400). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 5-12). Postoperative complications were found in 3 patients (5.5%). The mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine levels were 76.2 μmol/L (range: 47-132) and 87.1 μmol/L (range: 61-189) with significant difference (P = 0.004). The mean pre- and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were 91.5 (range: 34-133) and 82.5 (range: 22-126.5), respectively with significant difference (P = 0.024). In an average follow-up of 19.9 months (range: 8-50), no local recurrence or systemic progression occurred. In conclusion, MI-OPN can combine the benefits of both minimal invasive and traditional open

  3. Effect of rate of body weight gain in steers during the stocker phase. I. Growth, partitioning of fat among depots, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; McMurphy, C P; Garmyn, A J; Pye, B J; Mafi, G G; Goad, C L; Phillips, W A; Starkey, J D; Krehbiel, C R; Horn, G W

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of growth rate to similar age or BW on fat deposition in stocker cattle grazing dormant native range (DNR) or winter wheat pasture (WP). In each experiment, fall-weaned Angus steers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 stocker production programs: 1) control, 1.02 kg/d of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement during grazing of DNR (CON); 2) corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW during grazing of DNR (CORN); 3) grazing WP at a high stocking rate to achieve a low rate of BW gain (LGWP); and 4) grazing WP at a low stocking rate to achieve a high rate of BW gain (HGWP). In Exp. 1, a subset of steers (3 steers per treatment) was harvested after winter grazing (138 d) at similar age. The remaining WP steers were transitioned into the finishing phase, whereas DNR steers were allowed to graze the same native range pastures for another 115 d without supplementation before entering the feedyard. In Exp. 2, steers grazed their respective pastures until each treatment reached an estimated HCW of 200 kg (262, 180, 142, and 74 d, respectively, for the CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments), at which time a subset of steers (4 steers per treatment) were selected for intermediate harvest before finishing. In both experiments, the remaining steers were fed a finishing diet to a common 12th-rib fat thickness of 1.27 cm. In Exp. 1, winter grazing ADG was 0.19, 0.52, 0.68, and 1.37 ± 0.03 kg/d; and in Exp. 2, winter/summer grazing ADG was 0.46, 0.61, 0.83, and 1.29 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively for CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments. At intermediate harvest in Exp. 1, HGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and marbling scores, compared with the other treatments. However, in Exp. 2, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) marbling scores compared with HGWP steers, which were greater than DNR steers. At final harvest in Exp. 1, LGWP steers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat thickness and smaller LM area

  4. Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness.

    PubMed

    Roopakala, M S; Suresh, Anagha; Ashtalakshmi; Srinath; Ashok; Giridhar; Anand; Silvia, Wilma Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is known to be an important risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and intraabdominal fat thickness has been found to be a reliable indicator of central obesity. Many anthropometric indicators have been suggested for measuring intraabdominal fat. The aim of this study was to relate various anthropometric measurements to intraabdominal fat thickness and to determine which among these is a better predictor of intra abdominal fat in normal subjects. This cross sectional study was carried out. in 60 healthy subjects (32 males and 28 females) in the age group of 25-55 years. Anthropometric measurements such as BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were assessed by using standard methods. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured 1 cm above umbilicus by ultrasonography. Intraabdominal fat thickness was correlated with the anthropometric measures by Pearson's test. Multivariate linear regression test was used to find the best anthropometric measurement as a predictor of abdominal fat. Waist circumference showed a significant positive correlation with subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Waist circumference was found to be the best predictor of intraabdominal fat thickness in normal subjects and therefore of central obesity.

  5. Anisotropic bioelectrical impedance determination of subcutaneous fat thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Becerra, P. A. I.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.; Balleza-Ordaz, M.; Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2014-11-01

    Preliminary results have shown that bioelectrical impedance measurements performed on different parts of the human body strongly depend upon the subcutaneous fat of the considered region. In this work, a method for the determination of subcutaneous fat thickness is explored. Within this method the measurement of the bioelectrical impedance response of the fat-muscle system, both along the direction defined by the muscle fibers and along the corresponding perpendicular direction, are performed. Measurements have been carried out on human female and male subjects of ages around 25 years old at the region of the biceps. Correlation has been performed with skinfold caliper measurements.

  6. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  7. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe

    PubMed Central

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters. PMID:27222737

  8. Predicting back fat thickness in beef cattle using A-mode ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because fat thickness in feedlot cattle can be a predictor of carcass quality and yield grade, estimates of fat thickness during the later stages of the finishing period can be used to make marketing decisions. Ultrasound technology is a nondestructive and humane technique used to estimate fat thick...

  9. Epicardial fat tissue thickness in preeclamptic and normal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Can, Esra; Ozveren, Olcay; Okuyan, Ertugrul; Ayca, Burak; Dinckal, Mustafa Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epicardial fat tissue, another form of visceral adiposity, has been proposed as a new cardiometabolic risk factor, and the possible association of epicardial fat with hypertension has been shown in some recent studies. Although epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is associated with hypertension, the relationship between preeclampsia and EFT is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between the echocardiographic EFT and the severity of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Methods. Forty women with preeclampsia were recruited and thirty-five normal pregnant women were matched for both maternal age and gestastional age served as control. The materials were collected immediately after delivery of the fetus, before placenta expulsion and before clamping of the umblical cord in patients and controls whom were in fasting state. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and triglyceride levels (TG) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were assessed. EFT was measured by using transthoracic echocardiography. Results. Among the preeclamptic women, 12 were diagnosed with severe preeclampsia and 28 mild preeclampsia. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy except when they are divided according to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria levels, and parity and EFT levels. Among women with preeclampsia (n = 40), 30% had severe disease. Women with mild and severe preeclampsia had significiantly higher blood pressures at delivery and earlier gestational ages in comparison to control subjects. Although TG, VLDL and LDL, HDL, and HOMA-IR levels (P > 0.05) were comparable between preeclampsia and normal pregnancies, EFT levels were significiantly higher in patients with preeclampsia. Moreover, in subgroup analysis, patients with severe preeclampsia had higher EFT

  10. Monte Carlo modeling (MCML) of light propagation in skin layers for detection of fat thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilubol, Chonnipa; Treerattrakoon, Kiatnida; Mohammed, Waleed S.

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, most activities require lesser physical actions, which could ultimately lead to accumulation of excessive body fat. The main roles of body fat are to store energy and acts as various kinds of insulators for the body. The thickness of fat layers can be measured to indicate fat-body weight ratio. Exceeding the body-mass index (BMI) could lead to many illnesses regarding obesity. Consequently, many studies have proposed various principles and techniques to measure the amount of fat within one's body. In this paper, infrared interactance in skin layers is studied for investigation of the influence of fat thickness upon photon travelling pattern in skin tissues using Monte Carlo model (MCML). Photon propagation is numerically simulated in simplified multi-layered tissues. The optical coefficients of each skin layers are accounted for different traveling paths of photons that move through random motion. The thickness of fat layer is varied, and changing in optical parameters is observed. Then the statistically obtained data are computed and analyzed for the effect of the fat layer upon reflection percentage using different wavelengths. The calculations have shown increment in the slope of change of reflection percentage versus fat thickness, when using infrared compare to visible light. This technique can be used to construct a mobile device that is capable of measuring the volume fraction of melanin and blood in the epidermis layer and dermis layer, to calculate for the necessary optical coefficients that would be necessary for measurement of fat thickness.

  11. Predicting carcass and body fat composition using biometric measurements of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Paula, N F; Tedeschi, L O; Paulino, M F; Fernandes, H J; Fonseca, M A

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop equations to predict carcass and body fat compositions using biometric measures (BM) and body postmortem measurements and to determine the relationships between BM and carcass fat and empty body fat compositions of 44 crossbred bulls under tropical grazing conditions. The bulls were serially slaughtered in 4 groups at approximately 0 d (n = 4), 84 d (n = 4), 168 d (n = 8), 235 d (n = 8), and 310 d (n = 20) of growth. The day before each slaughter, bulls were weighed, and BM were taken, including hook bone width, pin bone width, abdomen width, body length, rump height, height at withers, pelvic girdle length, rib depth, girth circumference, rump depth, body diagonal length, and thorax width. Others measurements included were total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CFp), empty body physical fat (EBFp), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib (FT), and 9th- to 11th-rib section fat (HHF). The stepwise procedure was used to select the variables included in the model. The r(2) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and variability. Our results indicated that lower rates of fat deposition can be attributed to young cattle and low concentration of dietary energy under grazing conditions. The BM improved estimates of TBS (r(2) = 0.999) and BV (r(2) = 0.997). The adequacy evaluation of the models developed to predict TBS and BV using theoretical equations indicated precision, but lower and intermediate accuracy (bias correction = 0.138 and 0.79), respectively, were observed. The data indicated that BM in association with shrunk BW (SBW) were precise in accounting for variability of SF (r(2) = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.94 kg), InF (r(2) = 0.984 and RMSE = 1.26 kg), CFp (r(2) = 0.981 and RMSE = 2.98 kg), EBFp (r(2) = 0.985 and RMSE = 3.99 kg), CFch (r(2) = 0.940 and RMSE = 2

  12. Relation of epicardial fat thickness to right ventricular cavity size in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. Obesity is also associated with right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Nevertheless, whether epicardial fat might be independently associated with RV morphology is unknown. I evaluated the correlation between echocardiographic epicardial fat and RV cavity size in subjects with a wide range of adiposity. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and RV end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) were assessed in 50 obese and 50 normal weight subjects. Patients with clinical conditions that could affect the RVEDD were excluded. Obese subjects had a significantly greater epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD than normal weight subjects (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 2 mm and 22 +/- 10 vs 15 +/- 5, respectively; p <0.01 for both). The univariate relation between the epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD was very significant (r = 0.82, p <0.01) for overall obese and normal weight subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that epicardial fat thickness was the best independent correlate of RVEDD (r(2) = 0.42, p <0.01) in overall subjects. In conclusion, increased RV epicardial fat accumulation is associated with enlarged RV cavity size.

  13. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  14. Assessment of total body fat in infancy from skinfold thickness measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Dauncey, M J; Gandy, G; Gairdner, D

    1977-01-01

    A formula is given, allowing a value for total body fat to be calculated from skinfold thickness measurements at two sites (subscapular and triceps), in conjunction with nine body dimensions. For newborn infants total body fat so calculated accorded satisfactorily with published data from cadaver analyses. The formula has been tentatively applied to infants up to the age of 40 weeks, and to preterm infants. The difference between the growth of male and female infants was analysed in a series of 27 normal infants; the greater growth of musculoskeletal tissue in the male contrasted with the relatively greater growth of fat tissue in the female. PMID:849001

  15. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  16. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  17. The relationship of periaortic fat thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in children with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akyürek, Nesibe; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Eklioglu, Beray Selver; Alp, Hayrullah

    2015-06-01

    Children with Turner syndrome (TS) have a broad range of later health problems, including an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between periaortic fat thickness (PAFT) and metabolic and cardiovascular profiles in children with TS. Twenty-nine TS and 29 healthy children and adolescents were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric measurements, pubertal staging, and blood pressure measurements were performed. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. Periaortic fat thickness was measured using an echocardiography method, which has not previously been applied in children with TS. No difference was found between TS and control subject (CS) in age, weight, waist/hip ratio, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. However, in TS subjects, total cholesterol (p = 0.045) was greater than that in controls. It was determined that 13.7 % (N: 4) of TS subjects had dyslipidemia. Mean fasting glucose, fasting insulin, QUICK-I, HOMA, and FGIR index were similar in TS and in CS, whereas 17.2 % (N: 5) of TS subjects had insulin resistance (IR) and 13.7 % (N: 4) had impaired glucose tolerance. Six subjects (20.6 %) were diagnosed as hypertensive. Periaortic fat thickness was significantly higher in the TS group (p < 0.001) (0.1694 ± 0.025 mm in the TS group and 0.1416 ± 0.014 mm in the CS group) In children with TS, PAFT was positively correlated with fasting insulin, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Our results provide additional evidence for the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in TS. In addition to existing methods, we recommend the measurement of periaortic fat thickness in children with TS to reveal the presence of early atherosclerosis.

  18. Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Wiles, T R; Gerrard, D E; McCann, M A; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage-based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). Blood samples were collected before initiation of infusions and at the end of the infusion from 8 animals or at 1-h intervals for the first 11 h and at 15-min intervals for the last hour of infusion for the other 8 animals. Adipose tissue samples from SCF, IMF, and VF depots were collected at harvest, and lipids were extracted. Plasma enrichments of acetate and glucose and palmitate enrichment in each depot were used to calculate plasma turnover rates and fractional synthesis rates (FSR; % per h) of palmitate from each isotope. Early weaned steers had greater marbling scores compared to NW steers ( P< 0.05). Plasma turnover rates and FSR for EW and NW steers were similar except for SCF, where a greater FSR from acetate was observed for EW steers. It is possible the greater FSR for SCF was due to harvesting the animals at a slightly more advanced stage of conditioning as evidenced by the trend for greater 12th rib fat (P = 0.07). Plasma acetate turnover and palmitate FSR from acetate were much greater (P < 0.05) than the

  19. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  20. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female.

  1. Relation of epicardial fat thickness with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5 mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0 mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17 mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14 mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (β = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (β = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3 mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex.

  2. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  3. Increased epicardial fat thickness is associated with cardiac functional changes in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Kilicaslan, Baris; Ozdogan, Oner; Aydin, Mehmet; Dursun, Huseyin; Susam, Ibrahim; Ertas, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    Epicardial fat tissue is a visceral fat depot with anatomical and functional contiguity to the myocardium and coronary arteries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and cardiac changes in healthy female subjects. The study population consisted of ninety-six consecutive healthy female (mean age 31.1 ± 6.7 years) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography. EFT was measured by echocardiography. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the EFT; EFT < 6 mm and EFT ≥ 6 mm. The cardiac structural changes, increased left atrial volume indices (LAVI) (41.2 ± 9.9 vs. 52.6 ± 12.5, p = 0.001) and left ventricular mass indices (LVMI) (129.6 ± 32.1 vs. 155.6 ± 31.6 p < 0.05), were observed in patients with increased EFT. Myocardial tei index (MTI), which was used to evaluate both systolic and diastolic functions, was higher with increased EFT (0.44 ± 0.07 vs. 0.48 ± 0.08, p = 0.02). The correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between EFT and each of LAVI (r = 0.312, p = 0.002), LVMI (r = 0.301, p = 0.003), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.8, p < 0.001), and MTI (r = 0.27, p = 0.005). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that EFT was associated with BMI (t = 5.28, p = 0.001), MTI (r = 2.39, p = 0.019), LVMI (r = 2.16, p = 0.01), and LAVI (r = 3.21, p = 0.002). In conclusion, EFT is an important predictor of cardiac alterations in women who are prone to obesity.

  4. Assosiation of Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Thickness with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Fereshteh; Eshraghi, Ali; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Mousavi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visceral adipose tissue is a known important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While some studies have suggested relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and CAD, there are no adequate studies for pericardial fat thickness (PFT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of EFT and PFT with CAD. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery angiography, referred to Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during Jan 2014–2016. Demographic and laboratory data were collected. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine average EFT and PFT at the standard parasternal long-axis view at end-systole for 3 cardiac cycles. SCA was performed on the same day. The patients were divided into two groups: CAD (n=59) and non-CAD (n=41) based on presence or absence of epicardial coronary artery stenosis of > 50%. Chi-square, independent T-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used by SPSS Version 16 for data analysis. Results One hundred patients (44 women and 56 men) with an average age of 56.4 ± 9.9 years were studied. The two groups were not significantly different in demographic profile and cronary risk factors. While PFT was not significantly different between the two groups, EFT was significantly higher in CAD group (3.0 ± 3.69 vs. 1.2 ± 3.6, p <0.0001). Moreover, with the increase of the affected coronary arteries, EFT increased (p <0.0001). Gensini score had a strong correlation with amount of EFT (r = 0.765, p <0.0001). EFT with a cutoff value of 4.25 mm (sensitivity=79%, specificity=68%) was specified in predicting CAD. Conclusion EFT measured by echocardiography can be used as an independent marker to predict CAD. More studies are needed to determine the predictive role of PFT for CAD. PMID:27790354

  5. Difference Verification of Cheek Subcutaneous Fat Thickness of Male and Female Using Near Infrared Ray Spectral Characteristic Simulation of Cheek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Satoshi; Yasuda, Shun

    The near infrared ray spectral characteristic of a person’s cheeks was simulated in this paper, and it was confirmed that the spectral characteristic of the cheeks part by the near infrared rays was detected at the subcutaneous fat under 2mm of the skin. Therefore, subcutaneous fat has a great influence at the near infrared ray spectral characteristic. Concretely, when subcutaneous fat thickness is thick, the absorbance falls down, and the spectral characteristic around 1200nm is the same for an acute angle, and becomes the spectral characteristic of the female. On the other hand, increasing the water content to simulate the increase in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, the light absorbance rises, and the acute angle of the spectral characteristic around 1200nm disappears. The 1200nm characteristic becomes that of the male’s spectral characteristic which shows a rounded form. From the discussion above, it could be verified that a difference in the subcutaneous fat thickness is the factor of the difference in the near infrared ray spectral characteristics between that of a male and female cheek.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic parameters compared during repeated measures of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, T R; Mercadante, M E Z; Albuquerque, L G; Cyrillo, J N S G; Branco, R H

    2011-11-29

    Real-time ultrasound is currently used for in vivo carcass evaluation of beef cattle. We estimated heritability and repeatability coefficients for ultrasound-measured carcass traits in Nelore cattle. We measured longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness in male and female animals ranging in age from 10 to 26 months. The variance components were estimated by single-trait analysis using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method, under an animal model. The complete data file included 3077 records of 1172 animals born between 2003 and 2008. Two analyses were performed using a repeatability model: a) all records of longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness of animals aged 10 to 26 months, and b) considering two age periods (11 to 17 and 18 to 24 months). The heritability estimates ranged from 0.33 to 0.46 for longissimus muscle area, from 0.20 to 0.26 for backfat, and from 0.26 to 0.29 for rump fat, demonstrating that direct selection for these traits can provide genetic gain. The repeatability estimates were moderate, ranging from 0.42 to 0.73. The highest repeatability estimates were obtained for longissimus muscle area in both the first (0.70) and second (0.73) analyses. The repeatability estimates suggest that ultrasound measures are precise; higher precision was obtained for longissimus muscle area than for subcutaneous fat thickness. The latter could be obtained during periods of greater feed availability to increase precision.

  7. Epicardial fat thickness is associated with impaired coronary flow reserve in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Atakan, Aydin; Macunluoglu, Beyza; Kaya, Yuksel; Ari, Elif; Demir, Halit; Asicioglu, Ebru; Kaspar, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Epicardial fat tissue (EFT) is a new risk factor in CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EFT and coronary artery flow reserve (CFR), which is an early indicator of endothelial dysfunction in coronary vessels of HD patients. We performed a cross-sectional study including 71 chronic HD patients and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Epicardial fat tissue was significantly higher in HD patients when compared to healthy controls (6.53 ± 1.01 mm vs. 5.79 ± 1.06 mm, respectively, P < 0.001). On transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, CFR values were significantly lower in HD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.73 ± 0.11 vs. 2.32 ± 0.28, P < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed CFR values to be inversely correlated with EFT (r = -0.287, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to define independent determinants of EFT in HD patients. Artery flow reserve, age, body mass index and total cholesterol levels were independently correlated with EFT thickness. This study demonstrated that EFT was significantly higher among HD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, this study was the first to demonstrate an inverse correlation between EFT and CFR in this patient population.

  8. Epicardial fat thickness and oxidative stress parameters in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Aydogdu, Ali; Erkus, Emre; Altıparmak, İbrahim Halil; Savık, Emin; Ulas, Turgay; Sabuncu, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid disorders are known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and oxidative stress are also believed to be major risk factors for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between oxidative stress parameters and EFT in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Material and methods A total of 60 individuals (30 patients with SCH and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for the study. The EFT and oxidative stress parameters of all participants were analyzed at baseline; the same were analyzed in SCH patients after achievement of a euthyroid state. Results Compared to healthy subjects, SCH patients had significantly higher EFT and oxidative stress parameters (p < 0.05 for all). EFT and oxidative stress parameters both decreased after treatment, but only the decrease of EFT levels was statistically significant after thyroid hormone replacement (p < 0.05). Serum EFT levels were not significantly correlated with oxidative stress index (r = 0.141, p = 0.458). Conclusions Previous studies have demonstrated that visceral adipose tissue and oxidative stress are major risk factors for cardiovascular events; our study demonstrated that EFT, a visceral adipose tissue, and oxidative stress parameters were higher, and could be used as an indicator for cardiovascular diseases in patients with SCH. PMID:28261292

  9. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  10. The Relationship Between Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma

    PubMed Central

    Imga, Nasiroglu Narin; Ucar Elalmis, Ozgul; Muslum Tuna, Mazhar; Aycıcek Dogan, Bercem; Sahin, Deniz; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidences indicate that patients diagnosed with Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) may present cardiovascular complications. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has recently been described as a new risk factor and an active player in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between EFT and left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intima-media thickness, which are both strong predictors of cardiovascular morbity and mortality, in patients with nonfunctioning AI. Patients and Methods We evaluated 51 patients (36 females and 15 males) diagnosed with AI and 35 (29 females, 6 males) age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls in terms of cardiovascular risk parameters. Epicardial fat was identified as the echo-free space between the outer wall of the myocardium and the visceral layer of the pericardium. Results Epicardial fat thickness was significantly higher in patients with AI when compared to the control group (0.89 ± 0.32 cm vs. 0.74 ± 0.26 cm; P = 0.023). left ventricular (LV) mass index and median carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were also higher in subjects with AI than in controls (99.8 g/m2 vs. 86.9 g/m2; P = 0.024 and 7.5 mm (5.5 - 11.5) vs. 6.5 mm (4.5 - 9.5); P = 0.017). There was a positive correlation between EFT, LV mass index, EFT and CIMT (r = 0.315, P = 0.004; r = 0.363, P < 0.001; respectively). Conclusions In this study we showed that EFT, measured by echocardiography is higher in subjects with AI when compared to healthy controls. epicardial fat thickness had the best independent correlation with AI in multiple logistic regression analysis. Incidentaloma is also associated with increased left ventricular mass index and CIMT. Adrenal incidentaloma patients may show early cardiac changes, such as increased left ventricular mass and increased CIMT. PMID:27942264

  11. Effect of sitagliptin on epicardial fat thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Rodney, Marianela; Balladares, Nathalie; Contreras, Miguel; D'Marco, Luis; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin addition on the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. This was a 24-week interventional pilot study in 26 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients, 14 females and 12 males average age of 43.8 ± 9.0 years, with Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7% on metformin monotherapy. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were added on sitagliptin and started on sitagliptin/metformin combination at the dosage of 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily. EAT and visceral and total body fat were measured, respectively, with echocardiography and bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and after 24 weeks of sitagliptin/metformin treatment in each subject. HbA1c and plasma lipids were also measured. EAT decreased significantly from 9.98 ± 2.63 to 8.10 ± 2.11 mm, p = 0.001, accounting for a percentage of reduction (∆%) of -15% after 24 weeks of sitagliptin addition, whereas total body fat percentage, visceral fat, and body mass index (BMI), decreased by 8, 12, and 7%, respectively (p = 0.001 for all). After 6 month, EAT ∆% was significantly correlated with ∆% of visceral fat (r = 0.456; p = 0.01), whereas no correlation with either BMI ∆% (r = 0.292; p = 0.147) or HbA1c ∆% was found. The addition of Sitagliptin produced a significant and rapid reduction of EAT, marker of organ-specific visceral fat, in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. EAT as measured with ultrasound can serve as no invasive and accurate marker of visceral fat changes during pharmaceutical interventions targeting the fat.

  12. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Stein, D R; Desilva, U; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Fifty-five normal-weaned Angus steers (268 ± 22 kg; 265 ± 16 d of age) were used to evaluate the effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements for stocker cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range on growth performance, body composition, and adipose tissue development of different fat depots. Steers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments: 1.02 kg·steer(-1)·d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement (CON), corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (CORN), soybean hull/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (SBH), or dried distillers grains with solubles fed at 1% of BW (DDGS). All supplements were individually fed 5 d/wk during the 121-d winter grazing phase. After winter grazing, 3 steers per treatment were harvested to determine body composition and carcass characteristics, and collect subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue samples. The remaining steers grazed cool-season grass pastures for 74 d without supplementation before finishing. Steers were fed a common finishing diet for 113 d before harvest, at which time carcass characteristics were collected at a commercial abattoir. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) winter grazing ADG compared with CON steers, and CORN steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than SBH and DDGS steers. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.04) mesenteric/omental fat mass but did not influence (P > 0.13) 12th rib fat thickness or marbling score at intermediate harvest compared with CON steers. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and markers of adipogenesis were greater (P < 0.05) in PR adipose tissue of energy-supplemented steers compared with CON steers but not in SC adipose tissue. Fiber-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.01) mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding protein 4 compared with CORN steers in PR adipose tissue but not SC adipose tissue. At final harvest, energy-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.05) KPH and yield grade

  13. Response to selection for decreased backfat thickness at restrained intramuscular fat content in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Bosch, L; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2013-08-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is a relevant trait for the pig industry and consumers. However, selection for IMF has the undesired correlated effect of decreasing lean growth. A selection experiment was performed to investigate the effects of selection against backfat thickness (BT) at restrained IMF. Barrows from a purebred Duroc line were allocated into a selected (n = 165) or a control (n = 185) group based on their litter predicted EBV. Litters in the selected group were selected against BT at 180 d at restrained IMF in gluteus medius (GM) whereas those in the control group were chosen randomly. Realized selection intensities and genetic responses for BT, IMF in GM, and BW were estimated using a 3-trait multivariate animal mixed model under a Bayesian setting. Correlated responses for other traits were estimated similarly but using a 4-trait model, where other traits were added to the previous 3-trait model 1 at a time. Selected pigs had less BT than control pigs [-1.22 mm, with highest posterior density interval at 95% (HPD95; -2.47, -0.75)] with restrained decrease in IMF, both in GM [-0.16%; HPD95 (-0.36, +0.05)] and in LM [-0.15%; HPD95 (-0.37, +0.09)]. However, the realized selection intensity for IMF in GM denotes that the restriction on IMF was incomplete [-0.18; HPD95 (-0.36, +0.02)]. Selection decreased BW [-1.64 kg; HPD95 (-2.47, -0.75)] but increased carcass lean weight [+0.66 kg; HPD95 (+0.14, +1.22)], indicating that the response in BT offsets the unfavorable correlated response in BW. Selected pigs were shorter [-0.50 cm; HPD95 (-0.81, -0.20)] but with similar ham weight and loin depth. These results provide evidence that lean weight can be improved restraining the genetic change in IMF. However, they also stress that a complete restriction on IMF is difficult to achieve unless selection is practiced on a big population where IMF is accurately predicted.

  14. Epicardial Fat Thickness and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio are Increased in Non-Dipper Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Joon; Choi, Ji Hun; Park, Dong Hyun; Yu, Ga In; Im, Sung Il; Kim, Hyun Su; Heo, Jeong Ho; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR; an important inflammatory marker), and diurnal blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Methods A total of 647 patients underwent echocardiography and 24 hours of ambulatory BP monitoring. EFT was measured by echocardiography, while NLR was measured by dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. Patients were categorized into three groups according to BP pattern: the normotensive group, the dipper group, and the non-dipper group. Results The mean EFT was highest in the non-dipper group (non-dipper group, 7.3 ± 3.0 mm; dipper group, 6.1 ± 2.0 mm; control group, 5.6 ± 2.0 mm; p < 0.001). NLR was also highest in the non-dipper group (non-dipper, 2.75 ± 2.81; dipper, 2.01 ± 1.32; control, 1.92 ± 1.11; p < 0.001). EFT was significantly correlated with age (r = 0.160, p < 0.001) and NLR (r = 0.353, p < 0.001). Furthermore, an EFT ≥ 7.0 mm was associated with the non-dipper BP pattern with 51.3% sensitivity and 71.6% specificity [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.56–0.65, p < 0.001]. In a multivariate analysis, EFT [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.99, 95% CI = 1.22–13.10, p = 0.022] and NLR (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05–1.71, p = 0.018) were independent parameters that distinguished a non-dipper pattern after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion EFT and NLR are independently associated with impaired diurnal BP profiles in hypertensive individuals. EFT (as measured by echocardiography) and NLR appear to be helpful in stratifying cardiometabolic risk. PMID:28090257

  15. Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness Correlates with Aortic Stiffness and N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Yasemin; Basaran, Ozcan; Akin, Fatih; Emir, Gulser Karadaban; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Biteker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat, a metabolically active tissue, has emerged as a risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated epicardial fat thickness in patients who had sustained an acute ischemic stroke, and we evaluated the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with other prognostic factors. We enrolled 61 consecutive patients (age, ≥18 yr) who had sustained a first acute ischemic stroke and had been admitted to our hospital within 24 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. The control group comprised 82 consecutive sex- and age-matched patients free of past or current stroke who had been admitted to our cardiology clinics. Blood samples were taken for measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at admission. Aortic stiffness indices and epicardial fat thickness were measured by means of transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours. In comparison with the control group, the patients with acute ischemic stroke had significantly higher epicardial fat thickness (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.8 ± 0.7 mm; P <0.001), lower aortic distensibility (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.9 cm2·dyn−1; P <0.001) and lower aortic strain (5.5% ± 1.9% vs 6.4% ± 1.8%; P=0.003). We found a significant association between epicardial fat thickness, NT-proBNP levels, and arterial dysfunction in patients who had sustained acute ischemic stroke. Increased epicardial fat thickness might be a novel risk factor and might enable evaluation of subclinical target-organ damage in these patients. PMID:27303237

  16. Slaughter plant location, USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak.

    PubMed

    Miller, M F; Kerth, C R; Wise, J W; Lansdell, J L; Stowell, J E; Ramsey, C B

    1997-03-01

    A boneless beef strip loin (IMPS #180) was fabricated from each of 320 carcasses to study the effects of slaughter plant location, quality grade, fat thickness, and aging time on beef tenderness and palatability. Carcasses were selected for fat thickness (< .5 cm or > or = .5 cm fat thickness) and USDA quality grade (Select or Low Choice) from two slaughter facilities (IBP, Inc., Garden City, KS or Excel Inc., Plainview, TX), and the strips were aged for either 7 or 14 d. Aging steaks 14 d improved all sensory traits and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values regardless of all other main effects (P < .05). Steaks from Choice carcasses that were processed in Kansas had higher initial and sustained tenderness ratings than steaks from carcasses that were processed in Texas or Select steaks from Kansas after 7 d of aging (P < .05). However, aging for 14 d removed differences from all sensory characteristics of steaks from Kansas and Texas. All sensory scores for steaks from carcasses that graded Choice were higher than those from carcasses that graded Select (P < .05). The USDA quality grade did not affect WBS values, and fat thickness did not affect sensory characteristics or WBS values (P > .05). Therefore, aging beef strip loin steaks for 14 compared with 7 d improved sensory score and decreased WBS values, but fat thickness had no effect on the palatability of loin strip steaks processed under these conditions.

  17. Changes in performance, skinfold thicknesses, and fat patterning after three years of intense athletic conditioning in high level runners

    PubMed Central

    Legaz, A; Eston, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if the changes in specific skinfold sites induced by intense athletic conditioning over a three year period were associated with changes in running performance in high level athletes. Methods: Thirty seven top class runners (eight male and five female sprint trained, 16 male and eight female endurance trained) volunteered to participate in the study. The athletes were divided into class A (n = 18) and class B (n = 17), with class A having the best performance. Biceps, triceps, subscapular, pectoral, iliac crest, abdominal, front thigh, and medial calf skinfold thickness and the best running performance were recorded at the beginning and after one, two, and three years of training. A one way analysis of variance and a linear regression analysis were conducted to determine changes and association between performance and skinfold thicknesses. Analyses were controlled for sex, sprint event or endurance event, and class. Results: Training resulted in a significant increase in performance and decreases in sum of six skinfolds, abdominal, front thigh, and medial calf skinfolds, and the ratio of extremity to trunk skinfolds (E/T, ∑triceps, front thigh, medial calf/∑subscapular, iliac crest, abdominal). There were no significant differences in body weight. Except for the abdominal skinfold, there was no significant difference in trunk skinfolds. Significant differences in these changes were observed by sex for E/T, which decreased and increased in male and female runners respectively, and by class. Class B runners significantly improved performance, with decreased skinfold thicknesses in the lower limb. There were no significant changes in performance or skinfold thicknesses in class A runners. Improvements in performance were consistently associated with a decrease in the lower limb skinfolds. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, anthropometric assessment of top class athletes should include an evaluation of all skinfolds. The loss of

  18. Prediction equations for body-fat percentage in Indian infants and young children using skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6-24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for body-fat percentage were developed using a stepwise forward regression model using skinfold thicknesses, mid-arm circumference, and age as independent variables, and the body-fat percentage was derived by D2O dilution as the dependent variable. The new prediction equations are: body-fat percentage = -69.26+5.76xB-0.33xT2+5.40xM+0.01xA2 for girls and body-fat percentage = -8.75+3.73xB+2.57xS for boys, where B=biceps skinfold thickness, T=triceps skinfold thickness, and S=suprailiac skinfold thickness all in mm, M=mid-arm circumference in cm, and A=age in month. Using the D2O dilution technique, the means (SD) of the calculated body-fat percentage were 17.11 (7.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.62) for boys and, using the new prediction equations, these were 17.11 (6.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.02) for boys. The mean of the differences of paired values in body-fat percentage was zero. The mean (SD) of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage derived by the D2O technique and the new equations, applied on an independent sample of 23 infants (11 girls and 12 boys) were -0.93 (6.56) for girls and 1.14 (2.43) for boys; the 95% confidence limits of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage were -2.03 to +3.89 for girls and -0.26 to +2.54 for boys. Given that the trajectories of growth during infancy and childhood are a major risk factor for a group of diseases in adulthood, including coronary heart disease and diabetes, these predictive equations should be useful

  19. Sensitivity correction for the influence of the fat layer on muscle oxygenation and estimation of fat thickness by time-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmae, Etsuko; Nishio, Shinichiro; Oda, Motoki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Koga, Shunsaku; Yamashita, Yutaka; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used for noninvasive assessment of oxygenation in living tissue. For muscle measurements by NIRS, the measurement sensitivity to muscle (S) is strongly influenced by fat thickness (FT). In this study, we investigated the influence of FT and developed a correction curve for S with an optode distance (3 cm) sufficiently large to probe the muscle. First, we measured the hemoglobin concentration in the forearm (n=36) and thigh (n=6) during arterial occlusion using a time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) system, and then FT was measured by ultrasound. The correction curve was derived from the ratio of partial mean optical path length of the muscle layer to observed mean optical path length . There was good correlation between FT and at rest, and could be used to estimate FT. The estimated FT was used to validate the correction curve by measuring the forearm blood flow (FBF) by strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP_FBF) and TRS (TRS_FBF) simultaneously during a reactive hyperemia test with 16 volunteers. The corrected TRS_FBF results were similar to the SGP_FBF results. This is a simple method for sensitivity correction that does not require use of ultrasound.

  20. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on milk production, litter gains and back-fat thickness in sows with a low energy and protein intake during lactation.

    PubMed

    Ramanau, A; Kluge, H; Eder, K

    2005-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy (125 mg/d) and lactation (250 mg/d) on milk production, litter gains and back-fat thickness in sows fed a low-energy and low-protein diet during lactation. Sows supplemented with L-carnitine produced more milk on days 11 and 18 of lactation (+18 %; P<0.05) and had higher litter gains during suckling (+20 %; P<0.01) than control sows. Loss of body weight during lactation was similar in both groups, but sows supplemented with L-carnitine had a greater reduction of back-fat thickness (+45 %; P<0.05) during lactation than control sows. In conclusion, this study shows that L-carnitine increases milk production and litter gains in sows in a strongly negative energy and N balance, and enhances body fat mobilisation.

  1. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  2. Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shim, In Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Su; Heo, Jung-Ho; Cha, Tae Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circadian blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH). A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8) and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p's <0.05) without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.001) and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm) than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm) or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm) among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, p = 0.937). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP (p = 0.018) and EFT (p = 0.016) in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men. PMID:26064992

  3. Usefulness of the epicardial fat tissue thickness as a diagnostic criterion for geriatric patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Berna; Kaya, Bedri Caner; Karakas, Emel Yigit; Baysal, Sadettin Selcuk; Cadirci, Dursun; Erkus, Emre; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Savik, Emin; Sezen, Hatice; Ulas, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFTT) as a diagnostic criterion for geriatric patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Sixty geriatric patients over 65 years of age were recruited for the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 30) consisted of patients with MetS; Group 2 (n = 30) consisted of patients without MetS. Echocardiography was used to measure EFTT in all patients, and blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters. Results Compared to Group 2, EFTT levels of Group 1 were statistically higher (P < 0.05). In a binary logistic regression analysis, EFTT levels served as the independent factor for metabolic syndrome (B = 17.35, SE = 4.93, Wald = 12.36, P < 0.001). Receivers operating characteristic Curve (ROC-curve) analysis revealed that EFTT predicted MetS with 96.7% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity above the level of 7.3 mm [area under the curve = 0.969; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.928–1.00]. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that serum EFTT levels were higher in geriatric patients with MetS and can therefore be used as a diagnostic criterion for MetS. PMID:26345498

  4. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  5. Evaluation of Echocardiographic Epicardial Fat Thickness as a Sign of Cardiovascular Risk in Positive Exercise Test Patients

    PubMed Central

    Katlandur, Hüseyin; Ulucan, Şeref; Özdil, Hüseyin; Keser, Ahmet; Kaya, Zeynettin; Özbek, Kerem; Ülgen, M. Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and positive exercise test results for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) has yet to be evaluated. This study assessed the predictive value of EFT for CAD on the angiographs of patients with positive exercise tests. Methods A total of 91 subjects were chosen consecutively from stable angina pectoris patients who were referred for coronary angiography due to a positive exercise test result. The EFT measures were obtained by echocardiographic parasternal long-axis views on the free wall of the right ventricle at end-systole of three cardiac cycles. Gensini scores were calculated by a conventional coronary angiography technique using a calculation method previously defined. Results Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a 0.65 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.628, 0.832, p < 0.001) area under the curve with 74.3% sensitivity and 62.3% specificity at the cut-off value of EFT for the prediction of critical coronary artery stenosis. Following ROC curve analysis, two groups were defined according to EFT cut-off value (groups 1 and 2). The severe coronary stenosis ratio was significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 (31.9 % vs. 11%, p < 0.001) and Gensini scores were significantly higher in group 2 (6.3 ± 13.3 vs. 16.5 ± 17.9; p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between Gensini scores and EFT in group 1 (r = 0.093, p = 0.549), but there was a strong significant correlation in group 2 (r = 0.730, p < 0.001). Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that EFT (> 0.65 cm) was the only independent risk factor for critical coronary artery stenosis (β = 0.451, p < 0.001). Conclusions EFT was significantly correlated with the severity and prevalence of coronary artery disease in positive exercise test patients. PMID:27899855

  6. New inflammatory predictors for non-valvular atrial fibrillation: echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Acet, Halit; Ertaş, Faruk; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Polat, Nihat; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Yüksel, Murat; Kaya, Zeynettin; Ulgen, Mehmet Sıddık

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with different types of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in a clinical setting. A total of 197 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Seventy-one patients had paroxysmal non-valvular AF, 63 patients had persistent/permanent non-valvular AF, and 63 patients had sinus rhythm (control group). EFT was measured with echocardiography, while NLR was measured by dividing neutrophil count by lymphocyte count. EFT was significantly higher in patients with paroxysmal non-valvular AF compared with those in the sinus rhythm group (6.6 ± 0.7 vs. 5.0 ± 0.9 mm, p < 0.001). Persistent/permanent non-valvular AF patients had a significantly larger EFT compared with those with paroxysmal AF (8.3 ± 1.1 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001). EFT had a significant relationship with paroxysmal non-valvular AF (odds ratio 4.672, 95 % CI 2.329-9.371, p < 0.001) and persistent/permanent non-valvular AF (OR 24.276, 95% CI 9.285-63.474, p < 0.001). NLR was significantly higher in those with paroxysmal non-valvular AF compared with those in the sinus rhythm group (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). Persistent/permanent non-valvular AF patients had a significantly larger NLR when compared with paroxysmal non-valvular AF patients (3.4 ± 0.6, vs. 2.5 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). NLR (>2.1) had a significant relationship with non-valvular AF (OR 11.313, 95% CI 3.025-42.306, b 2.426, p < 0.001). EFT and NLR are highly associated with types of non-valvular AF independent of traditional risk factors. EFT measured by echocardiography and NLR appears to be related to the duration and severity of AF.

  7. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  8. Expression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Epicardial Fat: Link with Tissue Thickness and Local Insulin Resistance in Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dozio, Elena; Vianello, Elena; Briganti, Silvia; Lamont, John; Tacchini, Lorenza; Schmitz, Gerd; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in adipose tissue has been associated with inflammation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and impaired insulin signal. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat surrounding the myocardium, is potentially involved in the onset/progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). To date, the role of RAGE in EAT has not been explored much. We examined whether the RAGE expression in EAT was associated with EAT adiposity and metabolic dysfunctions normally found in CAD patients. EAT samples were obtained from 33 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. EAT expression of RAGE, GLUT4, adiponenctin, GLO1, HMGB1, TLR-4, and MyD88 was analyzed by microarray. EAT thickness was quantified by echocardiography. Anthropometric measures and clinical parameters were taken. BMI, HOMA-IR, and LAP indices were calculated. With increasing RAGE expression in EAT we observed increases in EAT thickness, reduced expression of GLUT4, adiponectin, and GLO1, and elevations of HMGB1, TLR-4, and MyD88. There were significant correlations between RAGE and EAT thickness and between RAGE and the genes. LAP was higher in patients with increased RAGE expression. Our data suggest that in CAD patients RAGE may be involved in promoting EAT adiposity and metabolic dysfunction, such as impaired insulin signaling.

  9. Chest-wall thickness and percent thoracic fat estimation by B-mode ultrasound: system and procedure review

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Accurate measurement of chest wall thickness is necessary for estimation of lung burden of transuranic elements in humans. To achieve tis capability, the ORNL Whole Body Counter has acquired a B-mode ultrasonic imaging system for defining the structure within the thorax of the body. This report contains a review of the ultrasound system in use at the ORNL Whole Body Counter, including its theory of operation, and te procedure for use of the system. Future developmental plans are also presented.

  10. Cross-sectional reference values for mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm fat area of Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Budak, Nurten; Cicek, Betul; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Bayram, Fahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish cross-sectional reference values for the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and arm fat area (AFA) of Turkish children and adolescents. In total 5,553 students aged between 6 and 17 years were selected by a multistage sampling method from schools representing city centre, rural and urban areas of Kayseri, Central Anatolia. The MUAC and TSF were measured, and the arm muscle area, arm area, AFA and fat percentage (%) were calculated. The LMS method was employed to calculate the MUAC, TSF and AFA curve parameters. The MUAC, TSF, AFA and fat percentage in each age group were significantly higher in girls than in boys. In boys, the TSF 50th percentile ranged from 7.6 mm at 17 years to 9.0 mm at 11 years; whereas in girls this ranged from 9.4 mm at 6 years to 14.6 mm at 17 years. The MUAC 50th percentile ranged from 17.0 to 23.6 cm in boys, and from 15.6 cm to 20.9 cm in girls. The AFA 50th percentile measurements ranged from 4.5 cm at 6 years to 5.8 cm at 12-14 years in boys; and ranged from 7.2 cm at 6 years to 14.8 cm at 17 years in girls. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher TSF and AFA values in boys than in girls.

  11. Novel markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in Behçet's disease patients with ocular involvement: epicardial fat thickness, carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Murat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Ekinci, Aysun; Elbey, Bilal; Tekbas, Ebru; Alan, Sait

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of Behçet's disease (BD) has not been fully elucidated. However, immunological and environmental factors, endothelial dysfunction (ED), and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate epicardial fat thickness (EFT) together with serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in BD patients with ocular involvement. Thirty-six ocular BD patients (17 active and 19 inactive ocular involvement), and 35 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent examinations with transthoracic echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasound. Serum ADMA levels, CIMT, EFT, and NLR were compared between groups, and their association with disease activity was evaluated. Behçet's disease patients had higher WBC counts, neutrophil counts, NLR, CIMT, EFT values, and serum ADMA levels than do healthy controls. The other biochemical, hematological, and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the two groups. Behçet's disease duration was positively correlated with EFT and CIMT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum ADMA concentration and CIMT are independently associated with BD. Neutrophil counts, NLR, and serum ADMA level were higher, and lymphocyte count was lower in patients with active ocular BD compared to those of inactive ocular BD group. Carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR were increased in ocular BD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, both serum ADMA level and NLR were associated with disease activity of ocular involvement. Increase in disease duration was associated with increase in CIMT and EFT which suggests that anatomical changes occur in time during the disease course. Increased CIMT, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR may provide new clues about the role of ED and inflammation in the

  12. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  13. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P 12th-rib fat depth, LM area, KPH, and yield grade were not affected by treatment (P >or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  14. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  15. Association between adjunctive metformin therapy in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat and reduction of carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Paweł; Zawada, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Jolanta; Marcinkaniec, Justyna; Wysocki, Henryk; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Rzeźniczak, Janusz; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Naskręt, Dariusz

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cholesteryl ester lipase (CEL) may oxidize low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of metformin on the metabolism of atherogenic lipid fractions in relation to Lp-PLA2 and CEL levels, as well as assess consequent improvement in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was an open-label randomized clinical trial that lasted 6 months. It included a total of 84 people with metabolic decompensation (glycated hemoglobin >7.5%, >58.5 mmol/mol) of diabetes. Adjunctive metformin therapy (in addition to insulin) was administered in 42 patients, and the remaining 42 patients received insulin alone. Glycated low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, and CEL were assessed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cartoid IMT was measured using the Carotid Analyser for Research tool. Biochemical analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. RESULTS    The reduction of mean carotid IMT was observed in young type 1 diabetic adults treated additionally with metformin (0.6 ±0.1 cm vs 0.53 ±0.1 cm; P = 0.002). This effect was probably due to weight reduction (90 ±16 kg vs 87 ±15 kg, P = 0.054) and the decrease in atherogenic glycated LDL levels (1.5 ±0.5 mg/dl vs 1.6 ±1.046 mg/dl, P = 0.006). No such correlations were observed in patients treated with insulin alone. Additionally, in patients receiving metformin, glycated LDL levels were inversely correlated with Lp-PLA2 levels (r = -0.31, P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    Additional use of metformin in young type 1 diabetic patients with excess body fat leads to a significant reduction of mean IMT in the common carotid artery. Concentrations of CEL and Lp-PLA2 were significantly increased in both study arms despite improved glucose metabolism.

  16. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian W.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82–84 megabases (Mb) and 101–104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5’UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1. PMID:28257443

  17. Effect of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on myocardial deformation parameters and epicardial fat thickness in patients free of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Murat; Bozbay, Mehmet; Mammadov, Ceyhun; Cincin, Altug; Atas, Halil; Ozsenel, Ekmel Burak; Sari, Ibrahim; Basaran, Yelda

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired myocardial deformation parameters and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is also associated with increased risk of CVD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on myocardial deformation parameters and EFT. The study population consisted of 50 patients with vitamin D deficiency who were free of cardiovascular risk (mean age: 42.6 ± 8.9 years, 37 female). Patients were treated with oral administration of vitamin D3. Myocardial deformation parameters and EFT were evaluated before and after treatment of those patients. Vitamin D levels significantly increased after treatment (30.5 ± 10.5 vs. 9.9 ± 5.3 nmol/l, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between conventional echocardiographic parameters before and after treatment. Baseline EFT was significantly higher than post-treatment measurements (35.2 ± 8.0 vs. 27.5 ± 5.6 mm, p < 0.001). Post-treatment myocardial deformation parameters were also significantly higher than baseline measurements. Baseline vitamin D levels correlated with baseline EFT and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS). Post-treatment vitamin D levels also correlated with post-treatment EFT, body mass index, and LV-GLS. Baseline vitamin D level was an independent predictor of baseline LV-GLS (p = 0.002). Patients with impaired LV-GLS had significantly lower vitamin D levels than patients with normal LV-GLS (6.6 ± 3.8 vs. 11.0 ± 5.3 nmol/l, p = 0.005). Baseline vitamin D level was also an independent predictor of baseline impaired LV-GLS (p = 0.010). Vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on myocardial deformation parameters and EFT. Moreover, baseline vitamin D levels are a predictor of impaired LV-GLS.

  18. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    PubMed

    Plassais, Jocelyn; Rimbault, Maud; Williams, Falina J; Davis, Brian W; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb) and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  19. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  20. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (P<0.01) G:F during the growing phase compared to coproducts. High-fat diets increased (P=0.05) BF in calves at d 112 compared to low-fat diets. High-protein diets decreased (P=0.02) ultrasound MS at d 112 compared to low-protein diets. Carcasses from cattle fed high-fat diets had greater (P=0.03) MS compared to those from cattle fed low-fat diets. No differences (P

  1. Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90 mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45 mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52 mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

  2. Use of serial ultrasound measures in the study of growth- and breed-related changes of ultrasonic measurements and relationship with carcass measurements in lean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Peña, F; Molina, A; Juárez, M; Requena, F; Avilés, C; Santos, R; Domenech, V; Horcada, A

    2014-01-01

    The growth and breed-related changes of rib and rump characteristics in lean beef cattle and the ability of ultrasound to predict carcass traits were investigated. Three hundred bulls from three breeds were scanned monthly (6-7 times) using real-time ultrasound with final scans taken <7 days prior to harvest. The rib and rump ultrasound measurements, except intramuscular fat content, increased (P<0.05) with live weight. Breed affected most of traits. The 12th rib ultrasound measurements showed a weak to high positive correlation (0.131 to 0.976, P>0.05 to P<0.001) with 12th rib measurements in the carcass. Regression equations developed with the ultrasound measurements, explained 97% of the variation in longissimus muscle area, 88% of the variation in fat thickness and 57% of the variation in intramuscular fat content. When last ultrasound scan measurements were excluded from prediction equations, the R(2) significantly decreased. Ultrasound measures "in vivo" are viable options for assessing carcass attributes of lean cattle.

  3. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  4. Effects of genotype, level of supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits grazing lambs.

    PubMed

    Arvizu, R R; Domínguez, I A; Rubio, M S; Bórquez, J L; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; González, M; Jaramillo, G

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Suffolk×Dorper (SD) and Rambouillet (R) lamb genotypes, dietary supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits in male lambs grazing ryegrass pasture. SD lambs had heavier cold carcass (HCW) and better carcass yield (CY) and rib eye area at 12th rib (RA) than R lambs; R had larger legs. Feed supplement increased average daily weight gain (ADG), slaughter live weight (SLW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass yield, carcass length (CL), leg perimeter (LP), major thorax width (MTW), minor thorax width (MiTW), rib eye area and dorsal fat at 12th rib (DF12), and also decreased meat moisture. Organic chromium reduced dorsal fat at 12th rib and meat fat content.

  5. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  6. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  7. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  8. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  9. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  10. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  11. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  12. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Park, Jong-Dae; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Lee, Cheol-Won; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Young-Boong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

  13. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level. PMID:28115892

  14. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  15. Relationship Between Body Fatness and Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Larry D.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance tests and body fatness in young children, and the extent to which differences in performance between the sexes could be explained by differences in body fatness. Measurements of age, height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and performance scores on the vertical jump, standing…

  16. Winter-feeding systems for gestating sheep II. Effects on feedlot performance, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition of lamb progeny.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Susin, I; Felix, T L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2011-02-01

    Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment and were assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on postweaning progeny performance were determined. Lamb progeny (n = 96) were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age and fed a common high-concentrate diet. Lambs were assigned to feedlot pen (n = 18) based on dam mid-gestation pen. Growth rate, DMI, and ADG were determined for the first 40 d of the finishing period. At 96 ± 4 d of age, 1 wether lamb was randomly selected from each pen (n = 18) for a glucose tolerance test. The experiment was terminated, and lambs were slaughtered individually when they were determined to have achieved 0.6-cm 12th-rib fat thickness. After a 24-h chill, carcass data were collected and a 2.54-cm chop was removed from each lamb from the LM posterior to the 12th rib for ether extract analysis. Additional carcass measurements of bone, muscle, and fat from the shoulder, rack, loin, and leg were collected on 35 carcasses. At weaning, lamb BW was not different among treatments, whereas final BW tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for lambs from ewes fed DDGS and CN during gestation than from those fed HL. Overall lamb growth rate from birth to slaughter was not different among treatments. Lambs from ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL tended to have a greater initial insulin response (P = 0.09). Dressing percent was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, but no difference (P = 0.16) was detected in HCW among treatments. As expected, 12th rib fat thickness was similar among treatments, whereas LM area was largest to smallest (P = 0.05) in lambs from ewes fed CN, HL, and DDGS, respectively. Proportion of internal fat tended to be greatest to smallest (P = 0.06) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, CN, and HL, respectively. Calculated boneless trimmed retail cuts

  17. Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2007-02-27

    The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.

  18. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  19. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  20. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  1. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  2. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  3. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  4. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  5. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  6. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C E; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-02-22

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50-200) and the final thickness (1.0-3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or 'liking of mouthfeel'. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to 'liking of flavor' and overall acceptance by the assessors.

  7. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C. E.; Arendt, Elke K.

    2017-01-01

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200) and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors. PMID:28231095

  8. [Soft tissues volumes changing in malar and cheek area after fat grafting].

    PubMed

    Nadtochiy, A G; Grischenko, S V; Malitskaya, O A

    2016-01-01

    To improve the predictability of facial soft tissues fat grafting results tissue thickness dynamics before and 1 year postoperatively was assessed by means of ultrasonic method in 58 patients under standardized position of the ultrasonic transducer, physical and technical scanning conditions. The study revealed direct correlation of soft tissues thickness increase after fat grafting with the initial thickness of recipient area tissues. One year after fat grafting 60-65% of additional thickness remained in the lower regions of malar-cheek area (with the greatest soft tissues thickness), and only 25-27% preserved in the upper regions with the minimal initial thickness of soft tissues. I.e. to achieve necessary correction volume in a zone with small initial soft tissues thickness it is necessary to increase the amount of fat grafting stages. As the rates of soft tissues thickness in correction area change during 3-4 months after fat grafting remaining stable after this period it is expedient to assess postoperative results and to carry out repeated fat grafting not earlier than 4 months after operation.

  9. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  10. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  11. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  12. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  13. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  14. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  15. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  16. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  17. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  18. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  19. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  20. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  1. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  2. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  3. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  4. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and canola oils. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil and foods like ... and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and corn oil. Need More ...

  5. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  6. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  7. Measurement of Intramuscular Fat by Muscle Echo Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hui-Ju; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Zhao, Qun; McCully, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare ultrasound echo intensity (EI) to high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and to establish calibration equations to estimate percent intramuscular fat from EI. Methods Thirty-one participants underwent both ultrasound and MRI testing of 4 muscles: rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG). Results Strong correlations were found between MRI percent fat and muscle EI after correcting for subcutaneous fat thickness (r = 0.91 in RF, r = 0.80 in BF, r = 0.80 in TA, r = 0.76 in MG). Three types of calibration equations were established. Conclusion Muscle ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method that can be used as an imaging technique for examination of percent intramuscular fat. Future ultrasound studies are needed to establish equations for other muscle groups to enhance its use in both research and clinical settings. PMID:25787260

  8. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  9. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  10. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/24327023 . US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Trans fat . Updated June 15, 2015. www.fda.gov/food/populartopics/ucm292278.htm . Accessed May 5, 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 ...

  11. Two paths to fat.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan D

    2015-04-01

    Excess caloric intake leads to both the growth of existing fat cells and the generation of new adipocytes. New findings show that PI3K-Akt2 signalling is involved in the differentiation of adult adipose precursor cells—a pathway not required for adipogenesis in the embryo.

  12. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  13. Noninvasive Submental Fat Compartment Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: KYBELLA, ATX-101, is an injectable form of sodium deoxycholic acid. It is currently the only Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. Objectives: A literature review and discussion of the treatment of submental fat. Results: KYBELLA is a well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of submental fat. Conclusions: KYBELLA is a safe and efficacious, first in class, injectable drug for the reduction of submental fat. PMID:28018773

  14. Whole genome analysis for backfat thickness in a tropically adapted, composite cattle breed from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backfat thickness affects preservation of the beef carcass after slaughter and confers organoleptic characteristics assessed by the consumer. One of the breeding goals for Canchim, a tropically adapted breed, is to comprehensively increase fat thickness. Our goal was to identify genomic regions ass...

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  16. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  17. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  18. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  19. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  20. Viscoelasticity and texture of spreadable cheeses with different fat contents at refrigeration and room temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, S; Carbonell, I; Costell, E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the 2 common consumption temperatures, refrigeration temperature (10°C) and room temperature (22°C), on the viscoelasticity, mechanical properties, and perceived texture of commercial cream cheeses was studied. Two samples with different fat contents, regular and low fat, from each of 4 selected commercial brands were analyzed. The selection criteria were based on identification of brands with different percentages of fat content reduction between the regular- and low-fat samples (35, 50, 84, and 98.5%). The fat content of regular-fat samples ranged from 19.8 to 26.0% (wt/wt), and that of low-fat samples ranged from 0.3 to 13.0% (wt/wt). Viscoelasticity was measured in a controlled-stress rheometer using parallel-plate geometry, and the mechanical characteristics of samples were measured using the spreadability test. Differences in the intensity of thickness, creaminess, and roughness between the regular- and low-fat samples of each commercial brand were evaluated at each of the selected temperatures by using the paired comparisons test. At 10°C, all samples showed higher viscoelastic modulus values, firmness, and stickiness, and lower spreadability than when they were measured at 22°C. Differences in viscoelasticity and mechanical properties between each pair of samples of the same brand were greater at 10°C than at 22°C because of the influence not only of fat content but also of fat state. Ingestion temperature did not modify the sensory differences detected between each pair of samples in terms of creaminess and roughness, but it did modify the differences detected in thickness. The joint consideration of sample composition, fat state, and product behavior during oral processing could explain the differences detected in thickness perceived because of measurement temperatures.

  1. Measurement of the subcutaneous fat in the distal forearm by single photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hassager, C.; Borg, J.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of subcutaneous fat on single photon (/sup 125/I) absorptiometry (SPA) measurement of bone mineral content of the distal forearm was investigated. A fat correction model was tested by measurements on eight lean subjects with different amounts of porcine fat around their forearm, and further validated from measurements on 128 females. In addition, it is shown that the fat content in the distal forearm can be measured by SPA with a short-term precision at 1.9% in an obese subject and that it correlates well with total body fat (r2 = .7) measured by dual photon absorptiometry, skinfold thickness (r2 = .5), and body mass index (r2 = .6). By using this method in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, hormonal substitutional therapy significantly decreased the forearm fat content without affecting the body weight in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  2. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5-11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  3. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  4. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  5. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  6. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  7. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  8. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  9. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  10. Growth and carcass characteristics of Angus and American Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D K; Riley, R R; Smith, S B

    1993-01-01

    Ten purebred Angus and ten crossbred (3/4-7/8) American Wagyu steers were fed a corn and barley-based diet for 552 days and slaughtered. All USDA and Japanese yield and quality grade factors were evaluated and the amount of extractable lipid and moisture in totally trimmed muscle was determined. Angus steers gained 0·9 kg/head/day and American Wagyus gained 0·7 kg/head/day. This difference in growth rate resulted in Angus steers having a heavier final weight (P < 0·05). Angus steers required less feed per unit of gain than did American Wagyu steers. Adjusted fat thickness over M. longissimus dorsi opposite the 12th rib was approximately 3·5 cm and was not statistically different between the two breeds (P > 0·05). Average ribeye area and kidney, pelvic and heart fat were similar for the two breeds. The calculated USDA yield grade for both breeds exceeded 6. Average USDA marbling score was nearly a degree of marbling higher for American Wagyu than for Angus, but variation within breed groups was high. Average USDA quality grade was well into USDA Prime for all carcasses and did not differ by breed (P > 0·05). Japanese yield grade factors were similar for both breeds except for cold left side weight and the yield estimation which includes an adjustment factor that favors American Wagyu. American Wagyu steers merited a higher Japanese marbling score than did Angus (P < 0·05). Beef color score, firmness, texture and firmness and texture grade were also different between the breeds (P < 0·05). Fat colour, luster and quality were not different (P > 0·05). These data clearly show that some American Wagyu steers have the genetic ability to deposit as much marbling as Japanese Black cattle raised in Japan.

  11. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  12. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... they are also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  13. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  14. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  15. Grain source and processing in diets containing varying concentrations of wet corn gluten feed for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Loe, E R; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate combinations of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and barley, as well as the particle size of dry-rolled barley and corn, in finishing steer diets containing WCGF. In Exp. 1, 144 crossbred steers (initial BW = 298.9 +/- 1.4 kg) were used to evaluate barley (0.566 kg/L and 23.5% NDF for whole barley) and WCGF combinations in finishing diets containing 0, 17, 35, 52, or 69% WCGF (DM basis), replacing barley and concentrated separator byproduct. A sixth treatment consisted of corn (0.726 kg/L and 11.1% NDF for whole corn), replacing barley in the 35% WCGF treatment. In Exp. 2, 144 crossbred steers (initial BW = 315.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were used to evaluate coarse or fine, dry-rolled barley or corn (0.632 and 0.699 kg/L; 26.6 and 15.9% NDF for whole barley and corn, respectively) in finishing diets containing WCGF. A factorial treatment design was used; the factors were grain source (corn or barley) and degree of processing (coarse or fine). The diets contained 50% WCGF, 42% grain (corn or barley), 5% alfalfa hay, and 3% supplement (DM basis). In Exp. 1, DMI and ADG responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03), peaking at 35 and 52% WCGF, respectively. The efficiency of gain was not affected (P > or = 0.42) by dietary treatment. Steers fed dry-rolled corn and 35% WCGF had heavier HCW, lower DMI, greater ADG, increased G:F, increased s.c. fat thickness at the 12th rib, and greater yield grades compared with steers fed dry-rolled barley and 35% WCGF (P < or = 0.04). The apparent dietary NEg was similar among the barley and WCGF combinations (P > or = 0.51); however, the corn and 35% WCGF diet was 25% more energy dense (P < 0.001) than was the barley and 35% WCGF diet. In Exp. 2, no grain x processing interactions (P > or = 0.39) were observed. Particle size was 2.15 and 2.59 mm for fine- and coarse-rolled barley and was 1.90 and 3.23 mm for fine- and coarse-rolled corn. Steers fed a combination of corn and WCGF had increased ADG, greater G

  16. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  17. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  18. Energy dependent chest wall thickness equations for male lung monitoring with germanium detectors.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Abline, O; Fleury, B; Vial, A; Corrèze, P; Franck, D; Merzoug, V

    2014-03-01

    The thickness and fat fraction of the chest wall are important parameters for in vivo lung monitoring. They have been measured from ultrasonic images on 374 male workers of the French nuclear industry using four measurement locations, as dictated by the size and position of the germanium detectors used for monitoring. The plastic muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (PMECWT) and the plastic 50% muscle-50% adipose equivalent chest wall thickness (X5050) have been calculated for each worker at 17, 59.5, and 185.7 keV, respectively. Multi-linear regression models have been tested to predict PMECWT and X5050 as a function of anthropometric measurements. Finally, it was considered whether the average chest wall thickness could be used instead of the material equivalent chest wall thickness. It was found that the mean chest wall thickness was (27 ± 5) mm and the mean fat fraction was (25 ± 8)%. The best and more convenient model for material equivalent chest wall thickness is a linear function of the body mass index. Depending on the energy, the standard errors of estimate for this model range between 3.2-3.4 mm for PMECWT and between 3.2-3.7 mm for X5050. At 59.5 and 185.7 keV, it was determined, to an excellent approximation, that the fat fraction and consideration of an equivalent material are unnecessary, contrary to the case at 17 keV.

  19. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.

  20. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies

  1. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  2. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  3. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; Houweling, M; Schonewille, J T; Tielens, A G M; Jorritsma, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirty-four cows kept under similar conditions at a university dairy farm (no experimental treatments) were monitored from 4 wk before until 8 wk after calving. Mobilization of muscle protein was investigated by analysis of plasma 3-methylhistidine concentrations (3-MH, analyzed by a recently developed HPLC tandem mass spectrometry method) and ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle thickness. Mobilization of fat tissue was monitored by serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness. Large variation was observed between cows in onset and duration of periparturient protein and fat mobilization. Plasma 3-MH concentrations and muscle thickness profiles indicated that protein mobilization started, on average, before parturition and continued until approximately wk 4 of lactation. Serum NEFA concentrations and backfat thickness profiles showed that fat mobilization occurred from parturition until the end of the study. Thus, muscle protein mobilization occurred in advance of fat mobilization in most cows from this study. We hypothesized that this might be due to a prepartum amino acid deficiency in the absence of negative energy balance. The incidence of hyperketonemia in this study was 16/34 = 47%. With the exception of 3 cows defined as having severe hyperketonemia, cows with lower 3-MH concentrations had higher serum BHBA concentrations. A possible explanation for this observation might be that higher mobilization of protein around calving might restrict ketone body production due to the higher availability of glucogenic precursors in the period of most severe negative energy balance and highest fat mobilization. The

  4. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  5. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  6. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  7. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  8. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  9. Association of Clinical and Radiographic Features with Perinephric “Sticky” Fat

    PubMed Central

    Qiong, Han; Crispen, Paul L.; Venkatesh, Ramakrishna; Strup, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose The discovery of thick, adherent, perinephric sticky fat (PSF) is relatively common during open or laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery. To our knowledge, however, there has been no previous analysis of clinical or radiographic features associated with the development of PSF or of perioperative outcomes for those patients in whom it is found. Our objective is to analyze potential predictive features and determine whether there is any effect on clinical or pathologic outcomes for patients with perinephric sticky fat. Patients and Methods Patients undergoing partial nephrectomy or laparoscopic cryoablation with available preoperative imaging were identified from 2005 to 2011. Operative records were reviewed to identify patients with and without PSF. Preoperative images and medical records were examined to obtain patient data regarding potential predictors as well as clinical and pathologic outcomes. Results A total of 29 patients were identified—16 with PSF and 13 controls. Statistically significant factors associated with PSF included sex, tumor size, presence of perinephric stranding, tumor >50% exophytic, and thickness of perinephric fat (P<0.05). Median total operative time for patients with sticky fat was nearly 40 minutes longer than the control group (228 min vs 190 min, P<0.05). All four (17%) patients with Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 renal-cell carcinoma were from the sticky fat group (P=0.09). Conclusions Despite the small sample size, multiple possible factors associated with perinephric sticky fat were identified and may provide guidance for future investigation of this phenomenon. PMID:22966767

  10. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  11. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  12. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  13. [Nephrocalcinosis and subcutaneous fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Lobo, Luísa; Azevedo, António Siborro; Simão, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, transient and self-healing panniculits. This entity generally follows an uncomplicated course, however there are rare and important complications. The authors present a case of a newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia is not fully understood and the nephrocalcinosis can evolve to chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should be aware of subcutaneous fat necrosis as a possible risk factor for hypercalcemia and patients should have serial serum and urinary calcium determinations for up to 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesions. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypercalcemia are essential to prevent severe complications.

  14. A new "fat face" illusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Hao; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C; Wang, Zhe; Xiao, Naiqi G; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel fat face illusion that when two identical images of the same face are aligned vertically, the face at the bottom appears 'fatter'. This illusion emerged when the faces were shown upright, but not inverted, with the size of the illusion being 4%. When the faces were presented upside down, the illusion did not emerge. Also, when upright clocks were shown in the same vertically aligned fashion, we did not observe the illusion, indicating that the fat illusion does not generalize to every category of canonically upright objects with similar geometric shape as a face.

  15. Fat Grams: How to Track Your Dietary Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... for total fat based on a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet. Multiply 2,000 by 0. ... So if you're on a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet, 400 to 700 calories can ... of calories a day. For a 2,000-calorie-a-day diet, that's 200 calories or about ...

  16. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  17. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P < 0.05). For sows with high backfat, the sows receiving the CONTROL diet had a higher total piglet mortality than those that received FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P < 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  18. Effect of rate of body weight gain of steers during the stocker phase. II. Visceral organ mass and body composition of growing-finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; McMurphy, C P; Mafi, G G; Starkey, J D; Krehbiel, C R; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of rate of BW gain during the stocker phase on visceral organ mass and body composition of growing-finishing cattle that had grazed dormant native range (DNR) or winter wheat pasture (WP). In each experiment, fall-weaned steers were allotted randomly to 1 of these stocker production programs: 1) control, 1.02 kg · steer(-1) · d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement during grazing of DNR (CON); 2) corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW during grazing of DNR (CORN); 3) grazing WP at a high stocking rate to achieve a reduced rate of BW gain (LGWP); and 4) grazing WP at a low stocking rate to achieve an increased rate of BW gain (HGWP). In Exp. 1, 3 steers per treatment were harvested after winter grazing (138 d). The remaining WP steers were transitioned into a finishing phase and DNR steers were allowed to graze the same pastures for another 115 d before entering a feedyard. In Exp. 2, steers grazed respective pastures until each treatment reached an estimated HCW of 200 kg (262, 180, 142, and 74 d, respectively, for CON, CORN, LGWP, and HGWP treatments), at which time 4 steers per treatment were randomly selected for intermediate harvest before finishing. At the end of the finishing period, 4 additional steers from each treatment were randomly selected for final carcass measurements. All steers were fed to a common 12th rib fat thickness of 1.27 cm. After winter grazing in Exp. 1, HGWP steers had the greatest (P < 0.01) mesenteric/omental fat, total viscera, total splanchnic tissue mass, and carcass and empty body fat, compared with the other treatments. In Exp. 2 at intermediate harvest, WP steers had greater (P < 0.03) mesenteric/omental fat, total viscera, and total splanchnic tissue mass, compared with CORN steers, with CON steers being intermediate. Also, the WP steers had greater (P < 0.02) carcass and empty body fat, compared with CORN steers, with CON steers being intermediate. At

  19. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  20. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  1. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  2. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  3. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Huijing; Shin, Henry

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM), as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer) longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner) longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2) of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase) and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434). Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM. PMID:27227876

  4. A Physical Model for Estimating Body Fat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    U.&. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natimnl Technical InWsrmatlg. Su,~ic AD-A034 111 A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATING BODY FAT SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE...PERIOD COVEREO A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATING BODY FAT Interim May 1972-May 1976 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) -. CONTRACT OR...human subjects. The fat mass of seven body compartments is estimated and summed to obtain an esti- mate of the total body fat . Measurements were made

  5. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  6. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  9. Chemical composition of fat and oil products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats and oils are an important dietary component, and contribute to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. This chapter focuses on the chemical composition of fats and oils, and how these compositions affect the functional properties of fats and oils in foods. The focus will remain on the mos...

  10. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  11. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels, 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.

  12. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  13. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  14. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  15. Nutrition during mid to late gestation affects growth, adipose tissue deposition, and tenderness in cross-bred beef steers.

    PubMed

    Underwood, K R; Tong, J F; Price, P L; Roberts, A J; Grings, E E; Hess, B W; Means, W J; Du, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether the plane of nutrition of cows at a critical time for fetal skeletal muscle and adipose tissue development would affect meat quality and carcass composition of offspring. To alter maternal nutrition, beef cows were placed on improved pasture (IP) or native range (NR) pasture from 120 to 150 through 180 to 210days of gestation. Esophageal extrusa samples collected from cows grazing IP varied from 11.1% crude protein of organic matter early in the test period to 6.0% crude protein of organic matter at the end of the grazing period; whereas, extrusa samples of cows grazing NR ranged from 6.5% crude protein of organic matter during early grazing to 5.4% crude protein of organic matter at the end of the grazing period. Steers were slaughtered and carcass characteristics were collected. Warner-Bratzler shear force was performed on longissumus steaks, western blotting was used to measure proteolysis, and myosin isoform typing was performed. Improved pasture steers had heavier live and hot carcass weights. Tenderness was greater in IP compared to NR steers. No difference in calpastatin content and troponin-T degradation was observed between treatments. The 12th rib fat thickness was greater for IP than for NR steers. Subcutaneous adipose tissue of IP steers tended to have a greater number of cells per field of view than NR steers. Data show improving nutritional status of cows during mid to late gestation affects tenderness, adipose tissue deposition and growth in steers.

  16. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  17. Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  18. Effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal strengths: implications for in vivo MRS studies of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-12-01

    Recent MRS studies have indicated that a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal areas, which may at least partly explain the observed associations of BMI with MR-measured brain metabolite levels in vivo. SVS data were acquired at 4 T from a phantom containing N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and creatine, as well as from three healthy male adults. Back fat obtained from pig was used to assess the effects of fat on metabolite signals. With the same voxel size and placement, the phantom was first scanned without fat (baseline), and then with 0.7-cm- and 1.4-cm-thick fat layers placed on it. Each participant was also scanned first without fat and then with two 0.7-cm fat layers, one placed beneath the occiput and the other on the forehead. Two spectra were acquired per participant from the anterior cingulate and the parieto-occipital cortices. The metabolite resonance and corresponding water peak areas were then fitted and metabolite to water signal ratios were used for analyses. In both phantom and in vivo experiments, the metabolite-to-water ratios decreased in the presence of fat relative to baseline metabolite-to-water ratios. The reduced metabolite signals in the presence of fat reported here are reminiscent of the negative correlations observed between BMI and MR-measured metabolite levels. These apparent physical effects of fat have potentially far-reaching consequences for the accuracy of MR measurements of brain metabolite levels and their interpretation, particularly when large fat stores exist around the skull, such as in individuals with higher BMI.

  19. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  20. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  1. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  2. The role of dietary fat in obesity.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne

    2005-02-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that dietary fat plays a role in weight loss and maintenance. Meta-analyses of intervention trials find that fat-reduced diets cause a 3-4-kg larger weight loss than normal-fat diets. A 10% reduction in dietary fat can cause a 4-5-kg weight loss in individuals with initial body mass index of 30 kg m (-2). Short-term trials show that nonfat dietary components are equally important. Sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain, and replacement of energy from fat by sugar-sweetened beverages is counterproductive in diets aimed at weight loss. Protein has been shown to be more satiating than carbohydrate, and fat-reduced diets with a high protein content (20-25% of energy) may increase weight loss significantly. There is little evidence that low-glycemic index foods facilitate weight control. Evidence linking certain fatty acids to body fatness is weak. Monounsaturated fatty acids may even be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats. No ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat, high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is comparable to a low-fat diet in preventing weight gain. Current evidence indicates that the best diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is low in fat and sugar-rich beverages and high in carbohydrates, fiber, grains, and protein.

  3. Deep fat of the face revisited.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Lee, Hak Seung; Katori, Yukio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2013-04-01

    The midfacial deep fatty tissue has been divided into the buccal and parapharyngeal fat pads although the former carries several extensions in adults. Using histological sections of 15 large human fetuses, we demonstrated that the parapharyngeal fat pad corresponds to the major content of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space or, simply, the prestyloid fat. The buccal and prestyloid fatty tissues were separated by the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. In these tissues, superficial parts, corresponding to the lower body and the masseteric extension of the adult buccal fat pad, were well encapsulated and showed the most advanced stage of histogenesis. As the sphenoid bone was not fully developed even in the largest specimens, the temporal, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine fossae joined to provide a large space for a single, large upper extension of the buccal fat pad. In the intermediate part of the extension course, the larger specimens carried a narrower part between the maxilla and the temporalis muscle. The single, upper extension appeared to divide into several extensions, as seen in adults. The periocular fat was clearly separated from the upper extension of the buccal fat pad by the sheet-like orbitalis muscle. A communication between the prestyloid fat and the buccal fat pad likely occurred through a potential space along the lingual nerve immediately superior to the deep part of the submandibular gland. At this site, therefore, the prestyloid fat may be injured or infected when the buccal fat pad is treated surgically.

  4. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  5. Detection and analysis of FAT10 modification.

    PubMed

    Aichem, Annette; Groettrup, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    FAT10 plays a role in many cellular processes. Nevertheless, only one substrate could be identified so far to which FAT10 becomes covalently attached via a nonreducible isopeptide bond. The identification of additional substrates as well as interaction partners is therefore of great interest. Due to the absence of potent anti-FAT10 antibodies, the detection and identification of interaction partners was hindered so far. We have recently described the generation of a novel monoclonal FAT10 antibody that is suitable for immunoprecipitation of endogenous FAT10 and describe in this chapter the detection of endogenous as well as of His-3×FLAG-tagged FAT10 interacting proteins and conjugates by immunoprecipitation using either this novel anti-FAT10 antibody 4FI or an anti-FLAG affinity gel.

  6. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  7. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply to refeeding starved and malnourished patients. The small intestine has a vastly underutilized capacity for fat absorption, and at the habitual fat intake of 100 g per day absorption is complete in the proximal one fifth of the gut. In patients requiring vigorous realimentation, the remaining small intestine should also be utilized. Dietary fat is well tolerated, and daily intakes of 500 g of polyunsaturated fat in a complete diet have not been associated with important side effects, while there was a significant improvement in body stores of fat and protein. Compared to diets high in carbohydrate, adequate intake of fat results in better nutrient utilization, less CO2 production and decreased lipogenesis and insulin requirements. Diets higher in fat are also better tolerated because of their lower volume and osmolality. The result is more effective absorption of calories and a faster nutritional recovery. Increased adipose tissue and protein reserve benefits patients who are in stress, immunocompromised, or debilitated. Adequate dietary fat should be considered for malnourished subjects with intact gastrointestinal function, and when intestinal absorptive capacity is reduced by surgery or disease. PMID:2194611

  8. Features of the measurement of fat in meat using the neutron/gamma transmission (NEUGAT) method.

    PubMed

    Bartle, C M

    1995-08-01

    Practical requirements for the non-invasive measurement of the composition by weight of fat in boneless meat are discussed including taking into account the effects of variation in product thickness, and illustrating the importance of the dual beam approach in making measurements for production-line meat boxes. Insensitivity to the fat distribution and product temperature, and the agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of the statistical spread are shown. A comparison is made of measurement using an 241Am-Be and a 252Cf source.

  9. Complications of fat grafts growth after weight gain: report of a severe diplopia.

    PubMed

    Duhoux, Alexandre; Chennoufi, Mehdi; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael

    2013-07-01

    A 47 years old woman underwent autologous fat grafting to treat a 5×4 cm depression of the lower lid and the upper cheek secondary resection of squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent coverage by full thickness skin graft. 20 mL of autologous fat were harvested from lower abdomen, centrifuged and injected subcutaneously. The patient then gained a total of 15 kg over a period of 24 months. Eye dystopia developed while the grafted area became convex. MRI confirmed subcutaneous fat mass going to the orbital floor through the inferior septal defect. The fat excess was removed through a trans-conjonctival approach allowing for a progressive regression of diplopia after 2 months while the oedema reduced. The overall follow up from the resection-coverage and last examination was 5 years. In this case with a context of noticeable weight gain, the growth of a fat graft trapped between a sclerous plane and the eye, that penetrated the orbital cavity through a septal defect led have led to exophthalmos, ocular dystopia and diplopia. Systematic overcorrection in autologous fat grafting should be prevented, especially in functional areas and on low body mass index patient that might gain weight.

  10. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42).

  11. Lonsdaleite Films with Nanometer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B

    2014-02-06

    We investigate the properties of potentially the stiffest quasi-2-D films with lonsdaleite structure. Using a combination of ab initio and empirical potential approaches, we analyze the elastic properties of lonsdaleite films in both elastic and inelastic regimes and compare them with graphene and diamond films. We review possible fabrication methods of lonsdaleite films using the pure nanoscale "bottom-up" paradigm: by connecting carbon layers in multilayered graphene. We propose the realization of this method in two ways: by applying direct pressure and by using the recently proposed chemically induced phase transition. For both cases, we construct the phase diagrams depending on temperature, pressure, and film thickness. Finally, we consider the electronic properties of lonsdaleite films and establish the nonlinear dependence of the band gap on the films' thicknesses and their lower effective masses in comparison with bulk crystal.

  12. Measurement of opaque film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Jaarinen, J.; Reyes, C.; Oppenheim, I. C.; Favro, L. D.; Kuo, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental framework for thickness measurements of thin metal films by low frequency thermal waves is described. Although it is assumed that the films are opaque and the substrates are comparatively poor thermal conductors, the theory is easily extended to other cases of technological interest. A brief description is given of the thermal waves and the experimental arrangement and parameters. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated for making absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivities of isotropic substrate materials. This measurement on pure elemental solids provides a check on the three dimensional theory in the limiting case of zero film thickness. The theoretical framework is then presented, along with numerical calculations and corresponding experimental results for the case of copper films on a glass substrate.

  13. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  14. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  15. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  16. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  17. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  18. Physicochemical analysis of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat artisan-style goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Fresno, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-delaNuez, A; Alvarez, S; Argüello, A

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical properties of cheese elaborated via traditional artisan methods using goat milk containing 5, 1.5, or 0.4% fat and ripened for 1, 7, 14, or 28 d. Seventy-two cheeses were produced (2 batches x 3 fat levels x 4 ripening times x triplicate). Proximal composition, pH, texture analysis, and color were recorded in each cheese. Protein and moisture were increased in cheese, and fat and fat in DM were decreased with decreasing fat in milk. Internal and external pH was higher in low-fat and reduced-fat cheese, and pH values decreased during the first 2 wk of ripening but increased slightly on d 28. Cheese fracturability, cohesiveness, masticability, and hardness increased with decreasing fat, whereas elasticity and adhesiveness decreased. Cheese lightness and red and yellow indexes decreased with decreasing fat content; during ripening, lightness decreased further but yellow index increased.

  19. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  20. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  1. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both P<0.05). There were no differences in changes of blood pressure and heart rate rhythms between patients who achieved or did not achieve normotension and regression of left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness. It was concluded that abnormal cardiovascular rhythmicity persists in children with primary hypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  2. Impacts of a leptin SNP on growth performance and carcass characters in finishing steers studied over time.

    PubMed

    Kononoff, P J; Defoor, P J; Engler, M J; Swingle, R S; Gleghorn, J F; James, S T; Marquess, F L S

    2017-01-01

    A total of 2,948 steers (mean initial BW = 568.9 ± 49.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the LEP R25C SNP genotype on feed intake, growth performance, and carcass characteristics over time. Steers were grouped into 5 blocks, each consisting of 10 pens initially, and then at approximately 24 d prior to the assigned slaughter date, cattle in each pen were randomly selected either to remain in the pen they were in (group A) or to be assigned to a new pen (group B). Steers were allocated to 5 blocks and 6 harvest weeks (-3, -2, 0, 2, 3, and 4 wk) relative to the projected end point. Steers were weighed and ultrasound scanned at 60 and 1 d prior to harvest. Leptin genotype affected ( ≤ 0.011) 12th-rib fat and i.m. fat percentage (IMF) for each slaughter group at both 60 and 1 d prior to slaughter, although rib eye area (REA) was not affected ( = 0.773) by leptin genotype 60 d prior to slaughter in any group. Time affected ( < 0.001) live BW as well as 12th-rib fat, REA, and IMF measured 60 and 1 d prior to each slaughter time. Dry matter intake was also higher ( = 0.003) for cattle of the animals homozygous for the T allele (TT) genotype compared to those with the animals homozygous for the C allele (CC) genotype (9.59 vs. 9.29 ± 0.075 kg). The LEP R25C genotype affected key traits related to carcass fatness; specifically, compared to cattle of the CC genotype, cattle of the TT genotype had a higher ( = 0.016) calculated empty body fat (29.1 vs. 28.8 ± 0.133%) and higher ( = 0.020 calculated yield grade (2.62 vs. 2.52 ± 0.035). Additionally, like for live measures, TT cattle tended ( = 0.093) to have a higher 12th-rib fat (13.2 vs. 12.8 ± 0.26 mm). However, the LEP R25C genotype did not affect KPH ( = 0.854) or marbling score ( = 0.240), nor did it affect any USDA quality measure ( ≥ 0.350). The leptin genotype also affected ( = 0.048) HCW, which was highest for steers of the TT genotype (400.9 vs. 403.5 ± 3.41kg). Results indicate that the leptin R25C

  3. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  4. A Better Way to Measure Fat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-24

    all Marines active today are being affected by the current system by which we measure body fat . The Marine Corps’ current system of tape...measurement to determine body fat is the least accurate of multiple modern methods now available to the public. Using more advanced methods would reduce human...error and increase standardization throughout the Marine Corps. Current Method Initially when the Marine Corps began testing for body fat in 1981

  5. Ant fat extraction with a Soxhlet extractor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Stored fat can be informative about the relative age of an ant, its nutritional status, and the nutritional status of the colony. Several methods are available for the quantification of stored fat. Before starting a project involving fat extraction, investigators should weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in order to choose the one that is best suited to the question being addressed. This protocol, although not as accurate as some alternatives, facilitates the rapid quantification of many individuals.

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid intake on plasma and urinary sex hormone...associated with reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16...candidate in September, 2007. • Preliminary data from plasma sex hormone analysis supports low fat, high omega -3 fatty acid diet in prevention of breast

  8. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    risk of sex. hormone mediated cancer, such as breast canoer. A high intake oftotal fat and omega -6 fatty acids increases risk while omega -3 (03...Era ofHope meeting. No manuscripts have yet been gtmm’ated. dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids ,. eicosanoids, sex ho~nes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... fatty acids are associated with risk reduction. Our proposal is testi~g the effect ofdietary fat and fatty acids on sex homwne . concentrations in post

  9. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    eicosanoid balance, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid ...Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Eicosanoids, and Breast Cancer Risk”, is a dietary intervention aimed at evaluating the effects of total fat intake and omega -3 fatty acids on breast

  10. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Lonnie M.

    2004-01-01

    The general public’s view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout. Key Points Nutrition education initiatives over recent years have sent contrasting messages on dietary fat to the public. Variations in chemical structure among triacylglycerols and their component fatty acids induce very different biological effects. Manipulating fat as a percentage of total kcal affects athletes. Athletes have special needs for which dietary fat may prove beneficial. PMID:24482588

  11. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  12. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    40g 60g/40g 60g/40g Raspberries 80g 110g 110g w/Sugar 0 6g 6g 50g (High Brownie Fat) 40g (Low Fat) 40g (Low Fat) Dinner: Meatloaf 1 00g 80g 80g w...Calculated) Kcal 1979 2009 2000 CHO (g)/%) 232g/45.5% 332g/64% 320g/62% Pro (g/%) 76g/1 5% 80g/1 5% 77g/1 5% Fat (g/ PI ) 89g/39.5% 48g/21% 54g/23

  13. Fats and atheroma: a retrial.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, J I

    1979-01-01

    The controversy over medical endorsement of dietary measures to reduce cholesterol intake has been reconsidered. The results of several published reports that apparently do not confirm the association between diet, cholesterol concentrations, and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) were found to be largely inapplicable to the argument. Results of primary prevention trials, however, suggested that lowering the cholesterol concentration had a beneficial effect in reducing morbidity from IHD. The "average Western diet" is particularly associated with accelerated or premature atherosclerotic disease, yet the saturated fatty acid component of the diet may be only one of several factors relevant to IHD. Such diets are usually high in refined carbohydrate and total energy intake. Disordered nutrition generally, and other environmental and constitutional factors seem to be important in the aetiology of IHD. A prudent diet, incorporating decreased intake of fats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrate, with polyunsaturated fats comprising less than 25% of total energy intake, may be the best method of reducing the incidence of IHD and other diseases of overnutrition. PMID:435754

  14. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (p<0.05 for both). Fat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (p<0.05). Test-retest scores performed in a subset of participants (n=40) showed moderate reliability of the fat discrimination test (rho=0.53; p<0.01). If these results are replicated, fat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake.

  16. Dietary fat-induced hyperphagia in rats as a function of fat type and physical form.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Ackroff, K; Sclafani, A

    1989-05-01

    The influence of dietary fat on food intake and weight gain was assessed by feeding adult female rats diets that differed in the type and form of fat, as well as in the availability of other macro- and micronutrients. Compared to chow-fed controls, the various fat diets increased total food intake by 4% to 27%. Specifically, rats fed chow and a separate source of fat (fat option diet) consumed more fat and total calories, and gained more weight when the fat source was emulsified corn oil rather than pure corn oil or was vegetable shortening rather than corn oil. However, corn oil and shortening had similar effects on caloric intake and weight gain when presented as emulsified gels. Also, pure and emulsified-gel forms of shortening did not differ in their effects on caloric intake and weight gain. Supplementing the vegetable shortening with micronutrients, however, enhanced its hyperphagia-promoting effect. The results of two-choice tests revealed that the rats' preferences for the orosensory properties of the various fat sources did not account for the differential hyperphagias obtained. Rather, it appears that long-term fat selection and caloric intake are influenced primarily by postingestive factors. Fat selection and total intake were determined not only by the fat source itself, but also by the other diet options. That is, rats selected more fat and consumed more calories when chow was the alternative food than when separate sources of carbohydrate and protein were available.

  17. Fecal Fat Analyses in Chronic Pancreatitis Importance of Fat Ingestion before Stool Collection

    PubMed Central

    Engjom, Trond; Jurmy, Palwasha; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd Helge; Dimcevski, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Objective Quantitative determination of fecal fat still is the gold standard for measuring malabsorption. We evaluated the importance of standardized food intake before and under the collection of feces. Material and Methods In a project, evaluating patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis (CP) and healthy volunteers (HC), stools were collected for 72 hours coupled to registration of nutritional intake over five consecutive days. Patient groups were created by a modified Layer score, which includes imaging findings, clinical parameters and pancreas function testing. Results We found 12 patients with CP, 11 patients without CP and 13 healthy individuals in our database. Median fecal fat in CP patients was 12 g/day, in non-CP patients 5 g/day and in healthy controls 5 g/day. Median fat absorption coefficient was 81% in those with chronic pancreatitis, 92% in those without CP and 92% in healthy controls. Corresponding median fat intake was 65 g/day, 68 g/day and 81 g/day in the respective groups. Spearman Rank Order Correlation between fecal fat (g/d) and fat absorption coefficient in all study subjects (n = 36) was good (-0.88 (p<0.001)). When we stratified groups according to fat intake, correlation between fecal fat and fat absorption was also good (-0.86 to -0.95). Conclusion In the diagnoses of fat malabsorption, calculating the ratio of fat absorption did not give additional information compared to fecal fat. PMID:28095460

  18. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat...

  19. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P < .01). The high-fat diet increased body weight (P < .01) in OVX mice and nonsignificantly decreased BV/TV (P = .08) and Conn.D (P = .10). Despite having similar serum estradiol concentrations and higher body weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

  20. Effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal strengths: Implications for in vivo MR spectroscopy studies of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent MRS studies indicate that higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal areas, which could partly explain the observed associations of BMI with MR-measured brain metabolite levels in vivo. SVS data were acquired at 4T from a phantom containing N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu) and creatine as well as from three healthy male adults. Back fat obtained from the pig was used to assess the effects of fat on metabolite signals. With the same voxel size and placement, the phantom was first scanned without fat (baseline), then with 0.7 cm and 1.4 cm thick fat layers placed on it. Each participant was also scanned first without fat and then with two 0.7 cm fat layers: one placed beneath the occiput and the other on the forehead. Two spectra were acquired per participant from the anterior cingulate and the parieto-occipital cortices . The metabolite resonance and corresponding water peak areas were then fitted and metabolite-to-water signal ratios used for analyses. In both phantom and in vivo experiments, the metabolite-to-water ratios decreased in the presence of fat compared to baseline acquired in the absence of fat. The reduced metabolite signals in the presence of fat at 4T are reminiscent of the negative correlations observed between BMI and MR-measured metabolite levels. These apparent physical effects of fat have potentially far-reaching consequences for the accuracy of MR measurements of brain metabolite levels and their interpretation, particularly when large fat stores exist around the skull, such as in individuals with higher BMI. PMID:24115006

  1. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. By Shana Potash, Staff Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  2. Snapshot in surgery: intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han Boon; Arab, Nahlah; Teo, Lynette; Lieske, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 66-year-old man with rectal cancer was found to have an incidental ring-like lesion in the left rectovesical pouch. Histology revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necroses are postulated to be a result of infarcted epiploic appendages resulting in a free-floating lesion. PMID:25767714

  3. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  4. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  5. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice. PMID:8382094

  6. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  10. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  11. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity.

  12. Changes in the small intestine of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Neves, Renata Heisler; de Oliveira, Albanita Viana; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2012-05-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet modifies both the morphology of the small intestine and experimentally tested effects of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, whether a schistosomiasis infection associated with a high-fat diet causes injury to the small intestine has never been investigated. Mice were fed either a high-fat or a standard-fat diet for 6 months and were then infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Physical characteristics of the intestinal tissue (mucosal thickness, small intestinal villi length and height, and abundance of goblet cells and enterocytes on the villous surface) and the distribution of granulomas along the intestinal segments and their developmental stage were measured at the time of sacrifice (9 or 17 weeks post-infection). The group fed a high-fat diet exhibited different granuloma stages, whereas the control group possessed only exudative granulomas. The chronically infected mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher granuloma and egg numbers than the acutely infected group. Exudative, exudative/exudative-productive and exudative-productive granulomas were present irrespective of diet. Computer-aided morphometric analysis confirmed that villus length, villus width, muscular height and submucosal height of the duodenal and jejunal segments were affected by diet and infection. In conclusion, a high-fat diet and infection had a significant impact on the small intestine morphology and morphometry among the animals tested.

  13. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-02

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods.

  14. The role of non-fat ingredients on confectionery fat crystallization.

    PubMed

    West, Ryan; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-03-31

    Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed non-fat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different non-fat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behaviour of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.

  15. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  16. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  17. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  18. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  19. The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON); 50% saturated fat (SAT); 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA); 40% saturated fat + 10% α-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA). Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC), and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation), lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation) and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding

  20. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  1. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (p<0.05) in burn injured wounds. Histological analysis supported objective clinical findings with marked scar-like collagen proliferation within the dermis, increased vascular density, and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration. Observed differences in contracture also correlated with earlier and more prominent myofibroblast differentiation as demonstrated by α-SMA staining. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been

  2. Characterization of the nanoscale structure of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Pere Randy R; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2016-07-15

    The nanoscale structure of milk fat (MF) crystal networks is extensively described for the first time through the characterization of milk fat-crystalline nanoplatelets (MF-CNPs). Removing oil by washing with cold isobutanol and breaking-down crystal aggregates by controlled homogenization allowed for the extraction and visualization of individual MF-CNPs that are mainly composed of high melting triacylglycerols (TAGs). By image analysis, the length and width of MF-CNPs were measured (600 nm × 200 nm-900 nm × 300 nm). Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), crystalline domain size, (i.e., thickness of MF-CNPs), was determined (27 nm (d001)). Through interpretation of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) patterns of MF using Unified Fit and Guinier-Porod models, structural properties of MF-CNPs (smooth surfaces) and MF-CNP aggregations were characterized (RLCA aggregation of MF-CNPs to form larger structures that present diffused surfaces). Elucidation of MF-CNPs provides a new dimension of analysis for describing MF crystal networks and opens-up opportunities for modifying MF properties through nanoengineering.

  3. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-01-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  4. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hypothesized that over-conditioned cows with excessive body fat mobilization around calving may have impaired insulin metabolism compared with cows with low fat mobilization. Nineteen dairy cows were grouped according to their average concentration of total liver fat (LFC) after calving in low [LLFC; LFC <24% total fat/dry matter (DM); n=9] and high (HLFC; LFC >24.4% total fat/DM; n=10) fat-mobilizing cows. Blood samples were taken from wk 7 antepartum (ap) to wk 5 postpartum (pp) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin. We applied euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (EGHIC) and hyperglycemic clamps (HGC) in wk 5 ap and wk 3 pp to measure insulin responsiveness in peripheral tissue and pancreatic insulin secretion during the transition period. Before and during the pp EGHIC, [(13)C6] glucose was infused to determine the rate of glucose appearance (GlucRa) and glucose oxidation (GOx). Body condition, back fat thickness, and energy-corrected milk were greater, but energy balance was lower in HLFC than in LLFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin decreased at calving, and this was followed by an immediate increase of glucagon and adiponectin after calving. Insulin concentrations ap were higher in HLFC than in LLFC cows, but the EGHIC indicated no differences in peripheral insulin responsiveness among cows ap and pp. However, GlucRa and GOx:GlucRa during the pp EGHIC were greater in HLFC than in LLFC cows. During HGC, pancreatic insulin secretion was lower, but the glucose infusion rate was higher pp than ap in both groups. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified

  5. A dipping, thick Farallon slab below central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Gurnis, M.; Saleeby, J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that much of the Laramide orogeny was caused by dynamic effects induced by an extensive flat slab during a period of plateau subduction. A particularly thick block containing the Shatsky Rise conjugate, now in the mid-mantle, left a distinctive deformation footprint from southern California to Denver, Colorado. Thus mid-mantle, relic slabs can provide fundamental information about past subduction and the history of plate tectonics if properly imaged. Here we find clear evidence for a northeastward dipping (35° dip), slab-like, but fat (up to 400-500 km thick) seismic anomaly within the top of the lower mantle below the central United States. Using a deep focus earthquake below Spain with direct seismic paths that propagate along the top and bottom of the anomaly, we find that the observed, stacked seismic waveforms recorded with the dense USArray show multi-pathing indicative of sharp top and bottom surfaces. Plate tectonic reconstructions in which the slab is migrated back in time suggest strong coupling of the slab to North America. In combination with the reconstructions, we interpret the structure as arising from eastward dipping Farallon subduction at the western margin of North America during the Cretaceous, in contrast with recent interpretations. The slab could have been fattened through a combination of pure shear thickening during flat-slab subduction and a folding instability during penetration into the lower mantle.

  6. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  7. Adiponectin Enhances Mouse Fetal Fat Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liping; Yoo, Hyung sun; Madon, Alysha; Kinney, Brice; Hay, William W.; Shao, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Maternal obesity increases offspring birth weight and susceptibility to obesity. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with a prominent function in maintaining energy homeostasis. In contrast to adults, neonatal blood adiponectin levels are positively correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity. This study was designed to investigate the role of adiponectin in maternal obesityenhanced fetal fat deposition. By using high-fat diet–induced obese mouse models, our study showed that maternal obesity increased fetal fat tissue mass, with a significant elevation in fetal blood adiponectin. However, adiponectin gene knockout (Adipoq−/−) attenuated maternal obesity-induced high fetal fat tissue mass. We further studied the effects of fetal adiponectin on fetal fat deposition by using a cross breeding approach to create Adipoq−/+ and Adipoq−/− offspring, whereas maternal adiponectin was null. Adipoq−/+ offspring had more fat tissue mass at both birth and adulthood. Significantly high levels of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element–binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase, were detected in the livers of Adipoq−/+ fetuses. In addition, expression of genes for placental fatty acid transport was significantly increased in Adipoq−/+ fetuses. Together, our study indicates that adiponectin enhances fetal fat deposition and plays an important role in maternal obesity-induced high birth weight. PMID:22872236

  8. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  9. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of a healthy Chinese population, and to determine its influencing factors. Methods A total of 76 healthy volunteers (76 eyes) without ophthalmic or systemic symptoms were enrolled. Choroidal scans (360-degree 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circle scans) were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroid thickness was measured at the temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal segments. Results The average peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were 165.03 ± 40.37 μm. Inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal thicknesses (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found among inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness decreased linearly with age (β = −1.33, 95% CI −1.98, -0.68, P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between average choroidal thickness and other factors (gender, refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, systolic ocular perfusion pressure, and mean ocular perfusion pressure). Conclusions The inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, and nasal thicknesses. A thinner peripapillary choroid is associated with increasing age. PMID:23758729

  10. Vitamin D3 in fat tissue

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Miriam; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Harris, Susan S.; Booth, Sarah L.; Peterson, James; Saltzman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method. The objectives of this study were: to measure and report the vitamin D3 concentration in serum and subcutaneous fat samples from obese individuals and to examine the association of vitamin D3 in fat with vitamin D3 in serum. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 obese men and women who were scheduled to undergo gastric bypass surgery. The mean vitamin D3 concentration in subjects’ subcutaneous fat tissue samples was 102.8 ± 42.0 nmol/kg. The mean vitamin D3 concentration in serum was 7.78 ± 3.99 nmol/l. Vitamin D3 concentrations of fat tissue and serum were positively correlated (r = 0.68, P = 0.003). Consistent with previous findings in obese subjects, subjects in this study had suboptimal vitamin D status as demonstrated by a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 43.3 ± 15.4 nmol/l. In conclusion, fat tissue vitamin D3 can be measured by LC/MS and is detectable in obese subjects with suboptimal vitamin D status. Compatible with the long-standing concept that fat tissue is a storage site for vitamin D, fat tissue and serum vitamin D3 concentrations were positively correlated. PMID:18338271

  11. Antecedents and consequences of expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Tuorila, H; Cardello, A V; Lesher, L L

    1994-12-01

    Hedonic and sensory expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat pound cake, crackers and American cheese were studied with 97 subjects divided into three subgroups, each testing one type of product. Four study phases were separated by 1-month intervals: (1) a questionnaire on demographics, dietary practices and consumption of the test products, (2) intensity ratings of sensory attributes and ratings of liking of unlabeled fat-free and regular-fat samples, (3) ratings of expected attribute intensities and liking in response to product labels of "fat-free" and "regular", and subsequent ratings of these samples and (4) phase 3 repeated with opposite (incorrect) labels. Fat-free products were expected to be less liked than their regular counterparts; however, only cheese was less liked in actual taste tests. Expected liking was best predicted by familiarity with the product and, in the case of fat-free products, by the extent to which a person substituted low-fat for high-fat foods. Actual liking was best predicted by the effect of labeling and by expectations. The expected intensities of sensory attributes were uniformly higher in regular than in fat-free products. Both sensory and hedonic ratings of labeled samples changed in the direction of expectations, as compared to baseline values, supporting an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on sensory perception and consumer acceptance.

  12. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  13. Cortical thickness in untreated transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Junque, Carme; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Rametti, Giuseppina; Guillamon, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Sex differences in cortical thickness (CTh) have been extensively investigated but as yet there are no reports on CTh in transsexuals. Our aim was to determine whether the CTh pattern in transsexuals before hormonal treatment follows their biological sex or their gender identity. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 94 subjects: 24 untreated female-to-male transsexuals (FtMs), 18 untreated male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs), and 29 male and 23 female controls in a 3-T TIM-TRIO Siemens scanner. T1-weighted images were analyzed to obtain CTh and volumetric subcortical measurements with FreeSurfer software. CTh maps showed control females have thicker cortex than control males in the frontal and parietal regions. In contrast, males have greater right putamen volume. FtMs had a similar CTh to control females and greater CTh than males in the parietal and temporal cortices. FtMs had larger right putamen than females but did not differ from males. MtFs did not differ in CTh from female controls but had greater CTh than control males in the orbitofrontal, insular, and medial occipital regions. In conclusion, FtMs showed evidence of subcortical gray matter masculinization, while MtFs showed evidence of CTh feminization. In both types of transsexuals, the differences with respect to their biological sex are located in the right hemisphere.

  14. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  15. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  16. [Autologous fat grafting and rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Baptista, C; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2014-12-01

    Revision rhinoplasty can be very challenging especially in cases of thin skin. Autologous fat graft is utilized in numerous applications in plastic surgery; however, its use relative to the nasal region remains uncommon. Adipose tissue, by virtue of its volumetric qualities and its action on skin trophicity, can be considered to be a gold standard implant. From 2006 until 2012, we have treated patients by lipofilling in order to correct sequelae of rhinoplasty. The mean quantity of adipose tissue injected was 2.1cm(3) depending on the importance of the deformity and the area of injection: irregularity of the nasal dorsum, visible lateral osteotomies, saddle nose. Following the course of our practice, we conceived micro-cannulas that allow a much greater accuracy in the placement of the graft and enable to perform interventions under local anesthesia. These non-traumatic micro-cannulas do not cause post-operative ecchymosis and swelling which shorten the recovery time for the patient. On patients who have undergone multiple operations, lipofilling can be a simple and reliable alternative to correct imperfections that may take place after a rhinoplasty.

  17. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P < 0.05) metaphylactic cost, ADG, shrunk final BW, dressed carcass yield, HCW, 12th rib fat, calculated empty body fat (EBF), and gross revenue, concurrent with reduced (P < 0.05) BRD treatment costs and financial losses from BRD death and railed cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P < 0.05) HCW, KPH, 12th rib fat, calculated yield grades, marbling scores, and calculated EBF as compared to steers without lung lesions. Steers pulled for BRD had increased (P < 0.01) incidence of advanced lung lesions, mortality, and railers with decreased (P < 0.05) HCW, 12th rib fat, KPH, marbling score, calculated EBF, and percentage choice carcasses when compared to non-BRD event steers. From

  18. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    PubMed

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability

  19. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    PubMed

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  20. Genome-wide association study for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle using Random Forest approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality involves many traits, such as marbling, tenderness, juiciness, and backfat thickness, all of which require attention from livestock producers. Backfat thickness improvement by means of traditional selection techniques in Canchim beef cattle has been challenging due to its low heritability, and it is measured late in an animal’s life. Therefore, the implementation of new methodologies for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to backfat thickness are an important strategy for genetic improvement of carcass and meat quality. Results The set of SNPs identified by the random forest approach explained as much as 50% of the deregressed estimated breeding value (dEBV) variance associated with backfat thickness, and a small set of 5 SNPs were able to explain 34% of the dEBV for backfat thickness. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fat-related traits were found in the surrounding areas of the SNPs, as well as many genes with roles in lipid metabolism. Conclusions These results provided a better understanding of the backfat deposition and regulation pathways, and can be considered a starting point for future implementation of a genomic selection program for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle. PMID:23738659

  1. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Cancer.gov

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  2. Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Malay Y.; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up. PMID:24369521

  3. Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime. Literature suggests that the marbling is more complex than the development of subcutaneous fat and marbling not only provides good fatty acids but also contributes to the higher eating quality of beef. Finally, the current work emphasize that meat plays a pivotal role in nutritious diets, high quality marbled beef is not only of excellent eating quality but also contain more beneficial fatty acids. PMID:27857532

  4. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  5. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  6. Free Fat Graft for Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Daisuke; Satake, Hiroshi; Iba, Kousuke

    2012-01-01

    Background Free fat graft has been used for the treatment of congenital hand differences. However, there have been a few reports about the outcome of that treatment. In this study, the outcome of free fat grafts for congenital hand and foot differences was investigated. Methods Fourteen bones with longitudinal epiphyseal bracket, 3 wrists with Madelung deformity, and 5 cases of osseous syndactyly were treated with free fat graft with osteotomy, physiolysis, or separation of osseous syndactyly. Of the fourteen bones with longitudinal epiphyseal bracket, 9 were treated with open wedge osteotomy with free fat graft and 5 with physiolysis and free fat graft. The Madelung deformity was treated with physiolysis with free fat graft. For osseous syndactyly, syndactyly release with free fat graft was performed five times on four hands. Results In the fourteen cases with longitudinal epiphyseal bracket, lateral deviation improved in all except two cases after surgery. The average lateral deviation angle changed from 32.5 degrees before surgery to 15.2 degrees after surgery. The average improvement of the lateral deviation angle was 12.2 degrees in the osteotomy group and 20.6 degrees in the physiolysis group. The mean ratio of improvement of the lateral deviation angle to the lateral deviation angle before surgery was 39.4% in the osteotomy group and 51.2% in the physiolysis group. The Madelung deformity improved after surgery in two cases but there was no improvement in one case. For these conditions, the results were not good enough when surgery was done after age 13 or at age four for severely hypoplastic brachymesophalangy. Of the 5 cases of osseous syndactyly, reunion of the separated bones occurred in one case. The grafted free fat should be deep enough to cover the osteotomy site of the bones to prevent reunion of the separated bones. Conclusions Physiolysis and free fat graft performed during the growth period can correct the deviation due to longitudinal epiphyseal

  7. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Cholesterol and Fat Content of Common Foods 一般食品胆固醇及脂肪成份 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual ... PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Cholesterol and Fat Content of Common Foods 一般食品膽固醇及脂肪成份 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual ...

  8. Fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities: fitness versus fatness.

    PubMed

    Croci, Ilaria; Hickman, Ingrid J; Wood, Rachel E; Borrani, Fabio; Macdonald, Graeme A; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-12-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), as well as the exercise intensity at which it occurs (Fatmax), have been reported as lower in sedentary overweight individuals but have not been studied in trained overweight individuals. The aim of this study was to compare Fatmax and MFO in lean and overweight recreationally trained males matched for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to study the relationships between these variables, anthropometric characteristics, and CRF. Twelve recreationally trained overweight (high fatness (HiFat) group, 30.0% ± 5.3% body fat) and 12 lean males (low fatness (LoFat), 17.2% ± 5.7% body fat) matched for CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 39.0 ± 5.5 vs. 41.4 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.31) and age (p = 0.93) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. V̇O2max and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry; Fatmax and MFO were determined with a mathematical model (SIN); and % body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. MFO (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), p = 0.58), Fatmax (46.7% ± 8.6% vs. 45.4% ± 7.2% V̇O2max, p = 0.71), and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between HiFat and LoFat groups. In the overall cohort (n = 24), MFO and Fatmax were correlated with V̇O2max (r = 0.46, p = 0.02; r = 0.61, p = 0.002) but not with % body fat or body mass index (p > 0.05). Fat oxidation during exercise was similar in recreationally trained overweight and lean males matched for CRF. Consistently, substrate oxidation rates during exercise were not related to adiposity (% body fat) but were related to CRF. The benefits of high CRF independent of body weight and % body fat should be further highlighted in the management of obesity.

  9. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  10. Whole body fat: content and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Fitzpatrick, J A; Malik, S J; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Bell, J D

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, have become one of the biggest health issues of present times. The impact of obesity goes well beyond the individual and is so far-reaching that, if it continues unabated, it will cause havoc with the economies of most countries. In order to be able to fully understand the relationship between increased adiposity (obesity) and its co-morbidity, it has been necessary to develop proper methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution, including ectopic fat depots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as the gold-standard for accomplishing this task. Here, we will review the use of different MRI techniques currently being used to determine body fat content and distribution. We also discuss the pros and cons of MRS to determine ectopic fat depots in liver, muscle, pancreas and heart and compare these to emerging MRI techniques currently being put forward to create ectopic fat maps. Finally, we will discuss how MRI/MRS techniques are helping in changing the perception of what is healthy and what is normal and desirable body-fat content and distribution.

  11. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E; Aggarwal, Pardeep K; Porath, Jonathan D; Yakulov, Toma A; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A; Morris, Luc G T; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V; Saleem, Moin A; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I; Valentini, Rudolph P; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A; Otto, Edgar A; Lifton, Richard P; Holzman, Lawrence B; Sibinga, Nicholas E S; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-02-24

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function.

  12. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

    2005-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern. PMID:16022739

  13. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  14. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed.

  15. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Aggarwal, Pardeep K.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Yakulov, Toma A.; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A.; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V.; Saleem, Moin A.; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I.; Valentini, Rudolph P.; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C.; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A.; Otto, Edgar A.; Lifton, Richard P.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function. PMID:26905694

  16. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  20. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  1. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  2. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  3. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  4. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  5. A study of microclad thickness variation (1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the thickness variation of microclad material used in fabricating 1E38 bridges. For the role sampled (nine reels), standard deviations within reels ranged from 6.11 to 12.07 {mu}in. Thickness variations within reels ranged from 16.2 to 40.9 {mu}in., with the average thickness between 142.90 and 161.28 {mu}in.

  6. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-11-15

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.

  7. Effects of high-oil corn on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profiles, beef palatability, and retail case life traits of beef top loin steaks.

    PubMed

    Price, B D; Garmyn, A J; Derington, H M; Galyean, M L; Jackson, S P; Smith, S B; Miller, M F

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to compare the effects of feeding steam-flaked, high-oil corn with normal steam-flaked corn to which yellow grease was added to equalize dietary fat on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers, and palatability, retail case life, and fatty acid composition of strip loins. Angus steers (n = 120; initial BW = 288 kg) were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 1) normal mill-run, steam-flaked corn plus added fat (NMR) or 2) high-oil, steam-flaked corn (HOC) and assigned randomly to pens (12 pens/treatment with 5 steers/pen). Performance (ADG, DMI, and G:F) was measured over time, and cattle were shipped to a commercial abattoir for collection of carcass data after 165 d on feed. Carcass data were collected at 48 h postmortem on all carcasses, and 2 carcasses from each pen were selected randomly for collection of strip loins (IMPS #180A). At 14 d postmortem, 4 steaks (2.54 cm thick) were removed for retail display, trained sensory panel analysis, Warner-Bratzler shear force determination, and fatty acid analysis. Daily BW gain was greater (P = 0.03) and G:F was increased 8.4% (P = 0.01) for steers fed NMR compared with HOC, but DMI was not affected (P > 0.10) by treatment. No treatment differences were observed (P > 0.10) for HCW, 12th-rib fat, KPH, and yield grade. Marbling scores were greater (P = 0.01) for NMR than for HOC, and LM area tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in NMR than in HOC carcasses. The proportion of carcasses grading USDA Choice did not differ (P = 0.77) between treatments, but a greater (P = 0.04) proportion of carcasses graded in the upper two-thirds of Choice for NMR vs. HOC. Trained sensory panel traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force values did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10), and no differences (P > 0.10) were detected for purge loss or fatty acid composition. Overall, ADG and G:F were less and marbling score was decreased, but there were no differences between treatments in beef

  8. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  9. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p < 0.01). ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p < 0.01), whilst other parameters remained statistically unaltered. Meanwhile, ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p < 0.05) and pathological gradation of ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes (p < 0.05). After taking ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p < 0.01), but other lipid parameters had no significant change. Discussion and conclusion The study indicates that ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  10. Body fat and condition in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, from southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark A; Thiele, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Blubber thickness (n=102) and lipid content (n=37) were measured in sperm whales from three mass stranding events on the west and north-west coasts of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. Blubber thickness was highly variable, ranging from 43.0 to 168.0 mm (mean 98.4+/-18.4 mm) while lipid fat content, also highly variable, ranged from 16.19 to 89.34% (mean 49.2+/-17.9%). Blubber thickness was significantly and positively related to total length, but a blubber thickness index based on the residuals of this relationship was not related to age, sex or reproductive condition. No relationship was found between blubber thickness index and blubber lipid content, indicating that blubber thickness may not provide a comprehensive indication of body fat condition in sperm whales when only measured at a single site. Blubber lipid content was not related to total length, age or sex. Blubber lipid content was stratified vertically throughout the blubber layer, suggesting that the inner blubber layer may be a more active site for lipid deposition and mobilisation, while the outer blubber layer may serve in a structural or thermoregulatory role. The social structure and foraging ecology of this species may serve to minimise the need to rely on stored energy reserves to meet reproductive energy requirements. In addition, the broader role of blubber for structural, buoyancy and insulative functions coupled with high individual variability may cause a lack of obvious relationships between these variables and body size, age, sex and reproductive state in this species.

  11. Milk fat content and DGAT1 genotype determine lipid composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows.

  12. Genome-wide association of pericardial fat identifies a unique locus for ectopic fat.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; White, Charles C; Lohman, Kurt; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Cohen, Paul; Zhang, Yingying; Johnson, Andrew D; Emilsson, Valur; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Allison, Matthew; Budoff, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I; Carr, J Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Udo; Ding, Jingzhong; Cupples, L Adrienne; Liu, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial fat is a localized fat depot associated with coronary artery calcium and myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that genetic loci would be associated with pericardial fat independent of other body fat depots. Pericardial fat was quantified in 5,487 individuals of European ancestry from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of pericardial fat adjusted for age, sex, weight, and height. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted, and validation was obtained in an additional 3,602 multi-ethnic individuals from the MESA study. We identified a genome-wide significant signal in our primary meta-analysis at rs10198628 near TRIB2 (MAF 0.49, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)). This SNP was not associated with visceral fat (p = 0.17) or body mass index (p = 0.38), although we observed direction-consistent, nominal significance with visceral fat adjusted for BMI (p = 0.01) in the Framingham Heart Study. Our findings were robust among African ancestry (n = 1,442, p = 0.001), Hispanic (n = 1,399, p = 0.004), and Chinese (n = 761, p = 0.007) participants from the MESA study, with a combined p-value of 5.4E-14. We observed TRIB2 gene expression in the pericardial fat of mice. rs10198628 near TRIB2 is associated with pericardial fat but not measures of generalized or visceral adiposity, reinforcing the concept that there are unique genetic underpinnings to ectopic fat distribution.

  13. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk.

  14. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  15. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. Replacing foods high in saturated fat by low-saturated fat alternatives: a computer simulation of the potential effects on reduction of saturated fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Schickenberg, Bilbo; van Assema, Patricia; Brug, Johannes; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Ocké, Marga C; de Vries, Nanne K

    2009-08-01

    This simulation study aimed to assess the change in saturated fat intake achieved by replacing one to three of the products contributing most to individual saturated fat intake by alternative products low in saturated fat. Food consumption data of 750 participants (aged 19-30 years) from a recent Dutch food consumption survey were used. For each participant, the three products (from different product groups) that contributed most to their saturated fat intake were ranked in order of diminishing contribution. These products were sequentially replaced by lower saturated fat alternatives that were available in Dutch supermarkets. Mean percentage energy (en%) from saturated fat and energy intake in kJ per d were calculated before and after each of the three replacements. Dutch cheese, meat (for dinner) and milk were the main contributors to saturated fat intake for most participants. Starting at a mean en% from saturated fat of 12.4, the three replacements together resulted in a mean reduction of 4.9 en% from saturated fat. The percentage of participants meeting the recommendation for saturated fat ( < 10 en%) increased from 23.3 % to 86.0 %. We conclude that the replacement of relatively few important high-saturated fat products by available lower-saturated fat alternatives can significantly reduce saturated fat intake and increase the proportion of individuals complying with recommended intake levels.

  17. Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes

    PubMed Central

    KATOH, MASARU

    2012-01-01

    FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by γ-secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS-binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble-binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YAP1 to suppress cell growth. FAT1 is repressed in oral cancer owing to homozygous deletion or epigenetic silencing and is preferentially downregulated in invasive breast cancer. On the other hand, FAT1 is upregulated in leukemia and prognosis of preB-ALL patients with FAT1 upregulation is poor. FAT4 directly interacts with MPDZ/MUPP1 to recruit membrane-associated guanylate kinase MPP5/PALS1. FAT4 is involved in the maintenance of PCP and inhibition of cell proliferation. FAT4 mRNA is repressed in breast cancer and lung cancer due to promoter hypermethylation. FAT4 gene is recurrently mutated in several types of human cancers, such as melanoma, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. FAT1 and FAT4 suppress tumor growth via activation of Hippo signaling, whereas FAT1 promotes tumor migration via induction of actin polymerization. FAT1 is tumor suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner, while FAT4 is tumor suppressive. Copy number aberration, translocation and point mutation of FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, FAT4, FRMD1, FRMD6, NF2, WWC1, WWC2, SAV1, STK3, STK4, MOB1A, MOB1B, LATS1, LATS2, YAP1 and WWTR1/TAZ genes should be comprehensively investigated in various types of human cancers to elucidate the mutation landscape of the FAT-Hippo signaling cascades. Because YAP1 and WWTR1 are located at the crossroads of adhesion, GPCR, RTK and stem-cell signaling network, cancer genomics of the FAT signaling cascades could be applied for diagnostics, prognostics

  18. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ding-Hui; Liu, Wen-Yan; Feng, Hai-Bo; Fu, Yi-Li; Huang, Shi; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Lyu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI), relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT) deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3) is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. “BMI-ICAWT” curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x) = P1 × x2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056), P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164), P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412), R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of “BMI-ICAWT” curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI. PMID:26228215

  19. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  20. Traffic-light labels could reduce population intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium

    PubMed Central

    Emrich, Teri E.; Qi, Ying; Lou, Wendy Y.; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-light labelling has been proposed as a public health intervention to improve the dietary intakes of consumers. OBJECTIVES: to model the potential impact of avoiding foods with red traffic lights on the label on the energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars intakes of Canadian adults. METHODS: Canadian adults aged 19 and older (n = 19,915) who responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Cycle 2.2. The nutrient levels in foods consumed by Canadians in CCHS were profiled using the United Kingdom’s criteria for traffic light labelling. Whenever possible, foods assigned a red traffic light for one or more of the profiled nutrients were replaced with a similar food currently sold in Canada, with nutrient levels not assigned any red traffic lights. Average intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars under the traffic light scenario were compared with actual intakes of calories and these nutrients (baseline) reported in CCHS. RESULTS: Under the traffic light scenario, Canadian’s intake of energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium were significantly reduced compared to baseline; sugars intakes were not significantly reduced. Calorie intake was reduced by 5%, total fat 13%, saturated fat 14%, and sodium 6%. CONCLUSION: Governments and policy makers should consider the adoption of traffic light labelling as a population level intervention to improve dietary intakes and chronic disease risk. PMID:28182630

  1. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  2. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  3. Fat: friend or foe? A review of fat-containing masses within the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Kale, Hrishikesh A; Prabhu, Arpan V; Sinelnikov, Andrey; Branstetter, Barton

    2016-11-01

    Fat-containing lesions of the head and neck are commonly encountered in day-to-day practice. Our aim was to review the various imaging presentations of common and some uncommon fat-containing lesions within the head and neck with potential pitfalls and mimics. While most soft-tissue masses have a fairly similar density, the presence of fat in a mass lesion is easy to identify on both CT/MRI and can help narrow the differential. Case-based examples of lipomas, liposarcomas, lipoblastomas, dermoids, teratomas and other fatty lesions will be used to describe imaging features. While fat density can be helpful, differentiating benign from malignant fat-containing lesions can still pose a challenge. Lesions simulating pathology such as brown fat, fatty changes within organs and post-operative flaps are presented. Finally, examples of fatty lesions in atypical locations are shown to illustrate examples that should be kept in mind in any differential. The presence of fat in head and neck masses can aid radiologists in arriving at an accurate diagnosis. Knowledge of the imaging appearance of these fat-containing lesions and their mimics can help avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery.

  4. Problems of radioisotope thickness gauge metrological provisions

    SciTech Connect

    Veits, B.; Karasev, A.; Krop, V.

    1993-12-31

    Results of research and development in the area of metrological provisions of thickness gages of sheet materials and coating are presented. The problem of measurement of different nature sample combinations for beta thickness gages of coatings is provided by an experimental-calculative method.

  5. Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Returns - Thor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Kolasinski, J.; McGill, M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Physical thickness of a cloud layer, and sometimes multiple cloud layers, can be estimated from the time delay of off-beam returns from a pulsed laser source illuminating one side of the cloud layer. In particular, the time delay of light returning from the outer diffuse halo of light surrounding the beam entry point, relative to the time delay at beam center, determines the cloud physical thickness. The delay combined with the pulse stretch gives the optical thickness. The halo method works best for thick cloud layers, typically optical thickness exceeding 2, and thus compliments conventional lidar which cannot penetrate thick clouds. Cloud layer top and base have been measured independently over the ARM/SGP site using conventional laser ranging (lidar) and the top minus base thickness are compared with a cloud top halo estimate obtained from the NASA/Goddard THOR System (THOR = THickness from Offbeam Returns). THOR flies on the NASA P3, and measures the halo timings from several km above cloud top, at the same time providing conventional lidar cloud top height. The ARM/SGP micropulse lidar provides cloud base height for validation.

  6. Cortical thickness gradients in structural hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Wagstyl, Konrad; Ronan, Lisa; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    MRI, enabling in vivo analysis of cortical morphology, offers a powerful tool in the assessment of brain development and pathology. One of the most ubiquitous measures used—the thickness of the cortex—shows abnormalities in a number of diseases and conditions, but the functional and biological correlates of such alterations are unclear. If the functional connotations of structural MRI measures are to be understood, we must strive to clarify the relationship between measures such as cortical thickness and their cytoarchitectural determinants. We therefore sought to determine whether patterns of cortical thickness mirror a key motif of the cortex, specifically its structural hierarchical organisation. We delineated three sensory hierarchies (visual, somatosensory and auditory) in two species—macaque and human—and explored whether cortical thickness was correlated with specific cytoarchitectural characteristics. Importantly, we controlled for cortical folding which impacts upon thickness and may obscure regional differences. Our results suggest that an easily measurable macroscopic brain parameter, namely, cortical thickness, is systematically related to cytoarchitecture and to the structural hierarchical organisation of the cortex. We argue that the measurement of cortical thickness gradients may become an important way to develop our understanding of brain structure–function relationships. The identification of alterations in such gradients may complement the observation of regionally localised cortical thickness changes in our understanding of normal development and neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:25725468

  7. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03) after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003), but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  8. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03) after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003), but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls. PMID:27792134

  9. Percent body fat via DEXA: comparison with a four-compartment model.

    PubMed

    Van Der Ploeg, Grant E; Withers, Robert T; Laforgia, Joe

    2003-02-01

    This study compared body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar DPX-L) with that via a four-compartment (4C; water, bone mineral mass, fat, and residual) model. Relative body fat was determined for 152 healthy adults [30.0 +/- 11.1 (SD) yr; 75.10 +/- 14.88 kg; 176.3 +/- 8.7 cm] aged from 18 to 59 yr. The 4C approach [20.7% body fat (%BF)] resulted in a significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean %BF compared with DEXA (18.9% BF), with intraindividual variations ranging from -2.6 to 7.3% BF. Linear regression and a Bland and Altman plot demonstrated the tendency for DEXA to progressively underestimate the %BF of leaner individuals compared with the criterion 4C model (4C %BF = 0.862 x DEXA %BF + 4.417; r(2) = 0.952, standard error of estimate = 1.6% BF). This bias was not attributable to variations in fat-free mass hydration but may have been due to beam-hardening errors that resulted from differences in anterior-posterior tissue thickness.

  10. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group (90%) at slaughter. The size of necrotic masses in the Clay group was smaller (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group. There was no significant difference in the marbling score, beef color, Longissimus muscle area or subcutaneous fat thickness between the two groups. These results suggest that the clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

  11. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  12. Aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1923-01-01

    This investigation is an extension of NACA report no. 75 for the purpose of studying the effect of various modifications in a given wing section, including changes in thickness, height of lower camber, taper in thickness, and taper in plan form with special reference to the development of thick, efficient airfoils. The method consisted in testing the wings in the NACA 5-foot wind tunnel at speeds up to 50 meters (164 feet) per second while they were being supported on a new type of wire balance. Some of the airfoils developed showed results of great promise. For example, one wing (no. 81) with a thickness in the center of 4.5 times that of the U. S. A. 16 showed both uniformly high efficiency and a higher maximum lift than this excellent section. These thick sections will be especially useful on airplanes with cantilever construction. (author)

  13. Micro-droplets lubrication film thickness dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerre, Axel; Theodoly, Olivier; Cantat, Isabelle; Leshansky, Alexander; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Jullien, Marie-Caroline; MMN Team; LAI Team; IPR Team; Department of Chemical Engineering Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of droplets or bubbles in confined geometries has been extensively studied; showing an intrinsic relationship between the lubrication film thickness and the droplet velocity. When capillary forces dominate, the lubrication film thickness evolves non linearly with the capillary number due to viscous dissipation between meniscus and wall. However, this film may become thin enough that intermolecular forces come into play and affect classical scalings. We report here the first experimental evidence of the disjoining pressure effect on confined droplets by measuring droplet lubrication film thicknesses in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell. We find and characterize two distinct dynamical regimes, dominated respectively by capillary and intermolecular forces. In the former case rolling boundary conditions at the interface are evidenced through film thickness dynamics, interface velocity measurement and film thickness profile.

  14. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  15. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  16. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  17. Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances.

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, J P; Ravussin, E; Acheson, K J; Jéquier, E

    1985-01-01

    To study the effect of dietary fat on postprandial substrate utilization and nutrient balance, respiratory exchange was determined in seven young men for 1 h before and 9 h after the ingestion of one of three different breakfasts: i.e., bread, jam, and dried meat (482 kcal: 27% protein, 62% carbohydrate, and 11% fat); bread, jam, and dried meat plus 50 g of margarine containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT); or bread, jam, and dried meat plus 40 g medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and 10 g LCT margarine (858 kcal: 15% protein, 35% carbohydrate, and 50% fat). Plasma glucose concentrations peaked 45 min after the start of the meals. When compared with the low fat meal, the LCT margarine supplement had no effect at any time on circulating glucose and insulin concentrations, nor on the respiratory quotient. When MCTs were consumed, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations remained lower and plasma FFA concentrations higher during the first 2 h. 9 h after the breakfasts, the amounts of substrates oxidized were similar in each case, i.e., approximately 320, 355, and 125 kcal for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively. This resulted in comparable carbohydrate (mean +/- SD = -22 +/- 32, -22 +/- 37, and -24 +/- 22 kcal) and protein balances (-7 +/- 9, +7 +/- 7, and -8 +/- 11 kcal) after the low fat, LCT- and MCT-supplemented test meals, respectively. However, after the low fat meal, the lipid balance was negative (-287 +/- 60 kcal), which differed significantly (P less than 0.001) from the fat balances after the LCT- and MCT-supplemented meals, i.e., +60 +/- 33 and +57 +/- 25 kcal, respectively. The results demonstrate that the rates of fat and of carbohydrate oxidation are not influenced by the fat content of a meal. PMID:3900133

  18. Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.

    PubMed

    Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

    2008-04-01

    The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.

  19. Prediction of the weight of lean and fat yield in bacon weight carcasses. A comparison of predictors used in commercial pig carcass classification.

    PubMed

    Giles, L R; Ryan, P J; Watchman, D K; Belinda Dettmann, E

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of pig carcass description were compared as predictors of the weight (kg) of commercial lean yield and fat yield in 209 bacon weight carcasses. The predictors used included hot carcass weight and carcass sex in association with: the backfat measurements used in the Danish grading scheme (minimum loin, 3rd-4th lumbar and 3rd-4th last rib fat thickness); the proposed Australian system (P(2) fat thickness); fat classes published by the South Australian Livestock Marketing Study Group (1980); mid-line carcass measurements (backfat at minimum loin, mid back, maximum shoulder as well as carcass length) and visual carcass grade. There was no difference in precision between the carcass classification systems as predictors of lean yield. (R(2) = 69·0 % and residual standard deviation = 1·5.) Precision varied between the predictors of fat yield. The predictors were ranked as follows with R(2)(%) and residual standard deviation in parentheses. Danish (80·0, 0·50); Australian (70·5, 0·60); fat class (67·8, 0·64); mid-line (64·9, 0·67) and grade (58·1, 0·72).

  20. Improvement in thickness uniformity of thick SOI by numerically controlled local wet etching.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Kazuaki; Hosoda, Mao; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are promising semiconductor materials for high-speed LSIs, low-power-consumption electric devices and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The thickness distribution of an SOI causes the variation of threshold voltage in electronic devices manufactured on the SOI wafer. The thickness distribution of a thin SOI, which is manufactured by applying a smart cut technique, is comparatively uniform. On the other hand, a thick SOI has a large thickness distribution because a bonded wafer is thinned by conventional grinding and polishing. For a thick SOI wafer with a thickness of 1 microm, it is required that the tolerance of thickness variation is less than 50 nm. However, improving the thickness uniformity of a thick SOI layer to a tolerance of +/- 5% is difficult by conventional machining because of the fundamental limitations of these techniques. We have developed numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) technique as a novel deterministic subaperture figuring and finishing technique, which utilizes a localized chemical reaction between the etchant and the surface of the workpiece. We demonstrated an improvement in the thickness distribution of a thick SOI by NC-LWE using an HF/HNO3 mixture, and thickness variation improved from 480 nm to 200 nm within a diameter of 170 mm.

  1. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  2. Automated Discrimination Method of Muscular and Subcutaneous Fat Layers Based on Tissue Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi; Okumura, Hiroshi; Arai, Kohei

    Balance between human body composition, e.g. bones, muscles, and fat, is a major and basic indicator of personal health. Body composition analysis using ultrasound has been developed rapidly. However, interpretation of echo signal is conducted manually, and accuracy and confidence in interpretation requires experience. This paper proposes an automated discrimination method of tissue boundaries for measuring the thickness of subcutaneous fat and muscular layers. A portable one-dimensional ultrasound device was used in this study. The proposed method discriminated tissue boundaries based on tissue elasticity. Validity of the proposed method was evaluated in twenty-one subjects (twelve women, nine men; aged 20-70 yr) at three anatomical sites. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve considerably high discrimination performance.

  3. Body mass index centile charts to assess fatness of British children.

    PubMed Central

    White, E M; Wilson, A C; Greene, S A; McCowan, C; Thomas, G E; Cairns, A Y; Ricketts, I W

    1995-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) relates weight to height and reflects the shape of a child, but because of age dependency it has not been used conventionally for the estimation of fatness in children. From measurements of Tayside children (n = 34,533) centile charts were constructed for BMI (wt/ht2) from the raw data of height and weight, using Cole's LMS method for normalised growth standards. These data were compared with the only available European BMI charts published from data of French children obtained over a period of 24 years from 1956-79. British children appear to be 'fatter'. Within a subgroup (n = 445) the BMI values were correlated with estimations of body fat, for boys and girls, from skinfold thickness (r = 0.8 and 0.81) and bioelectrical impedance (r = 0.65 and 0.7). The limits of acceptable BMI have yet to be defined. PMID:7717735

  4. Effect of carcass fat and conformation class on consumer perception of various grilled beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the attributes influencing consumer perception of grilled beef steaks. The objects were 30 carcasses out of which eight cuts were obtained (2100 single samples were prepared). A total of 350 consumers were asked to rate the meat samples (6 samples for each consumer) by assessing: tenderness, juiciness, flavour, overall acceptability and satisfaction. The MQ4, which is a combination of consumer rates for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability that is transformed into a single parameter with greater discriminatory ability, was calculated using linear discriminate analysis. The tenderloin was the cut that had the highest ratings for all attributes, however, tenderness, juiciness, MQ4 and consumer satisfaction evaluated for oyster blade were not significantly different from tenderloin. The results of this study indicated that consumer preferences regarding grilled steak were not influenced by fat class, conformation rib fat thickness and ossification score of the carcasses but only by the type of meat cuts.

  5. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  6. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy.

  7. Rational use of intravenous fat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, L D

    1981-02-01

    The composition, effect on blood components, relative value compared with intravenous dextrose, clinical applications as a caloric and fatty acid source, adverse reactions, limitations, and administration of intravenous fat emulsions are reviewed. Fat emulsions provide essential fatty acids and calories and are primarily used to supplement of parenteral nutrition regimens. Their use as a major source of calories remains limited because of cost. However, the trend toward aligning intravenous nutrition to that of the normal diet and the increased demand for peripherally administered parenteral nutrition have increased demand for use. The advantages and disadvantages presented may be used by clinicians to assist in establishing the role of intravenous fat therapy in nutritional support services.

  8. Macular thickness in healthy Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M.; Al-Zwaidi, Fahad M.; Yassin, Sanaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the macular thickness in the eyes of healthy Saudi adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study, including 158 healthy participants between August and December 2015. Mean subject age was 29.9 ± 7.85 years old. All participants underwent full ophthalmic evaluation, including SD-OCT imaging, and axial length measurement. Data from the right eye were included. Mean retinal thickness was determined. Correlations between retinal thickness and gender, age, axial length, and spherical equivalence were analyzed. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 244.76 ± 23.62 µm, mean axial length was 23.8 ± 1.062 mm (range: 20.5-29 mm) and mean spherical equivalent was -0.31 ± 1.75 diopters (D) (range: -5.50 to +4.25 D). Central subfield (CSF) thickness and foveal volume were significantly lower in women than in men (both p<0.001). Data from the various age groups did not show statistically significant differences in the CSF thickness (p=0.389) or foveal volume (p=0.341). A positive correlation between CSF thickness and axial length (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion: The normal macular thickness values in healthy Saudi individuals is different from that reported in other ethnic groups, as obtained by SD-OCT. Saudi men had thicker CSF than Saudi women and axial length was positively correlated to the central foveal thickness. PMID:28042632

  9. Automatic cortical thickness analysis on rodent brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Niethammer, Marc; Budin, Francois; Paniagua, Beatriz; Sulik, Kathy; Johns, Josephine; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Localized difference in the cortex is one of the most useful morphometric traits in human and animal brain studies. There are many tools and methods already developed to automatically measure and analyze cortical thickness for the human brain. However, these tools cannot be directly applied to rodent brains due to the different scales; even adult rodent brains are 50 to 100 times smaller than humans. This paper describes an algorithm for automatically measuring the cortical thickness of mouse and rat brains. The algorithm consists of three steps: segmentation, thickness measurement, and statistical analysis among experimental groups. The segmentation step provides the neocortex separation from other brain structures and thus is a preprocessing step for the thickness measurement. In the thickness measurement step, the thickness is computed by solving a Laplacian PDE and a transport equation. The Laplacian PDE first creates streamlines as an analogy of cortical columns; the transport equation computes the length of the streamlines. The result is stored as a thickness map over the neocortex surface. For the statistical analysis, it is important to sample thickness at corresponding points. This is achieved by the particle correspondence algorithm which minimizes entropy between dynamically moving sample points called particles. Since the computational cost of the correspondence algorithm may limit the number of corresponding points, we use thin-plate spline based interpolation to increase the number of corresponding sample points. As a driving application, we measured the thickness difference to assess the effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure that persist into adulthood and performed t-test between the control and exposed rat groups. We found significantly differing regions in both hemispheres.

  10. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  11. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  12. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  13. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  14. Cerebral Fat Embolism: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Babita; Kaur, Manpreet; D’souza, Nita; Dey, Chandan Kumar; Shende, Seema; Kumar, Atin; Gamangatti, Shivanand

    2011-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare but a serious clinical catastrophe occurring after traumatic injury to long bones. Cerebral involvement in the absence of pulmonary or dermatological manifestation on initial presentation may delay the diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). We discuss a case series of CFE which posed a challenge in diagnosis. The clinical presentations of these patients did not satisfy the commonly used clinical criteria for aiding the diagnosis of FES. Early MRI brain (DWI and T2 weighted sequences) in patients with neurological symptoms after trauma even in the absence of pulmonary and dermatological findings should be the goal. PMID:21957425

  15. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activites.

    PubMed

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.

  16. Particle size, temperature, and released amount of fat for safe periorbital fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Ho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the particle size, temperature, and amount of released fat for safe periorbital fat grafts. From 28 patients, fat was suctioned from the abdomen (large particles [LPs]) and from the inner thigh (small particles [SPs]) using a 2.1-mm harvesting cannula with a diameter 3.2 × 1.4-mm hole and a 1-mm hole, respectively. The 10-mL syringes full of fat were then put into a centrifuge for 3 minutes (LP) and 1 minute (SP) at 3000 revolutions/min. Fat was then transferred to a 1-mL syringe with Luer-Lock adapters and a blunt cannula of 0.9-mm diameter. The force needed to push the fat out of the cannula was measured with a force gauge. The force was measured within the different groups according to particle size of the fat, temperature of the fat, and released amount of fat. The force needed to push the SP fat out of the cannula into the air with minimal amount (MA) (0.01-0.02 mL) injected at room temperature (25 °C) (1.75 ± 0.82 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at body temperature (BT, 33 °C) (1.27 ± 0.38 N). At BT, the force needed to push the SP fat into subcutaneous pig tissue (2.30 ± 1.46 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than LP fat (6.54 ± 2.39 N). At BT, the force needed to push the MA of SP fat into pig subcutaneous tissue (1.38 ± 0.26 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to push the usual amount (0.03-0.04 mL) of SP fat (3.83 ± 1.78 N). The force needed to push the fat into human lower eyelids at room temperature (4.06 ± 2.26 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at BT (2.11 ± 0.96 N). At BT, the force needed to inject an MA of SP fat into human lower eyelids (1.55 ± 0.83 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to inject a usual amount of fat (2.78 ± 1.03 N). We suggest injections of the SP (1-mm hole diameter harvesting cannula) fat with MAs (0.01-0.02 mL) by means of fragmented incremental

  17. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  18. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  19. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  20. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard.

  1. Chemical shift-based water/fat separation in the presence of susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift

    PubMed Central

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Chemical shift-based water/fat separation methods have been emerging due to the growing clinical need for fat quantification in different body organs. Accurate quantification of proton-density fat fraction requires the assessment of many confounding factors, including the need of modeling the presence of multiple peaks in the fat spectrum. Most recent quantitative chemical shift-based water/fat separation approaches rely on a multi-peak fat spectrum with pre-calibrated peak locations and pre-calibrated or self-calibrated peak relative amplitudes. However, water/fat susceptibility differences can induce fat spectrum resonance shifts depending on the shape and orientation of the fatty inclusions. The effect is of particular interest in the skeletal muscle due to the anisotropic arrangement of extracellular lipids. In the present work, the effect of susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift on the fat fraction is characterized in a conventional complex-based chemical shift-based water/fat separation approach that does not model the susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift. A novel algorithm is then proposed in order to quantify the resonance shift in a complex-based chemical shift-based water/fat separation approach that considers the fat resonance shift in the signal model, aiming to extract information about the orientation/geometry of lipids. The technique is validated in a phantom and preliminary in vivo results are shown in the calf musculature of healthy and diabetic subjects. PMID:22247024

  2. Preparation of interesterified plastic fats from fats and oils free of trans fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C; Himmelsbach, David S; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2008-06-11

    Interesterified plastic fats were produced with trans-free substrates of fully hydrogenated soybean oil, extra virgin olive oil, and palm stearin in a weight ratio of 10:20:70, 10:40:50, and 10:50:40, respectively, by lipase catalysis. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic (32.2-47.4%), stearic (12.0-12.4%), and oleic acid (33.6-49.5%). After storage at 5 degrees C (refrigerator temperature) or 24 degrees C (room temperature) for 16 h, the physical properties were evaluated for solid fat content, texture, melting, and crystallization behavior, viscoelastic properties, crystal polymorphism, and crystal microstructure. The interesterified fats contained desirable crystal polymorphs (beta' form) as determined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. They exhibited a wide plastic range of solid fat content of 52-58% at 10 degrees C and 15% at 40 degrees C. The physical properties were influenced by the ratio of palm stearin and olive oil. Harder and more brittle texture, crystallization and melting at higher temperature, higher solid fat contents, and more elastic (G') or viscous (G') characteristics were observed in the produced fats containing a higher content of palm stearin and lower content of olive oil. The produced fats stored at 5 degrees C consisted mostly of beta' form crystal together with a small content of beta form, while those at 24 degrees C had only beta' form. The produced fat with a higher amount of palm stearin appeared to have more beta' form crystal and small size crystal clusters. Thus, the physical properties of the produced plastic fats may be desirable for use in a bakery product.

  3. Relationships between milks differentiated on native milk fat globule characteristics and fat, protein and calcium compositions.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have shown that milk fat globule (MFG) diameter varies in dairy cows in relation to diet and/or breed. However, the mechanisms governing the size of the fat globules remain hypothetical. Our objective was to determine the variable biochemical characteristics (fat, protein, fatty acids (FA), casein and calcium (Ca) contents) between individual milk which differed in both MFG diameter and membrane content, in order to speculate about the links between milk synthesis and MFG secretion. With this aim, we built five databases of individual milk samples from 21 experiments performed between 2003 and 2011. Three of them grouped data from trials dealing with breed/diet effects and included information about: (i) MFG size/membrane, fat and protein contents (n=982), (ii) previous parameters plus FA profile (n=529) and (iii) previous parameters plus true protein composition and calcium contents (n=101). A hierarchical clustering analysis performed on these three databases yielded four groups differing in the MFG characteristics. We observed significant differences among groups for the following parameters: (i) fat content and fat : protein ratio; (ii) de novo and polyunsaturated FA contents; (iii) Ca contents. These relationships could result from potential process regulating the synthesis and secretion of MFG: (i) the apical membrane turnover for MFG secretion and (ii) cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation in the lactocyte during its migration from the basal to the apical pole. The two other databases grouped data from trials dealing with milking frequency (n=211), milking kinetics and milk type (residual v. cisternal) (n=224). They were used to study the relationships between the size of the MFG and milk composition for high native fat contents (from 60 up to 100 g/kg in residual milks). We observed curvilinear relationships between the size of the MFG and fat content, as well as with the fat : protein ratio. This result suggests that MFG diameter reaches a

  4. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  5. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  6. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    PubMed

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    What is clear from the research thus far is that dietary fat intake does influence insulin action. However, whether the effect is good, bad, or indifferent is strongly related to the fatty acid profile of that dietary fat. The evidence has taken many forms, including in vitro evidence of differences in insulin binding and glucose transport in cells grown with different types of fat in the incubation medium, in vivo results in animals fed different fats, relationships demonstrated between the membrane structural lipid fatty acid profile and insulin resistance in humans, and finally epidemiological evidence linking particularly high saturated fat intake with hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of diabetes. This contrasts with the lack of relationship, or even possible protective effect, of polyunsaturated fats. In particular, habitual increased n-3 polyunsaturated dietary fat intake (as fish fats) would appear to be protective against the development of glucose intolerance. It is reassuring that the patterns of dietary fatty acids that appear beneficial for insulin action and energy balance are also the patterns that would seem appropriate in the fight against thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms, though, still need to be defined. However, there are strong indicators that defining the ways in which changes in the fatty acid profile of membrane structural lipids are achieved, and in turn influence relevant transport events, plus understanding the processes that control accumulation and availability of storage lipid in muscle may be fruitful avenues for future research. One of the problems of moving the knowledge gained from research at the cellular level through to the individual and on to populations is the need for more accommodating research designs. In vitro studies may provide in-depth insights into intricate mechanisms, but they do not give the "big picture" for practical recommendations. On the other hand, correlational studies tend to be fairly

  7. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  8. Determination of arm fat area and arm muscle area norms in children 6-12 years of age in Bursa.

    PubMed

    Günay, U; Sapan, N; Salih, C; Doğruyol, H

    1990-01-01

    Since arm fat area and arm muscle area measurements are said to assess the calorie and protein reserves in the body more accurately than triceps skinfold thickness measurements, we decided to use this system on 1497 girls and 1651 boys who were pupils in elementary schools in Bursa. From the data obtained, percentile norms for the children aged between 6-12 were calculated and percentile curves were drawn. The data that we collected can be used in future nutritional surveys.

  9. A Thick Target for Synchrotrons and Betatrons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    McMillan, E. M.

    1950-09-19

    If a wide x-ray beam from an electron synchrotron or betatron is desired, in radiographic work with large objects for example, the usually very thin target may be replaced by a thick one, provided the resulting distortion of the x-ray spectrum due to multiple radiative processes is permissible. It is difficult to make the circulating electron beam traverse a thick target directly because of the small spacing between successive turns. Mounting a very thin beryllium, or other low-z material, fin on the edge of the thick target so that the fin projects into the beam will cause the beam to lose sufficient energy, and therefore radium, to strike the thick target the next time around. Sample design calculations are given.

  10. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  11. Optically thick ablation fronts. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konigl, A.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of optically thick ablation fronts such as interstellar clouds are analyzed. Attention is given to cold clumps in both planar and spherical geometries and modifications caused by accelerations in a gravitational field or by evaporation of the clumps when encountered hot gas. The effects of ablation on the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are examined in both linear and nonlinear regimes. The results of the calculations are applied to the astrophysical phenomena of cold clumps immersed in a supersonic flow, optically thick jets, and ablation in stellar envelopes. Evaporation in an optically thick front is projected to be orders of magnitude larger than evaporation in electron-conduction fronts in optically thin conditions. The optically thick processes could then be useful for modeling flows from, e.g., newly formed stars and active galactic nuclei.

  12. Non-contact thickness measurement using UTG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Hoa T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A measurement structure for determining the thickness of a specimen without mechanical contact but instead employing ultrasonic waves including an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic delay line connected to the transducer by a retainer or collar. The specimen, whose thickness is to be measured, is positioned below the delay line. On the upper surface of the specimen a medium such as a drop of water is disposed which functions to couple the ultrasonic waves from the delay line to the specimen. A receiver device, which may be an ultrasonic thickness gauge, receives reflected ultrasonic waves reflected from the upper and lower surface of the specimen and determines the thickness of the specimen based on the time spacing of the reflected waves.

  13. Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.

  14. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  15. Efficacy of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn with and without corn wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Loe, E R; Higgins, J J; Corrigan, M E; Quinn, M J

    2008-09-01

    Three hundred seventy-one crossbred-yearling heifers (299 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were obtained from a common source and used in a randomized complete-block designed finishing study. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with one factor being diet: based on steam-flaked corn finishing diet (SFC) or SFC plus 25% (dry basis) corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). The second factor was feed additives: no added antibiotics (NONE), 300 mg of monensin daily (MONENSIN), or 300 mg of monensin + 90 mg of tylosin daily (MON+TYL). Main effect of diet resulted in no difference in DMI (P = 0.34). Heifers fed SFC gained 9% faster (P = 0.01) and were 7% more efficient (P = 0.01) than heifers fed WDGS. In addition, heifers fed SFC had 3% heavier (P = 0.01) HCW; 1% greater (P = 0.01) dress yield; and had 3% larger (P = 0.05) LM area. Marbling score and carcasses that graded USDA Choice or better were both greater (P /= 0.12) among feed additive treatments. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat and s.c. fat thickness at the 12th rib were also not different (P >/= 0.55) for main effects of diet and feed additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a diet x feed additive interaction for the most severe (A+) liver abscesses. Heifers fed NONE yielded the greatest percentage (16%) of A+ livers in the SFC treatment, whereas heifers fed MON+TYL yielded the greatest percentage (10%) in the WDGS treatment. Including wet distillers grains with solubles in diets based on steam-flaked corn decreased finishing heifer performance, HCW, and marbling. Tylosin addition tended to decrease severity of liver abscesses in diets containing SFC, but not in diets containing WDGS. These data indicate that monensin and tylosin may not be

  16. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Beef steers (64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of diet, with cattle fed a conventional (CON) diet or a diet consisting of Programmed Nutrition Beef Program (PN) supplements. The PN treatment included Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver fed from d 1 through 20 of feeding and Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher fed from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 evaluated the presence (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) in the production system. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were initially implanted with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg·animal·dof ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175, and strip loins were removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. One 1.27-cm-thick steak was removed from the anterior face for proximate and long-chain fatty acid analysis. There were no diet × ExGP interactions ( > 0.10) for feedlot performance except for DMI ( = 0.02). Steers in the PN/EGP+ treatment consumed more feed than all other treatments ( < 0.05). Both diet and ExGP affected DMI ( < 0.05), with PN and EGP+ steers consuming more feed than their contemporaries. Gain:feed and ADG were unaffected ( > 0.10) by diet, but ExGP improved these measures ( < 0.01). There were no diet × ExGP interactions for carcass characteristics except KPH fat and percentages of yield grade 3 and 4 carcasses ( < 0.05). Diet affected total incidence of liver abscesses because PN steers had a greater ( = 0.05) incidence of liver abscesses than steers in the CON treatment. Diet did not affect the other carcass characteristics ( > 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( < 0.05) HCW, LM area, and 12th-rib fat but did

  17. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Patten, L E; Johnson, D D; Calkins, C R; Gwartney, B L

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P < 0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P < 0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group x muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P < 0.01), whereas muscles from the B-NF group were the least tender (P < 0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P > 0.20) among cull cow carcass groups

  18. Microwave mixing with niobium variable thickness bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.-K.; Callegari, A.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Niobium thin-film bridges 300-A thick, 1-micron wide, and 0.5-micron long joining two bulk films 5000-A thick and having normal resistance of the order of 1 ohm have been fabricated and used for microwave mixing at 10 GHz. They exhibit Josephson, bolometric, and multiple-flux-flow mixing and have useful response at 100-200 GHz. The data show in a direct way limitations imposed by flux flow and heating.

  19. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  20. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  1. Characterization of Thick Glass Reinforced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    24 ounces per square yard. The matrices were different polyester resin systems from American Cyanamid and Owens Corning . Specimen thicknesses ranged...fab- ricated similar size plates using the American Cyanamid resin. The Owens Corning plates con- tained 53% volume fraction fiber while the American...thicknesses for the Owens Corning and four for the American Cyanamid. Specimens were loaded in three point bending at a displacement rate that was changed

  2. [Fat-embolic vascular occlusions in avian lungs. Research of histologically determinable neutral fats in parrotlike birds (Psittaciformes)].

    PubMed

    Brunner, P; Meinl, M

    1976-01-01

    In 50 flying birds (49 parrot-like, one peacock), the content of fat-embolic vascular occlusions was determined. In 22 cases, fat-embolic occlusions of low intensity were found in pulmonary capillaries. There were no occlusions in renal vessels. The fat embolies had no influence on a lethal outcome. There was no statistically significant correlation between the fatty infiltration of the liver, the fat content of the bone marrow, and the frequency of fat-embolic occlusion of blood vessels. In 18 cases, mycoses were the cause of death. These infections did not influence the number of fat-embolic vascular occlusions.

  3. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan; Qu, Mingren

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat.

  4. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Thick Fuel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Tang, Lin; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of experiments for spread over polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, samples in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle are described. The results are coupled with modelling in an effort to describe the physics of the spread process for thick fuels in a quiescent, microgravity environment and uncover differences between thin and thick fuels. A quenching phenomenon not present for thin fuels is delineated, namely the fact that for thick fuels the possibility exists that, absent an opposing flow of sufficient strength to press the flame close enough to the fuel surface to allow the heated layer in the solid to develop, the heated layer fails to become 'fully developed.' The result is that the flame slows, which in turn causes an increase in the relative radiative loss from the flame, leading eventually to extinction. This potential inability of a thick fuel to develop a steady spread rate is not present for a thin fuel because the heated layer is the fuel thickness, which reaches a uniform temperature across the thickness relatively rapidly.

  5. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads.

  6. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  7. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries - omega-3s; Coronary artery disease - omega-3s; Heart disease - omega-3s ... Omega-3s are good for your heart and blood vessels in several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of an ...

  8. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  9. Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

  10. What Do Fats Do in the Body?

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical reactions that help control growth, immune function, reproduction and other aspects of basic metabolism. The cycle of making, breaking, storing and mobilizing fats is at the core of how humans and all animals regulate their energy. An imbalance in any step ...

  11. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  12. Fatal fat embolism during ritual initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, N.

    1975-01-01

    A young Coast Salish Indian woman became fatally ill during ritual Initiation into the Native Winter Spirit Dancing Society. She died from massive fat emboli associated with subcutaneous bruises that appeared clinically unimportant and were not associated with fractures or other underlying injury. The liver showed extreme fatty metamorphosis. PMID:1139497

  13. Inhibition of UVB-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer: a path from tea to caffeine to exercise to decreased tissue fat.

    PubMed

    Conney, Allan H; Lou, You-Rong; Nghiem, Paul; Bernard, Jamie J; Wagner, George C; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of green tea, black tea, or caffeine (but not the decaffeinated teas) inhibited ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Studies with caffeine indicated that its inhibitory effect on the ATR/Chk1 pathway is an important mechanism for caffeine's inhibition of UVB-induced carcinogenesis. The regular teas or caffeine increased locomotor activity and decreased tissue fat. In these studies, decreased dermal fat thickness was associated with a decrease in the number of tumors per mouse. Administration of caffeine, voluntary exercise, and removal of the parametrial fat pads all stimulated UVB-induced apoptosis, inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis, and stimulated apoptosis in UVB-induced tumors. These results suggest that caffeine administration, voluntary exercise, and removal of the parametrial fat pads inhibit UVB-induced carcinogenesis by stimulating UVB-induced apoptosis and by enhancing apoptosis in DNA-damaged precancer cells and in cancer cells. We hypothesize that tissue fat secretes antiapoptotic adipokines that have a tumor promoting effect.

  14. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of thymus and fat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gui C.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Reid, V.; Steinglass, K.; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Jacobowitz, Larry; Alfano, Robert R.

    1993-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of the human thymus gland and surrounding mediastinal fat were measured to evaluate this approach in distinguishing between thymus and fat tissues during therapeutic surgery for myasthenia gravis disease.

  15. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat.

  17. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  18. Development of a Body Condition Scoring Index for Female African Elephants Validated by Ultrasound Measurements of Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1–5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2–5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  19. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lisa K; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Beltran, Roxanne S; Costa, Daniel P; Goetsch, Chandra; Hückstädt, Luis; Maresh, Jennifer L; Peterson, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones). The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris) comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may also be

  20. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Lisa K.; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Beltran, Roxanne S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Goetsch, Chandra; Hückstädt, Luis; Maresh, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones). The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris) comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may also be

  1. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  2. Subarachnoid fat embolism complicating autologous fat grafting following translabyrinthine excision of acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Reece, A T; O'Reilly, B; Teasdale, E; Todd, N V

    1989-09-01

    A 64-year-old man had complete excision of an acoustic schwannoma via the translabyrinthine route and the mastoid cavity was packed with fat. Post-operatively there were two episodes of aseptic meningitis and CT scanning demonstrated migration of fat into the basal subarachnoid CSF spaces. This unusual complication should be recognized and differentiated from both true infective meningitis and aseptic meningitis from other causes.

  3. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  4. Triceps Skinfold Thickness Is Associated With Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-02-01

    Anthropometric measurements, including body mass index (BMI), body weight and total fat mass are associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) in the general population. Compared to that in the general population, BMD was lower in dialysis patients. However, the association between anthropometric measurements and BMD is not well-established among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. To study this, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 48 chronic PD patients. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical data, and BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) were collected. Among these PD patients, eight patients (16.7%) had osteoporosis and 22 patients (45.8%) osteopenia, while 18 patients were normal. Older age, decreased height, lower body weight, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm fat area (MAFA), and higher adiponectin levels were observed in our patients with lower lumbar T-scores. Height, body weight, waist circumference, BMI, body fat mass, TSF, mid-arm circumference, MAFA, and serum phosphorus levels were positively, while age, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with lumbar BMD levels. According to our multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis, TSF (R(2) change = 0.080, P = 0.017) and body weight (R(2) change = 0.333, P = 0.002) were both correlated with low lumbar BMD. In conclusion, either TSF or body weight in our chronic PD patients was proved to be an independent predictor for osteolytic bone lesions.

  5. New method of assessing the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method. Methods In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0–5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness. Results Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0–1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (P=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (P=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (P=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (P=0.025). Conclusions The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was

  6. A GR/Impedance probe proves unsuitable for measuring GR depth in Australian lamb carcases.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Hoban, Jordan M; van de Ven, Remy; Boyce, Mal; Williams, Andrew; Pethick, David W; Hopkins, David L

    2017-02-27

    Multiple studies were conducted at 3 abattoirs to determine the potential of a dual function GR/Impedance probe to measure GR soft- tissue depth (depth at the 12th rib, 110mm from the mid line of the carcase) of typical lamb carcases processed in Australia. Lamb carcases (1016) were measured approximately 25min post slaughter with the probe and a GR knife as the most commonly used measurement. Modelling indicated that variation in the measurement using the probe compared to the measurement using the knife occurred with increasing carcase weight and fatness as well as between different abattoirs. Consequently, the probe in its current design cannot provide the repeatable measurement required by industry.

  7. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  8. Influence of polyunsaturated fats and fat restriction on serum lipoproteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Weisweiler, P; Janetschek, P; Schwandt, P

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fats and of reducing intake of total fat on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Twenty-two normolipidemic women living in a nunnery were given a reference diet (fat/carbohydrate 42/46% of energy, P/S ratio 0.16), a polyunsaturated diet (42/46%, P/S 1,0), and a low-fat, polyunsaturated diet (32/56%, P/S 1.0) for 6 weeks each. Serum and lipoprotein lipids were determined by standard procedures, apolipoproteins either by laser immunonephelometry or by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Consumption of the polyunsaturated diet decreased cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in VLDL (-33.1% and -23.8%) and in LDL (-13.5% and -8.8%) without affecting HDL. Consumption of the low-fat, polyunsaturated diet resulted in a reincrease of VLDL triglycerides, but not of VLDL cholesterol. Concentration of VLDL apolipoprotein B further fell (-41.6%) and that of apolipoprotein E decreased (-25.9%), resulting in an increased VLDL lipid/apolipoprotein mass ratio. This study indicates that responses to therapeutic polyunsaturated diet are lowered levels of VLDL and LDL, but unchanged levels of HDL. Additional restriction of dietary fat intake alters the VLDL composition with a decrement in apolipoprotein E enriched VLDL particles.

  9. An Environmental Intervention to Reduce Dietary Fat in School Lunches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined lunch entree choices by students in 16 elementary schools. During baseline period, low-fat entrees were available on 23% of days and selected by 39% of students. During intervention period, these figures were 71% of days and 29% of students. Across intervention, fat content of average meal dropped from 36% to 30% of calories from fat. (BC)

  10. Peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Adams, D B

    1993-11-01

    Peripheral fat necrosis (PFN), a rare complication of pancreatitis, has been reported previously in association with blunt pancreatic trauma. A patient who developed peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma and needed bilateral above-the-knee amputations to treat complications of lower extremity fat necrosis is reported.

  11. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fat. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face ...

  12. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face...

  13. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  14. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  15. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  16. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  17. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  18. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  19. Development of a non-invasive LED based device for adipose tissue thickness measurements in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volceka, K.; Jakovels, D.; Arina, Z.; Zaharans, J.; Kviesis, E.; Strode, A.; Svampe, E.; Ozolina-Moll, L.; Butnere, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    There are a number of techniques for body composition assessment in clinics and in field-surveys, but in all cases the applied methods have advantages and disadvantages. High precision imaging methods are available, though expensive and non-portable, however, the methods devised for the mass population, often suffer from the lack of precision. Therefore, the development of a safe, mobile, non-invasive, optical method that would be easy to perform, precise and low-cost, but also would offer an accurate assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) both in lean and in obese persons is required. Thereof, the diffuse optical spectroscopy is advantageous over the aforementioned techniques. A prototype device using an optical method for measurement of the SAT thickness in vivo has been developed. The probe contained multiple LEDs (660nm) distributed at various distances from the photo-detector which allow different light penetration depths into the subcutaneous tissue. The differences of the reflected light intensities were used to create a non-linear model, and the computed values were compared with the corresponding thicknesses of SAT, assessed by B-mode ultrasonography. The results show that with the optical system used in this study, accurate results of different SAT thicknesses can be obtained, and imply a further potential for development of multispectral optical system to observe changes of SAT thickness as well as to determine the percentage of total body fat.

  20. Influence of trans fat on skin damage in first-generation rats exposed to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Raquel Cristine S; Vey, Luciana T; Segat, Hecson Jesser; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Trevizol, Fabíola; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Piccolo, Jaqueline; CristinaVeit, Juliana; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of trans fatty acids (TFA) on lipid profile, oxidative damage and mitochondrial function in the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was assessed. The first-generation offspring of female Wistar rats supplemented from pregnancy with either soybean oil (C-SO, rich in n-6 FA; control group) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in TFA) were continued with the same supplements until adulthood, when half of each group was exposed to UVR for 12 weeks. The HVF group showed higher TFA cutaneous incorporation, increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, decreased functionality of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant defenses of the skin. After UVR, the HVF group showed increased skin thickness and reactive species (RS) generation, with decreased skin antioxidant defenses. RS generation was positively correlated with skin thickness, wrinkles and PC levels. Once incorporated to skin, TFA make it more susceptible to developing UVR-induced disorders.

  1. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  2. Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Robert H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Groom, Allison; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help increase awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign in April 2007. The AHA commissioned a quantitative tracking survey between 2006 and 2007 to measure changes in consumer awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related fats and oils and their perceived impact on heart disease. The survey was conducted by Cogent Research. Data were collected during March 2006 and May 2007. At both time points, the survey included a representative sample of the American population age 18 to 65 years (n=1,000). The sampling plan for the survey was designed based on the 2000 and 2003 US Census. The margin of error was +/-3.10 percentage points. Awareness of trans fats increased during the 1-year study period. In 2007, 92% of respondents were aware of trans fats, an increase from 84% in 2006 (P<0.05). The 2007 level was similar to the awareness of saturated fats (93%). Perceptions that certain fats and oils heighten the risk of heart disease increased for trans fats (73% in 2007 vs 63% in 2006; P<0.05), saturated fats (77% in 2007 vs 73% in 2006; P<0.05), and partially hydrogenated oils (56% in 2007 vs 49% in 2006; P<0.05). Knowledge about food sources of different fats remained low. On an unaided basis, 21% could name three food sources of trans fats in 2007, up from 17% in 2006 (P<0.05). Knowledge of food sources of saturated fat remained unchanged at 30% in 2007. Significantly more respondents in 2007 reported behavioral changes related to trans fat information, such as buying food products because they show "zero trans fat" on labels or packages (37% in 2007 vs. 32% in 2006; P<0.05). Between 2006 and 2007, consumer awareness about trans fats increased and attained awareness levels similar to saturated fats

  3. Minimization of Wave Drag Due to Thickness with Constraints on Constant Volume and Maximum Thickness Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yoji

    We have developed a numerical method for design of minimum-drag supersonic wing thickness with constraints on total volume and wing maximum thickness position. The method is based on the linearized supersonic theory and is an extension of Kawasaki's method which deals only with total volume constraint. The maximum thickness position of the wing, a new constraint condition, is an important information from both aerodynamic and structural point of view. The addition of the constraint has considerably extended the design possibility and has actually produced many interesting optimum thickness families. Numerical examples are given for delta, gothic and arrow wings which confirm the usefulness of present design method.

  4. Adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting: optimal cell concentration and effects on grafted fat characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To overcome the absorption of traditional fat grafting, techniques for adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting are currently being adapted for practical application. The Celution®800/CRS (Cytori Therapeutics, San Diego, CA) has enabled rapid grafting of the patient’s own freshly harvested ADRCs without requiring a culturing step. However, the optimal cell concentration and the effects of ADRCs on the characteristics of grafted fat after free fat grafting remain unclear. Methods ADRCs were isolated and purified from human fat tissue using the Celution®800/CRS. Animals that received fat grafting without the addition of ADRCs were designated the control group (group A). The number of ADRCs per grafted fat volume (mL) was adjusted to 3 × 105, 1.5 × 106, and 3 × 106 cells/mL (groups B, C, and D, respectively), mixed with free fat, and transplanted as ADRC-enriched fat grafting. These mixtures were transplanted subcutaneously into BALB/C Jcl-nu/nu mice. The volume of grafted fat was determined 5 months after transplantation, and histological assessments were performed. Results ADRC-enriched fat grafting resulted in decreased fat absorption and the formation of greater numbers of new blood vessels in the grafted fat. The optimal ADRC concentration in this study was found to be 3 × 105 cells/mL (group B), with higher concentrations resulting in increased cyst and fibril formation in the grafted fat. Conclusions This study used the Celution®800/CRS for free fat grafting and demonstrated that the concentration of transplanted ADRCs affected the engraftment and quality of the grafted fat. PMID:24107489

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of fat crystallization.

    PubMed

    Himawan, C; Starov, V M; Stapley, A G F

    2006-09-25

    Naturally occurring fats are multi-component mixtures of triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are triesters of fatty acids with glycerol, and of which there are many chemically distinct compounds. Due to the importance of fats to the food and consumer products industries, fat crystallization has been studied for many years and many intricate features of TAG interactions, complicated by polymorphism, have been identified. The melting and crystallization properties of triacylglycerols are very sensitive to even small differences in fatty acid composition and position within the TAG molecule which cause steric hindrance. Differences of fatty acid chain length within a TAG lead to packing imperfections, and differences in chain lengths between different TAG molecules lead to a loss of intersolubility in the solid phase. The degree of saturation is hugely important as the presence of a double bond in a fatty acid chain causes rigid kinks in the fatty acid chains that produce huge disruption to packing structures with the result that TAGs containing double bonds have much lower melting points than completely saturated TAGs. All of these effects are more pronounced in the most stable polymorphic forms, which require the most efficient molecular packing. The crystallization of fats is complicated not just by polymorphism, but also because it usually occurs from a multi-component melt rather than from a solvent which is more common in other industrial crystallizations. This renders the conventional treatment of crystallization as a result of supersaturation somewhat meaningless. Most studies in the literature consequently quantify crystallization driving forces using the concept of supercooling below a distinct melting point. However whilst this is theoretically valid for a single component system, it can only at best represent a rough approximation for natural fat systems, which display a range of melting points. This paper reviews the latest attempts to describe the sometimes

  6. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  7. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  8. Fat substitutes promote weight gain in rats consuming high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Ogden, Sean B.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of food products designed to mimic the sensory properties of sweet and fat while providing fewer calories has been promoted as a method for reducing food intake and body weight. However, such products may interfere with one mechanism that animals use to regulate energy balance, a learned relationship between the sensory properites of food and the caloric consequences of consuming those foods. Consistent with this hypothesis, previous data have shown that providing rats with sweet tastes that are not associated with the delivery of calories using high-intensity sweeteners results in increased food intake, body weight and adiposity, but only if the diet on which they are maintained also tastes sweet. In the present experiment, we examined whether use of the fat substitute, olestra, would have similar consequences by comparing the effects of consuming high-fat, high-calorie potato chips to the effects of consuming potato chips that sometimes signalled high calories (using high-fat potato chips) and that sometimes signalled lower calories (using non-fat potato chips manufactured with the fat substitute olestra). The results demonstrated that food intake, body weight gain and adiposity were greater for rats that consumed both the high-calorie chips and the low-calorie chips with olestra compared to rats that consumed consuming only the high-calorie chips, but only if animals were also consuming a chow diet that was high in fat and calories. When animals were maintained on a low-fat chow diet, intake, weight gain, and adiposity did not differ significantly based on chip type. However, rats previously exposed to both the low-calorie chips with olestra and the high-calorie chips exhibited increased body weight gain, food intake and adiposity when they were provided with a high fat, high calorie chow diet, even though the potato chips were no longer available. This suggests that the experience with the chips containing olestra affected the ability to predict high

  9. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43 % fat/24 % saturated fat/GI>70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P< 0.05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P< 0.05). Assignment to the LSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial.

  10. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed…

  11. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. Change in texture improvement of low-fat tofu by means of low-fat soymilk protein denaturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-fat tofu made as a byproduct of oil processing has nutritional benefit as well as an economic advantage. However, low-fat tofu has poor quality, especially weak texture. The quality of low-fat tofu was evaluated after a two-step heating process (heating at 75 oC, followed by holding at 95 oC). ...

  17. Residual Stress Analysis in Thick Uranium Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Foreman, R J; Gallegos, G F

    2004-12-06

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1.0 to 25 {micro}m, depleted Uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0-300V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses.

  18. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Bergren, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  19. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  20. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  1. Thick Prelaminar Tissue Decreases Lamina Cribrosa Visibility

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ling, Yun; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Fujimoto, James G.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible LC microstructure was assessed subjectively using a grading system and objectively by analyzing the signal intensity of each scan's superpixel components. Manual delineations were made separately and in 3-dimensions quantifying prelaminar tissue thickness, analyzable regions of LC microstructure, and regions with a visible anterior LC (ALC) boundary. A linear mixed effect model quantified the association between tissue thickness and LC visualization. Results A total of 17 healthy, 27 glaucoma suspect, and 47 glaucomatous eyes were included. Scans with thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements received worse grading scores (P = 0.007), and superpixels with low signal intensity were associated significantly with regions beneath thick prelaminar tissue (P < 0.05). The average prelaminar tissue thickness in regions of scans where the LC was analyzable (214 μm) was significantly thinner than in regions where the LC was not analyzable (569 μm; P < 0.001). Healthy eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma or glaucoma suspect eyes (both P < 0.001), and glaucoma suspect eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma eyes (P = 0.008). Significantly more of the ALC boundary was visible in glaucoma eyes (63% of ONH) than in healthy eyes (41%; P = 0.005). Conclusions Thick prelaminar tissue was associated with impaired visualization of the LC. Healthy subjects generally had thicker prelaminar tissue, which potentially could create a selection bias against healthy eyes when comparing LC structures. PMID:28324116

  2. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  3. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  4. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    DOEpatents

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  5. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  6. MULTIPLE THICKNESS TIMES DENSITY GAMMA GAGE

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, N.H.

    1962-07-24

    A device was developed for measuring simultaneously the thicknesses of two dissimilar materials superimposed on each other, such as coating of one material on another. The apparatus utilizes a double gamma radiation source producing radiation in two narrow band energy levels. The different materials attenuate the two bands of energy unequally with the result that a composite signal is received which can be analyzed to separate out the components due to the differing materials and indicate the thickness or densities of the two layers. (AEC)

  7. Coal Thickness Gauging Using Elastic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarian, Soheil; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    The efforts of a mining crew can be optimized, if the thickness of the coal layers to be excavated is known before excavation. Wave propagation techniques can be used to estimate the thickness of the layer based on the contrast in the wave velocity between coal and rock beyond it. Another advantage of repeated wave measurement is that the state of the stress within the mine can be estimated. The state of the stress can be used in many safety-related decisions made during the operation of the mine. Given these two advantages, a study was carried out to determine the feasibility of the methodology. The results are presented herein.

  8. Nanofilm thickness measurement by resonant frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Latyshev, A V; Yushkanov, A A

    2015-03-31

    We report a theoretical investigation of monochromatic laser light – thin metal film interaction. The dependences of transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients of an electromagnetic wave on the incidence angle, layer thickness and effective electron collision frequency are obtained. The above coefficients are analysed in the region of resonant frequencies. The resulting formula for the transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients are found to be valid for any angles of incidence. The case of mirror boundary conditions is considered. A formula is derived for contactless measurement of the film thickness by the observed resonant frequencies. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOEpatents

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Xu, Liming; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  10. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  11. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics.

  12. Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Luzardo, Eliana; Mejías, José Carlos; Ferreira, Antonio; Rivas-Ríos, José Ramón; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat is closely related to blood supply vessels, both anatomically and functionally, which is why any change in this adipose tissue's behavior is considered a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. When proinflammatory adipokines are released from the epicardial fat, this can lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, low adiponectin production, and an increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These adipokines move from one compartment to another by either transcellular passing or diffusion, thus having the ability to regulate cardiac muscle activity, a phenomenon called vasocrine regulation. The participation of these adipokines generates a state of persistent vasoconstriction, increased stiffness, and weakening of the coronary wall, consequently contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, epicardial adipose tissue thickening should be considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular pathology and a molecular point of contact for “endocrine-cardiology.” PMID:27213076

  13. The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-26

    We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  14. GENESIS OF MITOCHONDRIA IN INSECT FAT BODY

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electron microscopy and stereological methods have been used to study the time course and mechanism of mitochondrial genesis in the adult fat body of Calpodes ethlius, (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Most of the larval mitochondria are destroyed during a phase of autolysis shortly before pupation, so that pupal and early adult fat body cells have few mitochondria. The number of mitochondria per cell increases rapidly at the end of the 1st day after the adult emerges. Characteristic partitioned mitochondria appear during the period when the number is rapidly increasing. This evidence, coupled with the results of morphometric analyses of mitochondrial diameter, volume, and surface area, confirms the view that the genesis of adult mitochondria involves the growth and division of mitochondria surviving from the larva. PMID:19866737

  15. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  16. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  17. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  18. Is adiposopathy (sick fat) an endocrine disease?

    PubMed Central

    Bays, H E; González-Campoy, J M; Henry, R R; Bergman, D A; Kitabchi, A E; Schorr, A B; Rodbard, H W

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review current consensus and controversy regarding whether obesity is a ‘disease’, examine the pathogenic potential of adipose tissue to promote metabolic disease and explore the merits of ‘adiposopathy’ and ‘sick fat’ as scientifically and clinically useful terms in defining when excessive body fat may represent a ‘disease’. Methods A group of clinicians and researchers, all with a background in endocrinology, assembled to evaluate the medical literature, as it pertains to the pathologic and pathogenic potential of adipose tissue, with an emphasis on metabolic diseases that are often promoted by excessive body weight. Results The data support pathogenic adipose tissue as a disease. Challenges exist to convince many clinicians, patients, healthcare entities and the public that excessive body fat is often no less a ‘disease’ than the pathophysiological consequences related to anatomical abnormalities of other body tissues. ‘Adiposopathy’ has the potential to scientifically define adipose tissue anatomic and physiologic abnormalities, and their adverse consequences to patient health. Adiposopathy acknowledges that when positive caloric balance leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and visceral adiposity, then this may lead to pathogenic adipose tissue metabolic and immune responses that promote metabolic disease. From a patient perspective, explaining how excessive caloric intake might cause fat to become ‘sick’ also helps provide a rationale for patients to avoid weight gain. Adiposopathy also better justifies recommendations of weight loss as an effective therapeutic modality to improve metabolic disease in overweight and obese patients. Conclusion Adiposopathy (sick fat) is an endocrine disease. PMID:18681905

  19. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  1. Position of the American Dietetic association: fat replacers.

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the majority of fat replacers, when used in moderation by adults, can be safe and useful adjuncts to lowering the fat content of foods and may play a role in decreasing total dietary energy and fat intake. Moderate use of low-calorie, reduced-fat foods, combined with low total energy intake, could potentially promote dietary intake consistent with the objectives of Healthy People 2010 and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans . The obesity epidemic in the nation has been attributed to energy imbalance, mainly because of increased food consumption and/or sedentary lifestyle, or both. Evidence suggests that lowering total energy intake along with a reduction in total fat intake can have a substantial impact on body weight and risk of chronic diseases. Fat replacers are used to provide some or all of the functional properties of fat, while providing fewer calories than the fat being replaced, and are used in a variety of products, from baked goods to frozen desserts. Fat replacers can be effective only if they lower the total caloric content of the food and if the consumer uses these foods as part of a balanced meal plan. Consumers should not be led to believe that fat- and calorie-reduced products can be consumed in unlimited amounts. Fat replacers are most useful when they help with calorie control and when their use encourages the consumption of foods delivering important nutrients.

  2. High Fat Diet Induces Adhesion of Platelets to Endothelium in Two Models of Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE−/− mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE−/− mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate. PMID:25328689

  3. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora. PMID:26920068

  4. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora.

  5. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelium in two models of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE(-/-) mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE(-/-) mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate.

  6. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  7. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  8. Lipophilicity of oils and fats estimated by TLC.

    PubMed

    Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica D; Sârbu, Costel

    2013-04-01

    A representative series of natural toxins belonging to alkaloids and mycotoxins classes was investigated by TLC on classical chemically bonded plates and also on oils- and fats-impregnated plates. Their lipophilicity indices are employed in the characterization and comparison of oils and fats. The retention results allowed an accurate indirect estimation of oils and fats lipophilicity. The investigated fats and oils near classical chemically bonded phases are classified and compared by means of multivariate exploratory techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis, or fuzzy-principal component analysis. Additionally, a concrete hierarchy of oils and fats derived from the observed lipophilic character is suggested. Human fat seems to be very similar to animal fats, but also possess RP-18, RP-18W, and RP-8.

  9. The effect of diet fat on rat adipocyte glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; Tepperman, H M; De Witt, J; Tepperman, J

    1977-05-01

    Rats were fed either a high fat diet (67% of calories as lard) or high glucose diet (67% of calories as glucose) for 7-8 days. Basal and insulin stimulated net uptake of D glucose (D-L) and 2 deoxy D glucose uptake by free fat cells of fat rats were depressed. Net transport of D glucose (D-L) by purified adipocyte plasma membranes of fat red rats was also diminished. Incubation of fat cells from glucose fed rats with insulin before homogenization for membrane preparation increased net D glucose transport by subsequently purified membranes in two experiments to a greater extent than in similar preparations from rat fed rats. These experiments suggest that fat feeding modifies the plasma membranes of fat cells so that both glucose transport and the stimulatory effect of insulin on the process are decreased.

  10. Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats.

  11. Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Risérus, Ulf; Marklund, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Dairy is a major food group with potential impact on cardiometabolic health. Self-reported dairy intake has limitations that can partly be avoided by using biomarkers. This review aims to summarize the evidence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids (OCFAs), that is, pentadecanoic acid (C15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0), as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. In addition, the associations of OCFA biomarkers with cardiometabolic disease will be overviewed. Recent findings Adipose tissue 15 : 0 is the preferred biomarker but also circulating 15 : 0, and to a weaker extent 17 : 0, reflects both habitual and changes in dairy intake. Whereas results from studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes are inconsistent, OCFA biomarkers are overall associated with lower diabetes risk. Residual confounding should however be considered until interventional data and mechanisms are available. Although OCFA biomarkers mainly reflect dairy fat intake, recently proposed endogenous synthesis and metabolism do motivate further research. Summary Taking into account the study population diet and limitations of OCFA biomarkers, both adipose and circulating levels of 15 : 0, in particular, are useful for estimating total dairy fat intake. OCFA biomarkers are overall not linked to cardiovascular disease risk, but a possible beneficial role of dairy foods in diabetes prevention warrant further study. PMID:27906713

  12. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A.; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  13. Correlation of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness with severity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Cuixia; Sun, Ling; Li, Daixu; Liu, Aihua; Jia, Ruyi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can be a marker of severe coronary artery disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Overall, 373 cases who underwent coronary angiography were classified into 2 groups by SYNTAX score: low-score and high-score group. EAT was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Obtained data were compared using Pearson correlation analyses and univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that EAT in the high-score group was significantly greater than in the normal group (5.6 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 1.0 mm, P < 0.01). EAT had a positive correlation with SYNTAX score (r = 0.61, P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed that EAT could reliably discriminate patients with high SYNTAX score (≥ 33) [AUC: 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.822-0.898, P < 0.01]. Multivariate regression analyses showed that EAT was an independent predictor for major in-hospital events. These data showed an association between EAT and SYNTAX score.

  14. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  17. Stigma in Practice: Barriers to Health for Fat Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer A.; Pausé, Cat J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore barriers to health for fat people. By shifting the focus from what fat people do or do not do, neoliberal principles are replaced by a focus instead on structural and institutional policies, attitudes, and practices. This includes the impact of stigma on the health treatment and health-seeking behavior of fat people. For example, we consider the role that provider anti-fat attitudes and confirmation bias play in the failure to provide evidenced-based healthcare to fat patients. This is an autoethnographic paper, which provides the opportunity to read research from the perspective of fat scholars, framed by questions such as: can fat people have health? Is health itself a state of being, a set of behaviors, a commodity, a performance; perhaps the new social contract? As a co-written autoethnographic paper, one aspect of the evidence provided is the recorded experiences of the two fat authors. This includes writing from notes, journals, compiled and repeated experiences with medical professionals, family, and the community. Framed by feminist standpoint and supported by literature drawn from Fat Studies, Public Health, Obesity Research, and other interdisciplinary fields, this is a valuable opportunity to present an extended account of fat discrimination and the impact of the stigma fat people face through the medical profession and other sectors of the community, written by fat individuals. The paper concludes by considering the health pathways available to fat people. Special attention is paid to whether Bacon and Aphramor's Health at Every Size paradigm provides a path to health for fat individuals. PMID:28090202

  18. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  19. On-line electroplating thickness monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Clifford G.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a novel instrumental technique for on-line measuring the thickness of electroplating, based on the precise determination of the resistance of the electroplated deposit on a stainless steel wire sensor. Laboratory and field testing of the technique is described. Data are presented for nickel, copper, and gold. Block diagrams for the sensor and the system are presented.

  20. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  1. Variations in lithospheric thickness on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent analyses of Magellan data have indicated many regions exhibiting topograhic flexure. On Venus, flexure is associated predominantly with coronae and the chasmata with Aphrodite Terra. Modeling of these flexural signatures allows the elastic and mechanical thickness of the lithosphere to be estimated. In areas where the lithosphere is flexed beyond its elastic limit the saturation moment provides information on the strength of the lithosphere. Modeling of 12 flexural features on Venus has indicated lithospheric thicknesses comparable with terrestrial values. This has important implications for the venusian heat budget. Flexure of a thin elastic plate due simultaneously to a line load on a continuous plate and a bending moment applied to the end of a broken plate is considered. The mean radius and regional topographic gradient are also included in the model. Features with a large radius of curvature were selected so that a two-dimensional approximation could be used. Comparisons with an axisymmetric model were made for some features to check the validity of the two-dimensional assumption. The best-fit elastic thickness was found for each profile crossing a given flexural feature. In addition, the surface stress and bending moment at the first zero crossing of each profile were also calculated. Flexural amplitudes and elastic thicknesses obtained for 12 features vary significantly. Three examples of the model fitting procedures are discussed.

  2. Thickness and drainage of perfluoropolyethers under compression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Huan; Gui, Jing

    2001-01-01

    The Surface Forces Apparatus was used to study the compression and drainage of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) between two flat parallel mica surfaces. In the case of Zdols and Demnum-SA, the PFPE can be squeezed out during slow compression to a final residual film one gyration diameter in thickness. This thickness remained constant up to the highest applied pressure of (is similar to)10 MPa. The residual thickness for Demnum-SA, with one active end group, was found to be approximately 40% larger than that for Zdol of the same molecular weight, with two active end groups. In contrast, Z03, with no active end groups, could be displaced completely from the contact. The dynamics of expulsion were studied by monitoring the variation of the gap width as a function of time after fast (a few milliseconds) step increase in the compressive load. It was found that Zdol behaves as the bulk liquid down to gap widths of 4 equivalent gyration diameters. A viscosity increase of more than 10 times was observed when the gap width was between 4 and 2 gyration diameters. Finally, slow compression to the maximum achievable pressure (approximately 10 MPa) led to a residual layer one gyration diameter in thickness trapped between the mica surfaces.

  3. Interferometry of thick and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Interferometry is now an established technique for the measurement of surface topography. It has the capability of combining sub-nanometre resolution. A very useful extension to its capability is the ability to measure thick and thin films on a local scale. For films with thicknesses in excess of 1-2μm (depending on refractive index), the SWLI interaction with the film leads simply the formation of two localised fringes, each corresponding to a surface interface. It is relatively trivial to locate the positions of these two envelope maxima and therefore determine the film thickness, assuming the refractive index is known. For thin films (with thicknesses ~20nm to ~2μm, again depending on the index), the SWLI interaction leads to the formation of a single interference maxima. In this context, it is appropriate to describe the thin film structure in terms of optical admittances; it is this regime that is addressed through the introduction of a new function, the 'helical conjugate field' (HCF) function. This function may be considered as providing a 'signature' of the multilayer measured so that through optimization, the thin film multilayer may be determined on a local scale.

  4. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  5. Myocardium wall thickness transducer and measuring method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A miniature transducer for measuring changes of thickness of the myocardium is described. The device is easily implantable without traumatizing the subject, without affecting the normal muscle behavior, and is removable and implantable at a different muscle location. Operating features of the device are described.

  6. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  7. In vitro enamel thickness measurements with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Khalid Hussain; Bubb, Nigel Lawrence; Gutteridge, Diana Lynn; Evans, Joseph Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In the work described here, agreement between ultrasound and histologic measurements of enamel thickness in vitro was investigated. Fifteen extracted human premolars were sectioned coronally to produce 30 sections. The enamel thickness of each specimen was measured with a 15-MHz hand-held ultrasound probe and verified with histology. The speed of sound in enamel was established. Bland-Altman analysis, intra-class correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon sign rank test were used to assess agreement. The mean speed of sound in enamel was 6191 ± 199 m s(-1). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were -0.16 to 0.18 mm when the speed of sound for each specimen was used, and -0.17 to 0.21 mm when the mean speed of sound was used. Intra-class correlation coefficient agreement was 0.97, and the Wilcoxon sign rank test yielded a p-value of 0.55. Using the speed of sound for each specimen results in more accurate measurement of enamel thickness. Ultrasound measurements were in good agreement with histology, which highlights its potential for monitoring the progressive loss of enamel thickness in erosive tooth surface loss.

  8. Changes of epidermal thickness in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Kim, You Chan

    2015-04-01

    The stratum corneum and epidermal pigmentation have protective roles against ultraviolet radiation. Because vitiligo skin lacks melanocytes and has no potential to produce pigment, some studies suggested that the epidermis in vitiligo skin is thicker than in normal skin. However, only a few studies investigated epidermal thickness changes in vitiligo, and some of these had relatively small sample sizes. Thus, this study aimed to compare epidermal thickness between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in a large cohort. Photos of hematoxylin and eosin–stained slides of vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin were taken under a microscope. The thicknesses of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and full epidermis were then measured by a computerized image analyzer. A total of 206 patients (412 sections) were included. There were significant differences between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in the thickness of the stratum corneum (P = 0.009), viable epidermis (P = 0.001), and total epidermis (P = 0.001). An analysis comparing skin biopsied from a sun-exposed area versus a sun-protected area showed that the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and total epidermis were significantly thicker in vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin in sun-exposed areas (P < 0.05), but not in sun-protected areas. We revealed that the epidermis was thicker in vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin, especially on sun-exposed skin, and that this may represent a photoprotective role compensating for absent pigmentation.

  9. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  10. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus_minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus_minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  11. Improved nucleonic coal-thickness monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, C. E.; Rose, S. D.; Jones, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    Design for coal-thickness-sensing instrument features independent hydropneumatic suspension of radiation source and detector. Monitor uses source and detector which are independently mounted, to follow contour of coal surface more closely and to eliminate errors caused by variations in airgap along radiation path. Device may help to bring fully-automated coal mining closer to reality.

  12. Pressure Distribution over Thick Airfoils - Model Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1923-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the distribution of loading over thick wings of various types. The unloading on the wing was determined by taking the pressure at a number of holes on both the upper and lower surfaces of a model wing in the wind tunnel. The results from these tests show, first, that the distribution of pressure over a thick wing of uniform section is very little different from that over a thin wing; second, that wings tapering either in chord or thickness have the lateral center of pressure, as would be expected, slightly nearer the center of the wings; and, third, that wings tapering in plan form and with a section everywhere proportional to the center section may be considered to have a loading at any point which is proportional to the chord when compared to a wing with a similar constant section. These tests confirm the belief that wings tapering both in thickness and plan form are of considerable structural value because the lateral center of pressure is thereby moved toward the center of the span.

  13. Topsoil thickness influences nitrogen management of switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an attractive bioenergy crop option for eroded portions of claypan landscapes where grain crop production is marginally profitable. Topsoil thickness above the claypan or depth to claypan (DTC) can vary widely within fields and little information exists on its im...

  14. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  15. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  16. Sediment thickness in the southern Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.D.; Grantz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data are used, in conjunction with deep crustal seismic refraction data, to estimate the thickness of sediments in the southern Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. The sediments are interpreted to be of Hauterivian (mid-Early Cretaceous) to Holocene age. Comparison of the seismic reflection character of seismic reflections in the study area with that in other basins indicates that a base-of-sediment-top of oceanic layer 2 reflection is not present above the depth at which the water-bottom multiple obscures all deeper arrivals, which is in conflict with the conclusions drawn from aeromagnetic, refraction, and other reflection studies. Seismic velocity structure, determined from the reflection data, indicates that the reflections above the multiple are from sedimentary strata. In the absence of seismic reflection evidence for the top of layer 2 above the multiple, we estimate total sediment thickness by using the layer 3 refractions and subtracting an average assumed layer 2 thickness from the top of layer 3. Assuming that an average thickness of oceanic layer 2 (1.4 km) overlies layer 3 in the southern Canada Basin, sediment thickness in the study area is estimated to range between 6.5 km where water depth is 3.8 km to greater than 11 km where the water depth is 2 km. This is nearly double that of any previous estimates and should have a significant effect on calculations such as the age of Canada Basin, regional heat flow, and long-term sedimentation rates. ?? 1990.

  17. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  18. ON THE FORMATION OF GALACTIC THICK DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Minchev, I.; Streich, D.; Scannapieco, C.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Martig, M.

    2015-05-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations in the Milky Way suggest that the chemically defined thick disk (stars that have high [α/Fe] ratios and are thus old) has a significantly smaller scale-length than the thin disk. This is in apparent contradiction with observations of external edge-on galaxies, where the thin and thick components have comparable scale-lengths. Moreover, while observed disks do not flare (scale-height does not increase with radius), numerical simulations suggest that disk flaring is unavoidable, resulting from both environmental effects and secular evolution. Here we address these problems by studying two different suites of simulated galactic disks formed in the cosmological context. We show that the scale-heights of coeval populations always increase with radius. However, the total population can be decomposed morphologically into thin and thick disks, which do not flare. We relate this to the disk inside-out formation, where younger populations have increasingly larger scale-lengths and flare at progressively larger radii. In this new picture, thick disks are composed of the imbedded flares of mono-age stellar populations. Assuming that disks form inside out, we predict that morphologically defined thick disks must show a decrease in age (or [α/Fe] ratios) with radius and that coeval populations should always flare. This also explains the observed inversion in the metallicity and [α/Fe] gradients for stars away from the disk midplane in the Milky Way. The results of this work are directly linked to, and can be seen as evidence of, inside-out disk growth.

  19. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  20. Effects of dried full-fat corn germ and vitamin E on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Sindt, J J; Greenquist, M A; Depenbusch, B E; Good, E J; Loe, E R; Sulpizio, M J; Kessen, T J; Ethington, R T

    2005-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dried full-fat corn germ (GERM) as a supplemental fat source in cattle finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 24 pens totaling 358 crossbred beef steers with an initial BW of 319 kg were allowed ad libitum access to diets containing dry-rolled corn, 35% wet corn gluten feed, and 0, 5, 10, or 15% GERM on a DM basis. Increasing GERM decreased (linear; P < 0.02) DMI and increased (quadratic; P < 0.02) ADG. Steers fed 10% GERM had the greatest ADG (quadratic; P < 0.02) and G:F (quadratic; P < 0.05). The addition of GERM increased (linear; P < 0.05) fat thickness, KPH, and the percentage of USDA Yield Grade 4 carcasses (quadratic; P < 0.03), with steers fed 15% GERM having the greatest percentage of USDA Yield Grade 4 carcasses. In Exp. 2, 48 pens totaling 888 crossbred beef heifers with an initial BW of 380 kg were allowed ad libitum access to diets containing steam-flaked corn, 35% wet corn gluten feed, and either no added fat (control), 4% tallow (TALLOW), or 10 or 15% GERM on a DM basis, with or without 224 IU of added vitamin E/kg of diet DM. No fat x vitamin E (P > or = 0.08) interactions were detected. Fat addition, regardless of source, decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, marbling score, and the number of carcasses grading USDA Choice. Among heifers fed finishing diets containing TALLOW or 10% GERM, supplemental fat source did not affect DMI (P = 0.76), ADG (P = 0.54), G:F (P = 0.62), or carcass characteristics (P > or = 0.06). Increasing GERM decreased DMI (linear; P < 0.01) and ADG (quadratic; P < 0.02), with ADG by heifers fed 10% GERM slightly greater than those fed control but least for heifers fed 15% GERM. Increasing GERM improved (quadratic; P < 0.03) G:F of heifers, with heifers fed 10% GERM having the greatest G:F. Increasing GERM decreased HCW (linear; P < 0.02), marbling score (linear; P < 0.01), and the percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice (linear; P < 0.01). The addition of vitamin E increased (P < 0.04) the percentage

  1. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  2. Influence of dietary fatty acid composition and exercise on changes in fat oxidation from a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Shriver, T; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2010-10-01

    Acute high-fat (HF) diets can lead to short-term positive fat balances until the body increases fat oxidation to match intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a HF diet, rich in either mono-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and exercise, on the rate at which the body adapts to a HF diet.(13)C-labeled oleate and (2)H-labeled palmitate were also given to determine the contribution of exogenous vs. global fat oxidation. Eight healthy men (age of 18-45 yr; body mass index of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were a high saturated fat diet with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions and a high monounsaturated fat diet with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Subjects stayed for 5 days in a metabolic chamber. All meals were provided. On day 1, 30% of energy intake was from fat, whereas days 2-5 had 50% of energy as fat. Subjects exercised on a stationary cycle at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were collected to calculate fat oxidation. Change from day 1 to day 5 showed both exercise treatments increased fat oxidation (SE: 76 ± 30 g, P = 0.001; UE: 118 ± 31 g, P < 0.001), whereas neither sedentary condition changed fat oxidation (SS: -10 ± 33 g, P = not significant; US: 41 ± 14 g, P = 0.07). No differences for dietary FA composition were found. Exercise led to a faster adaptation to a HF diet by increasing fat oxidation and achieving fat balance by day 5. Dietary FA composition did not differentially affect 24-h fat oxidation.

  3. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  4. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  5. Estradiol prevents fat accumulation and overcomes leptin resistance in female high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Sara A; Wilson, Jenny L; Chen, Weiyi; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A; Enriori, Pablo J

    2014-11-01

    In premenopausal and menopausal women in particular, suboptimal estrogens have been linked to the development of the metabolic syndrome as major contributors to fat accumulation. At the same time, estrogens have been described to have a role in regulating body metabolic status. We evaluated how endogenous or administered estrogens impact on the changes associated with high-fat diet (HFD) consumption in 2 different paradigms; ovarian-intact and in ovariectomized mice. When estradiol (E2) was cyclically administered to ovarian-intact HFD-fed mice for 12 weeks, animals gained significantly less weight than ovarian-intact vehicle controls (P < .01). This difference was mainly due to a reduced caloric intake but not to an increase in energy expenditure or locomotor activity. This E2 treatment regime to mice exposed to HFD was overall able to avoid the increase of visceral fat content to levels of those found in mice fed a regular chow diet. In the ovariectomized model, the main body weight and fat content reducing action of E2 was not only through decreasing food intake but also by increasing the whole-body energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and by inducing fat oxidation. Importantly, these animals became responsive to the anorexigenic effects of leptin in contrast to the vehicle-treated and the pair-fed control groups (P < .01). Further, in vitro hypothalamic secretion experiments revealed that treatment of obese mice with E2 is able to modulate the secretion of appetite-regulating neuropeptides; namely, E2 increased the secretion of the anorectic neuropeptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and decreased the secretion of the orexigenic neuropetides neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide. In conclusion, differences in response to E2 treatment of HFD-fed animals depend on their endogenous estrogenic status. Overall, E2 administration overcomes arcuate leptin resistance and partially prevents fat accumulation on these mice.

  6. Dietary fat type influences total milk fat content in lean women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole K; Beerman, Kathy A; McGuire, Mark A; Dasgupta, Nairanjana; Griinari, J Mikko; Williams, Janet; McGuire, Michelle K

    2005-03-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in some foods (e.g., dairy products) as well as many processed foods made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). Data from a growing literature suggest that some TFA decrease milk fat in lactating animals. Because the physiologic effects of TFA in lactating women are unknown, this study was designed to investigate the effects of TFA consumption on human milk fat. A randomized, crossover design (n = 12) was used to study the effect of 3 dietary treatments: high PHVO (regular margarine), low PHVO (low TFA margarine), or low PHVO but high in naturally occurring TFA (butter) on milk fat. Treatments were administered for 5 d, with 7-d washout periods. Maternal adiposity was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Milk and blood were collected on d 5 of each intervention period. In general, milk and serum fatty acid concentrations mirrored those of the dietary treatments. There were significant interactions between treatment and maternal adiposity on milk fat and infant milk consumption, as well as on serum glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, resulted in lower milk fat in leaner, but not in more obese women. Consumption of either regular or low TFA margarine, compared with butter, elevated serum NEFA concentrations in the more obese women. In summary, consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, decreased milk fat in lean women. Further studies are required to determine whether infant milk consumption might compensate for this potentially important change in milk composition.

  7. Associations among Pericolonic Fat, Visceral Fat, and Colorectal Polyps on CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiamin; Pattanaik, Sanket; Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between pericolonic fat and colorectal polyps using CT colonography (CTC). METHODS 1169 patients who underwent CTC and same day optical colonoscopy were assessed. Pericolonic fat was measured on CTC in a band surrounding the colon. Visceral adipose tissue volume was measured at the L2-L3 levels. Student t-tests, odds ratio, logistic regression, binomial statistics and weighted-kappa were performed to ascertain associations with the incidence of colorectal polyps. RESULTS Pericolonic fat volume fractions (PFVF) were 61.5±11.0% versus 58.1±11.5%, 61.6 ±11.1% versus 58.7±11.5%, and 62.4±10.6% versus 58.8±11.5% for patients with and without any polyps, adenomatous polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively (p<0.0001). Similar trends were observed when examining visceral fat volume fractions (VFVF). When patients were ordered by quintiles of PFVF or VFVF, there were 2.49, 2.19 and 2.39-fold increases in odds ratio for the presence of any polyp, adenomatous polyps, or hyperplastic polyps from the first to the fifth quintile for PFVF, and 1.92, 2.00 and 1.71-fold increases in odds ratio for VFVF. Polyps tended to occur more commonly in parts of the colon that had more PFVF than the spatially-adjusted average for patients in the highest quintile of VFVF. CONCLUSION Pericolonic fat accumulations, like visceral fat, are correlated with an increased risk of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. PMID:25558027

  8. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....409. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  9. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....309. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  10. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.01), carcass weight (P < 0.05), body weight (P < 0.05), shank diameter (P < 0.05), and shank length (P < 0.05). The c.423T > C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P < 0.05) and shank diameter (P < 0.05). In chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P < 0.05) the TG (triglyceride) content of the cell, whereas overexpression of mutation type ABHD5 did not affect either ATGL expression or TG content of the cell. The expression of ATGL and TG content of the cell were decreased (P < 0.05) after ABHD5 knockdown in preadipocytes. The mRNA level of ABHD5 was regulated by both feeding and fasting, and by consumption of a high fat diet. It was increased greatly by fasting (P < 0.05) and was returned to control levels after re-feeding in the adipose tissues, and down-regulated in abdominal fat (P < 0.05) and the liver (P < 0.01) of chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations

  11. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  12. Assessing the Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Townsend, Kelly A; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bilonick, Richard A; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained by scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT II; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Design Multi-center clinical trial, retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and nine healthy subjects from the Advanced Imaging in Glaucoma Study were enrolled in this study. All subjects had a standard clinical examination, including visual field and good quality scans from all three imaging devices. Central corneal thickness was measured using an ultrasonic pachymeter. A linear mixed effects model was used to assess the relationship between RNFL thickness and CCT, accounting for clustering of eyes within subjects, testing site, ethnicity, family history of glaucoma, axial length intraocular pressure and visual field global indices. Results For OCT and GDx, there was a slight non-statistically significant positive relationship between CCT and RNFL thickness. For HRT, there was a slight non-statistically significant negative relationship between CCT and RNFL thickness. Relationships for each device were found to differ between sites. Conclusions CCT was not statistically significantly related to RNFL thickness in healthy eyes. PMID:18657796

  13. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ciao, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Prejudice against those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese (anti-fat prejudice) is rife, increasing, and associated with negative outcomes for those targeted for such treatment. The present review sought to identify and describe published research on interventions to reduce anti-fat prejudice. A systematic search of relevant databases (e.g. PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus) found 16 published studies that had sought to reduce anti-fat prejudice. Most notable was the lack of research on interventions for reducing anti-fat prejudice. Methodological problems that limit the interpretability of results were identified in the majority of studies found. Interventions employing more rigorous experimental designs provided at best mixed evidence for effectiveness. Although several studies reported changes in beliefs and knowledge about the causes of obesity, reductions in anti-fat prejudice did not typically accompany these changes. Anti-fat prejudice interventions adopting social norm- and social consensus-based approaches appear encouraging but are scarce. The lack of prejudice reduction following most interventions suggests that psychological mechanisms other than, or additional to, those being manipulated may underpin anti-fat prejudice. New directions for researching anti-fat prejudice are suggested. Given the strength of antipathy displayed toward those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese, research in this area is urgently required.

  14. Imaging of traumatic injury and impingement of anterior knee fat.

    PubMed

    Lapègue, F; Sans, N; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Brucher, N; Cambon, Z; Chiavassa, H; Larbi, A; Faruch, M

    2016-01-01

    Fat is not just used by the body as bulk tissue. In addition to its role in storing energy and regulating hormone action, fat is used in some parts of the body for its mechanical properties. The anatomy of anterior knee fat is more complex than it appears at first sight and is capable of withstanding considerable compressive and shear stress. Specific lesions occur when such mechanical stress exceeds the physiological limits and are yet little known. Superficial fat can be the site of either acute injury by closed degloving called the Morel-Lavallée lesion or chronic injury, when subject to repeat excessive shear forces, due to more complex and less well-defined disruptions that result in pseudo-bursitis. There are three main anterior, intracapsular and extrasynovial fat pads in the knee joint, which are the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) or Hoffa's fat pad, the quadriceps fat pad and the prefemoral fat pad. The IFP plays an important role as a mechanical shock absorber and guides the patella tendon and even the patella itself during flexion-extension movements. In response to repeated excessive stress, an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the IFP is first observed, followed by a fibrotic reaction with metaplastic transformation into fibrous, cartilaginous or bone tissue. More rarely, the two other deep fat pads (quadriceps and prefemoral) can, if subject to repeated stress, undergo similar restructuring inflammatory reactions with metaplasia resulting in tissue hardening, anterior pain and partial loss of function.

  15. History and progression of Fat cadherins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Jiang; Hong, Junjie; Li, Libo; He, Qiang; Cai, Xiujun

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesions are vital hubs for signaling pathways during multicellular development and animal morphogenesis. In eukaryotes, under aberrant intracellular conditions, cadherins are abnormally regulated, which can result in cellular pathologies such as carcinoma, kidney disease, and autoimmune diseases. As a member of the Ca2+-dependent adhesion super-family, Fat proteins were first described in the 1920s as an inheritable lethal mutant phenotype in Drosophila, consisting of four member proteins, FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, and FAT4, all of which are highly conserved in structure. Functionally, FAT1 was found to regulate cell migration and growth control through specific protein–protein interactions of its cytoplasmic tail. FAT2 and FAT3 are relatively less studied and are thought to participate in the development of human cancer through a pathway similar to that of the Ena/VASP proteins. In contrast, FAT4 has been widely studied in the context of biological functions and tumor mechanisms and has been shown to regulate the planar cell polarity pathway, the Hippo signaling pathway, the canonical Wnt signaling cascade, and the expression of YAP1. Overall, Fat cadherins may be useful as emerging disease biomarkers and as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27942226

  16. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  17. The heterogeneous ice shell thickness of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus is the smallest Solar System body that presents an intense geologic activity on its surface. Plumes erupting from Enceladus' South Polar terrain (SPT) provide direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface. Previous analysis of gravity data determined that the ice shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick from the South Pole up to 50° S latitude (Iess et al., 2014), however, understand the global or regional nature of the ocean beneath the ice crust is still challenging. To infer the thickness of the outer ice shell and prove the global extent of the ocean, we used the self-similar clustering method (Bonnet et al., 2001; Bour et al., 2002) to analyze the widespread fractures of the Enceladus's surface. The spatial distribution of fractures has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. Hence, this method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from SPT up to northern regions.We mapped fractures in ESRI ArcGis environment in different regions of the satellite improving the recently published geological map (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2015). On these regions we have taken into account the fractures, such as wide troughs and narrow troughs, located in well-defined geological units. Firstly, we analyzed the distribution of South Polar Region fracture patterns finding an ice shell thickness of ~ 31 km, in agreement with gravity measurements (Iess et al., 2014). Then, we applied the same approach to other four regions of the satellite inferring an increasing of the ice

  18. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  19. Relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Forrest, D W; Fox, J T; Forbes, T D A; Davis, M E; Randel, R D; Holloway, J W

    2012-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine phenotypic relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls. Data evaluated were obtained from 5 postweaning trials involving Angus (n = 92), Bonsmara (n = 62), and Santa Gertrudis (n = 50) bulls fed diets that ranged from 1.70 to 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. After an adaptation period of 24 to 28 d, feed intake was measured daily, and BW was measured at 7- or 14-d intervals during the 70- to 77-d trials. Ultrasound carcass traits (12th-rib back fat thickness, BF; LM area, LMA) and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured at the start and end of each trial. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation within 51 d of the end of the trials when the age of bulls averaged from 365 to 444 d and were evaluated for progressive sperm motility and morphology. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75), with trial, trial by ADG, and trial by midtest BW(0.75) as random effects. Across all studies, bulls with low RFI phenotypes (<0.5 SD below the mean RFI of 0) consumed 20% less DM and had 10% less BF but had similar ADG, SC, and semen quality traits compared with high-RFI bulls (>0.5 SD above the mean RFI of 0). Gain to feed ratio was strongly correlated with ADG (0.60) and weakly correlated with initial BW (-0.17) and DMI (-0.26). Residual feed intake was not correlated with ADG, initial age, or BW but was correlated with DMI (0.71), G:F (-0.70), and BF (0.20). Initial SC (-0.20), gain in SC (-0.28), and percent normal sperm (-0.17) were correlated with G:F, but only sperm morphology was found to be weakly associated with RFI (0.13). These data suggest that RFI is not phenotypically associated with SC or sperm motility but is weakly associated with sperm morphology.

  20. Effect of essential oils, tylosin, and monensin on finishing steer performance, carcass characteristics, liver abscesses, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Greenquist, M A; Luebbe, M K; Williams, P; Engstrom, M A

    2009-07-01

    A feedlot (Exp. 1) experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an essential oil mixture (EOM), experimental essential oil mixture (EXP), tylosin, and monensin (MON) on performance, carcass characteristics, and liver abscesses. A metabolism experiment (Exp. 2) was conducted to evaluate the effects of EOM, EXP, and MON on ruminal fermentation and digestibility in finishing steers. In Exp. 1, 468 yearling steers (398 +/- 34 kg initial BW) were used in 50 pens (10 pens/treatment) and received their respective dietary treatments for 115 d. Five dietary treatments were compared in Exp. 1: 1) control, no additives (CON); 2) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily; 3) EXP, 1.0 g/steer daily; 4) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (EOM+T); and 5) monensin, 300 mg/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (MON+T). Compared with CON, steers fed MON+T had decreased DMI (P < 0.01), and steers fed EOM+T and MON+T had improved G:F (P 0.58). There was a trend (P = 0.09) for a treatment effect on 12th-rib fat thickness, which resulted in a significant increase in calculated yield grade for the EOM+T treatment. No other carcass characteristics were affected by treatment (P >/= 0.10). Prevalence of total liver abscesses was reduced for steers fed tylosin compared with no tylosin (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 8 ruminally fistulated steers (399 +/- 49 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square designed experiment. Treatments were 1) CON, 2) EOM, 3) EXP, and 4) MON with feeding rates similar to Exp. 1. There were no differences in DMI, OM intake, and apparent total tract DM or OM digestibilities among treatments (P > 0.30). Feed intake patterns were similar among feed additive treatments (P > 0.13). Total VFA (P = 0.10) and acetate (P = 0.06) concentrations tended to be affected by treatment with EOM numerically greater than CON. Average ruminal pH ranged from 5