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Sample records for 12th-rib fat thickness

  1. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  2. Modeling the relationship between scanned rump and 12th-rib fat in young temperate and tropical bovines: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, B J; Wolcott, M L; McPhee, M J

    2010-05-01

    A decision support tool for predicting subcutaneous fat depths called BeefSpecs, based on the Davis growth model (DGM), has been developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies. Currently, the DGM predicts 12th-rib fat thickness (RFT, mm). To allow predictions of fat thickness at the P8 rump (P8FT, mm) site, the standard carcass fat measurement in the Australian beef industry, a relationship was developed between ultrasound RFT and P8FT in steers and heifers from temperate (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, and Murray Grey) and tropical (Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis) breed types. Model development involved fitting various combinations of sex, breed type (BrT), BW, age, and RFT to produce 6 models. The models were challenged with data from 3 independent data sets: 1) Angus steers from 2.4 generations of divergent selection for and against residual feed intake; 2) 2 tropically adapted genotypes [Brahman and tropically adapted composites (combinations of Belmont Red, Charbray, Santa Gertrudis, Senepol, and Brahman breeds)]; and 3) a study using sires from Charolais, Limousin, Belgian Blue, and Black and Red Wagyu breeds and 3 genetic lines of Angus to create divergence in progeny in terms of genetic potential for intramuscular fat percent and retail beef yield. When challenged with data from Angus cattle, the mean biases (MB, mm) for models A to F were -1.23, -0.56, -0.56, -0.02, 0.14, and 0.04, and the root mean square errors of predictions (mm) were 1.53, 0.97, 0.97, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. When challenged with data from Brahman cattle, MB were 0.04, -0.22, -0.14, 0.05, -0.11, and 0.02 and root mean square errors of predictions were 1.30, 1.29, 1.27, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.29, respectively. Generally, model accuracy indicated by MB tended to be less for model E, which contained age rather than BW as a covariate. Models B and C were generally robust when challenged with data from Angus, Brahman, and Tropical Composite cattle

  3. Early weaning and postweaning nutritional management affect feedlot performance of angus x simmental heifers and the relationship of 12th rib fat and marbling score to feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wertz, E; Berge, L L; Walker, P M; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Rodriguez-Zas, S

    2001-07-01

    Early-weaned Angus x Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effects of postweaning nutritional management on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and the relationship of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition to the feed efficiency among heifers fed for a high-quality market. Sixteen heifers were weaned at 73+/-5.5 d of age and grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue for 18 mo before entering the feedlot (early-weaned-P). Eighty heifers from the following year's calf crop were weaned at 71+/-5.5 d of age and allowed either ad libitum access to a 25% concentrate diet (early-weaned-25C) or limit-fed a 90% concentrate diet (early-weaned-90C) to achieve a similar ADG. Following a 119-d growing period, 16 early-weaned-90C and 16 early-weaned-25C calves were paired based on BW and growth rate and individually fed during the finishing period along with the early-weaned-P heifers. Ultrasound measurements of s.c. and i.m. fat were recorded at approximately 60-d intervals throughout the finishing period. Feed efficiency was regressed against s.c. and i.m. fat, and i.m. fat was regressed on s.c. fat. Despite a similar ADG, early-weaned-90C calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.05) in the feedlot than early-weaned-25C calves. Heifers finished as yearlings tended (P < or = 0.10) to gain faster but gained less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than early-weaned-90C heifers finished as calves. The rate of s.c. and i.m. fat deposition was similar between early-weaned-90C and early-weaned-25C heifer calves. The calves were grouped together for comparison to yearlings. Feed efficiency decreased quadratically (P < or = 0.01) as s.c. fat cover increased. The rate at which feed efficiency decreased relative to increasing s.c. fat cover was similar regardless of age at feedlot entry. However, heifers finished as calves gained more efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than yearlings at any given fat thickness. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < or = 0.01) as i.m. fat increased

  4. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  5. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  6. Anisotropic bioelectrical impedance determination of subcutaneous fat thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Becerra, P. A. I.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.; Balleza-Ordaz, M.; Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2014-11-01

    Preliminary results have shown that bioelectrical impedance measurements performed on different parts of the human body strongly depend upon the subcutaneous fat of the considered region. In this work, a method for the determination of subcutaneous fat thickness is explored. Within this method the measurement of the bioelectrical impedance response of the fat-muscle system, both along the direction defined by the muscle fibers and along the corresponding perpendicular direction, are performed. Measurements have been carried out on human female and male subjects of ages around 25 years old at the region of the biceps. Correlation has been performed with skinfold caliper measurements.

  7. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  8. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters. PMID:27222737

  9. The Relation of Androgenetic Alopecia Severity with Epicardial Fat Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Ede, Huseyin; Erkoc, Mustafa Fatih; Akyuz, Yurdanur; Erbay, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most commonly encountered baldness pattern in men. Epicardial fat tissue is found on the cardiac surface between the myocardium and visceral pericardium. Both AGA and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) are related to coronary artery disease, which is also reflected by an increase in carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of AGA severity with EFT. Methods One hundred twenty-six male patients with AGA aged 18 to 55 years without histories of chronic disease were enrolled. Subjects were divided into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe) on the basis of the Hamilton baldness scale as modified by Norwood. Maximum EFT was measured at end-systole on the midventricular free wall of the right ventricle. CIMT was also recorded for all patients. Results The groups did not have statistically significant differences with respect to age, height, weight, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, or left atrial diameter (p>0.05 for all comparisons), but the severe group had a higher EFT compared with the moderate (p<0.001; z score, -7.040) and mild groups (p<0.001; z score, -6.667). The moderate group also had higher EFT than the mild group (p<0.001; z score, -5.931). Mean CIMT value in the severe group was significantly higher compared with the value in the other groups. Conclusion The study showed that subjects in advanced stages of AGA had increased EFT, which was measured via echocardiography. PMID:27081268

  10. Second Trimester Fetal and Maternal Epicardial Fat Thickness in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, A; Akkurt, M O; Yalcin, S; Karakoc, G; Varol, E; Sezik, M

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and sonographically measured fetal epicardial fat thickness between 24-28 weeks' gestation. This was a cross-sectional study that included 40 pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus, matched with 40 normal pregnancies with similar maternal age, body-mass index, gestational age, fetal gender, and fetal abdominal circumference on ultrasound. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was measured and recorded during ultrasonography at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Maternal evaluation included measurement of maternal epicardial fat thickness, using echocardiography. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were compared across the groups. Ultrasound views of fetal epicardial fat thickness were evaluated independently by 3 perinatology fellows to determine inter- and intra-observer variability. Partial and intraclass correlation analyses were used. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness measurements were moderately correlated (r=0.63). Mean fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were higher in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to controls. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was positively correlated (r=0.43) with postchallenge 2-h glucose values. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high, demonstrated by strong correlations (r=0.99 and r=0.99, respectively) across fetal epicardial fat thickness measurements of the examiners. Fetuses from gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies have significantly higher fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values compared to nongestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies. Fetal epicardial fat thickness obtained during second trimester fetal anatomy ultrasound may potentially be a reliable indicator for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, clinical validation studies are needed.

  11. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  12. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A.Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. Methods One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’ covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P<0.001), and fat mass decreased by 1.5±1.1 kg (P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass and total body water remained unchanged (P>0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, P<0.001). Conclusion Cycling 600 km at ∼23 km/h led to a decrease in fat mass and in all skinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold. PMID:23785571

  13. The Use of B-Mode Ultrasound for Measuring Subcutaneous Fat Thickness on the Upper Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence W.; Clark, Frank C.

    1985-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the potential use of B-mode ultrasound for measuring subcutaneous fat thickness at two arm sites. B-mode sonograms and skinfold measurements were found to be highly correlated for both men and women. (Author/MT)

  14. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  15. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  16. Visceral fat thickness is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Visceral fat has been known to associate with atherosclerosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the influence of visceral fat on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has never been elucidated. We investigated whether visceral fat thickness (VFT) has a predictive role in carotid atherosclerosis determined by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in PD patients. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 88 prevalent PD patients. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were measured as anthropometric indexes of obesity. VFT and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were determined by sonographic measurement of abdominal fat. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as increased cIMT (>1.0 mm) or presence of plaque. Thirty-two (36.3%) patients had carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed significantly higher VFT, BMI, and WC. In univariate logistic analysis, BMI, WC, and VFT except SFT were significant risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis. However, multivariate analysis revealed VFT was an independent factor associated with carotid atherosclerosis after adjusting for demographic, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric indexes (per 1 mm increase, odds ratio (OR) = 2.294, 95% confidence interval: 1.048-5.021, P = 0.038). When the patients were divided into three groups according to VFT, log high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were both higher in the third tertile compared to other tertiles. In conclusion, VFT, not SFT, is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in PD patients. Therefore sonographic measurement of VFT could be useful to stratify the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients.

  17. Ultrasound measurement of pediatric visceral fat thickness: correlations with metabolic and liver profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hwa; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6–16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound. Subcutaneous fat thickness was defined as the measurement from the skin-fat interface to the linea alba, and visceral fat thickness (VFT) was defined as the thickness from the linea alba to the aorta. Anthropometric and biochemical metabolic parameters were also collected and compared. The subjects who met 2 criteria, radiologic confirmed fatty liver and alanine aminotransferase >40, were diagnosed with NAFLD. Results There was a strong positive correlation between VFT and obesity. VFT was highly correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance score (r=0.403, P<0.001). The area under the curve for VFT as a predictor of NAFLD was 0.875 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.787–0.964). VFT of 34.3 mm was found to be the discriminating cutoff for NAFLD (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 71.2%, respectively). Conclusion Ultrasound could be useful in measuring VFT and assessing abdominal adiposity in children. Moreover, increased VFT might be an appropriate prognostic factor for insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:27462583

  18. Accuracy of a digital skinfold system for measuring skinfold thickness and estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Teresa F; Restivo, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Rita S; Marques, Elisa; Chousal, Maria F; Mota, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    The use of skinfold thickness measurements to evaluate the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue and to predict body fat has recognised advantages. However, the different types of skinfold calliper available present limitations that make them unattractive and perhaps less used in daily practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and functionality of a new digital skinfold system, the Liposoft 2008+Adipsmeter V0 (LA), for measuring skinfold thickness and determining body fat proportion (%BF). Skinfold thickness measurements made by the LA were compared with those obtained with a Harpenden (H) calliper from two samples of adults (n 45) and older adults (n 56) in a university-based cross-sectional study. A comparison was also conducted between estimated %BF from skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bland and Altman plots show that skinfolds measured by the LA and H calliper are in high agreement, with a mean difference of 0·3 (95% CI -3·1, 3·4) mm. In regard to the %BF estimated from LA and H skinfolds measurement, the LA produced a similar approximation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry %BF, with a mean difference of 0·2 (95% CI -0·8, 1·2) %, compared with %BF obtained with the H calliper. The LA system is an accurate instrumentation and represents an innovation in the evaluation of skinfold thickness and body composition based on anthropometric measurement.

  19. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  20. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  1. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  2. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  3. Predicting total fat mass from skinfold thicknesses in Japanese prepubertal children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Ohta, Megumi; Hikihara, Yuki; Torii, Suguru; Bemben, Michael G; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model development group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, p<0.01). When these fat mass prediction equations were applied to the cross-sectional and longitudinal validation groups, the measured total fat mass was also very similar to the predicted fat mass. In addition, there were significant correlations between the measured and predicted total fat mass for boys and girls, respectively, although Bland-Altman analysis indicated a bias in cross-sectional validation group. Skinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.

  4. Assosiation of Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Thickness with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Fereshteh; Eshraghi, Ali; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Mousavi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visceral adipose tissue is a known important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While some studies have suggested relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and CAD, there are no adequate studies for pericardial fat thickness (PFT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of EFT and PFT with CAD. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery angiography, referred to Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during Jan 2014–2016. Demographic and laboratory data were collected. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine average EFT and PFT at the standard parasternal long-axis view at end-systole for 3 cardiac cycles. SCA was performed on the same day. The patients were divided into two groups: CAD (n=59) and non-CAD (n=41) based on presence or absence of epicardial coronary artery stenosis of > 50%. Chi-square, independent T-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used by SPSS Version 16 for data analysis. Results One hundred patients (44 women and 56 men) with an average age of 56.4 ± 9.9 years were studied. The two groups were not significantly different in demographic profile and cronary risk factors. While PFT was not significantly different between the two groups, EFT was significantly higher in CAD group (3.0 ± 3.69 vs. 1.2 ± 3.6, p <0.0001). Moreover, with the increase of the affected coronary arteries, EFT increased (p <0.0001). Gensini score had a strong correlation with amount of EFT (r = 0.765, p <0.0001). EFT with a cutoff value of 4.25 mm (sensitivity=79%, specificity=68%) was specified in predicting CAD. Conclusion EFT measured by echocardiography can be used as an independent marker to predict CAD. More studies are needed to determine the predictive role of PFT for CAD. PMID:27790354

  5. The Relationship between GRACE Score and Epicardial Fat Thickness in non-STEMI Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Ilker; Zungur, Mustafa; Aykan, Ahmet Cagri; Gokdeniz, Teyyar; Kalaycioğlu, Ezgi; Turan, Turhan; Hatem, Engin; Boyaci, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Background GRACE risk score (GS) is a scoring system which has a prognostic significance in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). Objective The present study aimed to determine whether end-systolic or end-diastolic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is more closely associated with high-risk non-STEMI patients according to the GS. Methods We evaluated 207 patients who had non-STEMI beginning from October 2012 to February 2013, and 162 of them were included in the study (115 males, mean age: 66.6 ± 12.8 years). End-systolic and end-diastolic EFTs were measured with echocardiographic methods. Patients with high in-hospital GS were categorized as the H-GS group (in hospital GS > 140), while other patients were categorized as the low-to-moderate risk group (LM-GS). Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressures of H-GS patients were lower than those of LM-GS patients, and the average heart rate was higher in this group. End-systolic EFT and end-diastolic EFT were significantly higher in the H-GS group. The echocardiographic assessment of right and left ventricles showed significantly decreased ejection fraction in both ventricles in the H-GS group. The highest correlation was found between GS and end-diastolic EFT (r = 0.438). Conclusion End-systolic and end-diastolic EFTs were found to be increased in the H-GS group. However, end-diastolic EFT and GS had better correlation than end-systolic EFT and GS. PMID:26885974

  6. Versatility of full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat grafts as interpositional material in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, A; Santhosh Kumar, K; Vaidhyanathan, A; Balaji, M; Narendar, R

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a review of seven patients (eight joints) with temporomandibular ankylosis treated between 2007 and 2008. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the experience of using full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat grafts, harvested from the patient's abdomen as interpositional material after gap arthroplasty. All patients presented with osseous ankylosis and were graded according to Topazian's classification. Postoperative follow up ranged from 12 to 24 months. Maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) on presentation ranged from 0 to 8mm, which stabilized to 27-44mm at follow up. There was no evidence of re-ankylosis. This study found merit in the use of autogenous full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat graft as an interpositional material for up to 2 years following ankylosis release.

  7. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Stein, D R; Desilva, U; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Fifty-five normal-weaned Angus steers (268 ± 22 kg; 265 ± 16 d of age) were used to evaluate the effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements for stocker cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range on growth performance, body composition, and adipose tissue development of different fat depots. Steers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments: 1.02 kg·steer(-1)·d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement (CON), corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (CORN), soybean hull/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (SBH), or dried distillers grains with solubles fed at 1% of BW (DDGS). All supplements were individually fed 5 d/wk during the 121-d winter grazing phase. After winter grazing, 3 steers per treatment were harvested to determine body composition and carcass characteristics, and collect subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue samples. The remaining steers grazed cool-season grass pastures for 74 d without supplementation before finishing. Steers were fed a common finishing diet for 113 d before harvest, at which time carcass characteristics were collected at a commercial abattoir. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) winter grazing ADG compared with CON steers, and CORN steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than SBH and DDGS steers. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.04) mesenteric/omental fat mass but did not influence (P > 0.13) 12th rib fat thickness or marbling score at intermediate harvest compared with CON steers. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and markers of adipogenesis were greater (P < 0.05) in PR adipose tissue of energy-supplemented steers compared with CON steers but not in SC adipose tissue. Fiber-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.01) mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding protein 4 compared with CORN steers in PR adipose tissue but not SC adipose tissue. At final harvest, energy-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.05) KPH and yield grade

  8. Effect of sitagliptin on epicardial fat thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Rodney, Marianela; Balladares, Nathalie; Contreras, Miguel; D'Marco, Luis; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin addition on the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. This was a 24-week interventional pilot study in 26 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients, 14 females and 12 males average age of 43.8 ± 9.0 years, with Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7% on metformin monotherapy. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were added on sitagliptin and started on sitagliptin/metformin combination at the dosage of 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily. EAT and visceral and total body fat were measured, respectively, with echocardiography and bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and after 24 weeks of sitagliptin/metformin treatment in each subject. HbA1c and plasma lipids were also measured. EAT decreased significantly from 9.98 ± 2.63 to 8.10 ± 2.11 mm, p = 0.001, accounting for a percentage of reduction (∆%) of -15% after 24 weeks of sitagliptin addition, whereas total body fat percentage, visceral fat, and body mass index (BMI), decreased by 8, 12, and 7%, respectively (p = 0.001 for all). After 6 month, EAT ∆% was significantly correlated with ∆% of visceral fat (r = 0.456; p = 0.01), whereas no correlation with either BMI ∆% (r = 0.292; p = 0.147) or HbA1c ∆% was found. The addition of Sitagliptin produced a significant and rapid reduction of EAT, marker of organ-specific visceral fat, in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. EAT as measured with ultrasound can serve as no invasive and accurate marker of visceral fat changes during pharmaceutical interventions targeting the fat. PMID:26233684

  9. Effect of sitagliptin on epicardial fat thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Rodney, Marianela; Balladares, Nathalie; Contreras, Miguel; D'Marco, Luis; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin addition on the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. This was a 24-week interventional pilot study in 26 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients, 14 females and 12 males average age of 43.8 ± 9.0 years, with Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7% on metformin monotherapy. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were added on sitagliptin and started on sitagliptin/metformin combination at the dosage of 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily. EAT and visceral and total body fat were measured, respectively, with echocardiography and bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and after 24 weeks of sitagliptin/metformin treatment in each subject. HbA1c and plasma lipids were also measured. EAT decreased significantly from 9.98 ± 2.63 to 8.10 ± 2.11 mm, p = 0.001, accounting for a percentage of reduction (∆%) of -15% after 24 weeks of sitagliptin addition, whereas total body fat percentage, visceral fat, and body mass index (BMI), decreased by 8, 12, and 7%, respectively (p = 0.001 for all). After 6 month, EAT ∆% was significantly correlated with ∆% of visceral fat (r = 0.456; p = 0.01), whereas no correlation with either BMI ∆% (r = 0.292; p = 0.147) or HbA1c ∆% was found. The addition of Sitagliptin produced a significant and rapid reduction of EAT, marker of organ-specific visceral fat, in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. EAT as measured with ultrasound can serve as no invasive and accurate marker of visceral fat changes during pharmaceutical interventions targeting the fat.

  10. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.

  11. Real-time ultrasonic measurement of fat thickness and longissimus muscle area: II. Relationship between real-time ultrasound measures and carcass retail yield.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, K E; Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Wheeler, T L; Dikeman, M E

    1995-06-01

    Feedlot steers (n = 180) representing 11 sire-breed groups were ultrasonically measured for fat thickness (FTU) and longissimus muscle area (LMU) at two 60-d intervals during the feeding period and four 21-d intervals corresponding to serial slaughter dates to predict carcass retail yield parameters. Two fat trim levels, 8 and 0 mm, were used to calculate percentage of trimmable fat (FAT8P and FAT0P) and retail product percentage (RPD8P and RPD0P) for each carcass. Regression techniques were used to evaluate best-fit equations that explained variation in retail product components. When FAT8P, FAT0P, RPD8P, and RPD0P were regressed on USDA yield grade (YG), R2 values ranged from 75 to 76% (P < .001). Comparatively, when live animal predictors of YG components (FTU, LMU, and final live weight) were used as the independent variables, equations predicting retail yield had R2 values of 61 to 65% (P < .01). Equations using final FTU as the independent variable explained 58 to 64% (P < .001) of the variation in FAT8P, FAT0P, RPD8P, and RPD0P. Equations with FTU, LMU, and either WT, AGE, marbling, or quality grade resulted in R2 values similar to those with only FTU, indicating the strong influence of fat on retail yields. These results indicate that ultrasonic predictors explained about 10% less variation in retail product percentage than did carcass measures. PMID:7673066

  12. Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness Correlates with Aortic Stiffness and N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ibrahim; Unal, Yasemin; Basaran, Ozcan; Akin, Fatih; Emir, Gulser Karadaban; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Biteker, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Epicardial fat, a metabolically active tissue, has emerged as a risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated epicardial fat thickness in patients who had sustained an acute ischemic stroke, and we evaluated the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with other prognostic factors. We enrolled 61 consecutive patients (age, ≥18 yr) who had sustained a first acute ischemic stroke and had been admitted to our hospital within 24 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. The control group comprised 82 consecutive sex- and age-matched patients free of past or current stroke who had been admitted to our cardiology clinics. Blood samples were taken for measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at admission. Aortic stiffness indices and epicardial fat thickness were measured by means of transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours. In comparison with the control group, the patients with acute ischemic stroke had significantly higher epicardial fat thickness (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.8 ± 0.7 mm; P <0.001), lower aortic distensibility (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.9 cm(2) ·dyn(-1); P <0.001) and lower aortic strain (5.5% ± 1.9% vs 6.4% ± 1.8%; P=0.003). We found a significant association between epicardial fat thickness, NT-proBNP levels, and arterial dysfunction in patients who had sustained acute ischemic stroke. Increased epicardial fat thickness might be a novel risk factor and might enable evaluation of subclinical target-organ damage in these patients.

  13. Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness Correlates with Aortic Stiffness and N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Yasemin; Basaran, Ozcan; Akin, Fatih; Emir, Gulser Karadaban; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Biteker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat, a metabolically active tissue, has emerged as a risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated epicardial fat thickness in patients who had sustained an acute ischemic stroke, and we evaluated the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with other prognostic factors. We enrolled 61 consecutive patients (age, ≥18 yr) who had sustained a first acute ischemic stroke and had been admitted to our hospital within 24 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. The control group comprised 82 consecutive sex- and age-matched patients free of past or current stroke who had been admitted to our cardiology clinics. Blood samples were taken for measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at admission. Aortic stiffness indices and epicardial fat thickness were measured by means of transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours. In comparison with the control group, the patients with acute ischemic stroke had significantly higher epicardial fat thickness (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.8 ± 0.7 mm; P <0.001), lower aortic distensibility (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.9 cm2·dyn−1; P <0.001) and lower aortic strain (5.5% ± 1.9% vs 6.4% ± 1.8%; P=0.003). We found a significant association between epicardial fat thickness, NT-proBNP levels, and arterial dysfunction in patients who had sustained acute ischemic stroke. Increased epicardial fat thickness might be a novel risk factor and might enable evaluation of subclinical target-organ damage in these patients. PMID:27303237

  14. Changes in back fat thickness during late gestation predict colostrum yield in sows.

    PubMed

    Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Declerck, I; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Janssens, G P J

    2013-12-01

    Directing protein and energy sources towards lactation is crucial to optimise milk production in sows but how this influences colostrum yield (CY) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify associations between CY and the sow's use of nutrient resources. We included 37 sows in the study that were all housed, fed and managed similarly. Parity, back fat change (ΔBF), CY and performance parameters were measured. We obtained sow serum samples 3 to 4 days before farrowing and at D1 of lactation following overnight fasting. These were analysed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea, creatinine, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4) and immunoglobulins G (IgG) and A (IgA). The colostrum samples collected 3, 6 and 24 h after the birth of the first piglet were analysed for their nutrient and immunoglobulins content. The technical parameters associated with CY were parity group (a; parities 1 to 3=value 0 v. parities 4 to 7=value 1) and ΔBF D85-D109 of gestation (mm) (b): CY (g)=4290-842a-113b. (R 2=0.41, P<0.001). The gestation length (P<0.001) and the ΔBF between D109 and D1 of lactation (P=0.050) were identified as possible underlying factors of the parity group. The metabolic parameters associated with CY were C4 at 3 to 4 days before farrowing (a), and 10logC4 (b) and 10logNEFA (c) at D1 of lactation: CY (g)=3582-1604a+1007b-922c (R 2=0.39, P=0.001). The colostrum composition was independent of CY. The negative association between CY and ΔBF D85-D109 of gestation could not be further explained based on our data. Sows that were catabolic 1 week prior to farrowing seemed unable to produce colostrum to their full potential. This was especially the case for sows with parities 4 to 7, although they had a similar feed intake, litter birth weight and colostrum composition compared with parities 1 to 3 sows. In conclusion, this study showed that parity and the use of body fat and protein reserves during late gestation were associated with CY, indicating that proper

  15. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  16. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  17. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass and yearling ultrasound measurements in Brangus cattle.

    PubMed

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Kriese, L A; Benyshek, L L

    1998-10-01

    Carcass measurements of 12th-rib fat thickness (CARCFAT), longissimus muscle area (CARCLMA), and weight (CARCWT) on 2,028 Brangus and Brangus-sired fed steers and heifers, as well as yearling weights (YWT) and ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USLMA) on 3,583 Brangus bulls and heifers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data were analyzed using a six-trait animal model and an average information REML algorithm. The model included fixed effects for contemporary group and breed of dam, covariates for age at slaughter or measurement, and random animal and residual effects. Heritabilities for CARCFAT, CARCLMA, CARCWT, USFAT, USLMA, and YWT were .27+/-.05, .39+/-.05, .59+/-.06, .11+/-.03, .29+/-.04, and .40+/-.04, respectively. Genetic correlations between CARCFAT and USFAT, CARCLMA and USLMA, and CARCWT and YWT were .69+/-.18, .66+/-.14, and .61+/-.11, respectively. The favorable and moderately strong genetic correlations between carcass measurements and similar yearling breeding-animal ultrasound measurements indicate that such measurements of 12th-rib fat and longissimus muscle area are useful in predicting genetic values for carcass leanness and longissimus muscle area. Selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of breeding cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for carcass characteristics. Inclusion of yearling ultrasound measurements for fat thickness and longissimus muscle area should enhance national cattle evaluation programs.

  18. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass and yearling ultrasound measurements in Brangus cattle.

    PubMed

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Kriese, L A; Benyshek, L L

    1998-10-01

    Carcass measurements of 12th-rib fat thickness (CARCFAT), longissimus muscle area (CARCLMA), and weight (CARCWT) on 2,028 Brangus and Brangus-sired fed steers and heifers, as well as yearling weights (YWT) and ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USLMA) on 3,583 Brangus bulls and heifers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data were analyzed using a six-trait animal model and an average information REML algorithm. The model included fixed effects for contemporary group and breed of dam, covariates for age at slaughter or measurement, and random animal and residual effects. Heritabilities for CARCFAT, CARCLMA, CARCWT, USFAT, USLMA, and YWT were .27+/-.05, .39+/-.05, .59+/-.06, .11+/-.03, .29+/-.04, and .40+/-.04, respectively. Genetic correlations between CARCFAT and USFAT, CARCLMA and USLMA, and CARCWT and YWT were .69+/-.18, .66+/-.14, and .61+/-.11, respectively. The favorable and moderately strong genetic correlations between carcass measurements and similar yearling breeding-animal ultrasound measurements indicate that such measurements of 12th-rib fat and longissimus muscle area are useful in predicting genetic values for carcass leanness and longissimus muscle area. Selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of breeding cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for carcass characteristics. Inclusion of yearling ultrasound measurements for fat thickness and longissimus muscle area should enhance national cattle evaluation programs. PMID:9814892

  19. The efficacy of adding a minimum adjusted fat thickness requirement to the USDA beef quality grading standards for select grade beef.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    1994-06-01

    The present analysis was conducted to test the efficacy of adding a minimum 5-mm adjusted s.c. fat thickness requirement to the present USDA beef quality grading standards for the Select grade. Carcass grade data and longissimus thoracis Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel ratings were analyzed for calf-fed steers (n = 1,602). The experimental group (nine breeds and three composite populations finished on medium- and high-energy diets) contained a large amount of variation in yield grade, marbling score, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory panel overall tenderness ratings (CV = 30.8, 17.9, 25.0, and 14.0%, respectively). All but one of the carcasses were of A maturity and 37% of the carcasses had < 5 mm adjusted fat thickness. Among carcasses with a "slight" amount of marbling, WBS values were higher (5.58 vs 5.32 kg; P < .01) and overall tenderness (4.82 vs 4.99; P < .01) was lower for carcasses with < 5 mm s.c. fat thickness than for those with > or = 5 mm s.c. fat thickness. However, the magnitude of those differences was so small that the current and proposed Select grades did not differ with respect to shear force (5.45 vs 5.32 kg), overall tenderness (4.90 vs 4.99), juiciness (5.09 vs 5.12), beef flavor intensity (4.86 vs 4.86), or the percentage of samples rated "slightly tender" or higher for overall tenderness (48.7 vs 52.0). Thus, it seems that the addition of a minimum fat thickness requirement to the standards for the Select grade would not improve the tenderness of Select grade longissimus thoracis steaks.

  20. Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shim, In Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Su; Heo, Jung-Ho; Cha, Tae Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circadian blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH). A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8) and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p's <0.05) without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.001) and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm) than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm) or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm) among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, p = 0.937). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP (p = 0.018) and EFT (p = 0.016) in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men. PMID:26064992

  1. Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Shim, In Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Su; Heo, Jung-Ho; Cha, Tae Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and circadian blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH). A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8) and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p's <0.05) without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.001) and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm) than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm) or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm) among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, p = 0.937). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP (p = 0.018) and EFT (p = 0.016) in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men. PMID:26064992

  2. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in children1234

    PubMed Central

    Horlick, Mary; Berenson, Gerald S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although estimation of percentage body fat with the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations (PBFSlaughter) is widely used, the accuracy of this method has not been well studied. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations. Design: We compared agreement between PBFSlaughter and estimations derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA) in 1169 children in the Pediatric Rosetta Body Composition Project and the relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors, as compared with body mass index (BMI), in 6725 children in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Results: PBFSlaughter was highly correlated (r = 0.90) with PBFDXA, but it markedly overestimated levels of PBFDXA in children with large skinfold thicknesses. In the 65 boys with a sum of skinfold thicknesses (subscapular- plus triceps-skinfold thicknesses) ≥50 mm, PBFSlaughter overestimated PBFDXA by 12 percentage points. The comparable overestimation in girls with a high skinfold sum was 6 percentage points. We also found that, after adjustment for sex and age, BMI showed slightly stronger associations with lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values than did PBFSlaughter. Conclusions: These results indicate that PBFSlaughter, which was developed among a group of much thinner children and adolescents, is fairly accurate among nonobese children, but markedly overestimates the body fatness of children who have thick skinfold thicknesses. Furthermore, PBFSlaughter has no advantage over sex- and age-adjusted BMIs at identifying children who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values. PMID:24153344

  3. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  4. Hip Fractures Risk in Older Men and Women Associated With DXA-Derived Measures of Thigh Subcutaneous Fat Thickness, Cross-Sectional Muscle Area, and Muscle Density.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Cawthon, Peggy M; Peters, Kathy Wilt; Cauley, Jane A; Murphy, Rachel A; Visser, Marjolein; Wilson, Joseph P; Harris, Tamara; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve; Shepherd, John A

    2015-08-01

    Mid-thigh cross-sectional muscle area (CSA), muscle attenuation, and greater trochanter soft tissue thickness have been shown to be independent risk factors of hip fracture. Our aim was to determine whether muscle and adipose tissue measures derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans would have a similar risk association as those measured using other imaging methods. Using a case-cohort study design, we identified 169 incident hip fracture cases over an average of 13.5 years among participants from the Health ABC Study, a prospective study of 3075 individuals initially aged 70 to 79 years. We modeled the thigh 3D geometry and compared DXA and computed tomography (CT) measures. DXA-derived thigh CSA, muscle attenuation, and subcutaneous fat thickness were found to be highly correlated to their CT counterparts (Pearson's r = 0.82, 0.45, and 0.91, respectively; p < 0.05). The fracture risk of men and women were calculated separately. We found that decreased subcutaneous fat, CT thigh muscle attenuation, and appendicular lean mass by height squared (ALM/Ht(2)) were associated with fracture risk in men; hazard ratios (HR) = 1.44 (1.02, 2.02), 1.40 (1.05, 1.85), and 0.58 (0.36, 0.91), respectively, after adjusting for age, race, clinical site, body mass index (BMI), chronic disease, hip bone mineral density (BMD), self-reported health, alcohol use, smoking status, education, physical activity, and cognitive function. In a similar model for women, only decreases in subcutaneous fat and DXA CSA were associated with hip fracture risk; HR = 1.39 (1.07, 1.82) and 0.78 (0.62, 0.97), respectively. Men with a high ALM/Ht(2) and low subcutaneous fat thickness had greater than 8 times higher risk for hip fracture compared with those with low ALM/Ht(2) and high subcutaneous fat. In women, ALM/Ht(2) did not improve the model when subcutaneous fat was included. We conclude that the DXA-derived subcutaneous fat thickness is a strong marker for hip fracture

  5. Development and evaluation of a regression equation of prediction for fat-free soft tissue in heterogenous populations of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Leymaster, K A; MacNeil, M D

    1995-12-01

    Regression equations to predict kilograms of fat-free soft tissue (the sum of water and protein from chemical analyses) were developed from data collected on 526 steers and heifers. Straightbred animals representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds of cattle contributed to the data set. Cattle ranged in slaughter weight and age from approximately 350 to 575 kg and from 13 to 23 mo, respectively. Diets (100% ground alfalfa, 67% ground alfalfa and 33% ground corn or 33% ground alfalfa and 67% ground corn) were cross-classified with breed and sex. Estimative traits included in the equation were warm carcass weight, fat depth at the 12th rib, and body impedance. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. The prediction equation accounted for 94% of the variation in fat-free soft tissue of the carcass. Adjusting for breed-sex-diet contemporary groups increased the R2 value by 2% units. The prediction model was evaluated using data collected on 65 steers sired by Charolais or by Hereford bulls at the Ft Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT). Postweaning feeding strategies and slaughter ages varied among these animals. Carcass weight, back fat depth, and resistive impedance measures were recorded. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. Values of estimator variables recorded at Ft. Keogh were used in the regression equation to predict fat-free soft tissue for each animal. The values for kilogram of fat-free soft tissue determined from chemical analysis were regressed on predicted fat-free soft tissue. the results indicate that fat-free soft tissue of carcasses can be accurately predicted using estimative traits that do not diminish carcass value. PMID:8655437

  6. Development and evaluation of a regression equation of prediction for fat-free soft tissue in heterogenous populations of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Leymaster, K A; MacNeil, M D

    1995-12-01

    Regression equations to predict kilograms of fat-free soft tissue (the sum of water and protein from chemical analyses) were developed from data collected on 526 steers and heifers. Straightbred animals representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds of cattle contributed to the data set. Cattle ranged in slaughter weight and age from approximately 350 to 575 kg and from 13 to 23 mo, respectively. Diets (100% ground alfalfa, 67% ground alfalfa and 33% ground corn or 33% ground alfalfa and 67% ground corn) were cross-classified with breed and sex. Estimative traits included in the equation were warm carcass weight, fat depth at the 12th rib, and body impedance. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. The prediction equation accounted for 94% of the variation in fat-free soft tissue of the carcass. Adjusting for breed-sex-diet contemporary groups increased the R2 value by 2% units. The prediction model was evaluated using data collected on 65 steers sired by Charolais or by Hereford bulls at the Ft Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT). Postweaning feeding strategies and slaughter ages varied among these animals. Carcass weight, back fat depth, and resistive impedance measures were recorded. Carcass soft-tissue samples were taken for determination of chemical constituents. Values of estimator variables recorded at Ft. Keogh were used in the regression equation to predict fat-free soft tissue for each animal. The values for kilogram of fat-free soft tissue determined from chemical analysis were regressed on predicted fat-free soft tissue. the results indicate that fat-free soft tissue of carcasses can be accurately predicted using estimative traits that do not diminish carcass value.

  7. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  8. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mohrhauser, D A; Taylor, A R; Underwood, K R; Pritchard, R H; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Blair, A D

    2015-02-01

    Research has suggested that maternal undernutrition may cause the development of a thrifty phenotype in the offspring, potentially resulting in greater adiposity and reduced muscle mass. These alterations in adipose and muscle development could have lasting impacts on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. However, limited research exists evaluating the impact of maternal energy status on these economically important traits of the offspring. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality. To alter maternal energy status, cows either grazed dormant, winter range (positive energy status [PES]) or were fed in a drylot at 80% of the energy requirements for BW maintenance (negative energy status [NES]) during a mean period of 102 ± 10.9 to 193 ± 10.9 d of gestation. Changes in BCS, BW, LM area (LMA), and 12th rib backfat were measured throughout midgestation. At the end of midgestation, cows in the NES group had a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in BCS, BW, LMA, and 12th rib backfat when compared with PES dams. Cows and calves were managed similarly after midgestation through weaning and calves were managed and fed a common diet through the receiving, backgrounding, and finishing phases in the feedlot. Calves were harvested after 208 d in the feedlot, carcass characteristics were recorded, and strip loins were recovered for analysis of objective color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Maternal energy status had no influence on offspring HCW, dressing percent, LMA, percent KPH, marbling score, percent intramuscular fat, objective color, or WBSF (P > 0.10). Progeny of NES cows tended to have improvements in 12th rib backfat and USDA yield grade (P < 0.10). Greater ratio of marbling score to 12th rib fat thickness and ratio of percent intramuscular fat to 12th rib fat thickness (P < 0.05) were discovered in progeny from cows

  9. Skinfold thickness as a predictor of arterial stiffness: obesity and fatness linked to higher stiffness measurements in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Ali; Bulucu, Fatih; Kalafat, Firdevs; Cakar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Seref; Karaman, Murat; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Saglam, Kenan; Balta, Sevket; Demirkol, Sait; Arslan, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have strong evidence of endothelial dysfunction. Some novel endothelial dysfunction parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central aortic pressure (CAP) have been investigated as predictive markers of atherosclerosis. It is well known that obesity has relationships with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate relationships between anthropometric measurements and arterial stiffness parameters in essentially hypertensive patients. The study population included 100 patients (56 females, 44 males) newly or formerly diagnosed as essentially hypertensive in an outpatient clinic. Arterial stiffness measurements, including PWV, AIx, CAP, and body mass index (BMI); waist circumference, hip circumference; waist/hip ratio; and triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses were also applied to all the study patients. Then, the relationships between BMI, anthropometric measurements, and arterial stiffness parameters were investigated. The mean systolic arterial blood pressure of the study population was 135.85 ± 15.27 mm Hg and the mean diastolic arterial blood pressure of the study population was 84.17 ± 9.58 mm Hg. The parameters such as PWV, AIx, and CAP measured for arterial stiffness had correlations between BMI and different anthropometric measurements. The statistically significant correlations were present between PWV and triceps skinfold thickness (TST) (r = 0.377, P < .001) and it was also seen when regression analysis was performed (PWV = 6.41 + [0.072 × TST]; R(2) = 0.142, F[1-98] = 16.23, P < .001). Triceps skinfold thickness among these correlations may be used to estimate the carotid-femoral PWV, which is an indicator of subclinical organ damage due to hypertension.

  10. Validity and reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness in predicting body fat in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Holtberget, Kristian; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies show that body composition is related to injury risk and physical performance in soldiers. Thus, valid methods for measuring body composition in military personnel are needed. The frequently used body mass index method is not a valid measure of body composition in soldiers, but reliability and validity of alternative field methods are less investigated in military personnel. Thus, we carried out test and retest of skinfold (SKF), single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA), and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements in 65 male and female soldiers. Several validated equations were used to predict percent body fat from these methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was also measured, and acted as the criterion method. Results showed that SF-BIA was the most reliable method in both genders. In women, SF-BIA was also the most valid method, whereas SKF or a combination of SKF and SF-BIA produced the highest validity in men. Reliability and validity varied substantially among the equations examined. The best methods and equations produced test-retest 95% limits of agreement below ±1% points, whereas the corresponding validity figures were ±3.5% points. Each investigator and practitioner must consider whether such measurement errors are acceptable for its specific use.

  11. Association of pig UCP3 gene mutations and back fat thickness in the sixth and seventh rib.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Brahi, Olafemi Hermann Dave; Zhao, Xingbo; Xu, Ningying; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2012-02-01

    Accumulated studies have documented extensive links between UCP3 polymorphisms and pig productive traits, and quantitative trait loci linkage results, on the other hand, provided extensive evidences showing that UCP3 was in the core of several QTLs for carcass and meat quality traits. In this research, we screened two substitutions in coding sequence and one 9-base continuous mutated site in 3'UTR of pig UCP3 gene using the reference population of 293 pigs which were F (2) generation of hybrids between Chinese native Jinhua pigs and European Pietrain. The two missense mutations of G1406A in Exon 3 and T3602C in Exon 5 which led to changes in the G150R and M259T, respectively, were digested by SmaI and introduced Tth111I separately for genotype analysis, and the 9-base continuous mutated site in the 3'UTR was analyzed by an AvaI cleavage. As a result, the 9-base continuous mutated site of 3'UTR manifested significantly close association with the backfat thickness at the sixth and seventh rib, but the polymorphisms of G1406A and T3602C were not associated significantly with any of the seven carcass traits. The same results were shown by RT-qPCR and western blotting. These findings inferred that UCP3 probably has tissue-specific effects on pig carcass traits.

  12. Estimation of percentage body fat in 6- to 13-year-old children by skinfold thickness, body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena; Zahner, Lukas; Roth, Ralf; Meyer, Ursina; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of skinfold thicknesses, BMI and waist circumference for the prediction of percentage body fat (PBF) in a representative sample of 372 Swiss children aged 6-13 years. PBF was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. On the basis of a preliminary bootstrap selection of predictors, seven regression models were evaluated. All models included sex, age and pubertal stage plus one of the following predictors: (1) log-transformed triceps skinfold (logTSF); (2) logTSF and waist circumference; (3) log-transformed sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (logSF2); (4) log-transformed sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds (logSF4); (5) BMI; (6) waist circumference; (7) BMI and waist circumference. The adjusted determination coefficient (R² adj) and the root mean squared error (RMSE; kg) were calculated for each model. LogSF4 (R² adj 0.85; RMSE 2.35) and logSF2 (R² adj 0.82; RMSE 2.54) were similarly accurate at predicting PBF and superior to logTSF (R² adj 0.75; RMSE 3.02), logTSF combined with waist circumference (R² adj 0.78; RMSE 2.85), BMI (R² adj 0.62; RMSE 3.73), waist circumference (R² adj 0.58; RMSE 3.89), and BMI combined with waist circumference (R² adj 0.63; RMSE 3.66) (P < 0.001 for all values of R² adj). The finding that logSF4 was only modestly superior to logSF2 and that logTSF was better than BMI and waist circumference at predicting PBF has important implications for paediatric epidemiological studies aimed at disentangling the effect of body fat on health outcomes.

  13. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  14. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Samuele; Bertolini, Francesca; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT) in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV) for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs), on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes. PMID:25821781

  15. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, Samuele; Bertolini, Francesca; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT) in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV) for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs), on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes. PMID:25821781

  16. Association between adjunctive metformin therapy in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat and reduction of carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Paweł; Zawada, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Jolanta; Marcinkaniec, Justyna; Wysocki, Henryk; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Rzeźniczak, Janusz; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Naskręt, Dariusz

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cholesteryl ester lipase (CEL) may oxidize low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of metformin on the metabolism of atherogenic lipid fractions in relation to Lp-PLA2 and CEL levels, as well as assess consequent improvement in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was an open-label randomized clinical trial that lasted 6 months. It included a total of 84 people with metabolic decompensation (glycated hemoglobin >7.5%, >58.5 mmol/mol) of diabetes. Adjunctive metformin therapy (in addition to insulin) was administered in 42 patients, and the remaining 42 patients received insulin alone. Glycated low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, and CEL were assessed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cartoid IMT was measured using the Carotid Analyser for Research tool. Biochemical analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. RESULTS    The reduction of mean carotid IMT was observed in young type 1 diabetic adults treated additionally with metformin (0.6 ±0.1 cm vs 0.53 ±0.1 cm; P = 0.002). This effect was probably due to weight reduction (90 ±16 kg vs 87 ±15 kg, P = 0.054) and the decrease in atherogenic glycated LDL levels (1.5 ±0.5 mg/dl vs 1.6 ±1.046 mg/dl, P = 0.006). No such correlations were observed in patients treated with insulin alone. Additionally, in patients receiving metformin, glycated LDL levels were inversely correlated with Lp-PLA2 levels (r = -0.31, P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    Additional use of metformin in young type 1 diabetic patients with excess body fat leads to a significant reduction of mean IMT in the common carotid artery. Concentrations of CEL and Lp-PLA2 were significantly increased in both study arms despite improved glucose metabolism

  17. The Effect of Preoperative Subcutaneous Fat Thickness on Surgical Site Infection Risk in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery: Results of a Multisite, Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiromi; Ohno, Kaori; Ikeda, Shunya; Muto, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most frequent postoperative complications among patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. A multisite, prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate whether the thickness of subcutaneous fat (TSF) influences the occurrence of SSI in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Participants included patients scheduled to receive colorectal laparotomy for colorectal cancer and who were under the care of a wound ostomy continence nurse at 17 participating general hospitals in Japan. Patients were not eligible to participate if they had undergone emergency surgery, reoperation, or laparoscopic surgery. Demographic, wound, and surgical data and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scale scores were collected and assessed, along with nutritional status, TSF, body mass index, and risk factors for SSI (ie, length of surgery and wound classification). The incidence of SSI and nutritional conditions was assessed weekly for 30 days after surgery. Of the 155 participants (mean age 68.9 ± 10.8 years, 53 [34.2%] of whom were women), 90 (58.1%) underwent rectal surgery, and the remaining 65 underwent colon surgery. Seventy-two (72, 46.5%) of the 155 patients underwent colostomy surgery; 24 (15.5%) developed a SSI. The mean onset of SSI was 7.3 ± 2.9 days after surgery and commonly observed in the stoma group when the ASA score was 3 or higher (P = 0.02). Patients who developed SSI resumed oral dietary intake later than those without SSI (7.4 days versus 4.6 days, P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis indicated TSF >15 mm (P = 0.01), Alb level <3.5 g/dL at postoperative days 14 (P = 0.03) and 21 (P = 0.02), and total protein level <6.8 g/dL at postoperative day 7 (P = 0.02) were statistically significantly correlated with SSI occurrence. These results suggest preoperative TSF and preoperative and postoperative serum albumin levels are independent risk factors for SSI in patients undergoing colorectal surgery, confirming

  18. Use of serial ultrasound measures in the study of growth- and breed-related changes of ultrasonic measurements and relationship with carcass measurements in lean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Peña, F; Molina, A; Juárez, M; Requena, F; Avilés, C; Santos, R; Domenech, V; Horcada, A

    2014-01-01

    The growth and breed-related changes of rib and rump characteristics in lean beef cattle and the ability of ultrasound to predict carcass traits were investigated. Three hundred bulls from three breeds were scanned monthly (6-7 times) using real-time ultrasound with final scans taken <7 days prior to harvest. The rib and rump ultrasound measurements, except intramuscular fat content, increased (P<0.05) with live weight. Breed affected most of traits. The 12th rib ultrasound measurements showed a weak to high positive correlation (0.131 to 0.976, P>0.05 to P<0.001) with 12th rib measurements in the carcass. Regression equations developed with the ultrasound measurements, explained 97% of the variation in longissimus muscle area, 88% of the variation in fat thickness and 57% of the variation in intramuscular fat content. When last ultrasound scan measurements were excluded from prediction equations, the R(2) significantly decreased. Ultrasound measures "in vivo" are viable options for assessing carcass attributes of lean cattle.

  19. Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90 mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45 mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52 mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

  20. Epicardial fat thickness as cardiovascular risk factor and therapeutic target in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological and nonbiological therapies.

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Campo, Ediris; Salazar, Johanmary; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90 mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45 mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52 mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

  1. Fecal fat

    MedlinePlus

    Quantitative stool fat determination; Fat absorption ... This test evaluates fat absorption to tell how well the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestines are working. Fat malabsorption can cause a change in your ...

  2. Evaluation methods for intrauterine growth using neonatal fat stores instead of birth weight as outcome measures: fetal and neonatal measurements correlated with neonatal skinfold thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Sumners, J E; Findley, G M; Ferguson, K A

    1990-01-01

    Neonatal anthropometry, including timed skinfold measurements, was performed on 55 products of selected pregnancies. These skinfold measurements were compared with published standards of measurements obtained by similar techniques. Values outside the 3rd percentile to 97th percentile range were overlaid on the birth weight/menstrual age relationship of these subjects. Seven of 10 subjects with the lowest midtriceps skinfolds weighed more than 2500 g at birth (2 more than 3500 g) and 2 of 4 with the largest midtriceps skinfold had birth weights less than 4000 g. This comparison emphasizes the imprecision of birth weight as a measure of quality of fetal growth. Since skinfold thickness measurement is cumbersome for clinical use, other neonatal measures that may be more readily available to the clinician were examined for correlation with skinfolds. Simple birth weight/crown-heel length ratio was found to have the closest relationship of the parameters examined. Although estimated fetal weight was found to be the ultrasonography-derived parameter best correlated with skinfold thickness, ultrasonography discriminated poorly between babies with normal and low skinfolds. Low skinfold thickness predicted thermal vulnerability in the nursery better than did birth weight.

  3. The effects of cattle sex on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle palatability.

    PubMed

    Choat, W T; Paterson, J A; Rainey, B M; King, M C; Smith, G C; Belk, K E; Lipsey, R J

    2006-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sex on carcass traits and cooked beef steak palatability. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 99), heifers (n = 51), and intravaginally spayed heifers (n = 46) were fed a high-energy diet for 161 d. No implants were administered, and heifers were not fed melengestrol acetate to suppress estrus. In Exp. 2, 60 steers and 60 intact heifers from the same ranch source used in Exp. 1 were fed in 2 locations (sites 1 and 2). All management factors were equal across experiments except that intact heifers were fed melengestrol acetate to suppress estrus in Exp. 2. Steers in Exp. 1 were 25 kg heavier (P < 0.01) in HCW than heifers at comparable (P = 0.39) carcass fat thickness. Spayed heifers (Exp. 1) had a 5.7% smaller (P < 0.05) LM area compared with steers and intact heifers, which were similar. In Exp. 2, there was no difference (P = 0.2) in carcass weight, and heifers had greater (P < 0.01) 12th rib fat thickness compared with steers. Calculated yield grades were similar (P = 0.21) among treatments in Exp. 1 and tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for heifers compared with steers in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, USDA quality grades and marbling scores were lower (P < 0.01) for steers compared with intact and spayed heifers, which were similar. The effects of sex on tenderness were examined at a common level of fat-thickness and marbling by covariate analysis. Steaks from steers, compared with those from nonimplanted, intact heifers, in the 2 experiments combined were: (a) superior (P < 0.05) in 2 of 9 palatability assessments when subcutaneous fat thickness (at the 12th rib) was adjusted to a common level, and (b) superior (P < 0.05) in 6 of 9 palatability assessments when marbling score was adjusted to a common level. In Exp. 1, steaks from nonimplanted steers compared with those from nonimplanted spayed heifers were: (a) superior (P < 0.05) in 0 of 8 palatability assessments when subcutaneous fat thickness (at the 12th rib) was adjusted

  4. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  5. Percent body fat, skinfold thickness or body mass index for defining obesity or overweight, as a risk factor for asthma in schoolchildren: which one to use in epidemiological studies?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Valverde-Molina, Jose; Ortega, Maria L Castaños; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Martinez-Torres, Antonia E; Castro-Rodríguez, Jose A

    2008-10-01

    None of the epidemiological studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for asthma in schoolchildren have used the percent body fat (PBF) to define obesity. The present study compares the definition of obesity using body mass index (BMI), PBF and the raw sum of the thickness of four skinfolds (SFT) to evaluate this condition as a risk factor for asthma. All classes of children of the target ages of 6-8 years of all schools in four municipalities of Murcia (Spain) were surveyed. Participation rate was 70.2% and the number of children included in the study was 931. Height, weight and SFT (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured according to standard procedures. Current active asthma was defined from several questions of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Obesity was defined using two standard cut-off points for BMI and PBF, and the 85th percentile for BMI, PBF and SFT. The highest quartile of each type of measurement was also compared with the lowest. A multiple logistic regression analysis was made for the various obesity definitions, adjusting for age, asthma in the mother and father and gender. The adjusted odds ratios of having asthma among obese children were different for boys and girls and varied across the different obesity definitions. For the standard cut-off points of BMI they were 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-3.43] for girls and 2.00 (95% CI 0.97-4.10) for boys; however, for PBF (boys 25%, girls 30%) the corresponding figures were 1.54 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.66-2.21). BMI, PBF and SFT showed more consistency between each other when using the other cut-off points. BMI, PBF (except standard cut-off points) and SFT produce relatively comparable results when analysing the interaction between obesity and asthma.

  6. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  7. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits. PMID:12008662

  8. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits.

  9. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  10. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  11. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  12. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  13. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  14. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  15. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  16. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  17. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ...

  18. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... packaged foods have a nutrition label that includes fat content. Reading food labels can help you keep track of how ... of fats. Some have higher amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats ...

  19. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  20. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  1. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with trans fat . These fats are most often solid at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and ... products (butter, ice cream, pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm ...

  2. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when food makers turn liquid oils into solid fats, like shortening or margarine. Trans fats can ... list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. Manufacturers can show 0 grams ...

  3. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  4. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. PMID:27073201

  5. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific.

  6. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  7. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  8. Relationship Between Body Fatness and Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Larry D.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance tests and body fatness in young children, and the extent to which differences in performance between the sexes could be explained by differences in body fatness. Measurements of age, height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and performance scores on the vertical jump, standing…

  9. Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2007-02-27

    The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.

  10. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  11. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  12. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  13. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  14. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  15. Controversies in fat perception.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  16. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumgartner, Sabrina; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Bescós, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon. Methods Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05) except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%), suprailiac (−1.8%), and calf (−0.8%) sites decreased (P < 0.05). The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05). The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017) and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists. PMID:24198597

  17. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P < 0.05) BW (-67 ± 16 kg), HCW (-48 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (-1.4 ± 0.5 units), 12th rib fat thickness (-5.2 ± 0.8 mm), and yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P < 0.002). Angus sire breed means for marbling score (475 ± 10), overall tenderness (5.8 ± 0.1), and percentage Choice carcasses (75 ± 5%) were greater (P < 0.05) than Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior

  18. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P < 0.05) BW (-67 ± 16 kg), HCW (-48 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (-1.4 ± 0.5 units), 12th rib fat thickness (-5.2 ± 0.8 mm), and yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P < 0.002). Angus sire breed means for marbling score (475 ± 10), overall tenderness (5.8 ± 0.1), and percentage Choice carcasses (75 ± 5%) were greater (P < 0.05) than Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior

  19. [Relationship between sexual maturation and subcutaneous fat].

    PubMed

    García Llop, L A; Ramada Benedito, A; Rodríguez-Estecha, P

    1990-10-01

    Due to the great variability at the beginnings and the period of the puberty, authors have studied the modifications of the subcutaneous-fat and their relation with the sexual maturating. They have measured the skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac in 358 boys from 10 to 15 years old and 424 girls from 8 to 14 years old inrelation to sexual maturating through the stages described by Tanner. It has been found more subcutaneous fat in girls than in boys (p less than 0.05). The boys increase their subcutaneous fat until the stage 3 (except the skinfold triceps) and decrease later (except the skinfold subscapular). In boys, the analysis of varianza, show that the variations are related with the sexual maturating and not with chronologic age. PMID:2278437

  20. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  1. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  2. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  3. Carcass merit between and among family groups of Bos indicus crossbred steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Morgan, W W; Miller, R K; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Taylor, J F; Gill, C A; Savell, J W

    2006-03-01

    Differences in live and carcass traits attributable to increasing Bos indicus breed influence were compared to the differences between families with similar proportions of B. indicus influence. Families of offspring from 1/2 Angus×1/2 B. indicus mated to Angus, B. indicus, and 1/2 Angus×1/2 B.indicus were raised under similar conditions. Average daily gain, slaughter weight, and dressing percentage were measured in addition to USDA yield and quality grade factors. Breed type did not affect average daily gain, slaughter weight, dressing percentage, carcass weight, adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness, estimated percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or carcass maturity. Predominately (3/4) Angus progeny produced greater (P<0.05) longissimus muscle areas than 3/4 B. indicus animals. Predominately Angus cattle also had greater (P<0.05) marbling scores and USDA quality grades than predominately B. indicus cattle. Families within breed types differed (P<0.05) with regard to all traits measured. This is interesting in light of the lack of differences between breeds for most traits. In some instances, the differences in marbling score and longissimus muscle area between families within a given breed type were similar or greater in magnitude than the differences observed between predominately Angus and predominately B. indicus breed types. Whereas growth and carcass traits varied between levels of B. indicus breeding, the opportunity does exists to improve these traits by selecting within specific family lines.

  4. The thickness of glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vokey, Marshall W.

    2015-09-01

    Basic formulae and results of glacier physics appearing in glaciology textbooks can be derived from first principles introduced in algebra-based first year physics courses. We discuss the maximum thickness of alpine glaciers and ice sheets and the relation between maximum thickness and length of an ice sheet. Knowledge of ordinary differential equations allows one to derive also the local ice thickness.

  5. [Soft tissues volumes changing in malar and cheek area after fat grafting].

    PubMed

    Nadtochiy, A G; Grischenko, S V; Malitskaya, O A

    2016-01-01

    To improve the predictability of facial soft tissues fat grafting results tissue thickness dynamics before and 1 year postoperatively was assessed by means of ultrasonic method in 58 patients under standardized position of the ultrasonic transducer, physical and technical scanning conditions. The study revealed direct correlation of soft tissues thickness increase after fat grafting with the initial thickness of recipient area tissues. One year after fat grafting 60-65% of additional thickness remained in the lower regions of malar-cheek area (with the greatest soft tissues thickness), and only 25-27% preserved in the upper regions with the minimal initial thickness of soft tissues. I.e. to achieve necessary correction volume in a zone with small initial soft tissues thickness it is necessary to increase the amount of fat grafting stages. As the rates of soft tissues thickness in correction area change during 3-4 months after fat grafting remaining stable after this period it is expedient to assess postoperative results and to carry out repeated fat grafting not earlier than 4 months after operation.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others.

  7. Determinants of fat mass in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Grund, A; Krause, H; Siewers, M; Bosy-Westphal, A; Rieckert, H

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare variables of metabolism, physical activity and fitness to body composition in normal and overweight children in a cross-sectional study design. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis in forty-eight prepubertal children (age 5-11 years, thirteen normal-weight, thirty-five overweight). Total energy expenditure (EE) was measured by combination of indirect calorimetry (for measurement of resting EE) and individually calibrated 24 h heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Activity-related EE and physical activity level (PAL) were calculated. Time spent with min-by-min HR>FLEX HR was also used as a marker of moderate habitual and vigorous activities. Aerobic fitness (O2 pulse (O2 consumption:HR at submaximal steady-state heart rate), submaximal O2 consumption (VO2submaximal), RER at a HR of 170 beats per min) was determined by bicycle ergometry. Muscle strength of the legs (maximal isometric strength of musculus quadriceps and of musculus ischiocruralis (Fa max and Fb max respectively)) was measured by computer tensiometry. When compared with normal children, overweight children had higher skinfold thicknesses (sum of skinfold thicknesses at four sites +160 %), fat mass (+142 %), waist (+24 %) and hip circumferences (+14 %), resting EE (+13 %) and RER (+5 %). No significant group differences were found for fat-free mass, muscle mass, total EE, activity-related EE, PAL, HR>FLEX HR, VO2submaximal, O2 pulse, Fa max and Fb max as well as the fat-free mass- or muscle mass-adjusted values for resting EE, aerobic fitness and muscle strength. When compared with normal children, overweight children had a lower measured v. estimated resting EE (Delta resting EE) and spent more time watching television. There were positive relationships between fat-free mass(x) and resting EE(x), total EE(y), aerobic fitness(y) and muscle strength(y), but only Delta resting EE(x) and HR>FLEX HR(x) correlated

  8. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  9. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such ... flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower ...

  10. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  11. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  12. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  13. Corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J

    1976-02-01

    The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273

  14. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  15. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  16. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  17. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  18. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  19. Some determinants of body weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution in 25-64 year old Swiss urban men and woman.

    PubMed

    Puig, T; Marti, B; Rickenbach, M; Dai, S F; Casacuberta, C; Wietlisbach, V; Gutzwiller, F

    1990-01-01

    Data from a predominantly urban sample of 116 men and 130 women aged 25-64 years and collected in 1984/85 as a part of the Swiss WHO MONICA project, were analysed cross-sectionally to study the interrelationship between relative weight, subcutaneous fat and fat distribution, as well as the dependence of these anthropometric characteristics on behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Skinfold thicknesses were found to increase with age almost linearly in women, while in men they increased only before age 40 to 45. Subcutaneous fat was, but fat distribution was not, highly correlated with relative weight in both sexes. Alcohol consumption, healthy dietary habits (inversely), and exercise (inversely) were all significantly related to subcutaneous fat in men, while the relatively strongest predictors of female skinfold thicknesses were smoking (inversely), coffee consumption, and education (inversely). In multivariate analysis, environmental factors explained up to 10% of skinfold variance in male subjects and between 10 and 15% in females. Fat distribution was more influenced by environmental factors in men (about 8% of explained variance) than in women (about 4%). In men, truncal fat depended more on lifestyle that did upper arm fat, with smoking (directly) and exercise (inversely) being relatively most predictive of abdominal fat. We conclude that, although relative weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution correlate intra-individually, they are not equivalent and interchangeable anthropometric characteristics. This is reflected by the varying associations of the three fatness indicators with age and environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, and education. Gender seems to be an important modifying factor of environment-body fat-associations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Measurement of Visceral Fat: Should We Include Retroperitoneal Fat?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Hung-Ren; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Mao-Shin; Liu, Pi-Hua; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wei, Jung-Nan; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Methods We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women) in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. Results Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 5.651, p<0.05) and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05). Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r = −0.244, P<0.05), and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05), but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94±0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR) 1.62, p = 0.003) and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009), but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14) were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. Conclusions Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human. PMID:25401949

  1. Genetic parameter estimates of yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements in Brangus cattle.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Perkins, T L; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Sandelin, B A

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for real-time ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle area (LMA), 12th rib backfat thickness (FT), percent intramuscular fat (IMF), and yearling weight (YW) for 1,299 yearling Brangus bulls and heifers. A single ultrasound technician performed all measurements. The number of observations was 1,298, 1,298, 1,215, and 1,170 for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated for each trait using single- and multiple-trait derivative-free restricted maximal likelihood. Fixed effects were contemporary group (defined as same sex, same age within six months, and same environment), and days of age as a covariate. Correlations were estimated from two-trait models. Heritabilities for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW were 0.31, 0.26, 0.16, and 0.53, respectively. Genetic correlations between LMA and FT, LMA and IMF, LMA and YW, FT and IMF, FT and YW, and IMF and YW were 0.09, 0.25, 0.44, 0.36, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively. Yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements can be used as a selection tool in breeding cattle for the improvement of carcass traits.

  2. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings.

  3. Influence of genetic type and level of concentrate in the finishing diet on carcass and meat quality traits in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Filho, S C Valadares; Souza, E J O; Duarte, M S; Benedeti, P D B; Souza, N K P; Cox, R B

    2012-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of thirty-six feedlot beef heifers from different genetic groups (GG) fed at two concentrate levels (CL) were evaluated using 12 - Nellore (NE), 12 - ½Angus x ½Nellore (AN) and 12 - ½Simmental x ½Nellore (SN) animals. Six heifers of each GG were randomly assigned into one of two treatments: concentrate at 0.8% or 1.2% of body weight (BW). Heifers fed concentrate at 0.8% of BW had greater (P<0.05) dressing percentage. None of the proximate analysis components of the beef were affected (P>0.05) by either CL or GG. Heifers from the AN group had higher (P<0.05) carcass weights, 12th rib fat thickness and lower dressing percentage (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. NE heifers had greater WBSF values (P<0.05) than the other genetic groups. Data suggest that the concentrate level can be reduced without compromising meat quality traits. PMID:22127147

  4. Genetic parameter estimates of yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements in Brangus cattle.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Perkins, T L; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Sandelin, B A

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for real-time ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle area (LMA), 12th rib backfat thickness (FT), percent intramuscular fat (IMF), and yearling weight (YW) for 1,299 yearling Brangus bulls and heifers. A single ultrasound technician performed all measurements. The number of observations was 1,298, 1,298, 1,215, and 1,170 for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated for each trait using single- and multiple-trait derivative-free restricted maximal likelihood. Fixed effects were contemporary group (defined as same sex, same age within six months, and same environment), and days of age as a covariate. Correlations were estimated from two-trait models. Heritabilities for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW were 0.31, 0.26, 0.16, and 0.53, respectively. Genetic correlations between LMA and FT, LMA and IMF, LMA and YW, FT and IMF, FT and YW, and IMF and YW were 0.09, 0.25, 0.44, 0.36, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively. Yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements can be used as a selection tool in breeding cattle for the improvement of carcass traits. PMID:12542155

  5. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  6. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  7. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  8. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties.

  9. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  10. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  11. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  12. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  13. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  14. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  15. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  16. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  17. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  18. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  1. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  2. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  3. Relationship between Regional Fat Distribution and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; Lanzillo, Chiara; Marinoni, Giorgia Michela; D’Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Calò, Leonardo; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic heart disease, is characterized by heterogeneous phenotypic expression. Body mass index has been associated with LV mass and heart failure symptoms in HCM. The aim of our study was to investigate whether regional (trunk, appendicular, epicardial) fat distribution and extent could be related to hypertrophy severity and pattern in HCM. Methods Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed in 32 subjects with echocardiography-based diagnosis of HCM (22M/10F, 57.2±12.6 years) characterized by predominant hypertrophy at the interventricular septum (IVS). Regional fat distribution was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Gender differences were detected in maximum IVS thickness (M: 18.3±3.8 mm vs. F: 14.3±4 mm, p = 0.012), right ventricle (RV) systolic function (M: 61.3±6.7%; F: 67.5±6.3%, p = 0.048), indexed RV end-diastolic (M: 64.8±16.3 ml/m2; F: 50.7±15.5 ml/m2, p = 0.04) and end-systolic volumes (M: 24.3±8.3 ml/m2; F: 16.7±7.4 ml/m2, p = 0.04). After adjusting for age and gender, maximum IVS thickness was associated with truncal fat (Tr-FAT) (β = 0.43, p = 0.02), but not with either appendicular or epicardial fat. Epicardial fat resulted independently associated with NT-proBNP levels (β = 0.63, p = 0.04). Late Gadolinium Enhancement-positive subjects displayed greater maximum IVS thickness (p = 0.02), LV mass index (p = 0.015) and NT-proBNP levels (p = 0.04), but no associations with fat amount or distribution were observed. Conclusion Truncal, but not appendicular or epicardial fat amount, seems to be related with maximum IVS thickness, the hallmark feature in our cohort of HCM patients. Further prospective researches are needed to assess a potential causative effect of central adiposity on HCM phenotype. PMID:27388274

  4. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  5. Measurement of the subcutaneous fat in the distal forearm by single photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hassager, C.; Borg, J.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-02-01

    The influence of subcutaneous fat on single photon (/sup 125/I) absorptiometry (SPA) measurement of bone mineral content of the distal forearm was investigated. A fat correction model was tested by measurements on eight lean subjects with different amounts of porcine fat around their forearm, and further validated from measurements on 128 females. In addition, it is shown that the fat content in the distal forearm can be measured by SPA with a short-term precision at 1.9% in an obese subject and that it correlates well with total body fat (r2 = .7) measured by dual photon absorptiometry, skinfold thickness (r2 = .5), and body mass index (r2 = .6). By using this method in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, hormonal substitutional therapy significantly decreased the forearm fat content without affecting the body weight in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  6. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  7. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  8. Mechanisms of Fat Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Although more fat grafting procedures have been performed by plastic surgeons with the primary goal to restore soft tissue loss, the actual mechanism on how fat graft survives remains less completely understood. An established old theory on fat graft survival is still based on the cell survival theory proposed by Peer in the early 1950s. On the basis of his preliminary experimental study, he proposed that the mechanism of fat graft survival is based on established early blood circulation through anastomosis of the fat graft and host blood vessels. Recently, several investigators have demonstrated new concepts of the fat graft survival: One further advanced the old Peer cell survival theory and another based on new discovery and understanding of adipose-derived stem cells. This article serves as a scientific review on how fat graft survives after in vivo transplantation based on a number of well-conducted experimental studies. Both the graft survival and graft replacement theories on how fat graft survives are true based on the previously mentioned well-conducted experimental studies. Each theory may play a role in fat graft survival. It is possible that graft survival may be more dominant in some patients but the graft replacement may be more dominant in other patients.

  9. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  10. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  11. Thick Photoresist Original Master:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hirotaka; Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Ohe, Yuka; Okamoto, Naomichi; Hoshino, Masahito

    A simple and low-cost fabrication method of polymeric optical waveguides with large core sizes for plastic optical fibers is presented. The waveguides are fabricated by hot embossing with a rectangular ridge ultraviolet (UV)-cured epoxy resin stamper. The stamper is fabricated by replication of a rectangular groove mold that is made from silicone rubber replicated from a rectangular ridge original master made from thick photoresist (SU-8). A rectangular ridge shape of the original photoresist master of 1 mm size was realized by using a flattening process, which involves hot embossing before the exposure process and using a UV-cut filter during the exposure process.

  12. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  13. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  14. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, C M; Thijssen, J H; Bruning, P F; Van den Brande, J L; Zonderland, M L; Erich, W B

    1992-08-01

    The rate at which girls progress through the stages of puberty in relation to body fat mass and body fat distribution and its relation to their hormonal profiles was studied. Sixty-eight schoolgirls participated in a longitudinal study during 3 yr. The girls were divided into subgroups with increasing skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio. They were also grouped depending on Tanner's breast development classification (M2 and M3). The age at M2 was only marginally correlated with the menarcheal age, but the age at M2 and the time interval from that age to menarche was negatively correlated. Age at the onset of puberty was not related to body fat mass or distribution. The rate of pubertal development after pubertal stage M3 was negatively related to the body fat mass. Age at M2 was only correlated with estrone (E1), while the rate of pubertal development was associated with higher FSH, E1, estradiol (E2), the fraction of E2 that was not bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound E2) and androstenedione plasma levels at the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass was related to the total and the non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound plasma levels of E2 and testosterone at the onset of puberty. Changes in body fat distribution in early female puberty were chiefly related to the waist circumferences. We found no evidence that body fat mass or body fat distribution triggers the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution was related to early pubertal endocrine activity. Body fat mass was negatively related to the rate of pubertal development toward menarche, but no clear indications for an endocrine-related process is found. We conclude that onset of puberty and menarche are not parallel pubertal events, and that early pubertal plasma E1, E2 and androstenedione levels are predictors for the rate of pubertal development toward menarche. We propose that the control of the onset of puberty and maturation of the

  15. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  17. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  18. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  19. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

  20. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  1. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  2. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  3. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Djurić-Stefanović, A; Vasin, D; Jovanović, S; Lazić, Lj; Kovac, J; Popović, I; Bajec, Dj; Saranović, Dj

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and other pathological conditions and diseases associated with obesity. Therefore, analysis of the dynamics of reducing the amount of abdominal visceral fat is important for evaluating the therapeutic effects of different modalities of obesity treatment, including bariatric surgery. In 53 obese patients visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was measured by ultrasonography (US) before and after bariatric surgery, in the period of 1, 3, 6 months. At the same time, standard anthropometric parameters were assessed: body mass (m), BMI, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC). Five diameters of the visceral abdominal fat (VAF) were measured: IAFT (Intraabdominal Fat Thickness), LV (Lienal Vein), VF (Visceral Fat), MES sum (Mesenterial leafs) and Max PFT (Maximal Preperitoneal Fat Thickness), and three diameters of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAF): Min SFT (Minimal Subcutaneous Fat), and MaxSFTa and MaxSFTb (Maximal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness a and b). Statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric parameters, except HC was registered 1, 3 and 6 months after the surgery. We registered the decline of almost all US diameters of abdominal adipose tissue in the follow-up period, but statistically significant decrease were found only in the diameters of visceral adipose tissue: IAFT after 1 and 3 months (p = 0.031 and p = 0.027); VF after 1 month (p = 0.031), LV after 6 months (p = 0.011), and MESsum after 3 and 6 months (p = 0.001 and p = 0.028), as well as MaxSFTb, at 1 month follow-up (p = 0.015). In the short-term follow-up period after the bariatric surgery, there was a significant decrease in body mass, BMI and WC, and ultrasonography revealed a significant reduction in the diameters of the visceral abdominal fat.

  5. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Methods Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. Results The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values < 0.01). However, both groups had similar EAT thickness (P = 0.532), which was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, WC, HC, VAAT thickness, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, and serum triglyceride (TG) level (all P values < 0.01). We found no correlation between EAT thickness and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free thyroxine (FT4) level, or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and anti-TPO level (all P values > 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Conclusion Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to

  6. The genetics of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Dorit; Böttcher, Yvonne; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. There is good evidence that body fat distribution (FD) is controlled by genetic factors. WHR, a surrogate measure of FD, shows significant heritability of up to ∼60%, even after adjusting for BMI. Genetic variants have been linked to various forms of altered FD such as lipodystrophies; however, the polygenic background of visceral obesity has only been sparsely investigated in the past. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for measures of FD revealed numerous loci harbouring genes potentially regulating FD. In addition, genes with fat depot-specific expression patterns (in particular subcutaneous vs visceral adipose tissue) provide plausible candidate genes involved in the regulation of FD. Many of these genes are differentially expressed in various fat compartments and correlate with obesity-related traits, thus further supporting their role as potential mediators of metabolic alterations associated with a distinct FD. Finally, developmental genes may at a very early stage determine specific FD in later life. Indeed, genes such as TBX15 not only manifest differential expression in various fat depots, but also correlate with obesity and related traits. Moreover, recent GWAS identified several polymorphisms in developmental genes (including TBX15, HOXC13, RSPO3 and CPEB4) strongly associated with FD. More accurate methods, including cardiometabolic imaging, for assessment of FD are needed to promote our understanding in this field, where the main focus is now to unravel the yet unknown biological function of these novel 'fat distribution genes'.

  7. Energy dependent chest wall thickness equations for male lung monitoring with germanium detectors.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Abline, O; Fleury, B; Vial, A; Corrèze, P; Franck, D; Merzoug, V

    2014-03-01

    The thickness and fat fraction of the chest wall are important parameters for in vivo lung monitoring. They have been measured from ultrasonic images on 374 male workers of the French nuclear industry using four measurement locations, as dictated by the size and position of the germanium detectors used for monitoring. The plastic muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (PMECWT) and the plastic 50% muscle-50% adipose equivalent chest wall thickness (X5050) have been calculated for each worker at 17, 59.5, and 185.7 keV, respectively. Multi-linear regression models have been tested to predict PMECWT and X5050 as a function of anthropometric measurements. Finally, it was considered whether the average chest wall thickness could be used instead of the material equivalent chest wall thickness. It was found that the mean chest wall thickness was (27 ± 5) mm and the mean fat fraction was (25 ± 8)%. The best and more convenient model for material equivalent chest wall thickness is a linear function of the body mass index. Depending on the energy, the standard errors of estimate for this model range between 3.2-3.4 mm for PMECWT and between 3.2-3.7 mm for X5050. At 59.5 and 185.7 keV, it was determined, to an excellent approximation, that the fat fraction and consideration of an equivalent material are unnecessary, contrary to the case at 17 keV.

  8. [Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lourdes Carrillo; Serra, Jaime Dalmau; Álvarez, Jesús Román Martínez; Alberich, Rosa Solà; Jiménez, Francisco Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.

  9. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.

  10. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  11. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  12. Cell biology of fat storage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  13. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  14. Cell biology of fat storage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  15. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes.

  16. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  17. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1885380

  18. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    PubMed

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  20. Prospective Controlled Study of Buttock Fat Transfer Using Ultrasound and Photographic Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Buttock fat transfer is now the preferred method for gluteal augmentation. However, its efficacy has not been well-documented using measurements. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent buttock fat transfer performed by the author. Twenty-one patients returned for measurements ≥3 months after surgery (inclusion rate, 84%). A separate group of 25 patients undergoing cosmetic surgery without buttock fat transfer served as controls. All patients underwent superwet liposuction using total intravenous anesthesia and no prone positioning. A closed filtration system was used to collect the fat. Subcutaneous fat thickness was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Measurements were made on standardized photographs. The data were controlled for change in body mass index. Clinical data were also evaluated. Results: The mean fat volume injected per buttock was 287 mL (range, 70–550 mL). Ultrasound measurements detected a significant increase in the subcutaneous fat thickness (P ≤ 0.001), with mean increments of 0.66 cm for the right buttock and 0.86 cm for the left buttock and no significant change for control patients. The mean calculated fat retention, based on the measured surface area injected, was 66%. Photographic measurements of buttock projection revealed a significant increase in treated patients (P < 0.01) and no significant change in control patients. There were no clinical complications at either recipient or donor sites and no evidence of oily cysts on ultrasound examinations. Conclusions: Photographic and ultrasound measurements, and clinical findings, confirm that buttock fat transfer effectively and safely increases buttock projection. PMID:27579222

  1. Proteome differences associated with fat accumulation in bovine subcutaneous adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The fat components of red meat products have been of interest to researchers due to the health aspects of excess fat consumption by humans. We hypothesized that differences in protein expression have an impact on adipose tissue formation during beef cattle development and growth. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the differences in the discernable proteome of subcutaneous adipose tissues of 35 beef crossbred steers [Charolais × Red Angus (CHAR) (n = 13) and Hereford × Angus (HEAN) (n = 22)] with different back fat (BF) thicknesses. The goal was to identify specific protein markers that could be associated with adipose tissue formation in beef cows. Results Approximately 541-580 protein spots were detected and compared in each crossbred group, and 33 and 36 protein spots showed expression differences between tissues with high and low BF thicknesses from HEAN and CHAR crossbed, respectively. The annexin 1 protein was highly expressed in both crossbred steers that had a higher BF thickness (p < 0.05) and this was further validated by a western blot analysis. In 13 tissues of CHAR animals and 22 tissues of HEAN animals, the relative expression of annexin 1 was significantly different (p < 0.05) between tissues with high and low BF thicknesses. Conclusion The increased expression of annexin 1 protein has been found to be associated with higher BF thickness in both crossbred steers. This result lays the foundation for future studies to develop the protein marker for assessing animals with different BF thickness. PMID:20298566

  2. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  3. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Achten, Juul; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2004-01-01

    Interventions aimed at increasing fat metabolism could potentially reduce the symptoms of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may have tremendous clinical relevance. Hence, an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease fat oxidation is important. Exercise intensity and duration are important determinants of fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates increase from low to moderate intensities and then decrease when the intensity becomes high. Maximal rates of fat oxidation have been shown to be reached at intensities between 59% and 64% of maximum oxygen consumption in trained individuals and between 47% and 52% of maximum oxygen consumption in a large sample of the general population. The mode of exercise can also affect fat oxidation, with fat oxidation being higher during running than cycling. Endurance training induces a multitude of adaptations that result in increased fat oxidation. The duration and intensity of exercise training required to induce changes in fat oxidation is currently unknown. Ingestion of carbohydrate in the hours before or on commencement of exercise reduces the rate of fat oxidation significantly compared with fasted conditions, whereas fasting longer than 6 h optimizes fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates have been shown to decrease after ingestion of high-fat diets, partly as a result of decreased glycogen stores and partly because of adaptations at the muscle level. PMID:15212756

  4. Body fatness and its social and lifestyle determinants in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which general body fatness variation, presented by body mass index (BMI), the sum of the three skinfold thicknesses (TST) (triceps, subscapular, abdominal) and percentage of body fat (%FAT), can be explained by socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The cross-sectional, population-based survey was of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis, the results of motor fitness tests and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analysed. The independent variables were: age, socioeconomic status (birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level and the type of work done) and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity and level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with BMI, TST and %FAT as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on BMI and %FAT was ascribed to age and family obesity resemblance, whereas variation in TST was explained by level of motor fitness, age, city as a place of residence until the age of 14 and family obesity resemblance. Although the analysed variables explained only from 8% (BMI) to 13% (TST) of body fatness variation, indicating at the same time that most variations are explained by other variables, the impact of lifestyle family-shared factors on body fatness seems to be significant.

  5. Fat distribution in overweight patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, K; Ohzeki, T; Ishitani, N; Motozumi, H; Matsuda-Ohtahara, H; Shiraki, K

    1992-02-15

    Overweight patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) and control children with similar weight/height and indices of overweight were studied to clarify the unique fat distribution in the syndrome. Triceps and ulnar skin-fold thickness (SFT) in UTS patients was significantly less than that of obese children without the syndrome. The means of SFT at the subscapular and paraumbilical regions were also less in the patients than control girls, though significance was not documented. Thus, increased body weight in UTS children seems mainly to be due to excess of adipose tissue, not in the limbs but on the trunk, and/or due to the increment of lean body mass.

  6. The effect of feeding on fat deposition in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Ferris, A G; Beal, V A; Laus, M J; Hosmer, D W

    1979-10-01

    Trained nutritionists surveyed 92 female infants and their mothers in Western Massachusetts at monthly intervals from birth to age 6 months. A diet history, a three-day record of food intake and 11 anthropometric measurements were obtained at each home visit. Skinfold measurements showed an earlier plateau than in other published studies. There were no significant differences in fat thicknesses when infants were classified by method of feeding until age 2 months, but formula-fed infants with solids started before age 2 months had the largest mean skinfolds which peaked at age 3 months and then decreased and became similar to those of the other groups by age 5 months.

  7. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  8. Edge-on thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  9. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  10. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  12. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-12-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen.

  13. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique.

  14. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Huijing; Shin, Henry

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM), as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer) longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner) longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2) of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase) and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434). Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM. PMID:27227876

  15. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Huijing; Shin, Henry; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL) thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM), as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer) longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner) longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2) of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase) and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434). Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM. PMID:27227876

  16. Chemical composition of fat and oil products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats and oils are an important dietary component, and contribute to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. This chapter focuses on the chemical composition of fats and oils, and how these compositions affect the functional properties of fats and oils in foods. The focus will remain on the mos...

  17. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  18. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  19. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  20. Effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal strengths: implications for in vivo MRS studies of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-12-01

    Recent MRS studies have indicated that a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal areas, which may at least partly explain the observed associations of BMI with MR-measured brain metabolite levels in vivo. SVS data were acquired at 4 T from a phantom containing N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and creatine, as well as from three healthy male adults. Back fat obtained from pig was used to assess the effects of fat on metabolite signals. With the same voxel size and placement, the phantom was first scanned without fat (baseline), and then with 0.7-cm- and 1.4-cm-thick fat layers placed on it. Each participant was also scanned first without fat and then with two 0.7-cm fat layers, one placed beneath the occiput and the other on the forehead. Two spectra were acquired per participant from the anterior cingulate and the parieto-occipital cortices. The metabolite resonance and corresponding water peak areas were then fitted and metabolite to water signal ratios were used for analyses. In both phantom and in vivo experiments, the metabolite-to-water ratios decreased in the presence of fat relative to baseline metabolite-to-water ratios. The reduced metabolite signals in the presence of fat reported here are reminiscent of the negative correlations observed between BMI and MR-measured metabolite levels. These apparent physical effects of fat have potentially far-reaching consequences for the accuracy of MR measurements of brain metabolite levels and their interpretation, particularly when large fat stores exist around the skull, such as in individuals with higher BMI.

  1. Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  2. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    PubMed

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  3. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  5. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  6. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    PubMed

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  7. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  8. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  9. Local fat treatments: classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as "fat reduction methods." A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, "reversibility," "membrane disruption or inflammation," and "action selectivity," have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  10. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  11. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  12. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  13. Speckle in a thick diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Nien-An

    Theory and experiments on speckle generated from a thick diffuser are presented in this thesis. An overview of speckle from a diffuser in a 4F optical processor gives a basic understanding of the speckle formation and properties. The speckle size depends on the F number of the system, while the interior properties of a diffuser are evident in the wavelength dependence of speckle. We then move on to analyzing speckle from a thick diffuser, which is composed of particles embedded in a host medium. Emphasis on the theory is placed on solving for the wavelength decorrelation of speckle in a thick diffuser. A brief overview of the scattering theory for a particle using the Lorenz-Mie theory is included. Then we present a careful analysis of the speckle created by propagation through a thick diffuser. In the analysis we use an angular spectrum approach that is valid in the non-paraxial case together with a decomposition of the thick diffuser into a cascade of many screens. This calculation is well-suited to numerical analysis and an original computer software program has been provided as an Appendix in this thesis. By adding the scattered field from the randomly-located particles on any screen and propagating through a free space between each screen, one can generate a speckled field after going through the whole cascade. The theoretical predictions are summarized and later compared with experimental results on a series of opal milk glass diffusers. In many practical applications it is particularly advantageous to have mild thick diffusers of controllable diffusivity. We have extensively studied a new diffuser series fabricated using polystyrene spheres of various diameters embedded in gelatin. Theory and experiments are in good agreement.

  14. Upper body skinfold thickness is related to race performance in male Ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Rosemann, T

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between skinfold thickness and race performance in male and female Ironman triathletes. Skinfold thicknesses at 8 sites and percent body fat were correlated to total race time including the split times for the 3 sub disciplines, for 27 male and 16 female Ironman athletes. In the males, percent body fat (r=0.76; p<0.0001), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r=0.75; p<0.0001) and the sum of all 8 skinfolds (r=0.71; p<0.0001) were related to total race time. Percent body fat (r=-0.67; p<0.001), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r=-0.63, p=0.0004) and the sum of all 8 skinfolds (r=-0.59; p<0.001) were also associated with speed in cycling during the race. In the females, none of the skinfold thicknesses showed an association with total race time, average weekly training volume or speed in the sub disciplines in the race. The results of this study indicate that low skinfold thicknesses of the upper body are related to race performance in male Ironman triathletes, but not in females.

  15. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply to refeeding starved and malnourished patients. The small intestine has a vastly underutilized capacity for fat absorption, and at the habitual fat intake of 100 g per day absorption is complete in the proximal one fifth of the gut. In patients requiring vigorous realimentation, the remaining small intestine should also be utilized. Dietary fat is well tolerated, and daily intakes of 500 g of polyunsaturated fat in a complete diet have not been associated with important side effects, while there was a significant improvement in body stores of fat and protein. Compared to diets high in carbohydrate, adequate intake of fat results in better nutrient utilization, less CO2 production and decreased lipogenesis and insulin requirements. Diets higher in fat are also better tolerated because of their lower volume and osmolality. The result is more effective absorption of calories and a faster nutritional recovery. Increased adipose tissue and protein reserve benefits patients who are in stress, immunocompromised, or debilitated. Adequate dietary fat should be considered for malnourished subjects with intact gastrointestinal function, and when intestinal absorptive capacity is reduced by surgery or disease. PMID:2194611

  16. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  17. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42). PMID:25349365

  18. Further understanding of fat biology: Lessons from a fat fly

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joung-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular complications, collectively referred to as metabolic diseases. Given the prevalence of obesity and its associated medical problems, new strategies are required to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related metabolic effects. Here we summarize contributors of obesity, and molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis from studies in mammalian systems. We also discuss the possibilities of using Drosophila as a genetic model system to advance our understanding of players in fat biology. PMID:19887892

  19. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ≥200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, diseasespecific mortality, or all-cause mortality (n = 18). Although the results are mixed, most studies suggested that higher saturated fat intake prediagnosis was associated with increased risk of breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Postdiagnostic trans fat intake was associated with a 45% and 78% increased risk of all-cause mortality. Higher monounsaturated fat intake before and after diagnosis was generally associated with increased risk of all-cause and breast cancer–specific mortality, albeit the majority of the studies were statistically nonsignificant. Two studies evaluating omega-3 fat intake suggested an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Although there were too few studies on fat subtypes to draw definitive conclusions, high consumption of saturated fatmay exert a detrimental effect on breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality, whereas omega-3 fat may be beneficial. The inconsistent and limited evidence warrants research to assess the impact of consumption of fat subtypes on breast cancer recurrence and mortality. PMID:23701588

  20. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Torres, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. Fat taste thresholds (lowest detectable fat concentration), fat perception (discrimination ability), preference, and anthropometry were assessed at baseline and week 6. Results Consumption of a LF diet (n = 26) and PC diet (n = 27) reduced participants' weight (P < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups (LF, −2.9%, PC, −2.7%). Both diets resulted in a decrease in fat taste thresholds (P = 0.014), and the effect tended to be stronger in the LF diet vs. the PC diet (P = 0.060). The ability to perceive different fat concentrations in foods was increased after the LF diet only (P = 0.017); however, food preference did not change on either diet. Conclusions A PC and LF diet both increase fat taste sensitivity in people with overweight/obesity, with the strongest effect after the LF diet. PMID:26813525

  1. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  2. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  3. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    PubMed

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  4. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  5. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both P<0.05). There were no differences in changes of blood pressure and heart rate rhythms between patients who achieved or did not achieve normotension and regression of left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness. It was concluded that abnormal cardiovascular rhythmicity persists in children with primary hypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents.

  8. Ant fat extraction with a Soxhlet extractor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Stored fat can be informative about the relative age of an ant, its nutritional status, and the nutritional status of the colony. Several methods are available for the quantification of stored fat. Before starting a project involving fat extraction, investigators should weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in order to choose the one that is best suited to the question being addressed. This protocol, although not as accurate as some alternatives, facilitates the rapid quantification of many individuals. PMID:20147208

  9. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  10. Preparation of thick molybdenum targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thick natural molybdenum deposits on nickel plated copper substrates were prepared by thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapors on a heated surface in an inert gas atmosphere. The molybdenum metal atoms are firmly bonded to the substrate atoms, thus providing an excellent thermal contact across the junction. Molybdenum targets thus prepared should be useful for internal bombardment in a cyclotron where thermal energy inputs can exceed 10 kW.

  11. Crustal Thickness Beneath Ocean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Cullers, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    We measured the thickness of the Earth's crust beneath about two dozen of the GDSN or GEOSCOPE stations located on ocean islands by stacking moveout-corrected high-quality P-to-S receiver functions (RFs). The RFs were filtered in the 0.05-0.5 Hz frequency bands to compress strong noises that are common for ocean island stations. Given the small (less than 2 s) time separation between the direct P and the P-to-S converted phase from the Moho, the PSmS phase, which has a negative polarity and can be clearly observed at almost all the stations, is used for the stacking. Preliminary resulting thickness at each of the stations is as follows: AFI (12.4 km), AIS (13.6), ASCN (9.6), BBSR (9.9), BORG (9.4), CRZF (6.6), GUMO (8.0), HNR (8.0), HOPE (19.0), KIP (13.0), MSEY (10.7), MSVF (15.1), NOUC (15.1), PAF (8.9), POHA (17.0), PPT (12.3), PTCN (10.4), RAR (12.8), RER (13.8), RPN (9.3), SEY (14.9), SHEL (17.5), TBT (14.1), XMAS (11.8). Crustal thickness at some of the stations has been measured previously, and our results are in general agreement with those measurements. Possible age-dependence of the resulting thickness and geological implications in the understanding of plume-lithosphere interactions and formation of ocean islands will be presented.

  12. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  13. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  14. Inhibitory effects of tea and caffeine on UV-induced carcinogenesis: relationship to enhanced apoptosis and decreased tissue fat.

    PubMed

    Conney, Allan H; Lu, Yao-Ping; Lou, You-Rong; Huang, Mou-Tuan

    2002-08-01

    Oral administration of green tea or caffeine to hairless SKH-1 mice for 2 weeks stimulated UV-induced increases in apoptotic sunburn cells in the epidermis, and a similar effect was observed when caffeine was applied topically immediately after UV. In mice pretreated with UV for 22 weeks (high-risk mice without tumors), topical applications of caffeine 5 days a week for 18 weeks with no further UV treatment inhibited carcinogenesis and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors. Oral administration of green or black tea to UV-pretreated high-risk mice for 23 weeks inhibited skin tumorigenesis, decreased the size of the parametrial fat pads and decreased the thickness of the dermal fat layer away from tumors and directly under tumors. Administration of the decaffeinated teas had little or no effect on these parameters and adding caffeine to the decaffeinated teas restored their inhibitory effects. Administration of caffeine alone also inhibited carcinogenesis and decreased the size of the parametrial fat pads and the thickness of the dermal fat layer. Using data from individual mice and linear regression analysis, we found a highly significant positive correlation between the thickness of the dermal fat layer away from tumors and the number of tumors per mouse.

  15. Soliton models for thick branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w^2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrödinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ ^4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ ^6 branes.

  16. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  17. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  18. Fat Targets for Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Masanobu; Devlin, Maureen J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to a critical role for the skeleton in several homeostatic processes including energy balance. The connection between fuel utilization and skeletal remodeling begins in the bone marrow with lineage allocation of mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Mature bone cells secrete factors that influence insulin sensitivity and fat cells synthesize cytokines that regulate osteoblast differentiation. The emerging importance of the bone-fat interaction suggests that novel molecules could be used as targets to enhance bone formation and possibly prevent fractures. In this review, we discuss three pathways that could favor pharmacologic intervention with the ultimate goal of enhancing bone mass and reducing osteoporotic fracture risk. Not surprisingly, because of the complex interactions across homeostatic networks, other pathways will likely be activated by this targeting and these could prove to be beneficial or detrimental for the organism. Hence a more complete picture of energy utilization and skeletal remodeling will be required to bring these potential agents into any future clinical armamentarium. PMID:19468288

  19. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat...

  20. Relationship between percent body fat and menstrual patterns in athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, M D; MacVicar, M G; Harlan, J

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between body fat percentage and menstrual patterns was examined in a longitudinal study of 25 collegiate athletes and 41 college-aged nonathletic control subjects. The athletes were training in gymnastics, figure skating, synchronized swimming, volleyball, or track. Data were collected each month concerning cycle, flow length, weight, and skinfold thicknesses (iliac crest, triceps, and subscapular). Height was determined once. Body fat percentage was estimated using the Sloan and Weir (1970) nomogram. Total energy expenditure was estimated for athletes according to sport. Mean body fat percentages of controls and athletes differed significantly, t = 4.4, p less than .01, but no significant difference was found in cycle length, F = 3.3, p = .078. Multiple regression analysis revealed no clear relationship between length of menstrual cycle and height, weight, skinfold thickness, or total energy expenditure. No significant relationship existed between body fat percentage and menstrual cycle length as tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. This study confirmed that menstrual phenomena cannot be defined as normal or pathologic by rhythmic occurrence alone. Rather, an individual's menstrual cycle length may be more suitably evaluated according to a multivariable continuum of menstrual patterns. PMID:3640348

  1. Changes in fat intake, body fat composition and intra-abdominal fat after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heesook; Jeong, Gui Ae; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Soonkyung

    2014-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the effective treatment alternative conducted over the lifetime for reducing weight in patients with clinically morbid obesity. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, including decreases in blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure as well as increase in mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. But patients undergoing bariatric surgery have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications as reported in several studies. Thus, with an increasing number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the multidisciplinary healthcare system will need to be managed continuously. Many nutrition support specialists will need to become familiar with the metabolic consequences for the frequent monitoring of nutrition status of the patients. South Korea has a very short history with bariatric surgery, and relatively few studies have been conducted on bariatric surgery. Therefore, the objective of this report was to compare the nutrient intake, weight loss, body fat composition, and visceral fat before and after the bariatric surgery.

  2. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P < .01). The high-fat diet increased body weight (P < .01) in OVX mice and nonsignificantly decreased BV/TV (P = .08) and Conn.D (P = .10). Despite having similar serum estradiol concentrations and higher body weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

  3. Caucasian children's fat mass: routine anthropometry v. air-displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Huybrechts, Inge; Bammann, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis; Peeters, Maarten; Sioen, Isabelle; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-04-28

    The present paper will use fat mass percentage (FM%) obtained via BOD POD® air-displacement plethysmography (FMADP%) to examine the relative validity of (1) anthropometric measurements/indices and (2) of FM% assessed with equations (FMeq%) based on skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). In 480 Belgian children (aged 5-11 years) weight, height, skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular), body circumferences (mid-upper arm, waist and hip), foot-to-foot BIA (Tanita®) and FMADP% were measured. Anthropometric measurements and calculated indices were compared with FMADP%. Next, published equations were used to calculate FMeq% using impedance (equations of Tanita®, Tyrrell, Shaefer and Deurenberg) or skinfold thickness (equations of Slaughter, Goran, Dezenberg and Deurenberg). Both indices and equations performed better in girls than in boys. For both sexes, the sum of skinfold thicknesses resulted in the highest correlation with FMADP%, followed by triceps skinfold, arm fat area and subscapular skinfold. In general, comparing FMeq% with FMADP% indicated mostly an age and sex effect, and an increasing underestimation but less dispersion with increasing FM%. The Tanita® impedance equation and the Deurenberg skinfold equation performed the best, although none of the used equations were interchangeable with FMADP%. In conclusion, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness is recommended as marker of FM% in the absence of specialised technologies. Nevertheless, the higher workload, cost and survey management of an immobile device like the BOD POD® remains justified.

  4. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S; Laymon, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the thermal transfer characteristics of the skin in relation to body composition as assessed by the ability of water immersion and hot and cold packs with different thicknesses of towels layers to heat or cool deep tissue. Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine the interrelationships between body fat content and muscle temperature after immersion of the limb in water or the application of hot and cold packs. In the first series of experiments, subjects immersed their lower body in water at 42, 37, 34, 27, 24 and 0 degrees C for 20 minutes. Muscle temperature was measured in the skin above and in the belly of the quadriceps and medial gastrocnemius muscles by a thermistor on the skin and one implanted with a 20-gauge needle 25 mm below and perpendicular to the skin. To see the effect of circulation, a series was conducted with the circulation occluded. In the second series, hot or cold packs were used with different thicknesses of towel layers. The muscle temperature after immersion in water approached that of the packs within approximately 20 minutes. In contrast, when hot and cold packs were used with various thickness of towels ranging from 2 to 10 mm in thickness, the change in muscle temperature was much less and it was still changing at the end of a 20 minute period. Subjects with high body fat changed their deep tissue temperatures much more slowly with a time constant nearly double that of the thin subjects with all modalities. Even after water immersion, if the body fat exceeded 25% of the subject's weight, 20 min of immersion was not enough to either warm the muscle or cool it down substantially. Cold packs and hot packs were very ineffective in changing muscle temperature under these same conditions. Body fat plays a major role, as did limb blood flow in controlling the movement of heat across the limb.

  6. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  11. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  12. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  13. Dynamical fermions with fat links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knechtli, Francesco; Hasenfratz, Anna

    2001-06-01

    We present and test a new method for simulating dynamical fermions with fat links. Our construction is based on the introduction of auxiliary but dynamical gauge fields and works with any fermionic action and can be combined with any fermionic updating. In our simulation we use an overrelaxation step which makes it effective. For four flavors of staggered fermions the first results indicate that flavor symmetry at a lattice spacing a~0.2 fm is restored to a few percent. With the standard action this amount of flavor symmetry restoration is achieved at a~0.07 fm. We estimate that the overall computational cost is reduced by at least a factor of 10.

  14. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today.

  15. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. PMID:26667758

  16. Hand rejuvenation with structural fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R

    2002-12-01

    A simple, reliable technique of autologous fat grafting for long-lasting rejuvenation of the dorsum of the hand is presented. With this technique, small intact parcels of fatty tissue are harvested with a syringe and a blunt 3-mm cannula. Then, most of the nonviable components are removed from the harvested subcutaneous material by centrifugation, decanting, and wicking. Finally, a 17-gauge blunt cannula places the fat in minuscule parcels of tissue with many passes through five or six tiny incisions in the hand. Separation of the tiny parcels of fat maximizes contact between the surfaces of the transplanted fat and surrounding recipient tissues to encourage integration, anchoring, and long-term survival. Structured, purposeful placement of a thin layer of transplanted fat rejuvenates the dorsal hand by restoring a slight fullness to atrophic subcutaneous tissue, by softening the color and definition of exposed extensor tendons and dorsal hand veins, and by supporting the aging skin.

  17. Regulation of body fat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans have helped to uncover the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. This review highlights the powerful combination of genetics, pharmacology, and biochemistry used to study energy balance and the regulation of cellular fat metabolism in C. elegans. The complete wiring diagram of the C. elegans nervous system has been exploited to understand how the sensory nervous system regulates body fat and how food perception is coupled with the production of energy via fat metabolism. As a model organism, C. elegans also offers a unique opportunity to discover neuroendocrine factors that mediate direct communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans.

  18. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity.

  19. Membranous appendices of spherosomes (oleosomes) : Possible role in fat utilization in germinating oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, G; Theimer, R R

    1978-01-01

    Spherosomes (oleosomes) of cotyledons of rape (Brassica napus L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad.) seedlings are delimited by a "half unit membrane" that appears to be continuous with each of the osmiophilic layers of a tripartite unit membrane forming a handlelike appendix of the spherosomes. Prior to any noticeable utilization of the spherosomal storage fat, ribosomes were found to be attached to these "handles". At later stages appendices of the spherosomes are smooth, showing a diameter of about 22 nm that greatly exceeds the thickness of any other unit membrane profiles identical in structure and diameter osomes appears to be continuous with the thick lipid layer of the handles. In intermediate stages of fat depletion the spherosomal bodies become invaginated with cytoplasmic material. Finally vesicles with cytoplasmic contents surrounded by a membrane with a typically thick lipid layer are left in the cells. Membrane profiles indentical in structure and diameter to the spherosomal appendices were also present in electron micrographs of the lipolytic membrane fraction recovered from sucrose density gradients after centrifugation of a microsomal cell fraction. The ultrastructural observations are taken for evidence that the spherosomal appendices represent the lipase-carrying membranes isolated previously (Theimer and Rosnitschek, 1978). A novel hypothesis for development and utilization of fat-storing spherosomes is also proposed. PMID:24414473

  20. Development of Low-Fat Soft Dough Biscuits Using Carbohydrate-Based Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Bhawna; Singh, Gurmukh; Kumbhar, B K

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to develop low-fat soft dough biscuits using carbohydrate-based fat replacers (maltodextrin and guar gum). A central composite rotatable design was used to optimise the level of sugar 24-36%, composite fat (fat 10.5-24.5%, maltodextrin 10.4-24%, and guar gum 0.1-0.5%), ammonium bicarbonate 0.5-2.5%, and water 20-24% for production of low-fat biscuits. Diameter (P < 0.01) and stress-strain ratio (P < 0.05) decreased significantly with increase in the amount of sugar. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in spread ratio at high amount of water. Hardness was significantly affected by the interactions of ammonium bicarbonate with sugar (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.1). The optimum level of ingredients obtained for low-fat biscuits was sugar 31.7 g, fat 13.55 g, maltodextrin 21.15 g, guar gum 0.3 g, ammonium bicarbonate 2.21 g, and water 21 mL based on 100 g flour. The fat level in the optimised low-fat biscuit formulation was found to be 8.48% as compared to 22.65% in control; therefore, the reduction in fat was 62.5%.

  1. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  2. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  3. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  4. Intraosseous infusion and pulmonary fat embolism.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M. Yousuf; Kissoon, Niranjan; Khan, Taj M.; Saldajeno, Virgilio; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of pulmonary fat embolism after the intraosseous (IO) infusion of normal saline and drugs and to determine whether pulmonary capillary blood is a predictor of lung fat embolism. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective, animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight mixed breed piglets (average weight 30.9 kg). Interventions and Methods: Animals were anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented. IO needles were placed in the tibial bone. Animals were assigned to one of four groups: Group 1 received fluid (20 mL/kg) under 300 mm Hg pressure (n = 6); group 2 received fluid (20 mL/kg) at free flow under gravity (n = 6); group 3 received 100 mL of fluid over 20 mins (n = 8); and group 4 received 100 mL of fluid over 7 mins (n = 8). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Buffy coat samples were obtained from pulmonary arterial catheter in the occluded position at baseline, after IO needle placement, and at the end of infusion. Lung specimens (both upper and lower lobes) were obtained at the end of the infusion. Specimens were stained with oil red O and graded for fat emboli by a pathologist blinded to experimental conditions. Fat emboli (one to three emboli per high power field) were found in about 30% of the lung specimens. The difference in number of fat emboli between groups was not statistically significant. Buffy coat stains yielded fat emboli, which were distributed sporadically in all groups. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism is common; however, the method of IO fluid administration does not influence the number of emboli. Our study therefore implies that the risk of fat embolization is of concern, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Until the clinical significance of pulmonary fat emboli and the prevalence of fat emboli syndrome are delineated more precisely, the IO route is an effective but not necessarily safe route for delivery of fluids and drugs. PMID:12797872

  5. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  6. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  7. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  8. Body fat in lean and overweight women estimated by six methods.

    PubMed

    McNeill, G; Fowler, P A; Maughan, R J; McGaw, B A; Fuller, M F; Gvozdanovic, D; Gvozdanovic, S

    1991-03-01

    Body fat content of seven lean women (body mass index (BMI) 20.6 (SD 1.8) kg/m2) and seven overweight women (BMI 31.1 (SD 3.3) kg/m2) was estimated by six different methods: underwater weighing (UWW), body-water dilution (BWD), whole-body counting (40K), skinfold thickness (SFT), bioelectrical impedance (BEI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using UWW as the reference method, the differences between percentage fat by each other method and the percentage fat by UWW were calculated for each subject. The mean difference was lowest for SFT and highest for BWD. MRI showed the lowest variability in individual results, and 40K the highest. 40K and BWD methods used in combination gave better agreement with UWW results than either 40K or BWD methods alone. There was a weak negative correlation between the difference from the UWW results and percentage fat in the SFT measurements, but not in the BWD, 40K, BEI or MRI measurements, suggesting that for these methods the assumptions involved produced no greater inaccuracy in the overweight women than in the lean women. In all subjects the BEI offered little improvement over the traditional SFT measurements. The agreement between MRI and UWW estimates in both lean and overweight women suggests that MRI may be a satisfactory substitute for the more established methods of body fat estimation in adult women.

  9. Fat avoidance and replacement behaviors predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R; Schinke, Steven P

    2008-06-01

    Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pa, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female subjects) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10-15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least 2 vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake (adjusted R(2) = 0.13). Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors.

  10. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  11. The influence of growth stage on carcass composition and factors associated with marbling development in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kern, S A; Pritchard, R H; Blair, A D; Scramlin, S M; Underwood, K R

    2014-11-01

    Subcutaneous fat and marbling both increase in beef cattle during the feeding phase but are antagonistic in regard to their contribution to beef carcass value. The objective of this study was to determine whether cellular factors associated with marbling development change with growth stage throughout the feeding period and whether they are correlated to marbling relative to carcass composition. Twenty-four steers of known origin with the cytosine and thymine (CT) leptin genotype were allotted to 3 harvest groups. Six steers per harvest group were harvested at the following predetermined points: 35 d on feed (early feeding period, EF), average live weight of 464 kg (middle feeding period, MF), and 1.17-cm 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness (late feeding period, LF). Longissmus muscle samples were collected within 30 min postmortem and snap frozen for real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of lipoprotein lipase, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), PPARγ, C/EBP-β, and myostatin. Carcass data were recorded, and LM samples were collected and aged 2, 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Carcass composition was estimated by dissection of the 9-10-11 rib section and subsequent proximate analysis of the soft tissue. Intramuscular fat content of the LM increased linearly throughout the feeding period, giving additional support to marbling as an early developing tissue. Expression of AMPKα was found to be downregulated, whereas SCD expression was upregulated in the LF group relative to the first 2 harvest groups. Additionally, SCD and PPARγ were downregulated in the EF group relative to the latter 2 harvest groups. These changes in gene expression resulted in a linear increase in only PPARγ protein abundance, whereas myostatin tended to increase quadratically. A correlation was found between intramuscular fat and PPARγ abundance. This gives further evidence of the

  12. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  13. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  14. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  15. Measurement of coating thickness using laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martsinukov, S. A.; Kostrin, D. K.; Chernigovskiy, V. V.; Lisenkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of thermal processes during the measurement of coating thickness with the use of heating with laser radiation is conducted. The obtained curves of the heating process allow determining thickness of the formed coatings.

  16. Characterization of the nanoscale structure of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Pere Randy R; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2016-07-15

    The nanoscale structure of milk fat (MF) crystal networks is extensively described for the first time through the characterization of milk fat-crystalline nanoplatelets (MF-CNPs). Removing oil by washing with cold isobutanol and breaking-down crystal aggregates by controlled homogenization allowed for the extraction and visualization of individual MF-CNPs that are mainly composed of high melting triacylglycerols (TAGs). By image analysis, the length and width of MF-CNPs were measured (600 nm × 200 nm-900 nm × 300 nm). Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), crystalline domain size, (i.e., thickness of MF-CNPs), was determined (27 nm (d001)). Through interpretation of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) patterns of MF using Unified Fit and Guinier-Porod models, structural properties of MF-CNPs (smooth surfaces) and MF-CNP aggregations were characterized (RLCA aggregation of MF-CNPs to form larger structures that present diffused surfaces). Elucidation of MF-CNPs provides a new dimension of analysis for describing MF crystal networks and opens-up opportunities for modifying MF properties through nanoengineering.

  17. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hypothesized that over-conditioned cows with excessive body fat mobilization around calving may have impaired insulin metabolism compared with cows with low fat mobilization. Nineteen dairy cows were grouped according to their average concentration of total liver fat (LFC) after calving in low [LLFC; LFC <24% total fat/dry matter (DM); n=9] and high (HLFC; LFC >24.4% total fat/DM; n=10) fat-mobilizing cows. Blood samples were taken from wk 7 antepartum (ap) to wk 5 postpartum (pp) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin. We applied euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (EGHIC) and hyperglycemic clamps (HGC) in wk 5 ap and wk 3 pp to measure insulin responsiveness in peripheral tissue and pancreatic insulin secretion during the transition period. Before and during the pp EGHIC, [(13)C6] glucose was infused to determine the rate of glucose appearance (GlucRa) and glucose oxidation (GOx). Body condition, back fat thickness, and energy-corrected milk were greater, but energy balance was lower in HLFC than in LLFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin decreased at calving, and this was followed by an immediate increase of glucagon and adiponectin after calving. Insulin concentrations ap were higher in HLFC than in LLFC cows, but the EGHIC indicated no differences in peripheral insulin responsiveness among cows ap and pp. However, GlucRa and GOx:GlucRa during the pp EGHIC were greater in HLFC than in LLFC cows. During HGC, pancreatic insulin secretion was lower, but the glucose infusion rate was higher pp than ap in both groups. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified

  18. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-11-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  19. Nanometer thick elastic graphene engine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hak; Tan, Jun You; Toh, Chee-Tat; Koenig, Steven P; Fedorov, V E; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-05-14

    Significant progress has been made in the construction and theoretical understanding of molecular motors because of their potential use. Here, we have demonstrated fabrication of a simple but powerful 1 nm thick graphene engine. The engine comprises a high elastic membrane-piston made of graphene and weakly chemisorbed ClF3 molecules as the high power volume changeable actuator, while a 532 nm LASER acts as the ignition plug. Rapid volume expansion of the ClF3 molecules leads to graphene blisters. The size of the blister is controllable by changing the ignition parameters. The estimated internal pressure per expansion cycle of the engine is about ∼10(6) Pa. The graphene engine presented here shows exceptional reliability, showing no degradation after 10,000 cycles. PMID:24773247

  20. Creating universes with thick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  1. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  2. How are consumers of low-fat and high-fat diets perceived by those with lower and higher fat intake?

    PubMed

    Barker, M E; Tandy, M; Stookey, J D

    1999-12-01

    Dietary social stereotypes may hinder dietary change. The aim of this study was to measure stereotypes attributed to consumers of low-fat and high-fat diets, and to investigate if stereotype attribution differed with subjects' fat intake. A sample of 100 subjects completed a 24-h dietary recall for the estimation of macronutrient intake, and then completed a questionnaire which assessed the stereotypes associated with a low-fat and a high-fat diet. The low-fat diet was associated with a "healthy", "slim", "fit" and "sporty" person, who was "intelligent", "middle class" and "female". Conversely, the high-fat diet was associated with an "unhealthy", "overweight", "unfit" and "inactive" person, who was "unintelligent", "working class", "smoking" and "male". Followers of the low-fat diet were seen as "serious" and "highly strung", while followers of the high-fat diet were seen as "fun-loving" and "happy". However, positive stereotypes were the predominant descriptors of consumers of the low-fat diet, while negative stereotypes were the predominant descriptors of consumers of the high-fat diet by both men and women. Older people were more likely to choose negative descriptors for a follower of the low-fat diet. Subjects were grouped according to their own fat intake. A high-fat (>33% fat energy) group selected more positive and negative stereotypes to describe high- and low-fat diet consumers, respectively, than did their low-fat counterparts (<33% fat energy). Choice of "happy" to describe a follower of a high-fat diet had four-fold higher odds for the high-fat group. The social meaning and values associated with food choices require further investigation. Health education may need to redress some of these stereotypes.

  3. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Willett, W C

    2012-07-01

    The relation of dietary fat to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been studied extensively using many approaches, including controlled feeding studies with surrogate end-points such as plasma lipids, limited randomized trials and large cohort studies. All lines of evidence indicate that specific dietary fatty acids play important roles in the cause and the prevention of CHD, but total fat as a percent of energy is unimportant. Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have clear adverse effects and should be eliminated. Modest reductions in CHD rates by further decreases in saturated fat are possible if saturated fat is replaced by a combination of poly- and mono-unsaturated fat, and the benefits of polyunsaturated fat appear strongest. However, little or no benefit is likely if saturated fat is replaced by carbohydrate, but this will in part depend on the form of carbohydrate. Because both N-6 and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential and reduce risk of heart disease, the ratio of N-6 to N-3 is not useful and can be misleading. In practice, reducing red meat and dairy products in a food supply and increasing intakes of nuts, fish, soy products and nonhydrogenated vegetable oils will improve the mix of fatty acids and have a markedly beneficial effect on rates of CHD.

  4. Amputee Socks: Thickness of Multiple Socks

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, John C; Yu, Alan J; Ciol, Marcia A; Sanders, JE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim It is unclear how total sock ply and thickness are related when more than one sock is worn. The objectives were to determine if the thickness of one multi-ply amputee sock of ply P was the same as the thickness of a stack of reduced-ply socks of total ply P; and if the thickness of N single socks stacked one on top of the other was equal to the sum (1 to N) of the single sock thicknesses. Technique Using a custom instrument, compressive stresses were applied while sock thickness was measured. Discussion The thickness of one multi-ply sock of ply P was typically less than the thickness of a stack of reduced-ply socks of total ply P. The thickness of N single socks stacked one on top of the other was approximately equal to the sum (1 to N) of the single sock thicknesses. Clinical Relevance Our findings suggest three 1-ply socks to be 20% greater in thickness than one 3-ply sock, and one 3-ply + two 1-ply socks to be 30% greater in thickness than one 5-ply sock. PMID:24240023

  5. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  6. Not all fats are created equal: adipose vs. ectopic fat, implication in cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaggini, Melania; Saponaro, Chiara; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review was to search and discuss the available literature on the impact of different types of fat and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in liver, muscle and heart, can increase the risk to develop insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Results recently published showed that BAT could have an impact on cardiometabolic risk, not only because it is implicated in energy metabolism but also because it can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Therapeutical interventions that can increase energy expenditure, successfully change fat distribution and reduce ectopic fat, also through BAT activation, were discussed. PMID:25816312

  7. Cholesterol content in European bovine milk fats.

    PubMed

    Precht, D

    2001-02-01

    Data about the cholesterol content in edible fats like bovine milk fat are important for balancing the cholesterol intake with food. A comparison of 3 different cholesterol determination methods showed that with the direct analysis by a 25 m long TAP steel capillary column the same results could be obtained as with a time-consuming saponification standard method including thin-layer chromatographic cleaning and subsequent silylation. On the other hand with a rapid direct method using a short packed column 21% unsaponifiables as e.g. minor sterols or hydrocarbons could be found in the "cholesterol peak". The analysis of 1142 German milk fats led to a mean cholesterol content of 265.6 +/- 20.0 mg/100 g fat (range: 204.4 to 382.5). For 165 milk fats from other 12 EU-countries, a similar mean cholesterol content of 258.5 +/- 19.9 mg/100 g fat (range: 215.0 to 331.6) was detected. Compared with sufficiently fed cows, underfed cows demonstrated an approx. 10.1% lower mean cholesterol content (238.7 +/- 9.7 mg/100 g fat). On the other hand, during the first 7 days post partum, the colostrum showed a significantly higher mean cholesterol content of 327.2 +/- 99.0 mg/100 g fat (n = 15; range: 213.1 to 583.9). Further, with special conditions as feeding of rape-seed the cholesterol content can be significantly lowered by 8-13%. An extraordinary lowering up to 50% can be reached by dry fractionation of milk fat (stearin "hard" fraction).

  8. Autogenous dermis-fat "baseball" orbital implant.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J D

    1987-01-01

    A new procedure has been devised for the construction of an autogenous dermis-fat orbital implant, in which two figure-eight-shaped dermis-fat grafts are sutured together into a baseball shape. Correct implant size can be determined by preplacement of different-sized Mule spheres and testing for accurate fit. The "baseball" implant eliminates deep orbital fat which is distant from a vascular supply, and because it is covered with dermis, it maximizes graft vascularization, thus promoting survival of the implanted tissues. In eight patients, followed postoperatively for as long as 28 months, baseball implants have produced highly satisfactory results.

  9. Effects of barley variety fed to steers on carcass characteristics and color of meat.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Bowman, J G; Surber, L M M; Boss, D L

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of barley varieties in the diets of finishing steers on carcass composition, fat, and lean color and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat. Crossbred steers (391 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to one of five finishing diets composed primarily of corn (n = 9), Morex barley (n = 9), Steptoe barley, (n = 9), or two experimental barley varieties SM3 (n = 9) and SM5 (n = 9). Grains were cracked prior to feeding. Diets were formulated (DM basis) to be isonitrogenous (2.24% N) and isocaloric (2.01 Mcal/kg NEm and 1.35 Mcal/kg NEg). Steers were slaughtered according to industry-accepted procedures when it was visually estimated that 70% of carcasses would grade USDA Choice. After a 24-h chill at 4 degrees C, carcass quality and yield grade data were collected by trained, experienced university personnel. Objective color (L*, a*, and b*) of both the LM and subcutaneous fat were measured, and samples of subcutaneous fat were removed from the 10th- to 12th-rib region for fatty acid analysis. Diet did not affect hot carcass weight (P = 0.15), fat thickness (P = 0.58), LM area (P = 0.57), percentage of internal fat (P = 0.52), yield grade (P = 0.96), marbling (P = 0.73), or quality grade (P = 0.10). However, the LM from steers fed diets formulated with Morex and SM5 barley varieties tended to be lighter (higher L* values, P = 0.08) than the LM from steers fed the corn-based diet. Additionally, fat from steers fed corn tended to be more yellow (higher Hunter b* values, P = 0.09) than fat from steers fed barley-based diets. Although grain source had only minimal effects on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat samples, pentadecanoic acid (15:0) was greater (P < 0.05) in fat from steers fed SM3 and Steptoe barley varieties than in fat from steers fed corn. Stearic acid (18:0) concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in fat samples from steers fed corn than in those fed the experimental barley lines (SM3 and SM5). Conversely, fat

  10. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P < 0.05) metaphylactic cost, ADG, shrunk final BW, dressed carcass yield, HCW, 12th rib fat, calculated empty body fat (EBF), and gross revenue, concurrent with reduced (P < 0.05) BRD treatment costs and financial losses from BRD death and railed cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P < 0.05) HCW, KPH, 12th rib fat, calculated yield grades, marbling scores, and calculated EBF as compared to steers without lung lesions. Steers pulled for BRD had increased (P < 0.01) incidence of advanced lung lesions, mortality, and railers with decreased (P < 0.05) HCW, 12th rib fat, KPH, marbling score, calculated EBF, and percentage choice carcasses when compared to non-BRD event steers. From

  11. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S.; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change −2.13% (−3.74%, −0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

  12. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  13. Oil diffusivity through fat crystal networks.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicole L; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-07-21

    Oil migration in chocolate and chocolate-based confections leads to undesirable visual and textural changes. Establishing ways to slow this unavoidable process would increase shelf life and reduce consumer rejection. Diffusion is most often credited as the main pathway by which oil migration occurs. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to explore the diffusion coefficients of vegetable and mineral oil through fat crystal networks at different solid fat contents (SFC). Differences in compatibility between the fat and oil lead to unique primary crystal clusters, yet those variations do not affect diffusion at low SFCs. Trends deviate at higher SFCs, which we ascribe to the influence of the differing crystal cluster structures. We relate our results to the strong and weak-link rheological regimes of fat crystal networks. Finally, we connect the results to relationships developed for polymer gel systems.

  14. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Cancer.gov

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  15. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... gain or lose weight as an adult, the number of cells stays the same. But their volume changes—expanding ... store lipids because you still have the same number of fat cells. That may be why it's so hard to ...

  16. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Manoel C. S.; Barbosa, Maurício F.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Codogno, Jamile S.; Freitas, Ismael F.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity. PMID:25372009

  17. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  18. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  19. Precision and sensitivity of a test for vegetable fat adulteration of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R; Duthie, A H; Wulff, S

    1988-03-01

    A test for routine screening of Mozzarella cheese and butter for vegetable fat adulteration is described. Fat is extracted and saponified. The potassium salts of the fatty acids are measured through direct gas chromatographic analysis. A ratio, calculated from the concentrations of butyric and oleic acids, is used to evaluate the purity of a sample. The test offers good precision and can detect less than 10% partially hydrogenated vegetable fat.

  20. Fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities: fitness versus fatness.

    PubMed

    Croci, Ilaria; Hickman, Ingrid J; Wood, Rachel E; Borrani, Fabio; Macdonald, Graeme A; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-12-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), as well as the exercise intensity at which it occurs (Fatmax), have been reported as lower in sedentary overweight individuals but have not been studied in trained overweight individuals. The aim of this study was to compare Fatmax and MFO in lean and overweight recreationally trained males matched for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to study the relationships between these variables, anthropometric characteristics, and CRF. Twelve recreationally trained overweight (high fatness (HiFat) group, 30.0% ± 5.3% body fat) and 12 lean males (low fatness (LoFat), 17.2% ± 5.7% body fat) matched for CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 39.0 ± 5.5 vs. 41.4 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.31) and age (p = 0.93) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. V̇O2max and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry; Fatmax and MFO were determined with a mathematical model (SIN); and % body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. MFO (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), p = 0.58), Fatmax (46.7% ± 8.6% vs. 45.4% ± 7.2% V̇O2max, p = 0.71), and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between HiFat and LoFat groups. In the overall cohort (n = 24), MFO and Fatmax were correlated with V̇O2max (r = 0.46, p = 0.02; r = 0.61, p = 0.002) but not with % body fat or body mass index (p > 0.05). Fat oxidation during exercise was similar in recreationally trained overweight and lean males matched for CRF. Consistently, substrate oxidation rates during exercise were not related to adiposity (% body fat) but were related to CRF. The benefits of high CRF independent of body weight and % body fat should be further highlighted in the management of obesity.

  1. Genome-wide association study for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle using Random Forest approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality involves many traits, such as marbling, tenderness, juiciness, and backfat thickness, all of which require attention from livestock producers. Backfat thickness improvement by means of traditional selection techniques in Canchim beef cattle has been challenging due to its low heritability, and it is measured late in an animal’s life. Therefore, the implementation of new methodologies for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to backfat thickness are an important strategy for genetic improvement of carcass and meat quality. Results The set of SNPs identified by the random forest approach explained as much as 50% of the deregressed estimated breeding value (dEBV) variance associated with backfat thickness, and a small set of 5 SNPs were able to explain 34% of the dEBV for backfat thickness. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fat-related traits were found in the surrounding areas of the SNPs, as well as many genes with roles in lipid metabolism. Conclusions These results provided a better understanding of the backfat deposition and regulation pathways, and can be considered a starting point for future implementation of a genomic selection program for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle. PMID:23738659

  2. Relationship between BMI and skinfold thicknesses to risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, Tatjana; Mikalacki, Milena; Matić, Radenko; Korovljev, Darinka; Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Vujkov, Sandra; Srdić, Biljana; Sakac, Dejan

    2013-05-01

    Studies conducted on children and adults have pointed to the correlation of BMI (kg/m2) with risk factors for certain diseases. Other studies have stressed a more intense correlation between the risk factors and indicators of subcutaneous fat obtained in other ways. The aim Of the study was to compare the intensity of correlation between the risk factors and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness in relation to BMI. The study included 53 postmenopausal and 107 premenopausal women, the risk factors were assessed upon systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose concentration, triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Statistically significant differences were established in almost all variables referring to premenopausal and postmenopausal women, except in body height, subscapular skinfold thickness and tryglyceride concentration. Significant correlation with the risk factors was detected in BMI and both skinfold thicknesses, while the subscapular thickness correlates more intensively with the risk factors than it is the case with the triceps thickness. The results indicate that BMI equally correlates with risk factors as well as skinfold thickness.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy. PMID:9804581

  4. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities.

  5. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  6. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy.

  8. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed.

  9. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. PMID:26945465

  10. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E; Aggarwal, Pardeep K; Porath, Jonathan D; Yakulov, Toma A; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A; Morris, Luc G T; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V; Saleem, Moin A; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I; Valentini, Rudolph P; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A; Otto, Edgar A; Lifton, Richard P; Holzman, Lawrence B; Sibinga, Nicholas E S; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function. PMID:26905694

  11. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Aggarwal, Pardeep K.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Yakulov, Toma A.; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A.; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V.; Saleem, Moin A.; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I.; Valentini, Rudolph P.; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C.; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A.; Otto, Edgar A.; Lifton, Richard P.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function. PMID:26905694

  12. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  16. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  17. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  18. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  19. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  20. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  1. Predicting individual feed requirements of cattle fed in groups.

    PubMed

    Guiroy, P J; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Baker, M J; Cravey, M D

    2001-08-01

    A published model designed to predict individual feed required for the observed shrunk BW and ADG of growing cattle when fed in groups was modified and evaluated to improve its accuracy. This model is needed to accurately bill feed and compute cost of gain in marketing programs based on individual animal management. Because of its importance in predicting energy required for growth, a database of 401 steers was used to develop an equation to predict percentage of empty-body fat (EBF) from carcass measurements (12th rib fat thickness, hot carcass weight, USDA quality grade, and longissimus muscle area), which accounted for 61% of the variation in EBF with no bias (P > 0.1). When tested with an independent data set of 951 steers, the equation accounted for 51% of the variation with 1% proportional bias. The large variation in the carcass measurements at a particular EBF observed in this study indicates further improvement is limited by the inability of carcass measurements to account for variation in fat distribution in the various carcass components. Because of its importance in setting the target end point, a database of 1,355 steers and heifers was used to determine the relationship between EBF and USDA quality grade. These data indicate growing and finishing cattle reach Select and low-Choice quality grades at an EBF of 26.15 +/- 0.19 and 28.61 +/- 0.20%, respectively (P < 0.05). A data set of 228 steers from different breeds from two serial slaughter studies indicated 14.26 +/- 1.52 kg of empty BW change are required to increase EBF one percentage unit for cattle fed high-energy diets; this adjustment is needed to adjust final shrunk BW to the target EBF end point. The model to predict DM required with modifications developed in this study was evaluated with data from 365 individually fed cattle and it accounted for 74% of the variation in observed DM consumed with no bias (P > 0.1). When the revised model was applied to a commercial feedlot data set containing

  2. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  3. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  4. Two-layered phantom experiments for characterizing the influence of a fat layer on measurement of muscle oxygenation using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Shiga, Toshikazu; Kudo, Nobuki; Takahashi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-04-01

    Two-layered phantom experiments were performed to examine the influence of a fat layer on measurement of muscle oxygenation using near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS). The phantom consisted of a fat-like layer and a muscle-like layer which were a mixture of agar and TiO2 powder and a suspension of washed bovine blood into 0.55 percent intralipid solution. An LED including 760 and 840 nm elements was used as the optical source, and the reflectance light was detected by photodiodes at source-detector distances of 20, 30 and 40 mm. Curves of optical density changes versus blood volume ratio were obtained with fat-like layer thickness of 0, 5, 10 and 15 mm. It was found that the change in optical density is significantly decreased and that the linearity of measurement characteristics clearly deteriorated by the presence of a fat layer. This strongly suggests that a new algorithm is needed for muscle oxygenation measurement to eliminate the influence of a fat layer. In addition to the phantom experiments, Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to the experiments were performed. Although the simulations showed similar results concerning the influence of a fat layer, it was noted that the changes in optical density obtained from simulations were lower than those of the phantom experiments. This discrepancy was though to be due to the light scattering caused by blood cells.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  6. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis

  7. Lipolytic Markers, Insulin and Resting Fat Oxidation are Associated with Maximal Fat Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S L; Chambers, E S; Fletcher, G; Wallis, G A

    2016-07-01

    The maximal capacity to oxidize fat during exercise (MFO) is associated with 24-h fat balance and insulin sensitivity. Understanding factors that influence MFO could have implications for metabolic health. We investigated relationships between selected plasma metabolites, hormones and overnight-fasted resting fat oxidation rates (Resting), with MFO. Resting fat oxidation and MFO was measured in 57 men with blood collected at rest and during exercise. Plasma glycerol (R=0.39, P=0.033), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA: R=0.27, P=0.030) and insulin (R=- 0.36, P=0.007) measured at MFO correlated with MFO; only glycerol remained correlated when controlled for resting concentrations (R=0.36, P=0.008). The change in glycerol from rest to MFO correlated with exercise-induced fat oxidation (R=0.32, P=0.012). V˙O 2max correlated with resting fat oxidation (R=0.44, P=0.001) and MFO (R=0.52, P<0.001). Resting fat oxidation correlated with MFO (R=0.55, P<0.001); this remained when controlled for V˙O 2max (R=0.41, P=0.001). This study reports weak-to-moderate, albeit significant, relationships between plasma lipolytic markers, insulin and resting overnight-fasted fat oxidation with MFO and shows the plasma glycerol response to uniquely reflect exercise-induced fat oxidation. V˙O 2max correlates with fat oxidation but the relationship can be dissociated. Interventions to increase fat oxidation for optimal metabolic health would benefit from, but are not reliant on, increases in V˙O 2max.

  8. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:26081477

  9. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  10. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  11. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gur, EB; Turan, GA; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. Results: When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p <0.001), but fat and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. A significant reduction was observed in liquid consumption while the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was increased. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased, and glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model index significantly decreased (p =0.005, p =0.01, p <0.001, and p =0.03, respectively). A significant increase in ferritin was found (p =0.02). No change was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness, while VFT significantly decreased (p =0.08, p =0.005). However, in the control group, only ferritin level increased. Conclusion: A combined change in the number and timing of meals and the portioning of the entire daily intake into only two meals per day may have beneficial metabolic effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303. PMID:27688692

  12. A study of microclad thickness variation (1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the thickness variation of microclad material used in fabricating 1E38 bridges. For the role sampled (nine reels), standard deviations within reels ranged from 6.11 to 12.07 {mu}in. Thickness variations within reels ranged from 16.2 to 40.9 {mu}in., with the average thickness between 142.90 and 161.28 {mu}in.

  13. Do elliptical galaxies have thick disks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. C.; Wright, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss new evidence which supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies. Numerical simulations of weak interactions with thick disk systems produce shell structures very similar in appearance to those observed in many shell galaxies. The authors think this model presents a more plausible explanation for the formation of shell structures in elliptical/SO galaxies than does the merger model and, if correct, supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies.

  14. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-11-15

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.

  15. Fat Embolism in Patients with Fractured Hips

    PubMed Central

    Sevitt, Simon

    1972-01-01

    Fat embolism was assessed at necropsy and correlated with clinical findings in the patients who died among 854 with fractured hips admitted to hospital between 1967 and August 1971. Sixteen cases of clinical importance were found, eight of which were judged to have been fatal or to have seriously contributed to death. Frequencies were as follows: 2·4 to 3·3% among 424 patients with subcapital fractures; 0·7 to 0·8% in the 405 with trochanteric fractures; 4·1 to 7% among subjects treated without operation, representing 30% of those who died within seven days; and 0·9 to 1·1% among patients treated by pinning, nailing, or nail-plating. The higher frequency in the conservatively treated group is probably related to selection of poor-risk subjects. Fat embolism was found in 6·8 to 8·0% of those with subcapital fractures treated by primary Thompson's arthroplasty which utilizes acrylic cement, and in none of those given Moore's prostheses for which cement is not used. Study of a larger group after Moore's prosthesis is required to establish its lack of special risk. Fat embolism accounted for all the deaths within seven days of Thompson's arthroplasty and for most within 14 days; it was clearly related to surgery in some cases. A possible explanation of the hazard of Thompson's arthroplasty is that fat globule entry is enhanced by a rise of intramedullary pressure due to proximal occlusion of the reamed marrow cavity. A controlled trial of the effect of venting the marrow cavity on the frequency of fat embolism is warranted. It is possible that the acrylic monomer may also contribute to venous entry of medullary fat. The higher-age group of those with subcapital fractures and associated chronic cardiac and pulmonary disease might make them more susceptible to fat embolization than those in whom arthroplasty is also carried out for chronic hip disease. PMID:5022012

  16. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  17. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (P<0.0001), final weights (P<0.0001) and food intakes (P<0.0001) than males. Abdominal fat pad weight was lower in male broilers than in female (P<0.001). 3. There were no significant differences in intake, weight gain, final body weight or food-to-gain ratios between birds fed on diets differing solely in the degree of fat saturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (P<0.001) and intramuscular lipid content (P=0.0085) than those fed on diets containing sunflower oil. 4. It was concluded that dietary fat saturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  18. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection. PMID:26931078

  19. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  20. Detecting fat content of food from a distance: olfactory-based fat discrimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Lundström, Johan N

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, before ingesting it. Previous results indicate that humans detect high concentrations of fatty acids by their odor. More important though, would be the ability to detect fat content in real food products. In a series of three sequential experiments, using study populations from different cultures, we demonstrated that individuals are able to reliably detect fat content of food via odors alone. Over all three experiments, results clearly demonstrated that humans were able to detect minute differences between milk samples with varying grades of fat, even when embedded within a milk odor. Moreover, we found no relation between this performance and either BMI or dairy consumption, thereby suggesting that this is not a learned ability or dependent on nutritional traits. We argue that our findings that humans can detect the fat content of food via odors may open up new and innovative future paths towards a general reduction in our fat intake, and future studies should focus on determining the components in milk responsible for this effect.

  1. Effects of DGAT1 gene on meat and carcass fatness quality in Chinese commercial cattle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhengrong; Li, Junya; Li, Jiao; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Xu, Shangzhong

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon's region of bovine diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene using bioinformatics and experimental methods. A total of 17 SNPs were screened from public data resources and DNA sequencing. Three SNPs (c.572A>G, c.1241C>T and c.1416T>G) of these candidate SNPs were genotyped by created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) methods. The gene-specific SNP markers and their effects on meat and carcass fatness quality traits were evaluated in Chinese commercial cattle. The c.572A>G and c.1416T>G significantly effected on backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area, marbling score, fat color and Warner-Bratzler shear force. No significant association was detected between the c.1241C>T and measured traits. Results from this study suggested that the SNP markers may be effective for the marker-assisted selection of meat and carcass fatness quality traits, and added new evidence that DGAT1 gene is an important candidate gene for the improvement of meat and carcass fatness quality in beef cattle industry.

  2. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group (90%) at slaughter. The size of necrotic masses in the Clay group was smaller (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group. There was no significant difference in the marbling score, beef color, Longissimus muscle area or subcutaneous fat thickness between the two groups. These results suggest that the clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

  3. Cross-generational trans fat intake exacerbates UV radiation-induced damage in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, R C S; Vey, L T; Segat, H J; Roversi, K; Roversi, Kr; Dias, V T; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dolci, G S; Pase, C S; Piccolo, J; Veit, J C; Emanuelli, T; Luz, S C A; Bürger, M E

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary fats on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced oxidative damage in skin of rats. Animals from two consecutive generations born of dams supplemented with fats during pregnancy and breastfeeding were maintained in the same supplementation: soybean-oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish-oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) or hydrogenated-vegetable-fat (HVF, rich in TFA). At 90 days of age, half the animals from the 2nd generation were exposed to UVR (0.25 J/cm(2)) 3×/week for 12 weeks. The FO group presented higher incorporation of n-3 FA in dorsal skin, while the HVF group incorporated TFA. Biochemical changes per se were observed in skin of the HVF group: greater generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lower mitochondrial integrity and increased Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. UVR exposure increased skin wrinkles scores and ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial integrity and reduced-glutathione levels in the HVF group. In FO, UVR exposure was associated with smaller skin thickness and reduced levels of protein-carbonyl, together with increased catalase activity and preserved Na(+)K(+)-ATPase function. In conclusion, while FO may be protective, trans fat may be harmful to skin health by making it more vulnerable to UVR injury and thus more prone to develop photoaging and skin cancer.

  4. Mathematical modeling of epicardial RF ablation of atrial tissue with overlying epicardial fat.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Ana González; Hornero, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J

    2010-02-04

    The efficacy of treating atrial fibrillation by RF ablation on the epicardial surface is currently under question due to the presence of epicardial adipose tissue interposed between the ablation electrode and target site (atrial wall). The problem is probably caused by the electrical conductivity of the fat (0.02 S/m) being lower than that of the atrial tissue (0.4-0.6 S/m). Since our objective is to improve epicardial RF ablation techniques, we planned a study based on a two-dimensional mathematical model including an active electrode, a fragment of epicardial fat over a fragment of atrial tissue, and a section of atrium with circulating blood. Different procedures for applying RF power were studied, such as varying the frequency, using a cooled instead of a dry electrode, and different modes of controlling RF power (constant current, temperature and voltage) for different values of epicardial fat thickness. In general, the results showed that the epicardial fat layer seriously impedes the passage of RF current, thus reducing the effectiveness of atrial wall RF ablation.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Epicardial RF Ablation of Atrial Tissue with Overlying Epicardial Fat

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Ana González; Hornero, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J.

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of treating atrial fibrillation by RF ablation on the epicardial surface is currently under question due to the presence of epicardial adipose tissue interposed between the ablation electrode and target site (atrial wall). The problem is probably caused by the electrical conductivity of the fat (0.02 S/m) being lower than that of the atrial tissue (0.4-0.6 S/m). Since our objective is to improve epicardial RF ablation techniques, we planned a study based on a two-dimensional mathematical model including an active electrode, a fragment of epicardial fat over a fragment of atrial tissue, and a section of atrium with circulating blood. Different procedures for applying RF power were studied, such as varying the frequency, using a cooled instead of a dry electrode, and different modes of controlling RF power (constant current, temperature and voltage) for different values of epicardial fat thickness. In general, the results showed that the epicardial fat layer seriously impedes the passage of RF current, thus reducing the effectiveness of atrial wall RF ablation. PMID:20300229

  6. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  7. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  8. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  9. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case-control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  10. Responses of milk fat composition to dietary fat or nonstructural carbohydrates in Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Beaulieu, A D; Elliott, J P

    2001-05-01

    Milk fat from Jersey cows contains less oleic acid (cis-C18:1) and more short- and medium-chain fatty acids than does milk fat from Holstein cows. The objective of this experiment was to determine responses in milk fat composition when Jersey and Holstein cows were fed diets either high (37% of dry matter) or low (27% of dry matter) in content of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and supplemented with either 0 or 2.5% (of dry matter) of a mostly saturated fat source. Four Holstein cows and four Jersey cows were used in a Latin square design with 28-d periods; diets were in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Fat supplementation decreased contents of fatty acids synthesized de novo within the mammary gland and increased contents of C18:0 and cis-C18:1. Low-NSC diets tended to increase C16:0 and to decrease C18:0, cis-C18:1, and C18:3. Despite the differences in fatty acid composition between breeds, both breeds generally responded similarly to dietary treatments. An interaction of breed and fat indicated that the content of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was increased more by supplemental fat in Holsteins than in Jerseys. Interactions of breed x fat and breed x carbohydrate type showed that the ratio of cis-C18:1 to C18:0 decreased when Jerseys were supplemented with fat but increased for Holsteins, and decreased when Jerseys were fed the low-NSC diet but increased when Holsteins were fed low NSC. The data are consistent with the hypothesis (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 1995, J. Dairy Sci. 78:1336-1344) that mammary activity of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase is lower in Jerseys than in Holsteins.

  11. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  12. Cortical thickness gradients in structural hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Wagstyl, Konrad; Ronan, Lisa; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    MRI, enabling in vivo analysis of cortical morphology, offers a powerful tool in the assessment of brain development and pathology. One of the most ubiquitous measures used—the thickness of the cortex—shows abnormalities in a number of diseases and conditions, but the functional and biological correlates of such alterations are unclear. If the functional connotations of structural MRI measures are to be understood, we must strive to clarify the relationship between measures such as cortical thickness and their cytoarchitectural determinants. We therefore sought to determine whether patterns of cortical thickness mirror a key motif of the cortex, specifically its structural hierarchical organisation. We delineated three sensory hierarchies (visual, somatosensory and auditory) in two species—macaque and human—and explored whether cortical thickness was correlated with specific cytoarchitectural characteristics. Importantly, we controlled for cortical folding which impacts upon thickness and may obscure regional differences. Our results suggest that an easily measurable macroscopic brain parameter, namely, cortical thickness, is systematically related to cytoarchitecture and to the structural hierarchical organisation of the cortex. We argue that the measurement of cortical thickness gradients may become an important way to develop our understanding of brain structure–function relationships. The identification of alterations in such gradients may complement the observation of regionally localised cortical thickness changes in our understanding of normal development and neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:25725468

  13. Regional Crustal Thickness Variations on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. V.; Bills, B. G.; Lyons, S. N.; Roark, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    We generated models of crustal thickness for Mars using both Mars50c and GMM-1 based on the assumption that gravity anomalies are due only to variations in surface and crust/mantle topography and crust and mantle densities are laterally constant, for a range of crust and mantle densities, and assumed average crustal thickness. Here we discuss regional variations in crustal thickness for one such model, with average thickness of 65 km and crust/mantle density contrast 0.5 (crust 3.0, mantle 3.5) gm/cc. Crustal thickness ranges from 140 km below Olympus Mons to less than 10 km below the Hellas and Isidis basins. Crust below Argyre is five times thicker than below Hellas, while that in Elysium is 85 km thick. Most (but not all) heavily cratered terrain is thicker than the crustal average, while most lowlying plains are only 25-45 km thick. Across the crustal dichotomy boundary zone the crustal thickness changes by 25 to 35 km over less than 500 km in some (but not all) places.

  14. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  15. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, B H; Thaete, F L; Simoneau, J A; Kelley, D E

    1997-10-01

    Whether visceral adipose tissue has a uniquely powerful association with insulin resistance or whether subcutaneous abdominal fat shares this link has generated controversy in the area of body composition and insulin sensitivity. An additional issue is the potential role of fat deposition within skeletal muscle and the relationship with insulin resistance. To address these matters, the current study was undertaken to measure body composition, aerobic fitness, and insulin sensitivity within a cohort of sedentary healthy men (n = 26) and women (n = 28). The subjects, who ranged from lean to obese (BMI 19.6-41.0 kg/m2), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), computed tomography to measure cross-sectional abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, and computed tomography (CT) of mid-thigh to measure muscle cross-sectional area, muscle attenuation, and subcutaneous fat. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the glucose clamp technique (40 mU.m-2.min-1), in conjunction with [3-3H]glucose isotope dilution. Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined using an incremental cycling test. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) ranged from 3.03 to 16.83 mg.min-1.kg-1 FFM. Rd was negatively correlated with FM (r = -0.58), visceral fat (r = -0.52), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r = -0.61), and thigh fat (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with muscle attenuation (r = 0.48) and VO2max (r = 0.26, P < 0.05). In addition to manifesting the strongest simple correlation with insulin sensitivity, in stepwise multiple regression, subcutaneous abdominal fat retained significance after adjusting for visceral fat, while the converse was not found. Muscle attenuation contributed independent significance to multiple regression models of body composition and insulin sensitivity, and in analysis of obese subjects, muscle attenuation was the strongest single correlate of insulin resistance. In summary, as a component of

  16. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  17. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. PMID:26142421

  18. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

  19. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy.

  20. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Helena Lindmark

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fatty acids in milk are mono-unsaturated and 2.3% are poly-unsaturated with omega-6/omega-3 ratio around 2.3. Approximately 2.7% are trans fatty acids. PMID:19109654

  1. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  2. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    PubMed

    Devlin, Maureen J

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance.

  3. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Maureen J.

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. Here I review the possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? To evaluate these possibilities, here I review what is known about the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance. PMID:21793093

  4. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  5. Non-Uniform Thickness Electroactive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electroactive device comprises at least two layers of material, wherein at least one layer is an electroactive material and wherein at least one layer is of non-uniform thickness. The device can be produced in various sizes, ranging from large structural actuators to microscale or nanoscale devices. The applied voltage to the device in combination with the non-uniform thickness of at least one of the layers (electroactive and/or non-electroactive) controls the contour of the actuated device. The effective electric field is a mathematical function of the local layer thickness. Therefore, the local strain and the local bending/ torsion curvature are also a mathematical function of the local thickness. Hence the thinnest portion of the actuator offers the largest bending and/or torsion response. Tailoring of the layer thicknesses can enable complex motions to be achieved.

  6. Thickness fluctuations in black lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hladky, S B; Gruen, D W

    1982-01-01

    Because a black lipid membrane is compressible, there will be spontaneous fluctuations in its thickness. Qualitative arguments are given that the preferred configuration of the membranes is flat and that thickness fluctuations are smaller in amplitude than the differences in mean thickness observed using different hydrocarbon solvents. Fluctuations with short characteristic lengths will not be large as a result of the large amounts of oil-water contact these would entail. Quantitative analysis based on an extension of the treatment for soap films, predicts that the root mean square (rms) amplitude for fluctuations of wavelength longer than approximately 10 nm is negligible for glyceryl monooleate membranes with squalene (less than 3%) but may be approximately 20% with n-decane. rms fluctuations of 20% would lead to a discrepancy between the rms thickness of the core and the mean reciprocal thickness of only 6%. PMID:7104437

  7. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

  8. Challenges with fats and fatty acid methods.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, D L; Jenkins, T C

    2003-12-01

    The content and chemical nature of lipids in feedstuffs is heterogeneous. It has long been known that ether extraction by the Weende procedure inadequately characterizes the fat content of feedstuffs, yet it remains the official method. Diethyl ether (or hexanes that are often used) extracts significant amounts of nonnutritive, nonsaponifiable lipids from forages, and often incompletely extracts lipids of nutritional value, especially fatty acids present as salts of divalent cations. Preextraction hydrolysis of insoluble fatty acid salts with acid releases these fatty acids, and this step is included in the official procedure for certain feedstuffs in the United Kingdom; however, acid hydrolysis increases analysis time and decreases precision. Acid hydrolysis also causes confusion as to the proper definition of the fat content of feedstuffs. A preferred method of fat analysis determines the total fatty acid concentration in feed samples by converting fatty acid salts, as well as the acyl components in all lipid classes, such as triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and sphingolipids, to methyl esters using a simple, direct one-step esterification procedure. Fatty acid methyl esters are then quantified by GLC, which provides information on both fatty acid quantity and profile in a single analysis. Adjustments in conditions and reagents may be necessary to overcome difficulty in quantitatively preparing esters from certain types of fatty acids and their derivatives in commercial fat supplements. After correction for glycerol content, analysis of oils by this procedure provides information on the content of nonsaponifiable material, such as chlorophyll, waxes, and indigestible polymers formed from heat- or oxidatively damaged fats. The correct description of feedstuffs for energy value of fats is the content of total fatty acids. PMID:14677882

  9. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  10. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  11. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  12. Novel Fat-Link Fermion Actions

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Zanotti; S. Bilson-Thompson; F. D. R. Bonnet; P. D. Coddington; D. B. Leinweber; A. G. Williams; J. B. Zhang; W. Melnitchouk; F. X. Lee

    2001-07-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators in the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16{sup 3} x 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative 0(a) improvement.

  13. The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT = -144.66 + 1.84X1 + 1.35X2 + 0.52X3 (r = 0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P < 0.001, n = 152). The X1, X2, and X3 variables in the equation were denoted as waist circumference (WC), age, and abdomen subcutaneous fat thickness (AS). In addition, the correlation between VFAANT and VFACT showed a high correlation (r = 0.92). Conclusion A rapid and accurate VFA estimation can be achieved by using only age, WC, and AS. The approach in the present study provides an easy and reliable estimate that can be applied widely in health and epidemiology studies. PMID:24884507

  14. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  15. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  16. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  17. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  18. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard.

  19. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  20. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  1. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Beef steers (64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of diet, with cattle fed a conventional (CON) diet or a diet consisting of Programmed Nutrition Beef Program (PN) supplements. The PN treatment included Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver fed from d 1 through 20 of feeding and Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher fed from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 evaluated the presence (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) in the production system. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were initially implanted with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg·animal·dof ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175, and strip loins were removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. One 1.27-cm-thick steak was removed from the anterior face for proximate and long-chain fatty acid analysis. There were no diet × ExGP interactions ( > 0.10) for feedlot performance except for DMI ( = 0.02). Steers in the PN/EGP+ treatment consumed more feed than all other treatments ( < 0.05). Both diet and ExGP affected DMI ( < 0.05), with PN and EGP+ steers consuming more feed than their contemporaries. Gain:feed and ADG were unaffected ( > 0.10) by diet, but ExGP improved these measures ( < 0.01). There were no diet × ExGP interactions for carcass characteristics except KPH fat and percentages of yield grade 3 and 4 carcasses ( < 0.05). Diet affected total incidence of liver abscesses because PN steers had a greater ( = 0.05) incidence of liver abscesses than steers in the CON treatment. Diet did not affect the other carcass characteristics ( > 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( < 0.05) HCW, LM area, and 12th-rib fat but did

  2. Additive effects of a steroidal implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and skeletal muscle messenger ribonucleic acid abundance in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Baxa, T J; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J

    2010-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the steroidal implant Revalor-S (RS; 120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24 mg of estradiol-17beta) on finishing steer performance and the mRNA concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) types I and II, and types I, IIA, and IIX myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. A total of 2,279 feedlot steers weighing 426 +/- 6.4 kg were administered no implant or RS on d 0, and fed 0 or 8.3 mg of ZH/kg of diet DM during the last 30 d with a 3-d withdrawal. Treatments were randomly assigned to 24 pens (n = 6 pens/treatment). At slaughter, semimembranosus muscle tissue was excised for RNA isolation from 4 carcasses per pen. No interactions were detected for any of the variables measured in the experiment. Administration of ZH during the last 30 d of the feeding period increased (P < 0.01) ADG, G:F, HCW, and LM area; decreased (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat depth and marbling; and improved (P < 0.01) yield grade. Treatment had no effect on beta1-AR mRNA levels, but there was an increase (P = 0.01) in beta(2)-AR mRNA levels due to ZH inclusion. Myosin heavy chain-I (MHC-I) mRNA levels were unaffected by treatment. For MHC-IIA mRNA concentrations, administration of RS tended (P = 0.08) to increase mRNA levels, whereas ZH feeding the last 30 d tended (P = 0.08) to decrease mRNA levels for this isoform of myosin. Feeding ZH the last 30 d before slaughter increased (P < 0.01) mRNA concentrations of MHC-IIX in semimembranosus muscle of steers. These data indicate the combined use of ZH and RS additively contributes to BW and carcass gain in finishing feedlot steers and decreases marbling scores and USDA quality grades. The LM area increased and fat thickness decreased. In addition, ZH feeding changes the mRNA levels of MHC isoforms to a faster, more glycolytic fiber type in bovine skeletal muscle. These changes in mRNA concentrations of MHC isoforms, due to ZH feeding, could be affecting skeletal muscle

  3. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P < 0.05), but no statistical relationship was found in women. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, fat oxidation was best predicted by peak O2 consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  4. Automatic cortical thickness analysis on rodent brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Niethammer, Marc; Budin, Francois; Paniagua, Beatriz; Sulik, Kathy; Johns, Josephine; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Localized difference in the cortex is one of the most useful morphometric traits in human and animal brain studies. There are many tools and methods already developed to automatically measure and analyze cortical thickness for the human brain. However, these tools cannot be directly applied to rodent brains due to the different scales; even adult rodent brains are 50 to 100 times smaller than humans. This paper describes an algorithm for automatically measuring the cortical thickness of mouse and rat brains. The algorithm consists of three steps: segmentation, thickness measurement, and statistical analysis among experimental groups. The segmentation step provides the neocortex separation from other brain structures and thus is a preprocessing step for the thickness measurement. In the thickness measurement step, the thickness is computed by solving a Laplacian PDE and a transport equation. The Laplacian PDE first creates streamlines as an analogy of cortical columns; the transport equation computes the length of the streamlines. The result is stored as a thickness map over the neocortex surface. For the statistical analysis, it is important to sample thickness at corresponding points. This is achieved by the particle correspondence algorithm which minimizes entropy between dynamically moving sample points called particles. Since the computational cost of the correspondence algorithm may limit the number of corresponding points, we use thin-plate spline based interpolation to increase the number of corresponding sample points. As a driving application, we measured the thickness difference to assess the effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure that persist into adulthood and performed t-test between the control and exposed rat groups. We found significantly differing regions in both hemispheres.

  5. The use of body mass index for measurement of fat mass in children is highly dependant on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Goulet, O; Ricour, C

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between body fat and body mass index (BMI) in a multiethnic population of obese children. BMI z-scores were compared to DEXA measures of whole body composition and regional fat distribution. Fat mass index (FMI) was best predicted by the equation: 1/[(0.159- 0.013 x percentile of total abdominal fat)- (0.01 x BMI z-score)], where percentile of abdominal fat ranges from 1 to 5. Predicted FMI had high agreement with FMI measured by DEXA. There were no detectable differences in this relation between different ethnic groups. Both BMI and abdominal fat should be used as a proxy to determine adiposity.

  6. Influence of dietary fat source and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E W; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-07-01

    A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The control corn-soybean meal diet was fed in place of added fat diets when needed for duration treatment purposes. On d 0, 1 pig was identified in each pen and fat biopsy samples of the back, belly, and jowl were collected on d 0, 41, and 81 for fatty acid analysis. At the conclusion of the study, all pigs were harvested, carcass characteristics were determined, and back, belly, and jowl fat samples were collected for analysis. Overall (d 0 to 84), there were no differences among pigs fed the different fat sources for growth and carcass characteristics; however, pigs fed diets with added fat for the entire study had improved ( = 0.036) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Pigs fed supplemental fat throughout the entire study also had improved ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F as well as heavier d-84 BW ( = 0.006) compared with pigs fed additional fat during only 1 period. Adding fat for the entire study increased ( = 0.032) backfat and tended to reduce ( = 0.079) the fat free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Added fat also increased ( < 0.05) the iodine value (IV) when compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of soybean oil lowered MUFA and increased PUFA concentrations for all fat depots, whereas these values remained relatively unchanged by the addition of tallow (duration × fat source interactions, < 0.05). Our study failed to show

  7. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  8. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  9. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  10. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat. PMID:25526906

  11. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  12. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan; Qu, Mingren

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat.

  13. Endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis in fat-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seong Ji; Lim, Kyu; Park, Su Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung; Lim, Hye Song; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Il; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be used in the preventive or therapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial results have been reported. Here, we examined the effects of a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on RA using fat-1 transgenic mice. First, we tested whether fat-1 expression modulated signaling pathways in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNF-α activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in wild type (WT) FLSs but not in fat-1 FLSs. Arthritis was induced by injection of K/BxN serum. Based on clinical scores, ankle thickness and pathological severity, we showed that WT mice developed clinically overt arthritis, whereas fat-1 mice showed attenuated arthritis. Moreover, fat-1 mice exhibited down-regulated local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) of WT mice differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas the osteoclastogenenic process was suppressed in BMMs of fat-1 mice. The endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs via fat-1 plays a key role in attenuation of RA; therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic potential for the management of RA. PMID:25910895

  14. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  15. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  16. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  17. Performance and metabolic and endocrine changes with emphasis on glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows with high and low fat content in liver after calving.

    PubMed

    Hammon, H M; Stürmer, G; Schneider, F; Tuchscherer, A; Blum, H; Engelhard, T; Genzel, A; Staufenbiel, R; Kanitz, W

    2009-04-01

    Elevated liver fat content occurs in high-yielding dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation after fat mobilization and may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, but the degree of liver fat storage is highly variable. Therefore, we studied metabolic and endocrine changes and hepatic glucose metabolism in cows that markedly differ in liver fat content. Multiparous cows from the same herd with high (HFL; n = 10) and low (LFL; n = 10) liver fat contents (mean of d 1, 10, and 21 after calving for each cow, respectively) were studied from 60 d before expected calving to 56 d in milk. Cows were fed ad libitum and all cows received the same diets. Liver samples were taken on d 1, 10, and 21 after calving; mean fat content (+/-SEM) in liver of HFL cows was 174 +/- 9.6 mg/g, whereas mean liver fat content in LFL cows was 77 +/- 3.3 mg/g. Blood samples were taken 20 and 7 d before expected calving and 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d after calving to measure plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-I, and leptin. In liver, glycogen content as well as mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose transporter were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Back fat thickness decreased and dry matter intake increased with onset of lactation, and back fat thickness was higher but dry matter intake was lower in HFL than in LFL. Energy-corrected milk yield did not differ between groups, but milk fat content was higher and lactose content was lower in HFL than LFL at the beginning of lactation. Energy balance was more negative in HFL than in LFL. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased and plasma glucose concentration tended to decrease more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Glucagon to insulin ratios increased more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Hepatic glycogen content

  18. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  19. Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

  20. Autologous fat and fillers in periocular rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Edward D; Bader, Bradford; Smith, Stephen P

    2010-08-01

    Facial volume loss is an important component of facial aging, especially in the periocular region. The authors evaluate the normal and aging anatomy of the periocular region and then discuss volume restoration of this region using hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and autologous fat transfer. Preoperative assessment, operative technique, postoperative care, and complications are addressed.

  1. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries - omega-3s; Coronary artery disease - omega-3s; Heart disease - omega-3s ... Omega-3s are good for your heart and blood vessels in several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of an ...

  2. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  3. Schmidt game and fat cantor sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We study a class of Cantor sets in [0, 1]. We show that the complement of the Cantor set is winning for Schmidt game if and only if the Cantor set is not "fat". This provides some open dense sets of full Lebesgue measure that are not winning for Schmidt game.

  4. Interpolated subcutaneous fat pedicle melolabial flap for large nasal lining defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Chepeha, Douglas C.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Full-thickness nasal deformities are a reconstructive challenge. Restoration of a reliable internal lining is critical for a successful reconstruction. Septal hinge flaps are the workhorse for internal lining defects. However, these and other intranasal mucosal flaps are sometimes unavailable due to prior harvest or previous oncologic resection. We present the two-stage interpolated subcutaneous fat pedicle melolabial flap for lining large defects when traditional intranasal flaps are unavailable. This approach is particularly useful when one forehead flap has already been expended, preserving the patient's remaining forehead tissue for external cover. PMID:22965480

  5. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness. Feeding FS increased (P < 0.05) plasma ALA compared to CON and SS and consistently increased (P < 0.01) ALA and non-conjugated and non-methylene interrupted dienes (NCD), whereas SS tended to decrease ALA in fat. Inclusion of DDGS with FS further increased (P < 0.02) ALA and decreased (P < 0.05) NCD and 18:1-t10 in fat. The fact that the levels of n-3 fatty acids in SQ fat from steers fed DDGS + FS were higher than those obtained with FS alone, has obvious benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef.

  6. Age-related changes in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat content and fatty acid composition in growing pigs using longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Bosch, L; Tor, M; Reixach, J; Estany, J

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of intramuscular fat (IMF) and subcutaneous backfat (SB) content and fatty acid composition with age was investigated. A repeated sampling scheme (n=517) for longissimus dorsi (LM) and SB specimens was performed from 160 to 220 days on 216 purebred Duroc barrows. IMF content increased linearly with age at a rate of 0.05%/day, with major compositional changes occurring in C18:1 and C18.2, which increased and decreased by around 4%, respectively. Backfat thickness increase rate declined with age, showing similar compositional changes to IMF but halved in magnitude. Fat content itself also influenced fat composition. At a fixed age, both saturated (SFA) (C16:0) and monounsaturated (MUFA) (C18:1) increased with IMF but only SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) with SB. Aging mostly affected MUFA while fatness SFA. A delay in age at slaughter will enhance IMF and C18:1 in relation to overall fatness but at expense of decreasing body and loin growth rate.

  7. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    PubMed

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes.

  8. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of thymus and fat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gui C.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Reid, V.; Steinglass, K.; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Jacobowitz, Larry; Alfano, Robert R.

    1993-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of the human thymus gland and surrounding mediastinal fat were measured to evaluate this approach in distinguishing between thymus and fat tissues during therapeutic surgery for myasthenia gravis disease.

  9. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  10. Correlates, causes, and consequences of fat talk: A review.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Amy; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    Fat talk is a term used to describe self-disparaging remarks made to other people about one's weight or body. Fat talk has been both causally and correlationally linked to a number of negative body image-related variables including low body esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, body-related cognitive distortions, and perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin. As such, body image researchers and clinicians would benefit from increased awareness of the current literature concerning fat talk. A narrative synthesis approach is used to summarize all research containing the keywords fat talk, body talk, or weight talk that was published from 1994 to 2014 inclusive. The measures used to study fat talk, outcomes and correlates associated with fat talk, theories that may help explain these findings, and the purpose served by fat talk are reviewed and discussed. In addition, directions for future research on fat talk, including intervention strategies, are examined. PMID:26479947

  11. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  12. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  13. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Lisa K.; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Beltran, Roxanne S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Goetsch, Chandra; Hückstädt, Luis; Maresh, Jennifer L.; Peterson, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones). The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris) comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may also be

  14. Effect of intravenous omega-6 and omega-3 fat emulsions on nitrogen retention and protein kinetics in burned rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Tashiro, T; Yamamori, H; Takagi, K; Morishima, Y; Otsubo, Y; Sugiura, T; Furukawa, K; Nitta, H; Nakajima, N; Suzuki, N; Ito, I

    1999-02-01

    The effect of omega-3 fat emulsion on nitrogen retention and kinetics in relation to fatty acid profile were investigated in burned rats receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A fat emulsion of a structured symmetrical triacylglycerol containing only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2:1) was prepared. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by fat-free chow for 2 wk. Then rats were fed exclusively with one of three types of TPN for 7 d. Animals in group C received fat-free TPN (n = 11). Group omega 6 received safflower oil fat emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total caloric intake (n = 11). Group omega 3 received fat emulsion containing only EPA and DHA (1% of total calories, n = 11), in addition to safflower oil emulsion (19% of total calories). On day 5, each rat was subjected to 20% full-thickness scald burns. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia 48 h after burning. The rats in group C became deficient in omega-6 essential fatty acids. Cumulative nitrogen balance was decreased significantly in group omega 6. The rates of whole-body protein synthesis were increased significantly in both groups omega 6 and omega 3. In omega 6, however, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown were increased significantly. In conclusion, the rates of whole-body protein breakdown increased and nitrogen retention was aggravated significantly in animals administered the safflower oil emulsion. Significant increases of urinary excretion of total catecholamine were also observed. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 concentrations were not significantly different among three groups. Supplementation with the new omega-3 fat emulsion, however, improved protein metabolism in burned rats receiving TPN. PMID:9990578

  15. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lisa K; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Beltran, Roxanne S; Costa, Daniel P; Goetsch, Chandra; Hückstädt, Luis; Maresh, Jennifer L; Peterson, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones). The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris) comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may also be

  16. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lisa K; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Beltran, Roxanne S; Costa, Daniel P; Goetsch, Chandra; Hückstädt, Luis; Maresh, Jennifer L; Peterson, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones). The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris) comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may also be

  17. Avian eggshell thickness: Variability and sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Heath, R.G.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of shell thickness of the eggs of five species were subjected to nested analyses of variance. The analyses separated variation into two or three levels for which variances and percentages of the total variation were derived. The results show that differences among measurements of the same egg contribute little to the sample variance whereas differences among eggs within clutches contribute nearly as much as differences among clutches. It is more efficient and less costly to collect entire clutches of eggs in most studies of shell thickness. Using entire clutches, sample sizes needed to detect differences of 10 percent in shell thickness (at given significance levels and power) were estimated to be eight to 11 clutches for the species studied. For differences of five percent, 26 to 38 clutches are required. Guidelines are presented which may assist other workers in evaluating the efficiency of their sampling designs, and in estimating sample sizes for detecting differences in eggshell thickness in wild birds.

  18. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  19. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  20. A Thick Target for Synchrotrons and Betatrons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    McMillan, E. M.

    1950-09-19

    If a wide x-ray beam from an electron synchrotron or betatron is desired, in radiographic work with large objects for example, the usually very thin target may be replaced by a thick one, provided the resulting distortion of the x-ray spectrum due to multiple radiative processes is permissible. It is difficult to make the circulating electron beam traverse a thick target directly because of the small spacing between successive turns. Mounting a very thin beryllium, or other low-z material, fin on the edge of the thick target so that the fin projects into the beam will cause the beam to lose sufficient energy, and therefore radium, to strike the thick target the next time around. Sample design calculations are given.

  1. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures. PMID:26206928

  2. Climate stability and cloud optical thickness feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1989-01-01

    An improved radiative-convective model (RCM) has been developed and used to examine the role of cirrus clouds in the optical thickness feedback mechanism. Low and middle clouds are approximately black bodies for infrared radiative transfer, and so any increase in their optical thickness primarily increases the cloud albedo. Thus, if a climate warming is accompanied by an increase in average atmospheric absolute humidity and hence in average cloud liquid water content, low and middle cloud optical thickness and albedo may increase. The result is a negative feedback on the climate change, tending to reduce the surface temperature increase. Recent research suggests that the optical thickness feedback can depend sensitively on aspects of cirrus which are not well observed or adequately incorporated in typical present-day climate models.

  3. Coconut fat and serum lipoproteins: effects of partial replacement with unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Mendis, S; Samarajeewa, U; Thattil, R O

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of reducing saturated fat in the diet, or partly replacing it with unsaturated fat, on the serum lipoprotein profile of human subjects. The study had two intervention periods, 8 weeks (phase 1) and 52 weeks (phase 2). In phase 1, total fat was reduced from 31 to 25% energy (polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA):saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.4) by reducing the quantity of coconut fat (CF) in the diet from 17.8 to 9.3% energy intake. In phase 2, subjects were randomised to groups A and B. In group A total fat was reduced from 25 to 20% energy (PUFA:SFA ratio increased from 0.4 to 0.7) by reducing the quantity of CF in the diet from 9.3 to 4.7% total energy intake. In group B, the saturated fat content in the diet was similar to group A. In addition a test fat (a mixture of soyabean oil and sesame oil, PUFA:monosaturated fatty acids ratio 2) contributed 3.3% total energy intake and total fat contributed 24% energy intake (PUFA:SFA ratio increased from 0.7 to 1.1). At the end of phase 1, there was a 7.7% reduction in cholesterol (95% CI -3.6, -12.2) and 10.8% reduction in LDL (95% CI -4.9, -16.5) and no significant change in HDL and triacylglycerol. At the end of phase 2, the reduction in cholesterol in both groups was only about 4% (95% CI -12, 3.2) partly due the concomitant rise in HDL. The reduction in LDL at 52 weeks was significantly higher in group B (group A mean reduction 11%, 95% CI -20.1, -2.0 and group B mean reduction 16.2% 95% CI -23.5, -8.9). In phase 2, triacylglycerol levels showed a mean reduction of 6.5% in group 2A and a mean increase of 8.2% in group 2B. The reduction of saturated fat in the diet is associated with a lipoprotein profile that would be expected to reduce cardiovascular risk. The reduction of dietary saturated fat with partial replacement of unsaturated fat brings about changes in total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol that are associated with a lower

  4. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  5. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  6. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  7. Optically thick line widths in pyrotechnic flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douda, B. E.; Exton, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Experimentally determined sodium line widths for pyrotechnic flares are compared with simple analytical, optically-thick-line-shape calculations. Three ambient pressure levels are considered (760, 150 and 30 torr) for three different flare compositions. The measured line widths range from 1.3 to 481 A. The analytic procedure emphasizes the Lorentz line shape as observed under optically-thick conditions. Calculated widths are in good agreement with the measured values over the entire range.

  8. Microwave mixing with niobium variable thickness bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.-K.; Callegari, A.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Niobium thin-film bridges 300-A thick, 1-micron wide, and 0.5-micron long joining two bulk films 5000-A thick and having normal resistance of the order of 1 ohm have been fabricated and used for microwave mixing at 10 GHz. They exhibit Josephson, bolometric, and multiple-flux-flow mixing and have useful response at 100-200 GHz. The data show in a direct way limitations imposed by flux flow and heating.

  9. Ellipsometric measurement of liquid film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ki Joon; Frazier, D. O.

    1989-01-01

    The immediate objective of this research is to measure liquid film thickness from the two equilibrium phases of a monotectic system in order to estimate the film pressure of each phase. Thus liquid film thicknesses on the inside walls of the prism cell above the liquid level have been measured elliposmetrically for the monotectic system of succinonitrile and water. The thickness varies with temperature and composition of each plane. The preliminary results from both layers at 60 deg angle of incidence show nearly uniform thickness from about 21 to 23 C. The thickness increases with temperature but near 30 C the film appears foggy and scatters the laser beam. As the temperature of the cell is raised beyond room temperature it becomes increasingly difficult to equalize the temperature inside and outside the cell. The fogging may also be an indication that solution, not pure water, is adsorbed onto the substrate. Nevertheless, preliminary results suggest that ellipsometric measurement is feasible and necessary to measure more accurately and rapidly the film thickness and to improve thermal control of the prism walls.

  10. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  11. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Thick Fuel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Tang, Lin; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of experiments for spread over polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, samples in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle are described. The results are coupled with modelling in an effort to describe the physics of the spread process for thick fuels in a quiescent, microgravity environment and uncover differences between thin and thick fuels. A quenching phenomenon not present for thin fuels is delineated, namely the fact that for thick fuels the possibility exists that, absent an opposing flow of sufficient strength to press the flame close enough to the fuel surface to allow the heated layer in the solid to develop, the heated layer fails to become 'fully developed.' The result is that the flame slows, which in turn causes an increase in the relative radiative loss from the flame, leading eventually to extinction. This potential inability of a thick fuel to develop a steady spread rate is not present for a thin fuel because the heated layer is the fuel thickness, which reaches a uniform temperature across the thickness relatively rapidly.

  12. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase. PMID:25766934

  13. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  14. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  15. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  16. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  17. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  18. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  19. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face...

  20. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fat. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face ...

  1. [Autologous fat grafting in the breast: oncological implications].

    PubMed

    Nizet, J-L; Gonzalez, A; Peulen, O; Castronovo, V

    2011-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting for breast is increasing dramatically. This fat injection needs accurate technical conditions, and shows very good and long-lasting clinical results. Nevertheless, in breast conservative treatment sequellae, fat injection could lead to difficulties in breast imaging, but also there is some concerns about the potential oncologic risks of these procedures.

  2. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  3. Influence of trans fat on skin damage in first-generation rats exposed to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Raquel Cristine S; Vey, Luciana T; Segat, Hecson Jesser; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Trevizol, Fabíola; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Piccolo, Jaqueline; CristinaVeit, Juliana; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of trans fatty acids (TFA) on lipid profile, oxidative damage and mitochondrial function in the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was assessed. The first-generation offspring of female Wistar rats supplemented from pregnancy with either soybean oil (C-SO, rich in n-6 FA; control group) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in TFA) were continued with the same supplements until adulthood, when half of each group was exposed to UVR for 12 weeks. The HVF group showed higher TFA cutaneous incorporation, increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, decreased functionality of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant defenses of the skin. After UVR, the HVF group showed increased skin thickness and reactive species (RS) generation, with decreased skin antioxidant defenses. RS generation was positively correlated with skin thickness, wrinkles and PC levels. Once incorporated to skin, TFA make it more susceptible to developing UVR-induced disorders.

  4. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone) can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations. PMID:24062944

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Fat Infiltration in the Rotator Cuff Muscles using water-fat MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Lansdown, Drew A.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C. Benjamin; Link, Thomas M.; Krug, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semi-quantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. Materials and Methods The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2- and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Results Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (p< 0.0001, kappa>0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade=0, 0%–5.59%; grade=1, 1.1%–9.70%; grade=2, 6.44%–14.86%; grade=3, 15.25%–17.77%; grade=4, 19.85%–29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus a) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient=0.39, 95% CI 0.13–0.60, p<0.01) and b) pain (Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient=0.313, 95% CI 0.049–0.536, p=0.02) was found but was not seen between the clinical parameters and GC grades. Additionally, only quantitative fat infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient=0.45, 95% CI 0.20–0.60, p<0.01). Conclusion We concluded that an accurate and highly reproducible fat quantification in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. PMID:24115490

  6. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  10. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed questionnaires, students' focus…

  11. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  12. Development of a non-invasive LED based device for adipose tissue thickness measurements in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volceka, K.; Jakovels, D.; Arina, Z.; Zaharans, J.; Kviesis, E.; Strode, A.; Svampe, E.; Ozolina-Moll, L.; Butnere, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    There are a number of techniques for body composition assessment in clinics and in field-surveys, but in all cases the applied methods have advantages and disadvantages. High precision imaging methods are available, though expensive and non-portable, however, the methods devised for the mass population, often suffer from the lack of precision. Therefore, the development of a safe, mobile, non-invasive, optical method that would be easy to perform, precise and low-cost, but also would offer an accurate assessment of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) both in lean and in obese persons is required. Thereof, the diffuse optical spectroscopy is advantageous over the aforementioned techniques. A prototype device using an optical method for measurement of the SAT thickness in vivo has been developed. The probe contained multiple LEDs (660nm) distributed at various distances from the photo-detector which allow different light penetration depths into the subcutaneous tissue. The differences of the reflected light intensities were used to create a non-linear model, and the computed values were compared with the corresponding thicknesses of SAT, assessed by B-mode ultrasonography. The results show that with the optical system used in this study, accurate results of different SAT thicknesses can be obtained, and imply a further potential for development of multispectral optical system to observe changes of SAT thickness as well as to determine the percentage of total body fat.

  13. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  14. Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, N.; Kaleschke, L.; Tian-Kunze, X.; Drusch, M.

    2013-07-01

    The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation. In accordance with our theoretical investigations, the root mean square deviation between simulated and observed horizontally polarised brightness temperatures decreases from 20.0 K to 4.4 K, when we include the snow layer in the simulations. Under cold Arctic conditions we find brightness temperatures to increase with increasing snow thickness. Because dry snow is almost transparent in L-band, this brightness temperature's dependence on snow thickness origins from the thermal insulation of snow and its dependence on the snow layer thickness. This temperature effect allows us to retrieve snow thickness over thick sea ice. For the best simulation scenario and snow thicknesses up to 35 cm, the average snow thickness retrieved from horizontally polarised SMOS brightness temperatures agrees within 0.7 cm with the average snow thickness measured during the IceBridge flight campaign in the Arctic in spring 2012. The corresponding root mean square deviation is 6.3 cm, and the correlation coefficient is r2 = 0.55.

  15. Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, N.; Kaleschke, L.; Tian-Kunze, X.; Drusch, M.

    2013-12-01

    The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation. In accordance with our theoretical investigations, the root mean square deviation between simulated and observed horizontally polarised brightness temperatures decreases from 20.9 K to 4.7 K, when we include the snow layer in the simulations. Although dry snow is almost transparent in L-band, we find brightness temperatures to increase with increasing snow thickness under cold Arctic conditions. The brightness temperatures' dependence on snow thickness can be explained by the thermal insulation of snow and its dependence on the snow layer thickness. This temperature effect allows us to retrieve snow thickness over thick sea ice. For the best simulation scenario and snow thicknesses up to 35 cm, the average snow thickness retrieved from horizontally polarised SMOS brightness temperatures agrees within 0.1 cm with the average snow thickness measured during the IceBridge flight campaign in the Arctic in spring 2012. The corresponding root mean square deviation is 5.5 cm, and the coefficient of determination is r2 = 0.58.

  16. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics. PMID:27372590

  17. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics.

  18. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  19. Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Duy, Thanh-Binh; Nichaman, Milton Z; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2003-06-01

    We examined the independent associations among abdominal adipose tissue (AT), liver fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid variables in 161 Caucasian men who had a wide variation in adiposity. We measured AT and liver fat by computed tomography and CRF by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Visceral AT remained a significant (P or= 0.05) correlate of any lipid variable after control for visceral AT and CRF. Furthermore, subdivision of subcutaneous AT into deep and superficial depots did not alter these observations. Visceral AT was the strongest correlate of liver fat and remained so after control for abdominal subcutaneous AT, CRF, and alcohol consumption (r = -0.34, P < 0.01). In contrast, abdominal subcutaneous AT and CRF were not significant (P > 0.10) correlates of liver fat after control for visceral AT. Visceral AT remained a significant (P < 0.01) correlate of TG, HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C independent of liver fat. However, liver fat was also a significant correlate (P fat carry independent health risk.

  20. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  1. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  2. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  3. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  4. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  5. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  6. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions.

  7. Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Luzardo, Eliana; Mejías, José Carlos; Ferreira, Antonio; Rivas-Ríos, José Ramón; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat is closely related to blood supply vessels, both anatomically and functionally, which is why any change in this adipose tissue's behavior is considered a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. When proinflammatory adipokines are released from the epicardial fat, this can lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, low adiponectin production, and an increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These adipokines move from one compartment to another by either transcellular passing or diffusion, thus having the ability to regulate cardiac muscle activity, a phenomenon called vasocrine regulation. The participation of these adipokines generates a state of persistent vasoconstriction, increased stiffness, and weakening of the coronary wall, consequently contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, epicardial adipose tissue thickening should be considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular pathology and a molecular point of contact for “endocrine-cardiology.” PMID:27213076

  8. The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-26

    We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  9. Martian lithospheric thickness from elastic flexure theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurber, C. H.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1978-01-01

    The thickness of the elastic lithosphere in the Tharsis region of Mars is estimated from effects due to the surface load of Olympus Mons. Deformation (vertical displacement) and stress are calculated using elastic flexure theory for a range of possible lithospheric thicknesses (T), modeling the lithosphere as a thin elastic shell and the interior as a Newtonian fluid. For T below 150 km, displacement and stress rise rapidly with decreasing thickness. For T near 100 km, deformation of the region surrounding the volcano would be clearly visible in the topography, and resulting tensional stresses exceeding 5 kbar should produce observable fracturing at the surface. In contrast, for T near 200 km deformation is minimal and the tensional stress, being less than a kilobar, would not result in extensive fracturing. Since significant deformation and fracturing are not observed, it is concluded that the Martian elastic lithosphere is at least 150 km in thickness. Seismic, tectonic, and gravity observations all suggest a thick Martian lithosphere as well.

  10. Marrow Fat and Bone: Review of Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ann V.

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in the connection between fat and bone, there has been increased investigation of the relationship with marrow fat in particular. Clinical research has been facilitated by the development of non-invasive methods to measure bone marrow fat content and composition. Studies in different populations using different measurement techniques have established that higher marrow fat is associated with lower bone density and prevalent vertebral fracture. The degree of unsaturation in marrow fat may also affect bone health. Although other fat depots tend to be strongly correlated, marrow fat has a distinct pattern, suggesting separate mechanisms of control. Longitudinal studies are limited, but are crucial to understand the direct and indirect roles of marrow fat as an influence on skeletal health. With greater appreciation of the links between bone and energy metabolism, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between marrow fat and bone. It is well established that levels of marrow fat are higher in older adults with osteoporosis, defined by either low bone density or vertebral fracture. However, the reasons for and implications of this association are not clear. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship to bone. PMID:25870585

  11. Fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, A; Abel, N; Tubbs, R S; Loukas, M

    2014-11-01

    The authors report a case of fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe noted in a female cadaver during abdominopelvic dissection. Perineal hernias are rare hernias, and herniations through the hiatus of Schwalbe represent a rare posterior lateral perineal hernia. While these hernias are extremely rare, anatomists and surgeons should be aware of them, and the clinical significance and manifestations which may occur with these hernias. PMID:25448911

  12. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  13. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora.

  14. High Fat Diet Induces Adhesion of Platelets to Endothelium in Two Models of Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE−/− mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE−/− mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate. PMID:25328689

  15. Milk fat and primary fractions obtained by dry fractionation 1. Chemical composition and crystallisation properties.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christelle; Bourgaux, Claudie; Lesieur, Pierre; Riaublanc, Alain; Ollivon, Michel

    2006-10-01

    The chemical composition and crystallisation properties of milk fat and its primary fractions, obtained by dry fractionation at 21 degrees C, were investigated. The solid fraction (stearin) and the liquid fraction (olein) displayed a different triacylglycerol (TG) composition. Stearin fraction was enriched in long-chain fatty acids, whereas olein fraction was enriched in short-chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Crystallisation properties of milk fat, and both the stearin and olein fractions were studied on cooling at |dT/dt|=1 degrees C min(-1) by differential scanning calorimetry and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) at small and wide angles. Two main types of crystals corresponding to double chain length structures were characterised in the stearin fraction: alpha 2L(1) (47.5 Angstrom) and beta' 2L(2) (41.7 Angstrom). A triple chain length structure was formed in the olein fraction: alpha 3L (72.1 Angstrom). Crystallization of milk fat showed the formation of two 2L (47.3 and 41.6 Angstrom) and one 3L (72.1 Angstrom) lamellar structures with an hexagonal packing (alpha form). A schematic representation of the 3L packing of olein fraction was proposed to explain how a wide diversity of TG can accommodate to form a lamellar structure with a thickness of 72 Angstrom. Furthermore, the sharpness of the small-angle XRD lines associated to the alpha form was explained by the formation of liquid crystals of smectic type.

  16. Effect of fat-free potato chips with and without nutrition labels on fat and energy intakes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Castellanos, V H; Shide, D J; Peters, J C; Rolls, B J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the effect on fat and energy intakes of fat-free potato chips made with olestra compared with regular potato chips. Ninety-five participants (unrestrained and restrained males and females) were tested in 2 conditions. In the information condition, participants were given nutrition information about the chips and were aware that the chips differed in fat and energy contents. In the no-information condition, participants were not aware of the differences. In both conditions, participants ate either regular or fat-free potato chips ad libitum for an afternoon snack in a crossover design in two 10-d periods. To assess 24-h intake, participants completed food diaries twice in each 10-d period. The results showed that all groups significantly reduced their fat and energy intakes in the snack when eating the fat-free chips compared with the regular chips (P< 0.0001). Also, potato chip intake did not differ across time for either type of chip. Over 24 h all participants had lower fat intakes (P< 0.05) when eating the fat-free potato chips compared with the regular chips, but 24-h energy intake was not significantly different between groups. When information was provided, restrained participants ate more of the fat-free chips than the regular chips; however, this increase did not negate the reductions in fat and energy associated with eating the fat-free chips. This study showed that substituting fat-free (olestra-containing) potato chips for regular-fat chips can help reduce fat and energy intakes in short-term (within meal) situations and reduce fat intake over 24 h. PMID:9701184

  17. Lipophilicity of oils and fats estimated by TLC.

    PubMed

    Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica D; Sârbu, Costel

    2013-04-01

    A representative series of natural toxins belonging to alkaloids and mycotoxins classes was investigated by TLC on classical chemically bonded plates and also on oils- and fats-impregnated plates. Their lipophilicity indices are employed in the characterization and comparison of oils and fats. The retention results allowed an accurate indirect estimation of oils and fats lipophilicity. The investigated fats and oils near classical chemically bonded phases are classified and compared by means of multivariate exploratory techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis, or fuzzy-principal component analysis. Additionally, a concrete hierarchy of oils and fats derived from the observed lipophilic character is suggested. Human fat seems to be very similar to animal fats, but also possess RP-18, RP-18W, and RP-8.

  18. The experimental validation of free fat grafts in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masataro; Kondo, Tomoko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the viability of free fat grafts in the thoracic cavity using 3-month old male swine (n = 2). After left caudal lobectomy, 1-3 g of subcutaneous fat tissue harvested via the thoracotomy site was implanted in the chest cavity. At re-thoracotomy 6 weeks after implantation, all of the implanted fat grafts (n = 15) were found to have closely adhered to the parietal pleura and visceral pleura. There was a significant decrease by ∼30% in the weight of the fat grafts after implantation. Regardless of the weight loss, the implanted fat graft showed normal structuring without scar formation in the central area. Our results may suggest that free fat pads, which weighed up to 3 g, were successfully cultured in the thoracic cavity until the implanted tissues integrated into the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the free fat pad can be used as a biomaterial for some purposes in thoracic surgery.

  19. Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats.

  20. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534019

  2. Radioimmunoassay of oxfendazole in sheep fat.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, C; Tsina, I; Matin, S

    1982-05-01

    Oxfendazole (methyl 5-(phenylsulfinyl)-2-benzimidazole-carbamate) is a broad spectrum anthelmintic agent designed for use in food-producing animals. A simple radioimmunoassay (RIA) for determination of oxfendazole in plasma was modified for determining oxfendazole in sheep fat. Fat tissue was enzymatically hydrolyzed to an oily residue with collagenase-hyaluronidase, and oxfendazole was then extracted into an acidified aqueous phase. An aliquot of this phase was used directly for RIA. Bound radioactivity was separated from free by using polyethylene glycol-bovine gamma globulin because oils and other components in the aqueous aliquot preclude the use of charcoal for the separation. The lower limit of sensitivity of the assay is 0.003 ppm. Accuracy experiments carried out in the range 0.01-0.5 ppm gave a regression line of y (ng/g) = 0.91 x (ng/g) + 2.89, with r = 0.99. Fat tissue derived from sheep given an oral dose of 6.0 mg/kg was analyzed by this method and by a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Values obtained by the 2 methods agreed well.

  3. Fighting obesity: When muscle meets fat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Bi, Pengpeng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen to an unprecedented level. According to World Health Organization, over 500 million adults, equivalent to 10%–14% of the world population, were obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater in 2008.1 This rising prevalence and earlier onset of obesity is believed to be resulted from an interplay of genetic factors, over-nutrition and physical inactivity in modern lifestyles. Obesity also increases the susceptibility to metabolic syndromes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer.2-4 The global obesity epidemic has sparked substantial interests in the biology of adipose tissue (fat). In addition, the skeletal muscle and its secretive factors (myokines) have also been shown to play a critical role in controlling body energy balance, adipose homeostasis and inflammation status.5 Interestingly, skeletal muscle cells share a common developmental origin with brown adipocytes,6,7 which breaks down lipids to generate heat – thus reducing obesity. Here, we provide a brief overview of the basics and recent progress in muscle-fat crosstalk in the context of body energy metabolism, obesity, and diabetes. We summarize the different types of adipocytes, their developmental origins and implications in body composition. We highlight the role of several novel myokines in regulating fat mass and systemic energy balance, and evaluate the potential of skeletal muscles as a therapeutic target to treat obesity. PMID:26317052

  4. Small-angle scattering from fat fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitas, Eugen M.

    2014-06-01

    A number of experimental small-angle scattering (SAS) data are characterized by a succession of power-law decays with arbitrarily decreasing values of scattering exponents. To describe such data, here we develop a new theoretical model based on 3D fat fractals (sets with fractal structure, but nonzero volume) and show how one can extract structural information about the underlying fractal structure. We calculate analytically the monodisperse and polydisperse SAS intensity (fractal form factor and structure factor) of a newly introduced model of fat fractals and study its properties in momentum space. The system is a 3D deterministic mass fractal built on an extension of the well-known Cantor fractal. The model allows us to explain a succession of power-law decays and respectively, of generalized power-law decays (GPLD; superposition of maxima and minima on a power-law decay) with arbitrarily decreasing scattering exponents in the range from zero to three. We show that within the model, the present analysis allows us to obtain the edges of all the fractal regions in the momentum space, the number of fractal iteration and the fractal dimensions and scaling factors at each structural level in the fractal. We applied our model to calculate an analytical expression for the radius of gyration of the fractal. The obtained quantities characterizing the fat fractal are correlated to variation of scaling factor with the iteration number.

  5. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad.

    PubMed

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  6. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  10. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  11. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Bergren, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  12. Theory of the Sea Ice Thickness Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution g (h ) from Thorndike et al. into a Fokker-Planck-like conservation law. The steady solution is g (h )=N (q )hqe-h /H, where q and H are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for h ≪1 , g (h ) is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for h ≫1 only mechanics controls g (h ). Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness h , from which we predict the observed g (h ). The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical-scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics.

  13. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  14. Theory of the Sea Ice Thickness Distribution.

    PubMed

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, J S

    2015-10-01

    We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution g(h) from Thorndike et al. into a Fokker-Planck-like conservation law. The steady solution is g(h)=N(q)h(q)e(-h/H), where q and H are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for h≪1, g(h) is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for h≫1 only mechanics controls g(h). Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness h, from which we predict the observed g(h). The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical-scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics. PMID:26551827

  15. Radial thickness variations of Orientale basin ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordell, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Moore et al. (1974) measure the thickness of Orientale basin ejecta on the basis of filling of individual prebasin craters and a depth-diameter relation for fresh lunar craters. In the reported investigation the concept of filling of preexisting craters with basin ejecta is utilized somewhat differently to ascertain Orientale basin ejecta thicknesses and volume from the Cordillera ring with a radius of 450 km out to almost 2 radii. Briefly, the approach is to assume a reasonable geometric model for the form of Orientale ejecta, calculate how many pre-Orientale craters would be destroyed by the deposition of the ejecta, and match the model to Orientale crater statistics. The results of the investigation show that a radial ejecta thickness function can be derived from crater statistics.

  16. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  17. Residual Stress Analysis in Thick Uranium Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Foreman, R J; Gallegos, G F

    2004-12-06

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1.0 to 25 {micro}m, depleted Uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0-300V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses.

  18. Increased resolution macular thickness mapping by OCT.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Rui; Santos, Torcato; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) poor mapping resolution has been pointed out as the biggest disadvantage of this technique when compared to others, e.g., retinal thickness analyzer. In this work we were able to solve this problem by developing an atlas of macular thickness of the human retina into which OCT scans were thereafter registered. This atlas is used to allow registering OCT scans from the Fast Macular Protocol, thus bringing OCT scans into the atlas coordinates, therefore correcting for misfixations, while simultaneously allowing to perform OCT inter-scan registration. From this initial registration, we were able to compute a thickness map into which Fast RNFL Protocol scans were merged, thus allowing for increased OCT mapping resolution. PMID:17946646

  19. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  20. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P < 0.05). AFM and AOI were significantly related to most anthropometric parameters. AFM was positively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AFM was negatively associated with age and YSM. AOI was negatively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AOI positively associated with age and YSM. LM, ALM, and FM had a positive relationship with anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05 for all). PLM had a negative relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate