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Sample records for 13-18 year-old teenagers

  1. Do parents' exercise habits predict 13-18-year-old adolescents' involvement in sport?

    PubMed

    Sukys, Saulius; Majauskienė, Daiva; Cesnaitiene, Vida J; Karanauskiene, Diana

    2014-09-01

    This study examined links between parents' exercise habits and adolescents' participation in sports activities, considering the aspects of gender and age. It was hypothesized that regular exercise by both parents would be related to children's involvement in sport regardless of their gender and age. Moreover, it was hypothesized that children's sports activities would be more strongly related to their father's exercise activities. The study also examined the links between parents' exercise habits and children's motivation for sports. It was hypothesized that competition motives would be more important for children whose parents exercised regularly. The research sample included 2335 students from the seventh (n = 857), ninth (n = 960) and eleventh (n = 518) grades of various Lithuanian schools. The study used a questionnaire survey method, which revealed the links between parents' exercise habits and their children's participation in sport. Assessment of data for girls and boys showed that daughters' participation in sport could be predicted by both their fathers' and mothers' exercise habits, but sons' sports activities could be predicted only by the regular physical activities of their fathers. The assessment of children's sporting activities according to age revealed links between parental exercising and the engagement of older (15-16 years old), but not younger adolescents (13-14 years old). Analysis of sports motivation showed that competition motives were more important for boys than for girls. Fitness, well-being and appearance motives were more important for older adolescents (15-18 years old), while competition motives were more important for younger adolescents (13-14 years old). Research revealed the relationship between children's sport motives and fathers' exercise habits, while examination of mothers' exercise revealed no difference. Key pointsParental exercising significantly predicts adolescents' engagement in sport. Daughter's engagement in sport is

  2. Examination of the Relationship between Internet Attitudes and Internet Addictions of 13-18-Year-Old Students: The Case of Kahramanmaras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Aziz; Çelik, H. Coskun; Gemcioglu, Muharrem; Çiftaslan, Malik Ejder

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine internet attitudes and internet addiction levels of 13-18-year-old students and examine the relationship between these variables. The "internet attitude scale", developed by Tavsancil and Keser (2002) and the "internet addiction scale", developed by Hahn and Jerusalem and adapted into Turkish by…

  3. Surviving Your Adolescents: How To Manage and Let Go of Your 13-18 Year Olds. Revised 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Thomas W.

    Noting that parents raising adolescents need to know when to be quiet and when to act, as well as what to do when something needs to be done, this guide for parents offers guidelines for handling the complex situations and dilemmas that teenagers often present. Topics covered include managing teenage risk-taking, the relationship between…

  4. Surviving Your Adolescents: How To Manage and Let Go of Your 13-18 Year Olds. Revised 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Thomas W.

    Noting that parents raising adolescents need to know when to be quiet and when to act, as well as what to do when something needs to be done, this guide for parents offers guidelines for handling the complex situations and dilemmas that teenagers often present. Topics covered include managing teenage risk-taking, the relationship between…

  5. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term…

  6. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term…

  7. [Attitudes to over-the-counter analgesics among 15-16 year-old teenagers].

    PubMed

    Holager, Tanja; Lagerløv, Per; Helseth, Sølvi; Rosvold, Elin O

    2009-08-13

    More information is needed on teenagers' attitudes to self-medication with OTC-analgesics, and their access to medicine and information. An anonymous questionnaire study was performed among all tenth grade students in Drammen, a middle sized city in Norway, in spring 2007. 367 students participated in the study, 55 of them had a non-western background. 24 % of boys and 41 % of girls stated that analgesics could be used whenever they experienced pain. Among these, 91 % had taken analgesics during the previous four weeks, among those who thought that analgesics should not be used 50 % had taken it. The girls reported episodes of pain more often than the boys, but analgesics were used to treat pain to the same extent by all students, irrelevant of sex and cultural background. 77 % of students with a western origin and 62 % of those from non-western countries felt free to use OTC-analgesics at home without asking for permission. 31 % of western girls got analgesics from their friends. 8.5 % bought medicines at the pharmacy and 7.1 % bought them in grocery shops. Information on how to alleviate pain with medicine was usually given by the parents. Teenagers in secondary school have different opinions on self-medication with OTC-analgesics. The parents assist their children in how to manage pain. 15 - 16 year-olds experience much pain, and mainly have free access to analgesics at home.

  8. In-School Neighborhood Youth Corps. 14/15 Year-Old Black Teenage Girl Project, Memphis, Tennessee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Andrew; And Others

    This study analyzes the effects on 14- and 15-year-old black teenage girls of entering and participating in a specially designed work program. The girls were provided with supports in their work settings, well-defined tasks, supervisors as well as regularly scheduled peer interaction groups led by a young black woman considered to be an…

  9. [Phyllodes tumor in a 12-year old teenage girl: about a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Issara, Karima; Houjami, Majdouline; Sahraoui, Souha; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Tawfiq, Nezha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are very rare and are exceptional in children and adolescents; their treatment is based on surgery and radiotherapy, with a good prognosis. We report the case of a 12-year old teenage girl presenting with a mass in the left breast. The diagnosis of a phyllodes tumor was confirmed on the basis of clinical, imaging and histological examinations. Treatment consisted of a large tumorectomy without adjuvant therapy, with good evolution during a 2-year follow-up.

  10. [Seduction and aversion: susceptibility and disincentive factors among 13 to 15 years old Bolivian teenagers].

    PubMed

    Hera-Fuentes, Gina La; Torres-Ruiz, Ricardo; Rada-Noriega, Jorge Dennis

    2017-01-01

    To analyze tobacco consumption susceptibility and disincentive factors among non-smoker teenagers in Bolivia. A secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted. A multivariate logistic regression was developed to estimate the relation between the susceptibility to smoke and social factors, smoking behaviour, and tobacco control policies. Susceptibility increases by: close smoker friends (OR=1.74); comfort perception when smoking on social events (OR=1.86); observing smokers in public places (OR=1.54); teenager's cigarettes promotion (OR=4.05); exposure to tobacco advertising (OR=2.08); and male teenagers (OR=2.00). Tobacco disincentives are parental information about smoking (OR=0.38) and health warning labels (OR=0.63). Bolivia requires, at minimum, to implement the other basic measures of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  12. [Self-medication with over-the-counter analgesics among 15-16 year-old teenagers].

    PubMed

    Lagerløv, Per; Holager, Tanja; Helseth, Sølvi; Rosvold, Elin O

    2009-08-13

    OTC analgesics were released for sale outside pharmacies in Norway in 2003. This study assesses indications and frequency of use of these drugs among 15-16 year-old teenagers in Norway after 2003. We developed a questionnaire, which contained 65 questions with one or more response options. This was given to all pupils in the final grade at six junior high schools in a town with 60,000 inhabitants (Drammen). 367 of 626 (58.6 %) pupils participated. 50 % of the boys and 71 % of the girls had used OTC analgesics during the last four weeks; 26 % of them on a daily or weekly basis. Girls experienced episodes of pain more frequently than boys, but the proportion of episodes treated with analgesics did not differ between the sexes. Headache and muscle pain were common. Half of those with severe headache/migraine used OTC analgesics on a daily or weekly basis. The teenagers reported several reasons for experiencing pain and discomfort, such as long time spent in front of various screens, tight time schedules with physical exercise and friends, drinking too little and much noise in the classroom. Use of OTC analgesics has increased considerably among Norwegian teenagers. Drug-induced headache may occur as an adverse event. If more effort is made to improve life situations that adolescents perceive as painful and a cause of discomfort, the need for OTC analgesics may be reduced.

  13. Effects of area and family deprivation on risk factors for teenage pregnancy among 13-15-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Smith, Debbie M; Elander, James

    2006-11-01

    Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 2x2 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13-15-year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.

  14. Vicinity of Schools, But Not of Residences, Seems to Regulate Physical and Sports Activities of 13-Year-Old Teenagers in a South European Setting.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Alexandre; Ramos, Elisabete; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Proximity to urban green spaces (UGS) and open sports spaces (OSS) benefits health, promotes physical activity (PA) and sports practice (SP). Analyze the association between PA or SP according to distances between UGS or OSS and teenagers' residences or schools. We evaluated 1333 (53.9% girls) teenagers (13 years old) living and studying in Porto, Portugal (EPITeen cohort). PA was classified as light or moderate/vigorous. Distances were the shortest routes from residences or schools to UGS/OSS, and classified in ≤250 m; >250 m to ≤500 m; >500 m to ≤750 m; >750 m. Chi-square test and chi-square for trends were used to compare proportions; associations were measured using logistic regression, through odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting to BMI and parental education. Regarding vicinity' of schools, the prevalence of moderate/vigorous PA among boys, decreases as distances to OSS increases. For girls, the prevalence of sports decreases as distances to UGS increase. For boys, we found an association between moderate/vigorous PA and proximity to OSS in the vicinity of schools: considering ≤250 m as reference, the odds of moderate/vigorous PA is 0.20 (0.06-0.63) for >250 m to ≤500 m; 0.21 (0.07-0.61) for >500 m to ≤750 m and 0.19 (0.06-0.58) for >750 m. Vicinities of schools seem to influence teenagers to be more physically active and increase sports participation.

  15. An Educology of Values Education: The Attitudes of Thirteen to Fifteen Year Old Teenagers Towards Spiritual Values--Priorities, Change and Some Pre-Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martisauskiene, Elvyda

    2002-01-01

    An analysis was conducted in Lithuania of teenager attitudes towards spiritual values which function in both micro- and macro-environments. The data obtained in this contemporary investigation were compared with those registered two decades ago, in the authoritarian type of society of that time. The focus of the study is on the peculiarities of…

  16. A cross-sectional study of opinions related to the tobacco industry and their association with smoking status amongst 14-15 year old teenagers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Paynter, Janine; Scragg, Robert

    2011-07-08

    New Zealand has been at the forefront of tobacco control and can boast an impressive range of tobacco control intervention. To date, tobacco control policy and interventions have directed very little attention to the tobacco industry because they concentrate on reducing demand for tobacco. In addition, the tobacco industry does not have a bold profile in the mass media. Given this low profile of the tobacco industry and the predominance of measures to reduce demand we were interested in teenage perceptions of the tobacco industry in New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 31,459 Year 10 students was obtained in 2006. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry and smoking outcomes were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Thirty-six percent of students disagreed that tobacco companies are responsible for people starting to smoke and 34% agreed that tobacco companies have equal right to sell cigarettes as other companies to sell their products. Female, Māori and students from low decile schools, who are all more likely to be smoking or have tried smoking, were more likely to show greater acceptance of the tobacco industry. Intention to smoke was associated with the belief that tobacco industry is not responsible for smoking initiation (odds ratio 1.7, p<0.001), and that the tobacco industry is legitimate and credible (odds ratio 2.9, p<0.001). Tolerant attitudes towards the tobacco industry were strongly associated with intentions to smoke and current smoking amongst teenagers.

  17. Phase 1 and Phase 2 Studies of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A O-Specific Polysaccharide-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugates in Adults, Teenagers, and 2- to 4-Year-Old Children in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Konadu, Edward Y.; Lin, Feng-Ying C.; Hó, Vô Anh; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Van Bay, Phan; Thanh, Tran Cong; Khiem, Ha Ba; Trach, Dang Duc; Karpas, Arthur B.; Li, Jianping; Bryla, Dolores A.; Robbins, John B.; Szu, Shousun C.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT1) or directly (SPA-TT2). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709–2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in ≥80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT2 elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT1 in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT2 was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  18. Long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on behavior dysregulation among 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia

    2012-04-01

    In this prospective study, we examined the long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) on behavioral dysregulation (BD) in the offspring of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers (mean age = 16; range = 12-18; 70% African American) were interviewed about their tobacco use during pregnancy. Offspring were followed to age 14 years (n = 318). Indices of BD outcomes included aggression, rule breaking, externalizing, social problems, attention, distractibility and activity. Multiple measures and multiple informants were used for each construct. Regression analyses were conducted to test if PCSE predicted the BD outcomes, adjusting for demographic and maternal psychological characteristics, and for prenatal exposure to other substances. Independent effects of PCSE were found. Exposed offspring had more aggressive, social, and externalizing problems on both the maternal report and the adolescent self-report measures. They were more active, had more attention problems and greater difficulty with distraction and task orientation. Most PCSE effects were found from first trimester exposure and from exposure to as few as 10 cigarettes per day. These results are consistent with previous findings in this cohort when offspring were 6 and 10 years old, demonstrating that the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure can be identified early and persist into adolescence.

  19. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  20. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Your ... this. At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

  1. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  2. Peer Regulation of Teenage Sexual Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Deborah; Tincknell, Estella; Van Loon, Joost

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the teenage policing of heterosexuality in schools and contributes to debates about teenage sexual moralities and heterosexual male agency. It reports on a qualitative study in England of the collective sexual values of 12- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 15-year-olds. Focus group interviews indicated that pupils developed a…

  3. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  4. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  5. Summer Options for Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Cindy

    This guide to more than 1,000 summer programs for teenagers encompasses recreational and academic programs sponsored by colleges, universities, independent schools, foundations, museums, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit businesses. Every program listed accepts students age 13-18; some programs also accept participants older or younger.…

  6. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  7. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  8. Two-Years-Old Play and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Don; Segal, Marilyn

    This guide for parents discusses social competence in 2-year-old children, drawing upon anecdotal data to provide a sampling of 2-year-old children's social behavior and their parents' child rearing techniques. The data were collected from questionnaires, telephone interviews, and home visits in a 12-month study of the interactions of 86…

  9. Two-Years-Old Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Don; Segal, Marilyn

    This guide for parents discusses social competence in 2-year-old children, drawing upon anecdotal data to provide a sampling of 2-year-old children's social behavior and their parents' child rearing techniques. The data were collected from questionnaires, telephone interviews, and home visits in a 12-month study of the interactions of 86…

  10. Two-Years-Old Play and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Don; Segal, Marilyn

    This guide for parents discusses social competence in 2-year-old children, drawing upon anecdotal data to provide a sampling of 2-year-old children's social behavior and their parents' child rearing techniques. The data were collected from questionnaires, telephone interviews, and home visits in a 12-month study of the interactions of 86…

  11. Can a 70-Year-Old Have the Arteries of A 20-Year-Old?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166076.html Can a 70-Year-Old Have the Arteries of a 20-Year-Old? It's possible, but hard work ... having the clear, supple, healthy blood vessels of a 20-year-old in your 70s. It's possible, ...

  12. Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet ... Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old Page Content Article Body Think back to your child’s infancy and early toddler months. That was a ...

  13. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol.

  14. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006–10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15–19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child’s third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as “single mothers” are actually in cohabiting relationships. PMID:25972620

  15. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.

  16. An exploration of pregnant teenagers' views of the future and their decisions to continue or terminate their pregnancy: implications for nursing care.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily R; Glover, Lesley; Alexander, Tim

    2014-09-01

    To explore teenagers' views of the future in relation to their choices to continue or terminate pregnancy. Despite recent decreases in the numbers of teenage pregnancies, across the world, the teenage pregnancy rate remains high. Consideration of views of the future (future orientation) appears to play an important part in teenage girls' decisions to continue with pregnancy. To date, no study has explored this in teenage pregnant girls at the time they make their decision to continue with or terminate their pregnancy. Cross-sectional mixed methods design. Three groups were included: termination of pregnancy (n = 19), antenatal (n = 9) and never pregnant (n = 23). Participants were 13-18 years old. The termination of pregnancy and antenatal groups were interviewed, and the never pregnant group completed postal questionnaires. Groups differed in individual aspects of future orientation, that is, education, career and family, and reasons for pregnancy resolution choice. The termination group had more clearly developed and longer-term plans for the future with a focus on career. The never pregnant group shared aspects of their future orientation with both the antenatal and termination of pregnancy groups. The impact of negative discourses about teenage pregnancy from others was identified as a significant issue. How pregnant teenage girls view the future has a relationship with their decision to terminate or continue with their pregnancy. The findings suggest that working with teenage girls to clarify their views of the future may be useful both in preventing future unwanted pregnancy and in supporting teenagers in making pregnancy decisions. Supporting pregnant teenagers in distancing themselves from negative stereotypes of teenage mothers may also be beneficial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 10 CFR 13.18 - Authority of the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority of the ALJ. 13.18 Section 13.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.18 Authority of the ALJ. (a) The ALJ shall conduct a fair and impartial hearing, avoid delay, maintain order, and assure that a record of the proceeding...

  18. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  19. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  20. Thirteen for Thirteen-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2011

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to reach a middle school reader? Literacy expert Laura Robb recently shared her top strategies in a webcast for Scholastic fans. This article presents Robb's 13 strategies for thirteen-year-olds. These are: (1) Respect students' search for self; (2) Embrace blogging; (3) Send texts in class; (4) Take words apart; (5) Build…

  1. [Schooling for Four Year Olds in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Michael

    The California State Department of Education provides part-day comprehensive development programs for 3- to 5-year-olds from low income families. The programs include educational development, health services, social services, nutrition services, parent education and participation, evaluation, and staff development. The state requires that all…

  2. Public School for Four-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that good quality public schooling can be made available to four-year-old children if teachers are adequately trained, if teachers have adequate support, and if there is a consensus on the reason for having schools for these children. (BB)

  3. Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

  4. Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-18-318.13-20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 318.13-18-318.13-20 Section 318.13-18-318.13-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  6. Targetting Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue of the Bernard van Leer Foundation newsletter focuses on the problem of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood in developing and developed nations, and examines the problems that teenage mothers face in different societies. It explores societal norms and values related to teenage parenting; the effects of teenage parents on…

  7. Independent Christian Schools and Pupil Values: An Empirical Investigation among 13-15-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen independent Christian schools participated in the teenage religion and values survey, contributing to the overall database of nearly 34,000 Year 9 and Year 10 pupils. The present analysis demonstrates that 13-15-year-old boys educated within independent Christian schools display a distinctive values profile, in comparison with pupils…

  8. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-11-18

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    PubMed

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  10. 7. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY PROPERTY SECTIONS 13, 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'QUINCY PROPERTY SECTIONS 13, 18, 23, 24,25, & 26,' C. 1910. SHOWS PROPERTY PURCHASES, SHAFT ROUTES, PLUS STOPED-OUT GROUND. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  11. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  12. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-02-01

    Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots. Accident rates, medical parameters, autopsy findings, and toxicological findings from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) general aviation (GA) accident database were analyzed to assess potential risk factors with accident outcomes. During 2003-2012, there were 114 (113 men, 1 woman) general aviation fatal accidents involving pilots ages 70 to 92 yr. A combination of 3 or more drugs were found in 13 (13%) of deceased pilots. The most frequent drugs were first generation antihistamines and antidepressants represented the next highest proportion of possible performance-affecting medications. This study indicates that there are critical medical factors that may contribute to fatal accidents among elderly pilots. Polypharmacy use should be taken into consideration, especially during periodic health examinations and fatal aviation investigations involving elderly pilots.Vuorio A, Asmayawati S, Budowle B, Griffiths R, Strandberg T, Kuoppala J, Sajantila A. General aviation pilots over 70 years old. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):142-145.

  13. Communication and Your 13-to 18-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old KidsHealth > ... games, and talking about current events. Vocabulary and Communication Teens essentially communicate as adults, with increasing maturity ...

  14. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old A A A Kids ... skills are appropriate for this age. By age 2, toddlers should be able to walk and run ...

  15. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old A A A The toddler months ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  16. Hepatoblastoma in an 11-year-old

    PubMed Central

    Pateva, Irina B.; Egler, Rachel A.; Stearns, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignancy. Approximately 100 cases are diagnosed yearly in the United States. The highest incidence occurs in infants and in children younger than 5 years. Cases involving patients older than 5 years are very rare. We describe the case of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma at an atypical age of presentation for this type of malignancy. We also performed Ovid MEDLINE search for hepatoblastoma and epidemiology reports occurring in children between the ages of 5 and 18 years. In this article we review the epidemiology and summarize case reports published between 1997 and 2012 of patients with hepatoblastoma, who were older than 5 years. Patient concerns and diagnosis: Our patient is an 11 year old boy with stage IV hepatoblastoma with lung and omental metastases at diagnosis. Interventions: The patient received 7 cycles of chemotherapy following the treatment plan of COG protocol AHEP 0731, off study. He also had tumor resection and omentectomy and achieved complete remission. Outcomes: He later had disease recurrence and after undergoing treatment with different modalities, ultimately died of his disease. Review of SEER program data shows that the incidence of hepatoblastoma in children above the age of 5 years is too infrequent to be calculated. Literature review revealed 13 cases of patients diagnosed at age older than 5 years. Most cases were published due to unusual associations and/or complications. There are no obvious unifying characteristics for these cases, although there may be a slight male preponderance and many patients in this selected series presented with elevated Alpha-fetoprotein. Lessons: The reported case is rare, given the very low incidence of hepatoblastoma outside of infancy. A systematic review of characteristics and outcomes for patients older than 5 years who are enrolled in cooperative group hepatoblastoma trials may reveal important information about the epidemiology and tumor

  17. Teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  18. Motor vehicle fatal crash profiles of 13-15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Tison, Julie

    2012-04-01

    The goal was to provide a description of fatal crashes involving 13-15-year-old drivers and passengers. Information was obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2005-2009. The 1,994 passenger deaths during the 2005-2009 period far exceeded the number of driver deaths (299) or the number of drivers in fatal crashes (744). Passenger deaths occurring with teenage drivers, particularly 16-17-year-olds, increased with passenger age. Most 13-15-year-old drivers in crashes were driving either with no license or permit (63%), or with a permit but without required adult presence (10 percent). Fatal crashes involving illegal driving were most likely to involve high-risk actions such as speeding and nonuse of belts. Supervised learners were few in number (about 12 per year) and had the lowest rates of high-risk actions. The main issues for 13-15-year-olds' motor vehicle deaths are passenger deaths and driving without a license or adult supervision. Parents, pediatricians, and others need to recognize the increase in motor vehicle occupant deaths that occurs in the early teen years. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A 17-Year-Old Girl With Acute Onset of Hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael; Ciorciari, Anthony J; Cunningham, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    The presentation of acute-onset hemiparesis in a teenager can be challenging and offers a wide differential diagnosis. We discuss the approach to the patient (which should begin with thorough history taking and physical examination) and advanced imaging as directed by the patient's signs and symptoms. We report the case of an otherwise well 17-year-old girl who presented to the pediatric emergency department with a 2-day history of left-sided weakness and difficulty ambulating. Her eventual diagnosis of Balo concentric sclerosis, a rare form of multiple sclerosis, is discussed.

  20. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  1. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  2. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  3. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  4. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  5. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  6. Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

  7. Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

  8. An 18-year-old man with recurrent pneumothorax since he was 10-year-old.

    PubMed

    Demir, Meral; Çobanoğlu, Nazan

    2016-12-01

    An 18-year-old male patient was referred to the department of pediatric pulmonology with a history of recurrent pneumothorax. Initial pneumothorax occurred at the age of 10. Following diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema, he had five episodes of pneumothorax and subsequently underwent right-lower lobe anterobasal segmentectomy. Based on thoracic computed tomography (CT) and clinical manifestation, Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome was suspected and confirmed following genetic testing. BHD syndrome is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome first described in 1977. The syndrome is characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cell cancer. The underlying cause is a germline mutation in the folliculin (FLCN) gene located on chromosome 17p11.2. Clinical manifestation usually appears after the age of 20 years. In this case, we report a case of BHD with episodes of recurrent pneumothorax, the first of which occurred at the age of 10 years. Pulmonologists should be aware of this syndrome in patients with a personal and family history of pneumothoraces and CT findings of multiple pulmonary cysts as additional evaluation and testing may be warranted. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E41-E43. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  10. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  11. Validation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents in Norwegian adolescents 13-18 years.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, Gørill

    2017-08-14

    Resilience is seen as a vital resource for coping and mental health in adolescents. However, there is no universally accepted theory or definition of resilience, leading to considerable challenges regarding how to operationalise and measure this construct. The study aimed at providing further knowledge of the psychometric properties (dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency) of the 28-item version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in N = 1183 Norwegian adolescents, 13-18 years old. Dimensionality of READ was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity and reliability were tested using Pearson's correlation analysis, Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability. The CFA supported a modified, 20-item, five-factor structure with high reliability, supporting the dimensionality and internal consistency of the instrument. Convergent validity was confirmed where all factors correlated in expected directions with measures of sense of coherence, self-esteem, stress and depression. The psychometric properties of the READ need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however, the results indicate that a modified 20-item version of READ is adequate for assessing resilience in the present sample of Norwegian adolescents. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  13. Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  14. Characteristics of molar pregnancy in a 12 year old.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, G. W.

    1996-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease rarely is reported in early teens. This article describes a 12-year-old black female with molar disease, in which the characteristics and treatment are not dissimilar from adults. PMID:8990807

  15. Complex Motor Learning in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, K. A.; Fowler, W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of 4 months of gymnostic training upon complex and simple gross motor abilities and general cognitive and psychosocial functioning in 4-year-olds were compared with the effects of music training and no treatment. (WY)

  16. Growth and Your 13-to 18-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Male Reproductive System Your Child's Checkup: 14 Years Your Child's Checkup: ... Understanding Puberty Your Child's Checkup: 17 Years Female Reproductive System Fitness and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old ...

  17. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...

  18. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep disorders, bedwetting, strep throat , and colds . Some preteens also may be injured playing sports or other ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Connecting With Your Preteen Fitness and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old ...

  19. Neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Ellen; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-01-01

    To characterize neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children. Out of 30 children, 26 cognitively normal 10-year-old public school students answered tests extracted from Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Children's Revision. The study was transversal. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were carried out. Most of the 10-year-old children retold a story (69.2%), understood it making correct inference (84.6%) and reproduced it adequately in writing (76.9%)--14.9% was the average number of incorrectly written words and 0.179 was the errors per written word coefficient. Besides, 53.8% showed logical thought process and 73.1% had a correct notion of "x more than...". They got five out of eight in the visuo-spatial test, an intermediary result. These results show that the tertiary areas of units II and III are developed in most 10-year-old children. The most frequent types of written mistakes were: oral influence (26.3%), multiple representation (22.5%) and omission (18.4%). As to coding principles, the mostly uncomplied with rule was vowel nasalization at end of syllable (23,53%). Ten-year-old children in the studied population understood and reproduced a story orally and in writing with a low coefficient error/word. The majority completed the visuospatial tests and presented logical thought process. When "x more than..." notion is absent it may be an indicator that all is not well in the reading/writing process.

  20. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  1. Teenage pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - teenage pregnancy ... the baby. If you decide to continue the pregnancy, it is important to have good prenatal care. ... trimester is the first 3 months of your pregnancy. During this time, you will have a prenatal ...

  2. Social inequalities and dental caries in six-year-old children from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, Justin T; Kragt, Lea; Elfrink, Marlies E C; Bertens, Loes C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of different socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with dental caries in six-year-old children. Furthermore, we applied a district based approach to explore the distribution of dental caries among districts of low and high socioeconomic position (SEP). In our cross-sectional study 5189 six-year-olds were included. This study was embedded in a prospective population-based birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, the Generation R Study. Parental education level, parental employment status, net household income, single parenting, and teenage pregnancy were considered as indicators for SEP. Dental caries was scored on intraoral photographs by using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index. We compared children without caries (dmft=0) to children with mild caries (dmft=1-3) or severe caries (dmft >3). Multinomial logistic regression analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between SEP and caries, and between district and caries, respectively. Only maternal education level remained significantly associated with mild caries after adjusting for all other SEP-indicators. Paternal educational level, parental employment status, and household income additionally served as independent indicators of SEP in children with severe caries. Furthermore, living in more disadvantaged districts was significantly associated with higher odds of dental caries. Dental caries is more prevalent among six-year-old children with a low SEP, which is also visible at the district level. Maternal educational level is the most important indicator of SEP in the association with caries. Our results should raise concerns about the existing social inequalities in dental caries and should encourage development of dental caries prevention strategies. New knowledge about the distribution of oral health inequalities between districts should be used to target the right audience

  3. Responses to televised alcohol advertisements associated with drinking behaviour of 10-17-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, A; Zhang, J F; Casswell, S

    1998-03-01

    To examine the nature of the relationships between 10-17-year-old New Zealanders' responses to alcohol advertisements and their drinking behaviour and future drinking expectations, with consideration also being given to the role of positive and negative beliefs about drinking. Survey involving 500 face-to-face interviews, with selection based on random cluster sampling. In respondents' homes in New Zealand's three largest urban areas. Ten-17-year-old New Zealanders. Response to specific alcohol advertisements was measured by recalled exposure (how often they recalled having seen the advertisements) and liking (a measure of positive response). An exploratory structural equation model provided tentative support for the theory-based hypothesis that positive responses to beer advertisements increased the frequency of current drinking and expected future drinking, among this age group. There was no evidence for the hypothesized reciprocal effects; the frequency of drinking (including non-drinking) did not significantly affect the respondent's liking of beer advertisements. There was also no support for a hypothesis that linking of the beer advertisements was a product of a general liking for alcohol. Many of the young people themselves felt that alcohol advertising encouraged teenagers to drink. This was especially the case among 10-13-year-old males, who were the most likely to accept the portrayals in alcohol advertising as realistic. Although there are limitations on the confidence with which conclusions can be drawn, the findings are consistent with qualitative and quantitative research and different theoretical perspectives on advertising processes which suggest alcohol advertising is likely to have some influence on young people.

  4. [Sexuality in children 9-14 years old].

    PubMed

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, María Dolores

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze sexual behaviors and attitudes of children 9-14 years old in Spain. In this article we present data from 470 children of which 52% are boys and 48% girls. In order to evaluate the sample, Information, Attitudes and Behaviors related to Health Questionnaire (CIACS-II) was used. Results evidence that boys 9 years old already show behaviors that evidence their interest towards sexuality. 8% have sometimes masturbated and 9% have used pornography for becoming excited. 14% of children 11-12 years old have already had sexual relations and 38% state to have sexual fantasies. Girls start to masturbate and to have sexual relations later than boys and show a prevalence of sexual fantasies and use of pornography very lower. It is necessary sexual education programs to be implanted since early ages in schools.

  5. Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch?

    PubMed

    Lanza, E

    1992-10-01

    Sociolinguists have investigated language mixing as code-switching in the speech of bilingual children three years old and older. Language mixing by bilingual two-year-olds, however, has generally been interpreted in the child language literature as a sign of the child's lack of language differentiation. The present study applies perspectives from sociolinguistics to investigate the language mixing of a bilingual two-year-old acquiring Norwegian and English simultaneously in Norway. Monthly recordings of the child's spontaneous speech in interactions with her parents were made from the age of 2;0 to 2;7. An investigation into the formal aspects of the child's mixing and the context of the mixing reveals that she does differentiate her language use in contextually sensitive ways, hence that she can code-switch. This investigation stresses the need to examine more carefully the roles of dominance and context in the language mixing of young bilingual children.

  6. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12–18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers. PMID:21279428

  7. Fitness and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... t Like Sports Communication and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old What If I Don't Like Sports? Can Kids With Asthma Play Sports? Five Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries 5 Reasons Girls Should Play Sports Nutrition & Fitness Center Be a ...

  8. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  9. Emerging Understanding of Patterning in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; McLean, Laura E.; McEldoon, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Young children have an impressive amount of mathematics knowledge, but past psychological research has focused primarily on their number knowledge. Preschoolers also spontaneously engage in a form of early algebraic thinking-patterning. In the current study, we assessed 4-year-old children's knowledge of repeating patterns on two occasions…

  10. Hypersexuality in a 28-year-old woman with rabies.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurgan, Namasivayam; Sweni, Shah; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-12-01

    Unusual clinical presentations of rabies are well known. A case of rabies is reported in a 28-year-old female who presented with features of increased sexual desire and heightened sexual arousal without provocation. Health care providers should be aware that marked changes in sexual behavior may be related to infection due to rabies.

  11. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  12. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  13. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  14. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  15. Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. PMID:16808233

  16. Rhinoscleroma in a 5-year-old Portuguese Child.

    PubMed

    Simão, Inês; Gaspar, Iuri; Faustino, Rosário; Brito, Maria João Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is rare in Western Europe. We report the case of a 5-year-old Portuguese boy diagnosed with rhinoscleroma in the context of recurrent epistaxis. He had a 6-month course of antibiotic (amoxicillin plus clavulanate) therapy with full recovery.

  17. Giant parapox infection in a two year old child.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M; Bale, P; De Silva, L M; Glasson, M J; Collins, E

    1989-01-01

    We report the case of a two year old boy who developed a large tumour on his face. The lesion resembled a pyogenic granuloma clinically and histologically. Viral studies indicated a parapox infection and a bovine source was supported on epidemiological grounds. The lesion was removed by shave excision and the area healed without significant scarring.

  18. The Perceptions of Five Years Old Group Students' about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeynep Et, Sümeyra; Memis, Esra Kabatas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal the perceptions of students of five years old group about scientists. The practice was implemented with 76 students having education in five-age group continuing to various nursery schools located in the center of Kastamonu province. Before starting the practice, the teacher asked the questions of…

  19. A 4-year-old Nigerian boy with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-06-01

    A four year old with a diagnosis of congenital infection leading to cerebral palsy is presented. The patient instead has a condition called Leukoencephalopathy with bilateral temporal lobe cysts which can be differentiated from congenital CMV by the clinical and MRI findings.

  20. Acquired acral lipodystrophy in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, Laura; Vercellesi, Paolo; Corona, Fabrizia; Forzenigo, Laura; Gelmetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of partial lipodystrophy in a 6-year-old girl with normal lipid and glucose metabolism and no family history for similar disorders. The clinical presentation, the laboratory investigations and the natural history in our patient do not match the diagnostic criteria for any of the established lipodystrophy subsets.

  1. Dental anxiety and temperament in 15-year olds.

    PubMed

    Stenebrand, Agneta; Wide Boman, Ulla; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of dental anxiety and its association with temperament, sociodemographic factors and previous painful and unpleasant experiences of dental care among 15-year old individuals. The sample included 263 randomly selected 15-year old individuals living in the municipality of Jönköping, Sweden. The school, parental and adolescent consent was acquired. Three self-reported questionnaires were used, one included items of sociodemography, while the others dealt with dental anxiety assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and temperament assessed by an adapted version of The EAS Temperament Survey for Children modified for adults, the EASI temperament survey. The results showed that 6.5% of the adolescents were classified as dentally anxious and with girls proportionally more fearful than boys. The three temperaments activity, impulsivity and emotionality were significantly correlated with dental anxiety. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that pain at the last dental appointment or previous pain experiences during dental care treatment were the strongest predictors regarding dental anxiety in 15-year olds. The temperament dimensions activity and impulsivity were also significantly predictive of dental anxiety. Although some of the temperament dimensions are correlated with dental anxiety, which may emphasize an important finding with regard to personality, this study showed that previous pain experiences during dental care treatment is a strong predictor for high dental anxiety in 15-year olds.

  2. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  3. Giant urethral calculus in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Rivilla, F; Luis, A; Llanos, D; Ruiz, A

    2008-12-01

    Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. Primary urethral calculi are extremely infrequent in females. We describe a case of a giant urethral stone impacted in a 6-year-old girl.

  4. [Cystic fibrosis in a 70-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Bruun, Lene Søndberg; Jensen, Michael Skov

    2002-05-06

    Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in early childhood, and patients rarely live beyond the age of 40. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman, in whom cystic fibrosis was diagnosed with the rare mutation, R117C. Cystic fibrosis should therefore also be considered in older patients.

  5. Prekindergarten Public School Program for Four-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Standard guidelines are presented by the Oregon Department of Education for a prekindergarten public school program for 4-year-olds. The program emphasizes helping teachers work with parents at home and at school to form an effective team in building a child's self-concept, self-confidence and communicative skills. Each curriculum area is…

  6. Mathematics Skills of Nine-Year-Olds: 1978 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloosterman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using recently released data from the Long-Term Trend Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress, this study analyzed the mathematics performance of 9-year-old students between 1978 and 2004. The study goes beyond overall results by describing the assessment items and the change over time on each of those items. The data…

  7. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  8. Two-year-olds can socially learn to think divergently.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Powell, Stephanie; Knight, Jenny; Norwood, Megan

    2017-08-09

    This study aimed to discover whether 2-year-olds can socially learn to think divergently. Two-year-olds (N = 22) who saw an experimenter model a high level of divergent thinking on the Unusual Box Test (modelling 25 different actions, once each) went on to demonstrate a higher level of divergent thinking themselves than (N = 22) children who saw a low level of modelling (five different actions, once each), where divergent thinking was measured by the number of different actions children produced that had not been modelled by the experimenter. Additionally, all children in both High and Low Divergence conditions had higher divergent thinking than imitation scores, where imitation involved copying the experimenter's previous actions. This is the first experiment to show that 2-year-olds' divergent thinking can be increased, and that 2-year-olds do so by socially learning to think more divergently. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Recent research found that children as young as 1 year can think divergently, and that this is influenced by parents' own divergent thinking. What does this study add? This paper is important as it provides the first method to increase divergent thinking in toddlers. It also shows that social learning can directly affect individual learning processes, which suggests current theories of social and individual learning should be revised to be more iterative. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Five-Year-Olds' Fascination for Television: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…

  10. Distance Education Needs for 16 to 19 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Hugh; Krzemionka, Zofia

    A study examined the distance education needs of a specific subgroup of the off-campus population: 16- to 19-year-olds. It set out to determine: reasons for this group's choosing to study in the external mode; the nature and extent of required provision of external education; special curriculum, delivery, counseling, and support needs; and…

  11. Concepts of Romance in 15-Year-Old Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Examined 15-year olds' descriptions of dating partners and romance. Dating experiences were brief in duration, though intense in frequency of contact. Affiliative qualities more than attachment qualities characterized their conscious views of romance. Girls were more likely than boys to mention interpersonal qualities, while boys were more likely…

  12. Two-Year-Olds Compute Syntactic Structure On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Savita; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Millotte, Severine; Christophe, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Syntax allows human beings to build an infinite number of new sentences from a finite stock of words. Because toddlers typically utter only one or two words at a time, they have been thought to have no syntax. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we demonstrated that 2-year-olds do compute syntactic structure when listening to spoken sentences.…

  13. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  14. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  15. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  16. Identification of 180 million years old, probably unchanged melanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyermann, K.; Hasenmaier, D.

    1977-01-01

    The comparison of the infrared spectra of recent sepia melanine and of the content of the ink sac of fossilized cuttlefish indicates that the 180 million years old substance is unchanged melanine. Both substances behave identically on heating. Other procedures for identification of melanine are surveyed critically.

  17. Introducing 12 Year-Olds to Elementary Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a new learning unit, which introduces 12 year-olds to the subatomic structure of matter. The learning unit was iteratively developed as a design-based research project using the technique of probing acceptance. We give a brief overview of the unit's final version, discuss its key ideas and main concepts, and conclude by highlighting the…

  18. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  19. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  20. Enterobius vermicularis in a 14-year-old girl's eye.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther; Awender, Erich; Geller, Robert; Miller, Terry; Scheetz, Gayle; Arguello, Heather; Weisenberg, Scott A; Pritt, Bobbi

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the nares and ocular orbit of a 14-year-old girl in Illinois. Only one other similar case has been reported in the English-language literature.

  1. Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

  2. Five-Year-Olds' Fascination for Television: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…

  3. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  4. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  5. Two-Year-Olds Compute Syntactic Structure On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Savita; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Millotte, Severine; Christophe, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Syntax allows human beings to build an infinite number of new sentences from a finite stock of words. Because toddlers typically utter only one or two words at a time, they have been thought to have no syntax. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we demonstrated that 2-year-olds do compute syntactic structure when listening to spoken sentences.…

  6. Localized secondary erythromelalgia in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Hui; Wang, Ming-Jun; Luo, Di-Qing; Lin, Qing

    2013-01-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy with localized secondary erythromelalgia on his left medial thigh. The episodes responded well to indomethacin and prednisone but recurred after the medications were stopped. The disease was stable after being treated for 5 months. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  8. Gender, Popularity and Notions of In/Authenticity amongst 12-Year-Old to 13-Year-Old School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural…

  9. Gender, Popularity and Notions of In/Authenticity amongst 12-Year-Old to 13-Year-Old School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural…

  10. Resiliency: A Comparison of Construct Definitions Arising from Conversations with 9 Year Old - 12 Year Old Children and Their Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, John; Johnson, Bruce; Howard, Sue; McGuire, Alex

    Much research has focused on the concept of resilience, which is defined as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging circumstances. To examine resilience in school children, small group interviews were conducted with 9-12 year-old children (N=125) drawn from five primary schools in South Australia. The…

  11. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  12. Dietary patterns at 4 years old: Association with appetite-related eating behaviours in 7 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Lopes, Carla; Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, Andreia

    2016-12-02

    A possible relationship between children's dietary intake and certain aspects of eating behaviours has been documented, but most studies are cross-sectional and do not consider the complexity of the diet. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns established at 4 years old and appetite-related eating behaviours identified at 7 years old. Participants are children from the Generation XXI population-based birth cohort. Trained interviewers collected data at birth, 4 and 7 years old on socio-demographics, health and lifestyles, and anthropometrics. At 4 years old, diet was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and three dietary patterns were identified by Latent Class Analysis: 'Healthier', 'Snacking' and 'Energy Dense Foods' (EDF). A Portuguese version of the original Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was self-completed by mothers at 7 year-old. This version has previously shown good psychometric properties and the 8 CEBQ sub-domains were combined into two wider dimensions: Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations after adjustment for maternal characteristics (n = 4358). Interaction effects were tested. Children belonging to the 'Snacking' (β = 0.329, 95%CI: 0.265; 0.393) and to the 'EDF' (β = 0.138, 95%CI: 0.098; 0.179) dietary patterns at 4 years old scored increasingly higher, respectively, on Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition dimensions at 7 years old, comparatively to children in the 'Healthier' dietary pattern. Maternal BMI before pregnancy modified the 'Snacking' pattern associations; they were stronger in children from underweight/normal weight mothers for Appetite Restraint and present only among overweight/obese mothers for Appetite Disinhibition. This study suggests that children following less healthy dietary patterns early in life have more often disordered eating behaviours in later childhood. Maternal

  13. Video Games vs. Reading and School/Cognitive Performances: A Study on 27000 Middle School Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieury, Alain; Lorant, Sonia; Trosseille, Bruno; Champault, Françoise; Vourc'h, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Video games are a very common leisure activity among teenagers and the aim of this study is to analyse their relations with cognitive and school performances. This study is part of a broad survey, conducted on 27,000 French teenagers (14.5 years old) in middle school (9th grade). The survey contained both a questionnaire on leisure activities…

  14. Video Games vs. Reading and School/Cognitive Performances: A Study on 27000 Middle School Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieury, Alain; Lorant, Sonia; Trosseille, Bruno; Champault, Françoise; Vourc'h, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Video games are a very common leisure activity among teenagers and the aim of this study is to analyse their relations with cognitive and school performances. This study is part of a broad survey, conducted on 27,000 French teenagers (14.5 years old) in middle school (9th grade). The survey contained both a questionnaire on leisure activities…

  15. Resistant retinoblastoma in a 23-year-old patient

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Yacoub A.; Istetieh, Jihad; Nawaiseh, Ibrahim; Al-Hussaini, Maysa; Alrawashdeh, Khalil; Jaradat, Imad; Sultan, Iyad; Mehyar, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a very rare disease in adults. We are reporting a rare case of resistant retinoblastoma in 23-year-old patient. A 23-year-old male patient presented with loss of vision in the right eye over one-month duration. Examination showed an epiretinal membrane in the right macula in addition to a white mass located inferiorly and associated with vitreous seeds. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma was established. In order to save the patient's life and to preserve the eye and vision, he was treated with chemotherapy, focal therapy, and radioactive Iodine125 plaque therapy. The tumor was resistant for treatment and recurred two years after plaque therapy, and enucleation showed well-differentiated retinoblastoma. Retinoblastoma may present in adults, and it was resistant to both chemotherapy and plaque radiation therapy in our case. PMID:25378879

  16. Helping a 10-year-old Haitian girl with vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Leveille-Tulce, Anne Marie B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate how nurses who work with Haitian children and families can use NANDA-I (diagnosis), the Nursing Outcomes Classification, and the Nursing Interventions Classification to assist a 10-year-old child with symptoms of vaginitis. The case study derives from the author's experience and literature sources. This case study demonstrates a nurse's clinical decision making while providing care to a 10-year-old girl with symptoms of vaginitis. Increased knowledge and awareness about appropriate health behaviors can increase patients' power and enable them to freely act and adopt health behaviors to improve health outcomes. Placing patients at the center of the nursing process and partnering with patients to plan and develop interventions enable them to take actions and improve health outcomes. © 2013 NANDA International.

  17. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27004208

  18. Determinants of loneliness in Jerusalem's 70-year-old population.

    PubMed

    Stessman, J; Ginsberg, G; Klein, M; Hammerman-Rozenberg, R; Friedman, R; Cohen, A

    1996-08-01

    This study aims to find the determinants of feelings of loneliness in 70 year olds living in Jerusalem. Results based on home interviews (n = 605) of a 40% systematic sample of 70 year olds in the electoral register showed that around 46.3% of females and 21.3% of males reported being lonely. Persons of European/North American origin felt less lonely than those of Asian or African origin, probably due to the former's wider social support network, perceiving friends, neighbors or other relatives as being available to back up children in an emergency. The major factors associated with loneliness were: being depressed, having a poor self-assessed health status, not attending synagogue, and being widowed but not remarried. Factors that did not reduce loneliness included having paid employment, watching TV or listening to the radio. No association was found between cognitive status and loneliness. Our systems model suggests a strong reciprocal relationship between loneliness and depression.

  19. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Bindu; Sharma, Sunil; Agarwal, Prateek; Bhamboo, Amit; Rastogi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Buccal bony expansion and a missing tooth is the most common clinical feature. Various treatment modalities have been mentioned in the literature for management of dentigerous cysts. This article presents a left mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Marsupialization was the treatment of choice and a denturelike space maintainer was provided. Long-term follow-up revealed good healing of the bony lesion. How to cite this article Bhardwaj B, Sharma S, Chitlangia P, Agarwal P, Bhamboo A, Rastogi K. Mandibular Dentigerous Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3): 281-284. PMID:27843264

  20. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature.

  1. Infected mediastinal bronchogenic cyst in a 12 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, M; Wolf, F; Stadlhuber, R J; Ficker, J H; Stein, H J

    2012-04-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are an uncommon congenital malformation deriving from the primitive foregut. They are mainly unilocular, and respiratory distress is the most common presentation in pediatric patients. We describe the case of a 12-year-old girl with a huge infected mediastinal bronchogenic cyst which was resected via an axillary muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Heart Health...Your Choice. 11-14 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated booklet is to teach 11-14 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The guide is designed to promote changes in eating patterns, to show children how to switch to good eating…

  3. A Five-Year-Old Child with Renal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Moroni, Samanta; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; García Bournissen, Facundo; Altcheh, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Clinical manifestations include cyst formation, most commonly in the liver (67–89%) and lungs (10–15%). Renal localizations are rare. We report a case of renal hydatidosis in a five-year-old child treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Argentina. After the diagnosis was made, elective surgery was performed, which led to a rapid recovery. PMID:23897992

  4. A 15 year old boy with a posterior fossa tumor.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin M; Ranger, Adrianna; Lee, Donald H; Hammond, Robert R

    2009-04-01

    A 15 year old male presented with hydrocephalus from a tectal mass obstructing the cerebral aqueduct and upper fourth ventricle. The solid-cystic partly enhancing mass proved to be a pigmented pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, the third such example reported. The lesion revealed typical features of a PXA with the unusual addition of intracytoplasmic melanin in select lesional cells. Melanin pigment production is uncommon in glial tumors and of uncertain significance. The present case is recurrence-free one year post-operatively.

  5. Interrupted aorta diagnosed in a 51-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Nik; Bullock, Andrew; Erickson, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    A 51-year-old lady presented with increasing heart failure symptoms and palpitations. She had recently been diagnosed with a congenital ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, and Eisenmenger's syndrome. There was clinical evidence of right heart failure and differential clubbing and cyanosis affecting the feet but not hands. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated interruption of the aortic arch beyond the left subclavian artery, with the descending aorta perfused entirely through a large patent ductus arteriosus.

  6. Introducing 12 year-olds to elementary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin

    2017-07-01

    We present a new learning unit, which introduces 12 year-olds to the subatomic structure of matter. The learning unit was iteratively developed as a design-based research project using the technique of probing acceptance. We give a brief overview of the unit’s final version, discuss its key ideas and main concepts, and conclude by highlighting the main implications of our research, which we consider to be most promising for use in the physics classroom.

  7. Systemic cold urticaria in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Orfan, N; Marhoul, J; Lerner, C; Lawrence, I D

    1991-08-01

    A 5-year-old white boy had a history of generalized urticaria on total body exposure to a cold environment. Standard ice cube testing was negative. Plasma analysis revealed the presence of cryofibrinogen. Systemic cold challenge with serial plasma assays for complement, histamine, and prostaglandin D2 disclosed an elevation and peak of plasma histamine and prostaglandin D2 levels after the onset of generalized urticaria with no change in serum complement levels.

  8. Ameloblastic fibroma: a case report in a 6 year old.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pola Vallejo, M; Gonsalez Garcia, M; Villalain Alvarez, L; Fresno Forcedello, M; Lopez-Arranz, J S

    2001-01-01

    A six-year-old boy was seen by his dentist for a tumor mass in the left mandibular region. The panograph revealed a multilocular radiotransparent lesion extending from the canine to the left mandibular ascending ramus with well defined borders. After biopsy, the lesion was enucleated via curettage of the bone bed. The lesion was diagnosed as ameloblastic fibroma. After six months, radiographs showed that the surgical defect had filled with new bone.

  9. Hirayama disease in a 17-year-old Chinese man

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline Ching Man; Fung, Eva Lai Wah; Yuen, Edmund Hok-Yuen; Ahuja, Anil Tejbhan

    2014-01-01

    Hirayama disease is an uncommon cervical myelopathy associated with neck flexion. It has been postulated to be related to the anterior shifting of the posterior dura of the lower cervical dural canal during neck flexion, resulting in lower cervical cord atrophy with asymmetric flattening. We report a case of Hirayama disease in a 17-year-old Chinese man and demonstrate the use of dynamic flexion magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:24379115

  10. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  11. Paracoccidioidomycosis in a four-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, A L; Freire de Andrade, J A; Filha, S P

    1986-01-01

    A case of fatal, generalized paracoccidioidomycosis is described in a four-year-old urban dwelling child. Marked lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and an abdominal mass were the main clinical manifestations. The diagnosis was established by histopathological studies and culture. The authors comment on the rarity of this infection in children less than 7 years of age and on the importance of considering this pathology in the differential diagnosis of malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma and tuberculosis, in children.

  12. Heart Health...Your Choice. 11-14 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated booklet is to teach 11-14 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The guide is designed to promote changes in eating patterns, to show children how to switch to good eating…

  13. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  14. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  15. Anal Canal Duplication in an 11-Year-Old-Child

    PubMed Central

    Van Biervliet, S.; Maris, E.; Vande Velde, S.; Vande Putte, D.; Meerschaut, V.; Herregods, N.; De Bruyne, R.; Van Winckel, M.; Van Renterghem, K.

    2013-01-01

    Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the least frequent digestive duplication. Symptoms are often absent but tend to increase with age. Recognition is, however, important as almost half of the patients with ACD have concomitant malformations. We present the clinical history of an eleven-year-old girl with ACD followed by a review of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis based on all the reported cases in English literature. PMID:24151565

  16. Linitis plastica in a 16-year-old. 1975.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Ward B

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is uncommon in the young. Occasional reports are found in the literature and reviewed here. This article reports a case of a 16-year-old Eskimo girl unusual because of her young age, the presentation with a perforation and the presence of a linitis plastica type involvement. Management was somewhat unique because of the prolonged use of outpatient total parenteral alimentation during her final months of life.

  17. Pyomyositis in a 69-year-old tennis player.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Bradd G; Hamson, Karl R

    2003-11-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute bacterial infection of skeletal muscle usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Outside of tropical areas, pyomyositis is rare, especially in an otherwise healthy individual. We present a case of a 69-year-old tennis professional who developed pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle following a tennis tournament. We discuss the literature on pyomyositis and the need for high clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of this disorder, as well as the need for early aggressive antibiotic treatment.

  18. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  19. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  20. Edwards syndrome in a 6-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.

  1. Priming overgeneralizations in two- and four-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Connell, Brenda; Smith, Linda

    2006-08-01

    Overgeneralization occurs when a child uses the wrong word to name an object and is often observed in the early stages of word learning. We develop a method to elicit overgeneralizations in the laboratory by priming children to say the names of objects perceptually similar to known and unknown target objects. Experiment 1 examined 18 two-year-old children's labelling of familiar and unfamiliar objects, using a name that was previously produced. Experiment 2 compared the labelling of 30 two-year-olds and 39 four-year-olds when presented with completely novel objects. The findings suggest that the retrieved word is a blend of previous activation from the prior retrieval and activation engendered by the similarity of the test object to instances of the target category. We put forward a theoretical account of overgeneralization based on current models of adult language processing. The account suggests a common mechanism of activation and retrieval, which may explain not only momentary lapses in the correct selection of words, but other types of naming errors traditionally thought to reflect differences in children's underlying category representations or, perhaps, gaps in their knowledge of words.

  2. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  3. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murdock, N H

    1998-03-01

    Pregnancy among women under age 15 years is unusual, but not rare. About one third of the approximately 3 million total pregnancies which occur each year in the US are to teenagers. However, only about 30% of all pregnant adolescents receive adequate prenatal care, even though it is women in that age group who most need such care. Teen mothers have a higher rate of anemia and pregnancy-induced hypertension, most probably related to diet. Infants born to teen mothers are more likely to be premature and of low birth weight. Infants born to teen mothers are also more predisposed to mental retardation, brain damage, and birth injuries. Teen mothers are more likely to have poor weight gain, premature labor, abruptio placentae, and preeclampsia. The psychosocial reasons why teenage women become pregnant are considered, as well as the relevant media influences. While teenage pregnancy remains a major problem in the US, 1996 statistics indicate an overall 4% decline to 54.7 births/1000 among women aged 15-19 years. Teenage women need to be taught that there are many options in life other than pregnancy.

  4. Amplitude of accommodation in an 11- to 17-year-old Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Forouzesh, Samira; Yazdani, Negareh; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to determine normal values of accommodative amplitude (AA) during adolescence in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, sampling was done from high school students in Kermanshah in 2015 through a multi-stage cluster sampling method and selected students were invited to participate in the study. Examinations were performed on-site at each sampled high school. All students had visual acuity and refractive examination followed by measurement of AA. Accommodative amplitude was tested with Donder's push-up method using a Royal Air Force (RAF) near point rule. Of the 1,070 selected students, 901 were included in the study and their mean age was 14.4 ± 1.7 years. Mean AA in this study was 11.53 ± 3.02 D (range: 5.00-28.50 D). Mean AA was 15.33 D in 11-year-olds and significantly decreased with age, until it reached 10.40 D in the 17-year-old age group. Mean AA in boys and girls were 10.09 ± 2.48 D and 11.65 ± 3.03 D, respectively. Based on the multiple linear regression model, younger age (coefficient = -0.774) and female gender (coefficient = 1.060) significantly associated with AA. This study showed that the AA in Iranian teenagers is lower than that calculated with Hofstetter's formula. It is important to take account of this point when making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  5. Teenager Views on Issues Related to Traffic Safety Education and the Licensing of Teenage Drivers: Results of a Statewide Opinion Survey on Washington Teenage Drivers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Gary J.; Kinch, Robert

    In Washington, the existence of driver education programs is being threatened by tough economic times. To determine the opinions of teenage drivers about their traffic safety education (TSE) experience, the process of learning to drive, and the licensing of 16- and 17-year-olds, 10 percent of TSE students (N=1,070) were surveyed. Further data were…

  6. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yee, R; David, J; Khadka, R

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  7. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  8. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Where do Parisian teenagers buy their cigarettes?

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, B; Birkui, P

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the background of the implementation of the ban of tobacco sales to minors before the change of French law in 2016. The analysis focused on two questions to teenagers on buying tobacco, added to the four cross-sectional annual surveys of the association "Paris Sans Tabac" from 2012 to 2015. In total, 7025 schoolchildren (12-15 years old), 3299 high school students (16-17 years old) and 3243 adult students (18-20 years old) responded. The proportion of daily smokers was respectively 3.2%, 19.0% and 22.0%. The overall smoking rate (daily+occasional) was 13.8%, 37.9% and 39.5% respectively. Among daily smokers, 90.7% of respondents had bought their tobacco from tobacconist. This source was used by 74.6% of daily smokers aged 12-15 years, 92.0% of the 16-17 years old and 94.0% of the18-19 years old teenagers. Drinking more than four glasses of alcohol on the same day or having used cannabis in the preceding month was associated with a greater chance of buying tobacco at the tobacconist. Starting to buy tobacco from a tobacconist below the age of 12 was associated with a high dependence score (HSI=2.4±1.9) compared to those who bought after 15 years (HSI=0.5±0.7) (P<0.001). Before 2016, Parisian teenagers who smoked daily mostly bought their cigarettes from a tobacconist. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil temperature, gas exchange and nitrogen status of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Lehto, T; Leinonen, I; Mannerkoski, H; Ryyppö, A

    2002-12-01

    Five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment chambers. Plants were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first and third growing seasons, but were allocated at random to soil temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season. Low soil temperature during the second growing season depressed stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate (A) per unit of projected leaf area, although intercellular CO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between treatments. At all soil temperatures, total chlorophyll concentration first decreased and then increased, although the rate of increase and the final concentration increased with soil temperature, which may explain the effect of soil temperature on A. Neither chlorophyll a/b ratio nor leaf nitrogen concentration was significantly affected by soil temperature. Treatment differences disappeared during the third simulated growing season when plants were again acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C.

  11. [Massive ovarian edema in a 13-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Sailer, V; Huss, S; Wardelmann, E; Müller, A M

    2013-11-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare tumor-like condition found in young women resulting from accumulation of fluid mostly due to partial or intermittent torsion of the ovary or secondary, to a preexisting ovarian lesion. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl presenting with an ovarian mass measuring 16 cm. CA-12-5 levels were slightly elevated. Concerns regarding underlying malignancy led to salpingo-oophorectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a massive ovarian edema and multiple thromboses of ovarian veins. Differentiating massive ovarian edema from malignant ovarian tumor is crucial to prevent patients from undergoing unnecessary surgery.

  12. Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

  13. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  14. Granuloma inguinale in a 51-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Jennifer; Kiuru, Maija; Konia, Thomas; Larsen, Larissa

    2016-04-18

    Granuloma inguinale, or Donovanosis, is a rare, sexually transmitted ulcerative disease primarily affecting the genital area. In this report, we present a case of a 50-year-old man that was diagnosed with granuloma inguinale after a 2-month history of a penile ulcer. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of Donovan bodies within macrophages, confirming the diagnosis. He was subsequently treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with improvement in the ulcer. This case serves as a reminder to clinicians that although granuloma inguinale is rarely encountered in the US, it should still be suspected in patients with non-healing penile ulcers.

  15. [A 61-year-old man with sciatica].

    PubMed

    Breivik, Kristin Lif; Laurini, Ricardo; Steen, Rolf; Alstadhaug, Karl Bjørnar

    2009-05-14

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our department with radicular back-pain and progressive gait-difficulties. On examination he had flaccid paraparesis and bladder-retention. He subsequently developed palsy of n. oculomotorius, dysarthria, right-sided Bells palsy and weakness of his right arm over a 4-week period. He became disoriented and died without a diagnosis. MRI of the brain and columna were negative. Extensive search for malignancies yielded negative results. Cytology specimens were inconclusive and repeated liquor-examinations showed very low glucose levels, mild pleocytosis, elevated protein. Autopsy revealed a small adenocarcinoma of the lung and meningeal carcinomatosis originating from the adenocarcinoma.

  16. A 50-Year-Old Woman Addicted to Heroin

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a complicated medical and psychiatric issue, with well-established as well as newer modes of treatment. The case of Ms W, a 50-year-old woman with a long history of opiate addiction who has been treated successfully with methadone for 9 years and who now would like to consider newer alternatives, illustrates the complex issues of heroin addiction. The treatment of heroin addiction as a chronic disease is reviewed, including social, medical, and cultural issues and pharmacologic treatment with methadone and the more experimental medication options of buprenorphine and naltrexone. PMID:18594026

  17. [Incidentaloma in a 16 years old girl -- 2 year observation].

    PubMed

    Basiak, Aleksander; Bolanowski, Marek; Wasikowa, Renata; Noczyńska, Anna; Bednorz, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Adenomas of the hypophysis are tumors of the CNS which are on the third place in the frequency of appearance, which cause disturbances of hypophyseal function. In children incidentaloma is seldom observed. The authors present a 16-year-old girl who was admitted to the clinic because of amenorrhoea and an increased growth velocity during the last year. The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma. Hormonal laboratory examinations do not show any hormonal activity of the observation. The girl's case is presented because the diagnosis of an incidentaloma is exceptionally rare in this age group.

  18. Pertussis in a vaccinated 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, S

    1984-01-01

    Pertussis, though uncommon in people older than 9 years, does occur (in girls and women primarily) and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent cough. Earlier this year in British Columbia a 12-year-old girl contracted the disease, even though she had been fully vaccinated against it at the appropriate ages. The source of her infection was unknown. The clinical picture was classic except that the girl experienced intense headaches, lasting up to an hour, after the episodes of paroxysmal coughing. Canadian physicians and public health practitioners should encourage vaccination against pertussis. PMID:6498702

  19. Ameloblastic fibroma in one-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Anita D; Karle, Ravindra R; Kale, Ujwala B

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a relatively rare, slow growing benign mixed odontogenic tumor, comprising of 1.5-4.5% of all odontogenic tumors. It is usually asymptomatic except for the eventual expansion of the jaw. AFs are most common in adolescents and young adults, mostly affecting the mandible as a well-defined uni or multilocular radiolucency. The effective surgical treatment includes enucleation and curettage of the surrounding bone and removal of the affected teeth. Although recurrence of AF is rare, a long term follow up is recommended. This report describes a 1-year-old girl with AF in the mandible and discusses its clinical, radiographic and histological findings. PMID:23798857

  20. Ameloblastic fibroma in one-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Munde, Anita D; Karle, Ravindra R; Kale, Ujwala B

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a relatively rare, slow growing benign mixed odontogenic tumor, comprising of 1.5-4.5% of all odontogenic tumors. It is usually asymptomatic except for the eventual expansion of the jaw. AFs are most common in adolescents and young adults, mostly affecting the mandible as a well-defined uni or multilocular radiolucency. The effective surgical treatment includes enucleation and curettage of the surrounding bone and removal of the affected teeth. Although recurrence of AF is rare, a long term follow up is recommended. This report describes a 1-year-old girl with AF in the mandible and discusses its clinical, radiographic and histological findings.

  1. [A 74-year-old woman with macrocytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Picardi, A; Navajas, F; Spoto, S; Palma Modoni, A; De Galasso, L; Costantino, S

    2002-01-01

    A seventy-four years old woman is assessed for asthenia, fatigue, non ulcerous dyspepsia with macrocytic anemia. The patient's medical history taking in Binswanger disease--diagnosed 5 aa before-, epilepsy-2 aa before- and a previous episode of TVP of the left leg, suggested the hypothesis that a B12 deficiency, by a chronic gastritis, would involve an increase of homocysteine cause of the clinical manifestations of megaloblastic anemia, Binswanger disease, tardive epilepsy and previous TVP. The fisic and blood and instrumental exams confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The patient is having vitamin B12.

  2. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  3. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  4. Ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian child

    PubMed Central

    Keisham, Chitralekha; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, V. K.; Chugh, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a disorder of pigmentation, characterized by asymptomatic symmetric ashy gray-colored macules, in the first to third decade of life. It can, however, affect children sometime. But, there is a paucity of similar cases in Indian children. We present a case of ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian girl who presented to skin OPD with areas of ashy pigmentation, which were distributed symmetrically. Skin biopsy was consistent with lichenoid pattern histology. This case has been reported to highlight the rarity of ashy dermatosis in Indian children. PMID:23439983

  5. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  6. [Bromo-Dragonfly poisoning of 18-year-old male].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Visti Torbjørn; Høgberg, Lotte C G; Behrens, Jens Kristian

    2010-05-10

    Bromo-Dragonfly (BDF) is a designer drug chemically related to LSD and amphetamine. The first registration in Denmark was in October 2007. In the present case an 18-year-old man ingested about 2 ml BDF and developed acute psychosis. At the hospital the patient displayed, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnea and hypertension. Because of severe hallucinations and agitation the patient was detained at the hospital and received symptomatic treatment with large doses of benzodiazepines. Four days after hospitalization, the patient discharged himself without significant symptoms or paraclinical findings.

  7. An 81-year-old gentleman with symptomatic Bochdalek hernia

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Mohammed Zak; Fisichella, Piero Marco

    2013-01-01

    An 81-year-old gentleman with congenital polycystic kidney disease presented to his primary care physician with dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux refractory to medical management, and 11.25 kg weight loss in a 6 mo-period. A barium swallow misdiagnosed a paraesophageal hernia for a Bochdalek hernia. Herein, we highlight how a Bochdalek hernia may be disregarded in the differential diagnosis and how providers can resort to a more common diagnosis, a paraesophageal hernia, which is more frequently encountered in old age and whose radiologic appearance might mimic a Bochdalek hernia. PMID:23894690

  8. An 81-year-old gentleman with symptomatic Bochdalek hernia.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Mohammed Zak; Fisichella, Piero Marco

    2013-07-27

    An 81-year-old gentleman with congenital polycystic kidney disease presented to his primary care physician with dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux refractory to medical management, and 11.25 kg weight loss in a 6 mo-period. A barium swallow misdiagnosed a paraesophageal hernia for a Bochdalek hernia. Herein, we highlight how a Bochdalek hernia may be disregarded in the differential diagnosis and how providers can resort to a more common diagnosis, a paraesophageal hernia, which is more frequently encountered in old age and whose radiologic appearance might mimic a Bochdalek hernia.

  9. Factitious purpura in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.

  10. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sisodiya, Rajpal S; Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case.

  11. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380

  12. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Adib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket.

  13. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 100-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Among the VIPs attending the launch of STS-99 is Captain Ralph Charles (left), standing next to NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Charles hopes to have his wish fulfilled of watching a Shuttle launch in person. The 100-year-old aviator has experienced nearly a century of flight history, from the Wright Brothers to the Space Program. He took flying lessons from one of the first fliers trained by Orville Wright, first repaired then built airplanes, went barnstorming, operated a charter service in the Caribbean, and worked as a test pilot for the Curtiss Wright Airplane Co. Charles is the oldest licensed pilot in the United States, and is still flying.

  14. [Morbus Addison in five-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Smedegaard, Heidi; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Holm, Kirsten

    2010-05-10

    This case-report presents a 5-year-old girl with gastrointestinal symptoms, who became increasingly confused over the last day before admission. She was believed to be in septic shock or have meningitis and was treated with normal saline infusion, glucocorticoid and antibiotics intravenously. A few days later she was diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency (Morbus Addison), which is a very rare disorder among children. If untreated, the condition is lethal, and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in severely ill patients.

  15. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    PubMed

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  16. Gastroblastoma in a 12-year-old Chinese boy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yangyang; Zheng, Jicui; Zhu, Haitao; Dong, Kuiran; Zheng, Shan; Xiao, Xianmin; Chen, Lian

    2014-01-01

    Gastrablastoma is a rare epitheliomesenchymal biphasic tumor of stomach in children and young adults first reported by Miettinen et al in 2009. Five cases have been reported up to date including only one case with the nodal metastasis and distant metastases. With little atypism gastroblastoma is suggested to be a low-grade malignancy. Here we report one case of gastroblastoma in a 12-year-old boy with review of the literature. This is the first case of gastroblastoma in Chinese to our knowledge.

  17. Galactorrhea in a 14-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Panamonta, Ouyporn; Pakawut, Nawarut

    2006-08-01

    The authors report a 14-year-old girl who had galactorrhea with regular menstruation. Furthermore, this galactorrhea case was associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. The patient tolerated and responded well to therapy with bromocriptine. The serum prolactin levels decreased from 103.27 ng/mL to 24.25 ng/mL after 8 weeks of treatment and 12.48 ng/mL after 6 months of treatment. No pituitary tumor was demonstrated after 12 months of therapy and the galactorrhea had not recurred 1 year after ending the bromocriptine treatment.

  18. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) watches as 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA, shakes hands with astronaut Dog Wheelock. Behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  19. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a laugh with VIP 10- year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  20. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) shares a light moment during his meeting with 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ten-year-old Jonathan Pierce (second from right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit, without the helmet, which was designed by NASA, poses with (left to right) NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Mrs. Goldin, and astronaut Doug Wheelock. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  2. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) listens intently to 10-year- old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. Behind Goldin is astronaut Doug Wheelock; behind Jonathan is his mother, Penny. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS- 99.

  3. Teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards and declared sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Burack, R

    1999-01-01

    Although the teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are falling in the 16 to 19 year old range, they are still rising in the 13 to 15 year olds. Overall, they remain one of the highest within Western Europe. Teenagers continue to present a challenge to the health services due to the increase in their sexual risk taking behaviour, the earlier age at which they are starting sexual activity and a reluctance to utilise services available to them. In an attempt to develop current services and make them more 'user friendly', a sexual health needs assessment was carried out on teenagers, part of which looked at their attitudes towards risk taking sexual behaviour and their declared sexual behaviour. A quantitative survey, using a questionnaire in schools, was answered by 1500 pupils aged between 13 and 18 years old, and showed that the majority of teenagers had declared some form of sexual contact with a partner with a degree of sexual activity increasing with age. Twenty per cent of 13 year olds reported that they had already had either full or oral sexual intercourse with a partner. Feeling peer pressure, not knowing the facts about sexual risk taking and a declared intent that would increase the likelihood of putting themselves or others at risk sexually were significantly more likely in the younger teenage boys surveyed. This study confirms that there remain many different factors involved in teenagers' decision-making processes, about their developing attitudes towards sex and their resultant behaviour. Despite a lack of maturity, such opinions and attitudes are bringing about definite views and sexual behaviour patterns in teenagers as young as 12 or 13 years old who are becoming fully sexually active. In particular teenage boys are becoming fully sexually active at a younger age than the girls and are taking risks in doing so. They are being influenced by peer pressure, condoning promiscuity and are declaring the intent to practice unsafe sexual intercourse. Their level

  4. Exploring attitudes and behaviour towards teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Tracey; Pyer, Michelle; Armstrong-Hallam, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    This article illustrates a methodological approach, which actively engaged 14 to 19 year olds in the research process. This two phase study explored the attitudes and behaviours of young people towards teenage pregnancy in Northamptonshire, UK. The first phase involved training young mothers to lead six focus groups with three specifically targeted 'at-risk' groups; other teenage mothers, young offenders and looked after children (from 14 to 19 years of age). An open question began each focus group but the young women or peer researchers were aware of the topics they wished to explore and provided prompts as necessary. Seven topics are presented under the headings of: alcohol and drugs; planned pregnancy; professionals' treatment; need for love; support by family, friends and partners; labelling and the reality for teenage mothers; and future aspirations. The reasons for pregnancy or consequences of pregnancy are discussed under the implications and recommendations.

  5. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Block, R W; Saltzman, S; Block, S A

    1981-01-01

    The pediatrician's role in teenage pregnancy is multifaceted. The problem is a sociologic phenomenon with medical consequences. The pregnant teenager actually represents three patients: the mother, the baby, and the adolescent herself. Prepregnancy nutrition can be improved through pediatric education and advice. Sex education can be improved through the advocacy of pediatricians, who can discuss postponing parenthood until the end of adolescence with many of their patients. Services to prevent pregnancy can be offered by pediatricians. Unfortunately, in Oklahoma it is illegal to dispense contraceptives to minors without parental consent. Pediatricians should work to gain acceptance of laws modeled after the American Academy of Pediatrics' health care for minors policy. Lastly, support services to promote proper parenthood and establishment of families can be developed with pediatric input. The entire problem must be viewed in the context of current social patterns, an understanding of adolescent development, the significance of peer pressures, and the biological changes that make it possible for children to bear children.

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-18 - 318.13-19 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 318.13-18 - 318.13-19 Section 318.13-18 - 318.13-19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 Section 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 Section 318.13-18 - 318.13-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  9. Community Approaches to Serving Four-Year-Old Children in Wisconsin: Lessons Learned from Wisconsin Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers-Rhyme, Anne; Wright, Arlene

    The Wisconsin Forces for Four-Year-Olds Project promotes a collaborative community approach to offering universal access to four-year-old kindergarten services for Wisconsin 4-year-olds. Presented in three major sections, this report offers an overview of a community approach to serving 4-year-olds, summarizes experiences in seven communities…

  10. Two-year-olds' understanding of self-symbols.

    PubMed

    Herold, Katherine; Akhtar, Nameera

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated 48 2.5-year-olds' ability to map from their own body to a two-dimensional self-representation and also examined relations between parents' talk about body representations and their children's understanding of self-symbols. Children participated in two dual-representation tasks in which they were asked to match body parts between a symbol and its referent. In one task, they used a self-symbol and in the other they used a symbol for a doll. Participants were also read a book about body parts by a parent. As a group, children found the self-symbol task more difficult than the doll-task; however, those whose parents explicitly pointed out the relation between their children's bodies and the symbols in the book performed better on the self-symbol task. The findings demonstrate that 2-year-old children have difficulty comprehending a self-symbol, even when it is two-dimensional and approximately the same size as them, and suggest that parents' talk about self-symbols may facilitate their understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Antihypertensive overtreatment in people 80 years old and older.

    PubMed

    Baena Díez, José Miguel; López Maldonado, Nerea; Navarro Guiu, Elena; Alcayde Claveria, Daniel; García Lareo, Manel; Pérez Orcero, Almudena

    2017-08-31

    To study the proportion of patients older than 80 years old with hypertension and pharmacological overtreatment. Cross-sectional simulation study, including 281 patients older than 80 years old of primary prevention, randomly selected, with good control of hypertension (systolic blood pressure<150mmHg, diastolic blood pressure<90mmHg), treated with a maximum of 3 medications. Overtreatment was considered if at least one medication could be removed and good control persisted, calculating how the blood pressure would raise with Law's meta-analysis, which estimates blood pressure reductions by pre-treatment levels, number and dose of medications. The average age was 85.3 years (64.8% women). A percentage of 33.6 were taking one medication, 46.3% 2 and 22.1% 3, with the most prescribed being thiazides (69.4%), ACE inhibitors (51.3%), ARBs (23.4%), calcium antagonists (21%) and beta blockers (19.6%). Overtreatment was 90.7%, with 2 medications being able to be removed in 63.1% of cases and 3 in 43.1%. Polypharmacy (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.07-5.69; P=.033) was associated with a greater likely removal of at least one medication. The proportion of patients with overtreatment is high. Changing good control criteria could contribute to a reasoned deprescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Metastatic spiradenocarcinoma occurring in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Jayson R; Burgon, Eric; Burkhart, Craig; Stitzenberg, Karyn; Hipps, John; Zedek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We recently saw the case of an 8-year-old boy with histologic findings of spiradenocarcinoma. Malignant adnexal tumors in children are exceedingly rare, and cases of spiradenocarcinoma in children are absent in the literature. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with metastatic spiradenocarcinoma. A biopsy 2 years before his presentation at our institution was interpreted as a benign lesion, but when the lesion regrew, a repeat biopsy was performed that demonstrated ominous findings, prompting a reexcision. This reexcision demonstrated an area with significant necrosis, many mitoses, and cellular pleomorphism apparently arising out of a sharply demarcated, adjacent, lower-grade area. The histologic features of this patient's biopsies were those of spiradenocarcinoma, potentially arising out of a preexisting spiradenoma, a finding that has not been documented previously in this age group. Staging studies demonstrated multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules, which were confirmed using thoracoscopic biopsy to be metastatic disease. His chemotherapy regimen has included several cycles of cisplatin and 5-flourouracil, with ongoing disease progression of pulmonary disease. It has been 16 months since he presented to our institution (>3 years since the appearance of his initial lesion). Imaging studies demonstrate a slowly increasing size and number of pulmonary lesions. The long-term prognosis is guarded.

  14. A Research Report for Teenagers. Facts about Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageton, Suzanne S.

    This report on sexual assault was written for adolescents. It contains data on teenage sexual assault from the National Youth Survey (NYS), a survey of a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,700 youths who were between 11 and 17 years old at the time of the project's initial interview and who were interviewed annually for 5 years…

  15. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  16. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Arlene M.

    1992-01-01

    Compared self-esteem and perceived maternal care and control of 134 Jamaican schoolgirls and 108 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers. Subjects were 14 through 17 years old, from working-class backgrounds, and living in rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that father-figure absence and low self-esteem may combine as risk factors for…

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Arlene M.

    1992-01-01

    Compared self-esteem and perceived maternal care and control of 134 Jamaican schoolgirls and 108 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers. Subjects were 14 through 17 years old, from working-class backgrounds, and living in rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that father-figure absence and low self-esteem may combine as risk factors for…

  18. Uroflowmetry nomograms for healthy children 5 to 15 years old.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dheeraj Kumar; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Goel, Apul

    2013-09-01

    We determined flow rates and generated flow rate-voided volume nomograms based on healthy children 5 to 15 years old voiding spontaneously in their natural environment. A total of 824 healthy school children of both genders were enrolled. A single uroflow record from each child was evaluated. A total of 103 children with a voided volume of less than 50 ml and/or a staccato/interrupted uroflow pattern were excluded, and 721 records were analyzed. Data were evaluated using several mathematical formulas and goodness of fit was determined. Linear regression analysis was used to generate nomograms. Flow rates and voided volumes increased with increasing age, with the effect being more pronounced in girls. No significant difference was noted in uroflow rates from 5 to 10 years, but significant differences (p <0.001) started appearing at 11 to 15 years. Also no significant difference was noted in uroflow rates among children 11 to 15 years. Therefore, 2 age groups were designated, with group 1 consisting of patients 5 to 10 years old and group 2 consisting of patients 11 to 15 years old. There were 222 boys and 122 girls in group 1 and 240 boys and 137 girls in group 2. In group 1 the maximum and average ± SD flow rates were 15.26 ± 4.54 ml per second and 7.68 ± 3.26 ml per second, respectively, for boys and 17.98 ± 6.06 ml per second and 9.19 ± 4.23 ml per second, respectively, for girls. In group 2 these rates were 22.50 ± 7.24 ml per second and 10.78 ± 4.03 ml per second, respectively, for boys and 27.16 ± 9.37 ml per second and 13.48 ± 5.21 ml per second, respectively, for girls. This large study, which expands the scant existing literature on uroflow parameters in healthy children, will hopefully promote wider application of uroflowmetry testing in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cerebral haematoma in a 12-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Mia; Grunnet, Sarah; Born, Alfred Peter

    2012-06-25

    A 12-year-old girl with an upper respiratory infection deteriorated suddenly with a severe headache and declining level of consciousness, and was brought to the ER on suspicion of meningitis. On arrival, the girl had a Glascow Coma Scale score of 6 and a dilated pupil that was not reactive to light. A computed tomography of the cerebrum showed a large intracerebral haematoma, which was surgically removed. The bleeding was due to an AV-malformation. The girl survived with a homonym hemianopsis as the only sequela. Stroke is one of the top ten causes of death in children. This case illustrates that adequate diagnosing and treatment can save lives and reduce disabilities.

  20. Choline associated hypersexuality in a 79-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Cordici, Francesco; Genovese, Carmelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Hypersexuality, also referred to as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others, sometimes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient, used as a dietary supplement in different diseases. This report was aimed at considering choline intake as a possible cause of iatrogenic hypersexuality. After an evaluation, a 79-year-old man affected by memory loss was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and treated with oral choline. After 6 weeks of regular choline assumption, the patient showed a pathological increase in libido with sexual urges. As choline was withdrawn, the hypersexuality disappeared within 5 days. Since hypersexuality may be an underreported and overlooked adverse effect of drugs and dietary supplements acting on the cholinergic pathway, this should be considered when treating and counselling patients with inappropriate sexual behavior.

  1. The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A C; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-03-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that differed in format and response requirements and in putative working memory and inhibitory control demands. Tasks appeared to be age appropriate, with adequate sensitivity across the range of performance and without floor or ceiling effects. Tests of the relative fit of several alternative models supported a single latent EF construct. Measurement invariance testing revealed less proficient EF in children at higher sociodemographic risk relative to those at lower risk and no differences between boys and girls. At 3years of age, when EF skills are emerging, EF appears to be a unitary, more domain-general process.

  2. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a 3-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Stephen K; Novek, Steven J; Maddox, Craig L

    2016-03-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with progressive pruritic red-orange plaques across most of his body with erythema, desquamation, and fissuring of the hands and feet. He was diagnosed with classic juvenile (type III) pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) and treated with oral isotretinoin for 6 months. His skin findings resolved quickly during the treatment period, with residual postinflammatory hypopigmentation resolving within a year. PRP is rare in pediatric patients and standard recommended treatment algorithms for this population are not currently available. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines for PRP are based almost exclusively on case reports or case series, most of which focus on adult patients. The presentation, evaluation, and management of PRP are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. [Subungual exostosis in a 14 years old boy].

    PubMed

    Larralde, Margarita; Boggio, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Pagotto, Betina; Castillo, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    Subungual exostosis is a benign bony outgrowth surrounded by a fibrocartilaginous capsule that mainly affects hallux terminal phalanx with subungual or periungular localization, and that clinically determines variable degree of nail plate or periungular soft tissues alterations, respectively, It is uncommon in childhood and more frequent in females. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the radiographic finding of a distinct trabecular bone growth arising from the dorsal aspect of the phalanx of the affected finger, on the lateral incidence. Curettage or surgical excision is the treatment of choice. We report a case of subungual exostosis located at the hallux in a 14-year-old boy suffering from subungual exostosis of the hallux that presented the characteristic triad of this entity: subungular tumor with nail plate deformity, digital pain and radiologic typical findings.

  4. [Fanconi syndrome in a 22-year-old African patient].

    PubMed

    Wetzstein, Morgane; Jauréguy, Maïté; Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Poulain, Coralie; Berrou, Claire; Renou, Marianne; Cordonnier, Carole; Choukroun, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Acquired Fanconi syndrome can occur in patients with monoclonal gammopathy or after exposure to heavy metals or drug agents such as ifosfamide, and some antiretroviral therapies. Fanconi syndrome is characterized by a dysfunctional of the proximal tubular responsible in its complete form for polyuria, hypokalemia, glycosuria, hypophosphatemia and low molecular weight proteinuria. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient hospitalized with an acute renal failure secondary to a tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with a complete Fanconi syndrome in a context of a poor general condition and fever. We described and analyzed the process leading to the diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 72 year-old man with new seizure while dancing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Morales, Julio César; Gutiérrez Morales, Sandra Eugenia; Astudillo González, Aurora

    2009-04-01

    Metastasis of an extracranial malignant neoplasm to a meningioma is a rare event.We report a case of a 72-year-old man who presented abruptly with a grand mal seizure. Neuroradiological examination revealed an extraaxial lesion located in the posterior right frontal convexity with poorly defined boundaries. Histological and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was a meningothelial meningioma harboring metastatic renal cell carcinoma.The MRI could be indicative but not specific of this type of lesion.Some cases of intracranial meningiomas containing metastatic carcinomas have been published, but to our knowledge only five cases of renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to a meningioma have been reported. Possible explanations for this type of "tumor in tumor" lesion are reviewed.

  6. Similarity predicts liking in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Christine A; Markson, Lori

    2010-04-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet whose food preferences or physical appearance matched their own. Unpacking the physical appearance finding revealed that the stable similarity of hair color may influence liking more strongly than the transient similarity of shirt color. A second study showed that children also prefer to play with a peer who shares their toy preferences, yet importantly, show no bias toward a peer who is similar on an arbitrary dimension. The findings provide insight into the earliest development of peer relations in young children. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A 39-year-old woman with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, Murray A

    2006-07-19

    Ms T, a 39-year-old woman, has a total cholesterol level of 277 mg/dL (7.17 mmol/L) and well-controlled hypertension; her brother had a stroke in his 30s. She is primarily concerned with her mother's history of breast cancer, but she would like to know if she can take a dietary supplement or if she needs to take cholesterol-lowering medication, and if so, whether she will need to continue it as well as adhere to her diet for the rest of her life. Her estimated 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) is 1% to 2% using the Framingham Risk Score, but that may underestimate her true risk as an African American woman with a family history of CHD. Recommendations for her, her longer-term risk for CHD, and evidence for lipid-lowering therapies are discussed.

  8. Scurvy in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Cole, John A; Warthan, Molly M; Hirano, Stefanie A; Gowen, Clarence W; Williams, Judith V

    2011-01-01

    Scurvy, or hypovitaminosis C, is an uncommon condition that exists today primarily within certain unique populations-particularly the elderly subjects, patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities or psychiatric illnesses, or others with unusual dietary habits. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient in the human body, and is important in synthesizing collagen factor whose faulty production is responsible for most of the clinical manifestations of scurvy. These clinical manifestations can include dystrophic or corkscrew hairs, gingival hyperplasia, and weakened blood vessel walls, causing bleeding in the skin, joints, and other organs. Although rare in the Unites States, the presence of scurvy should not be forgotten because of its presence among susceptible populations. Moreover, with its diagnosis, treatment and cure is one of the simplest in modern medicine. We report a case of scurvy in a 10-year-old autistic child. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Dante; Plakas, Christos; Fisher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint. PMID:24955272

  10. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  11. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  12. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  13. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 4 Final Diagnosis: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects Background: Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. Case Report: We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:24644527

  14. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Investigation of 26-year-old hydroprocessing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarian, A.J.; Bereczky, E.L. ); Ishiguro, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tahara, T. )

    1994-07-01

    Six 26-year-old reactors made of 2-1/4% chromium-1% molybdenum steel with double-layer stainless weld overlay were examined for material property damage and to evaluate defects. Crack-like flaws in the weld deposits were found to increase in size by hydrogen-assisted crack growth. The weld overlay cracks were caused by hot cracking during fabrication because of insufficient ferrite phase. All the weld overlay cracks stopped at the interface between the weld overlay and base metal. Reduced low-temperature toughness values obtained in Charpy impact testing were observed only in the weld deposit metal with full bainitic structure. The lower susceptibility to temper embrittlement of the base plate is attributed to the annealed structure.

  16. Prevalence of mutans streptococci in one-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Grindefjord, M; Dahllof, G; Wikner, S; Hojer, B; Modeer, T

    1991-10-01

    Colonization with mutans streptococci was studied in 1095 1-year-old children living in suburban Stockholm. During a scheduled vaccination appointment at a child health centre, a bacterial sample was obtained from the child's tongue and a structured questionnaire was completed by the accompanying parent. Six percent of the subjects were colonized with mutans streptococci. The variables most strongly correlated with presence of mutans streptococci were: non-Swedish background, consumption of sugar-containing beverages at night and total consumption of sugar-containing beverages. The results indicate that, by the age of 1 year, maternally influenced behaviour patterns such as dietary habits that may predispose to early colonization of mutans streptococci are already established. Such early colonization with mutans streptococci may predict high caries risk in the primary dentition.

  17. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma in a 27-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Fadhlaoui, Anis; Ben Hassouna, Jamel; Khrouf, Mohamed; Zhioua, Fethi; Chaker, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma usually occurs after menopause, but in 2%–14% of cases, it occurs in young patients (less than 40 years of age) who are eager to preserve their fertility. Its treatment includes hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and, in some cases, radiation therapy. Aim To describe a case of endometrial adenocarcinoma occurring in a young woman and to undertake a literature review of risk factors and therapeutic options proposed for young women wishing to preserve their fertility. Case We report a case of endometrial cancer in a 27-year-old woman treated for resistant menorrhagia and cared for in our department as well as in the Salah Azaiez Institute. Conclusion Endometrial adenocarcinoma rarely occurs in young women. In such cases, other therapeutic options can be proposed: progesterone therapy and LH-RH (Luteinzing-Hormone-Releasing-Hormone) agonists therapy in order to preserve fertility in younger patients. PMID:21769252

  18. A 54-year-old woman with degenerative back pain.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Claire M

    2010-03-01

    Back pain is a common symptom: up to 70% of UK adults experience this symptom by the age of 60 and most have moderate to severe pain. Back pain accounted for 12% of consultations to traditional acupuncturists in 2001 and is one of the most common reasons for consultation with an acupuncturist. This case report concerns a 54-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer and degenerative lower back pain, which remained painful despite intensive pharmaceutical management and facet joint injection and was ultimately successfully managed with two 30 min acupuncture treatments 2 weeks apart, using eight points on the BL meridians. Acupuncture treatment using tender points was later trialled for neuropathic pain secondary to local recurrence in her mastectomy scar, however this was unsuccessful and inpatient hospice admission for further intensive pharmaceutical management was required.

  19. Thyroidectomy in a two-year old for graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakhsheer, Baddr A; Bordini, Brian; Abdulrasool, Layth; Grogan, Raymon; Kaplan, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children is graves’ disease – an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies stimulate the thyrotropin receptor to signal growth thyroid gland by increasing thyroid hormone synthesis and release. It can be treated with medical therapy, radioactive iodine, or surgery. Presentation of case JD was a two year old male who presented with severe diarrhea and diffuse neck enlargement. Laboratory work up was consistent with graves’ disease. Discussion Despite maximal outpatient and inpatient treatment with methimazole, atenolol, prednisone, and SSKI, he suffered persistent thyrotoxicosis. He underwent near-total thyroidectomy without complication. Conclusion This case is notable as it may represent the youngest patient in the literature who has undergone thyroidectomy for graves’ disease. PMID:25661638

  20. Lynch syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Bodas, A; Pérez-Segura, P; Maluenda, C; Caldés, T; Olivera, E; Díaz-Rubio, E

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), or Lynch syndrome, dominantly inherited, is characterized by the development of a variety of cancers due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR). This syndrome was diagnosed in a 15-year-old boy because his father and grandmother were also found to have the same kind of cancer. Microsatellite instability prompted a search for germline mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes. Use of immunohistochemical staining for MMR proteins, genomic sequencing, and deletion studies, evidenced MSH2 axonal deletion. Neoplastic lesions of colon are most often encountered in the adult population but can, on rare occasions, be found in younger patients. We would like to emphasize the importance of suspecting Lynch syndrome and performing genetic studies, even in young patients, when there is a family history of colorectal cancer.

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 100-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Andy Thomas (left) greets 100-year-old Captain Ralph Charles, one of the VIPs attending the launch of STS-99. Charles also met NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. An aviator who has the distinction of being the oldest licensed pilot in the United States, Charles is still flying. He has experienced nearly a century of flight history, from the Wright Brothers to the Space Program. He took flying lessons from one of the first fliers trained by Orville Wright, first repaired then built airplanes, went barnstorming, operated a charter service in the Caribbean, and worked as a test pilot for the Curtiss Wright Airplane Co. Charles watches all the Shuttle launches from his home in Ohio and his greatest wish is to be able to watch one in person from KSC.

  2. A 31-year-old pregnant woman with angioedema.

    PubMed

    Speck, Aimee L; Killen, Paul D; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Angioedema is swelling of the deep layers of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue due to an increase in vascular permeability. Angioedema sometimes occurs concomitantly with urticaria and represents an allergic disease. In other cases, angioedema is not associated with an allergic condition. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with new-onset angioedema in the setting of her first pregnancy. After detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, a cause for her angioedema was found that had not been considered previously and had significant implications for future management, particularly in light of her current pregnancy. Because allergists are commonly called on to evaluate and treat angioedema, we should be aware of the many disease processes that can present with this symptom and be well-versed in the workup of new-onset angioedema.

  3. A 62-year-old man with dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H.; Sorenson, Eric J.; Olson, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 62-year-old man who presented with shortness of breath that had progressed over several years. He had a history of a paralyzed right hemidiaphragm for at least the previous 10 years. He also reported weakness in his proximal legs and daytime sleepiness. On examination, he was found to have thoracoabdominal paradox when in supine position. Pulmonary function testing revealed severe restriction; arterial blood gas showed chronic respiratory acidosis. Electromyography showed chronic phrenic neuropathy bilaterally, with mild proximal myopathy. Serum aldolase level was mildly elevated, but serologic tests for connective tissue disorders were within reference range. After extensive clinical investigations, the patient was found to have severely reduced acid α-glucosidase. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of adult-onset Pompe disease. The patient started treatment with bilevel positive airway pressure titrated during polysomnography, and acid α-glucosidase enzyme replacement was recommended. PMID:27141434

  4. A 47-year-old returning traveler with shock.

    PubMed

    Soni, Hardik; Gandhi, Viral; Varma, Sohan; Kaur, Deepinder; Epelbaum, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with no significant past medical history, originally from Indonesia, was brought to the ED of an urban US medical center after being found collapsed on the sidewalk in respiratory distress and with an altered sensorium. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachypneic, with increased work of breathing and an oxygen saturation of 88% on 100% nonrebreather mask, so he was immediately intubated. Following intubation, he became profoundly hypotensive, requiring aggressive crystalloid resuscitation and vasopressor support. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials were administered, including ceftriaxone, vancomycin, levofloxacin, and oseltamivir. Further history elicited subsequently from family members revealed that the patient had returned from a 2-week vacation in Indonesia 6 days prior to presentation. According to relatives, he appeared to be in his usual state of health upon his return and was not seen by anyone thereafter, but in the interim he reportedly had an episode of epistaxis, and text messages received from him became progressively more bizarre.

  5. Spectacle prescribing among 10-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Brown, S

    1985-01-01

    Between 10 and 12% of the 10-year-old children in the 1970 national birth cohort were prescribed a pair of spectacles. One-fifth of these children had no impairment of visual acuity and a further 15-20% had only minimal visual defects. Only two-thirds of children with spectacles could produce them when asked to do so at the survey school medical examination; this was particularly common among those in the lower social classes and among children who had no detectable impairment. The information presented in this paper combined with that from earlier national birth cohort studies suggests that overprescribing of spectacles to school children is very common. The financial implications of this overprescribing are discussed. PMID:4084477

  6. Pneumococcal sacroiliitis in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Perez, A; Padilla, E; Marco, A; De Otero, J; Bandiera, D; Marimón, I

    2008-01-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease in childhood as only four cases have been described to date. We report and comment on a case of pneumococcal sacroiliitis in a 4-year-old boy. This patient was diagnosed promptly on account of the symptom triad of fever, buttock pain, and limping gait, along with characteristic findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scans, and recovered fully after 6 weeks of antimicrobial therapy. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is an uncommon disease in which the diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific clinical presentation. The key to successful management is early diagnosis in which MRI and bone scan findings play a crucial role. If the diagnosis is established promptly, most patients can be managed successfully following the therapeutic principles used in other osteoarticular infections.

  7. [Fascicular ventricular tachycardia in a 49-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Bellmann, Barbara; Nagel, Patrick; Tscholl, Verena; Roser, Mattias; Rillig, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with tachycardia in our emergency room. The 12-lead ECG showed a wide complex tachycardia with a heart rate of 234 beats per minute. After structural heart disease was excluded via echocardiography, coronary angiography and magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study was performed. During programmed ventricular stimulation, a fascicular tachycardia was induced, which was successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation. Fascicular ventricular tachycardia is a rare tachycardia that occurs in patients without structural heart disease. Radiofrequency ablation can be performed safely and shows a high success rate. Differential diagnoses of fascicular ventricular tachycardias are substrate-based ventricular tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia.

  8. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) greets 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  9. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) presents a bag of special gifts to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie.. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  10. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 10-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (center) talks to 10-year-old Jonathan Pierce (right), who is garbed in a protective cooling suit designed by NASA. In the background, between them, are Jonathan's mother, Penny; his grandfather, John Janocka; and his sister, Jaimie. At left is Mrs. Goldin. Jonathan suffers from erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare condition that makes his body unable to withstand ultraviolet rays. The suit allows him to be outside during the day, which would otherwise be impossible. Jonathan's trip was funded by the Make-A-Wish Foundation and included a visit to Disney World. He and his family were among a dozen VIPs at KSC to view the launch of STS-99.

  11. Parotid sialolithiasis in a two-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hoon; Song, Woo Sun; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is caused by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct by the formation of calcareous concretions or sialoliths; this results in salivary ectasia and provokes subsequent dilation of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis is relatively common, accounting for 30% of salivary diseases; however, it is rarely observed in childhood. This case report describes a 2-year-old male patient who complained of a painful swelling over the right cheek, and presented with palpable stones and pus discharge from the orifice of the right Stensen's duct. Computerized tomography of the neck confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient received intravenous empiric antibiotics combined with intraoral sialolithotomy. We also provide a review of the spectrum of concepts regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sialolithiasis. PMID:24244214

  12. Progress in teenage crash risk during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Susan A; Teoh, Eric R; McCartt, Anne T

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the most recent data on teenagers' fatal and nonfatal crashes in the United States to determine current crash rates as well as changes in crash rates during the past decade Data for calendar years 1996 and 2005 were extracted for fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and for police-reported crashes from the National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System. To calculate crash rates, population data were obtained from the Census Bureau, and mileage data were obtained from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey During 2001-02, the latest year for which mileage data are available, 16 year-old drivers had higher fatal and nonfatal crash rates per mile traveled than all but the very oldest drivers. However, fewer 16 year-olds typically are licensed to drive and they drive fewer miles per year than all but the oldest drivers. Thus, their fatal and nonfatal crash rates per population in 2005 were lower than among other teenagers and among drivers 20-29. During the past decade the most progress has been made in reducing crashes among the youngest drivers. Between 1996 and 2005 both fatal and police-reported crashes per population declined about 40% for 16 year-old drivers, compared with about 25% for 17 year-old drivers and 15-19% for 18 year-old drivers. The greatest reductions for 16 year-olds occurred in nighttime crashes, alcohol-related fatal crashes, and fatal crashes involving multiple teenage passengers. Substantial progress has been made in reducing fatal and nonfatal crashes per population among 16 year-old drivers. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of graduated licensing, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws, many of which restrict nighttime driving and driving with teenage passengers. Restrictions on nighttime driving and driving with teenage passengers should be made a part of all states' graduated licensing systems

  13. Microsurgical reconstruction in patients greater than 80 years old.

    PubMed

    Heidekrueger, Paul I; Heine-Geldern, Albrecht; Ninkovic, Milomir; Herter, Frank; Schmauss, Daniel; Aung, Thiha; Broer, P Niclas

    2016-11-29

    Demographic change implies that the human population is getting older and the elderly are living longer. Consequently, achieving good functional and aesthetic outcomes in microvascular procedures, especially in very old patients with higher incidence of atherosclerosis and vessel calcifications, constitutes a microsurgical challenge. This study evaluates the feasibility of microsurgical procedures in a very old patient cohort. Between 2009 and 2015, 754 patients underwent 838 free flap reconstructions. The patients were divided into two groups according to age in "middle-aged" (<80 years old; n = 711) or "very old" (≥80 years old; n = 43). The series was retrospectively analyzed regarding potential influence of medical comorbidities, surgical and medical complications and outcomes. Between the groups, there was a significant difference regarding comorbidities with a higher prevalence of hypertension (P < 0.0001) and peripheral artery disease (P < 0.0001) in the very old group. However, there was no significant difference regarding the rate of surgical or medical complications, flap failure (middle aged group 43/791 flaps (5.44%) versus very old group 4/47 flaps (8.51%); P = 0.328), and revision rate (117/791 flaps (14.79%) versus 6/47 flaps (12.77%); P = 0.834) between the patient groups during our 3-months follow-up period. Our findings suggest that despite higher rates of patient comorbidities, successful free tissue transfer can also be achieved in a very old population with acceptable risk for complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers.

  15. The Face of Digital Literacy for Muslim Teenage Girls: A Comparative Study of Bradford Muslim Girl Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…

  16. Teenage pregnancy: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Tsang, B

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, 5% of all infants in Hong Kong were born to teenage mothers. The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong set up a Youth Advisory Service in 1977 to tofer counseling and medical help to young people under 25 on questions of sexuality. Between August 1977 and June 1980, 835 teenagers, 98% of them female, approached the service for help. The youngest client was 13 but most were 17-19 years old. 7% had finished primary school while the remainder had some secondary education. Most were from lower to lower-middle socioeconomic backgrounds. Few clients who became pregnant agreed to future use of birth control. Reluctance of teenage girls and their parents to accept responsibility for the girls' sexual relationships, peer pressure, and irregular sexual activities were found to be factors in their failure to use contraception. 257 pregnant clients chose to terminate their pregnancies and obtained the required parental consent. Most clients chose to have their infants out of wedlock, and only 2-3% married. The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong has been a pioneer in family life education to help teenagers understand themselves and their sexuality, and to avoid the problems of teenage pregnancy.

  17. From Benign to Malign in a Case of Cervical Adenopathy in a 17-Year-Old Adolescent: Diagnostic Traps

    PubMed Central

    Trailescu, Maria; Burlea, Amelia; Covaci, Claudia; Balan, Ozana; Pavel, Adrian; Crișan, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing between benign and malign adenopathies remains a challenge and could represent a source of error in a diagnosis. We report a case of right laterocervical adenopathy in a 17-year-old teenager admitted to hospital with an episode of fever associated with dysphagia, congested pharynx, and pultaceous deposits. Initially the adenopathy was considered to be secondary to a coinfection with Streptococcus B-hemolytic and Epstein-Barr virus, as suggested by the positive bacteriological and serological tests. The onset of the adenopathy before the episode and the ultrasound modifications raised the suspicion of a malignancy, later confirmed by the histopathologic examination of the lymph node excision. The final diagnosis was nodal metastasis of an undifferentiated lymphoepithelial carcinoma with an ENT starting point. Currently, the adolescent is hospitalised in the ENT ward, where the pharynx carcinoma with nodal metastasis was confirmed. Sometimes the infectious context can mask or unmask a malign chronic disease with insidious evolution. PMID:28018695

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-18 through 318.13-20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories §§ 318.13-18 through 318.13-20 [Reserved] ...

  19. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmetic clitoridectomy in a 33-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Daniels, Joe

    2012-06-01

    The Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003) in England allows for mental health exceptions for cosmetic surgery resulting from perceived abnormality. Similar legislation exists in other countries. There are no reported cases of clitoridectomy for cosmetic reasons or any discussion in the literature of mental health exceptions to the Act. This is a single case report on a 33-year-old married, heterosexual woman who had already had a cosmetic labiaplasty and was seeking a clitoridectomy for aesthetic reasons. At assessment, there were no psychiatric contra-indications or unrealistic expectations and the patient proceeded with a clitoridectomy. At 9 and 22 months follow-up, she was reassessed and was very pleased with the outcome. There were improvements in the satisfaction with her genital appearance, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life related to body image. Assessments for cosmetic clitoridectomy will continue to be rare, but this case may provide some guidance for practitioners who are confronted with such requests for body modification. However there remains only limited understanding of the motivation for such a request.

  1. Wrist mass in a 93-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Maznyczka, Annette Marie; Valenti, Domenico; Byrne, Jonathan

    2017-10-09

    A 93-year-old woman presented electively for transaortic valve implantation (TAVI), for severe aortic stenosis. She had a history of hypertension and hypothyroidism, and she was taking clopidogrel, antihypertensives and levothyroxine. In preparation for her TAVI procedure she underwent coronary angiography 4 months previously. Her coronary angiogram revealed severe three vessel disease, however, the consensus from the multidisciplinary team meeting, at that time, was to manage the coronary disease medically. Physical examination revealed a large, non-tender swelling on the volar aspect of her wrist (figure 1). The swelling had progressively enlarged in size over the preceding 4 months. Duplex ultrasonography was performed, but was technically difficult. Turbulent bidirectional flow was seen within the wrist swelling, however the connecting tract from which the flow originated was not adequately visualised. The greyscale ultrasound is shown (figure 1).heartjnl;heartjnl-2017-311923v1/F1F1F1Figure 1The panel on the left shows the swelling on the volar aspect of the wrist. The panel on the right shows the grey scale ultrasound image of the swelling at the wrist. QUESTION : What is the next most appropriate management step?Antibiotics and drainageUrgent ultrasound guided thrombin injectionNon-emergent vascular surgeryConservative management, with observation and follow-upUltrasound guided compression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. A 51-year-old man with sudden unexpected death.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Kent J; Randall, Brad B; Newby, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a 51-year-old man who died suddenly and was found to have an intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to acute hemorrhage within a choroid plexus xanthogranuloma. This is a highly unusual source of bleeding and to our knowledge has not been previously described in the literature. The man was discovered deceased on the bathroom floor of his home and an autopsy was ordered by the county coroner. Examination of the brain showed diffuse subarachnoid blood accumulation over the base of the brain in a symmetric distribution. A large amount of subarachnoid blood was especially noted near the brainstem at the level of the fourth ventricle foramina. Sections of the lateral left ventricle showed acute non-organizing hemorrhage within the ventricle and adjacent choroid plexus. Microscopically, a nodular focus seen grossly in the left lateral ventricle revealed marked chronic xanthogranulomatous inflammation with extensive cholesterol clefts, foreign body reaction, and focal calcifications. A periphery of normal choroid plexus was identified around the nodule. There was evidence of both recent and remote hemorrhage.

  3. A 37-year-old mechanic with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Kipen, H M; Fiedler, N

    2000-04-01

    A 37-year-old heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning mechanic developed respiratory, musculoskeletal, and central nervous system symptoms associated with a variety of odorous environmental chemicals. Organic disease was not evident, but the patient was distressed by these symptoms and was at risk for becoming disabled by them. His symptoms fit broadly into the condition recognized as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is a diagnostic term for a group of symptoms without demonstrated organic basis. The symptoms are characteristic of dysfunction in multiple organ systems, they increase and decrease according to exposure to low levels of chemical agents in the patient's environment, and they sometimes occur after a distinct environmental change or insult such as an industrial accident or remodeling. Although traditional medical organizations have not agreed on a definition for this syndrome, it is being increasingly recognized and makes up an increasing percentage of the caseload at occupational and environmental medicine clinics. Although there is often dispute about whether the symptoms have a functional or organic basis, an informed approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and management and a careful assessment of impairment, disability, and work relatedness are necessary. Careful exclusion of organic causes is critical, and this should be followed by a judicious approach to coping with symptoms.

  4. A 37-year-old mechanic with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed Central

    Kipen, H M; Fiedler, N

    2000-01-01

    A 37-year-old heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning mechanic developed respiratory, musculoskeletal, and central nervous system symptoms associated with a variety of odorous environmental chemicals. Organic disease was not evident, but the patient was distressed by these symptoms and was at risk for becoming disabled by them. His symptoms fit broadly into the condition recognized as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is a diagnostic term for a group of symptoms without demonstrated organic basis. The symptoms are characteristic of dysfunction in multiple organ systems, they increase and decrease according to exposure to low levels of chemical agents in the patient's environment, and they sometimes occur after a distinct environmental change or insult such as an industrial accident or remodeling. Although traditional medical organizations have not agreed on a definition for this syndrome, it is being increasingly recognized and makes up an increasing percentage of the caseload at occupational and environmental medicine clinics. Although there is often dispute about whether the symptoms have a functional or organic basis, an informed approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and management and a careful assessment of impairment, disability, and work relatedness are necessary. Careful exclusion of organic causes is critical, and this should be followed by a judicious approach to coping with symptoms. PMID:10753098

  5. The merger of the 60-year old Jupiter's White Ovals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin

    2000-07-01

    Three White Ovals {nicknamed BC, DE, FA} formed in Jupiter's atmosphere in 1939-1940. Two of these anticyclones {BC and DE} merged in February 1998, generating a new large oval BE {A.Sanchez-Lavega et al., Icarus, Vol. 142, 116, 1999}.Unfortunately the phenomenon took place during the solar conjunction so the details of the event were lost. In March 2000 a second merger occurred. Visual and infrared observations carried out with the 1-meter planetary telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory {France} and with the 3.5-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility {Mauna Kea, Hawaii} respectively, showed the merger of the 60-year old FA with the recently formed BE . Each was about 2/3 the size of the Earth. Although the observations were performed under difficult conditions because of the proximity of Jupiter to the Sun, we gathered good information of the rich phenomenology that accompanied the merger. To complete this set of observations we need to retrieve as soon as possible, the dynamics, internal texture, cloud morphology and vertical structure of the new vortex and its surroundings. This information, together with our ground-based data and expected data from the Galileo spacecraft fly in May 20 fly, could be decisive to understand the nature of anticyclonic vortices and the structure of its atmosphere well below the cloud level.

  6. Breast mass in a 69-year-old woman

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, G.; Schwartz, I.S.; Slater, G.

    1986-02-21

    A 69-year-old woman was initially seen with constant abdominal pain in the epigastrium and right upper quadrant, with nausea and vomiting of three days' duration. On examination, moderate tenderness and guarding in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen were noted. A leukocytosis of 11,000/cu mm, with a mild shift to the left, was present. Findings from a sonogram and hepatobiliary scan were consistent with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis for which intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy was instituted. Results of radiological studies performed on the second hospital day showed a small-bowel obstruction. On surgical exploration, a gangrenous segment of the terminal ileum was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The resected bowel demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction with evidence of focal organizing venous thrombosis in the mesentery. The patient was initially started on a regimen of IV heparin and then switched to oral coumarin. On the fourth day of coumarin therapy, massive swelling, tenderness, and erythema were noted to involve the entire right breast. Six months later, the patient was readmitted because of an acute pulmonary embolism. A residual 4x5-cm mass was present in the central portion of the right breast. The overlying skin was slightly retracted. Mammography showed an extensive masslike density behind the right nipple, with evidence of periareolar retraction. Coumarin-induced mammary necrosis was diagnosed.

  7. One-year-old infants follow others' voice direction.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Federico; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 1-year-old infants' ability to infer an adult's focus of attention solely on the basis of her voice direction. In Studies 1 and 2, 12- and 16-month-olds watched an adult go behind a barrier and then heard her verbally express excitement about a toy hidden in one of two boxes at either end of the barrier. Even though they could not see the adult, infants of both ages followed her voice direction to the box containing the toy. Study 2 showed that infants could do this even when the adult was positioned closer to the incorrect box while she vocalized toward the correct one (and thus ruled out the possibility that infants were merely approaching the source of the sound). In Study 3, using the same methods as in Study 2, we found that chimpanzees performed the task at chance level. Our results show that infants can determine the focus of another person's attention through auditory information alone-a useful skill for establishing joint attention.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain.

    PubMed Central

    Pääbo, S; Gifford, J A; Wilson, A C

    1988-01-01

    Pieces of mitochondrial DNA from a 7000-year-old human brain were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Albumin and high concentrations of polymerase were required to overcome a factor in the brain extract that inhibits amplification. For this and other sources of ancient DNA, we find an extreme inverse dependence of the amplification efficiency on the length of the sequence to be amplified. This property of ancient DNA distinguishes it from modern DNA and thus provides a new criterion of authenticity for use in research on ancient DNA. The brain is from an individual recently excavated from Little Salt Spring in southwestern Florida and the anthropologically informative sequences it yielded are the first obtained from archaeologically retrieved remains. The sequences show that this ancient individual belonged to a mitochondrial lineage that is rare in the Old World and not previously known to exist among Native Americans. Our finding brings to three the number of maternal lineages known to have been involved in the prehistoric colonization of the New World. Images PMID:3186445

  9. Epiploic appendagitis in a 27-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Ryohei; Isomoto, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Fujita, Fumihiko; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takeshima, Fuminao; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Uetani, Masataka; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Epiploic appendagitis is an ischemic infarction of an epiploic appendage caused by torsion or spontaneous thrombosis of the central draining vein. Epiploic appendagitis is self-limited without surgery, and it is imperative for clinicians to be familiar with this entity. Case Report A healthy 27-year-old man was admitted due to acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Physical examination showed focal abdominal tenderness with slight rebound tenderness. Laboratory tests showed leukocytosis and an increased serum C-reactive protein level. Computed tomography (CT) showed a fatty ovoid pericolonic mass measuring 12 mm in diameter, with a circumferential hyperdense ring that abutted on the ascending colon and was surrounded by ill-defined fat stranding with a hyperdense ring. These findings were diagnostic of primary epiploic appendagitis. The patient was given high-dose antibiotics due to the secondary inflammation involving the parietal peritoneum. Conclusions Epiploic appendagitis presents with an abrupt onset of focal abdominal pain and tenderness without significant guarding or rigidity; it is an uncommon and difficult diagnosis. With awareness of this condition, however, evaluation by CT can provide an accurate diagnosis of epiploic appendagitis, distinguishing it from conditions with clinically overlapping manifestations. PMID:21959616

  10. [Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in a 68-year-old man].

    PubMed

    Rubio, E; Acevedo, M

    2004-01-01

    A 68-year-old male with macroscopic hematuria and constitutional symptoms as fever and weight loss. There was nothing interesting in the anamnesis or in the physical exploration. The laboratory test had an elevation of creatinine of 4 mg/dL and ten days before it had been 1.4 mg/dL. In the urine analysis: proteinuria of 1.5 G/24 h, and hematuria. On the second day we made a renal biopsy where we could seen segmental glomerular necrosis and crescent fromation in 80% of the glomeruli. In the immune study c-ANCA anti-PR3 was positive. In the complementary studies we didn't find other organs affected. With the diagnosis of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis limited to the kidney we began treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. As the renal function was severely affected the patient needed one dialysis session. We began with 1 g intravenous methylprednisolone daily for 3 days followed by oral prednisone 60 mg daily tapering to 10 mg daily by 3 months. This was combined with 150 mg oral cyclophosphamide daily. Seven plasma exchanges were performed. At the beginning of treatment creatinine was 7 mg/dL, it was decreasing rapidly and three week after cretinine was 3 mg/Dl and he was asymptomatic. One year after treatment, creatinine is 1.4 mg/dL and the urine analysis is normal, C-ANCA are negative.

  11. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W.; Liebersbach, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  12. Giant Cell Fibroma in a Two-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2016-01-01

    The giant cell fibroma is a benign nonneoplastic fibrous tumor of the oral mucosa. It occurs in the first three decades of life in the mandibular gingiva, predominantly, showing predilection for females. This article reports a case of giant cell fibroma in a 2-year-old girl, which is an uncommon age for this lesion. The patient was brought for treatment at the Research and Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth, where practice for the Discipline of Pediatric Dentistry (Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Brazil) takes place. During clinical examination, a tissue growth was detected on the lingual gingival mucosa of the lower right primary incisors teeth. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia and submitted to histological examination at the Oral Pathology Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, which confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. There was no recurrence after 20 months of monitoring. This instance reinforces the importance of oral care from the very first months of life in order to enable doctors to make precocious diagnosis and offer more appropriate treatments for oral diseases, as well as to promote more efficient oral health in the community. PMID:27822394

  13. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a 14-year-old gelding.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R A; Malalana, F; McGowan, C M

    2012-07-01

    A 14-year-old Cleveland Bay cross gelding was presented with severe urinary incontinence that had been present for 1 year, and chronic polydipsia and polyuria over 4 years. Water intake had been recorded as 240 L over a 24-hour period. The horse had marked urinary incontinence and polyuria and polydipsia. The urine was markedly hyposthenuric, but no abnormalities on urinalysis were detected. There were no other abnormal clinical or neurological signs. Haematological and serum biochemical examinations showed no abnormalities and ultrasonographic and endoscopic examination of the urinary tract did not reveal any abnormalities. The horse underwent a modified water deprivation test and failed to concentrate its urine after 5 days. 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was administered I/V but the urine remained isosthenuric with a specific gravity of 1.010. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A definitive cause of the urinary incontinence was not found but overflow incontinence was considered a possibility. Despite being a rare condition in the horse diabetes insipidus should be considered in cases of severe polydipsia and polyuria in mature horses.

  14. [25-year old patient with angina pectoris during religious fasting].

    PubMed

    Huber, C A; Wunderlich, G; Brunn, A; Blau, T; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C

    2015-02-01

    HISTORY AND PRESENTATION AT ADMISSION: A 25-year-old male patient presented with acute left sided chest pain. The patient reported no physical exercise but daytime fasting (with neither food nor liquid intake) which he had started several days before. ECG, echocardiography and chest X-ray were normal, but blood examination revealed elevated levels for creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Ischemic lactate ammonia test revealed no increase of lactate during exercise. Muscle biopsy confirmed suspected diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type V (McArdle's disease). As causal treatments are unavailable for McArdle's disease, careful counselling regarding adequate exercise and regular, carbohydrate rich nutrition are mandatory to ameliorate symptoms. McArdle's disease represents a rare differential diagnosis of cardiac chest pain and somatoform myalgic complaints. When taking the patient's history, questions regarding the "Second wind"-phenomenon are helpful for initiating the adequate investigations early on. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Unexplained weight loss in an 80-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Imogen Aleksandra; Gill, Isaac; Harripaul, Azad

    2015-01-23

    An 80-year-old woman presented with long-standing history of weight loss and malnutrition, which had caused her to become reliant on the use of a wheelchair. Her symptoms were initially attributed to her medical comorbidities, however, during admission it became apparent that she had been suffering from depression and had gone on to develop an eating disorder. Eating disorders are most common in young adults but can affect all age groups, including the elderly population. The diagnosis is rarely considered in such patients and easily overlooked, especially when in the presence of chronic conditions and cognitive decline. A pre-existing psychiatric issue, most often depression, may also be present in this age group. There are no current treatment methods targeting patients in this population, who may not respond as effectively to the available strategies directed at young adults. It is important to always consider an eating disorder as a contributor or direct cause of unexplained weight loss in elderly patients.

  16. [Unexplained weight gain in a 41-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Harsch, I A; Hahn, E G

    2010-03-01

    A 41-year-old female was admitted to our clinic due to weight gain and facial edema. The patient also reported hair loss, amenorrhea and the formation of striae. The laboratory diagnostics ensured the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Unfortunately, the patient was among the 5-10% of patients in whom neither laboratory testing nor imaging revealed the source of the cortisol excess. Due to the dramatic decrease of her general condition, and the appearance of hypertension and diabetes mellitus we chose to refer the patient to bilateral minimally invasive adrenalectomy. The advantage of this therapeutic approach is, that it is a definitive treatment that provides immediate control of hypercortisolism. As disadvantage, the resultant permanent hypoadrenalism requires a lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. Furthermore, given that the problem was caused by occult pituitary microadenoma, Nelson's syndrome has to be considered. As only one adrenal could be excised due to technical reasons, the underlying pathology is thus not solved. In spite of this, the patient's general condition improved dramatically without need for replacement therapy. As the mortality of patients with persistent moderate hypercortisolism is increased 3,8- to 5 fold, mainly due to cardiovascular reasons, thorough surveillance for signs of recurrence is mandatory to be ready for quick intervention.

  17. Burns in patients over 60 years old: epidemiology and mortality.

    PubMed

    Tejerina, C; Reig, A; Codina, J; Safont, J; Mirabet, V

    1992-04-01

    Epidemiology and mortality among burn patients over age 60 years who were admitted to the Burn Centre of La Fé Hospital (Valencia, Spain) between 1 January 1988 and 1 January 1991 have been studied. A total of 443 patients (7.8 per cent of all presenting patients) were hospitalized during this 3-year period; of these, 69 (15.5 per cent) were over 60 years old. There were 40 females and 29 males (mean age, 72.2 years). Mean burn area was 21.6 per cent of total body surface, and the most commonly involved regions were the lower limbs (81 per cent). Fire flames were the most common cause of burns (65.2 per cent) and produced the most extensive lesions. Eight-five per cent of the accidents occurred at home, and winter was the season of highest incidence. Patient mortality was 33.3 per cent, the most common causes of which were hypovolaemic shock during the first 24 h and pneumonia in the later stages.

  18. Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica (Happle) in a 23-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Butnaru, Cristina; Oppel, Tilmann

    2002-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica is a rare but highly characteristic disease defined by the occurrence of an organoid naevus with sebaceous differentiation, a speckled-lentiginous naevus and other associated anomalies. It is probably caused by the twin-spot phenomenon. We report on a 23-year-old male electrician with 10 irregularly shaped, sharply demarcated, brownish-yellow papillomatous plaques following Blaschko's lines, as well as 6 large, sharply demarcated, round to oval, slightly greyish macules with pewit-egg-like dots, involving both buttocks, the right thigh, the right knee, the right pectoral region and the upper back. A moderate hyperhidrosis of the palms, soles and axillae was noted. All routine blood tests and laboratory findings, including chest X-ray, ECG, abdominal ultrasound, ocular and neural examination were unrevealing. Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica may be associated with dysaesthesia, segmental hyperhidrosis, mild mental retardation, epileptic seizures, deafness, ptosis, strabismus or muscular weakness. In our patient, only slight hyperhidrosis was present, whereas all other associated anomalies could be excluded.

  19. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  20. Testicular seminoma in a 75-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Devanney, James F; Devanney, James R

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is an uncommon cancer and of the estimated 7,920 new cases diagnosed in 2013, 370 will result in death. It is most common in young or middle-aged males and rarely occurs in older males. Ninety-five percent of these cancers originate in sperm-producing germ cells. There are two different subclasses of testicular cancer, namely nonseminoma and seminoma. Nonseminoma testicular cancers, such as embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and teratomas usually affect younger-aged males, whereas seminoma testicular cancers often occur in older males. It is unclear why testicular cancer is rare in older men, but because it is so unusual in older men, the diagnosis is frequently overlooked when presenting with signs suggestive of testicular carcinoma. A 75-year-old male recently presented with signs and symptoms classically descriptive of testicular cancer. The patient was treated with an orchiectomy. The pathologic evaluation of the excised testicle confirmed the diagnosis of a seminoma. This report is an account of the case from initial visit to treatment and a discussion of its relevance.

  1. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (<1/d vs. at least 1/d), 2) Use of toothpaste (not always vs. always), 3) Flossing (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week), 4) Use of mouthwash (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week). Analyses were performed with nonparametric tests. RESULTS. Mean age was 8.97 ± 1.99 years; 50.1% were male. Prevalence of utilization of oral hygiene devices and associated customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  2. 25 Years Old Women With Inflammatory Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Zahra; Davatchi, Fereydon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent histological type of malignant lymphomas (approximately 30% of cases). DLBCL is highly curable through chemotherapy. Rituximab in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy as the most frequent of care for first - DLBCL therapy, improves long-term survival of patients effectively. Case report: A young female (25 years old) complained about pain in her right back for two years. She was suffering from backache with priority in the right and contracture in mornings. Sacroiliac joint seemed normal but lytic and sclerotic lesions and also density changing of L5 and humerus head was revealed by CT scan. Biopsy was taken from the iliac bone and diffuse large B cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Conclusion: Chronic pains especially in axial skeleton, pelvis area and main joints must be taken seriously and examined by CT scan and MRI. If no particular issue was reported primarily while the pain was remained, a complete diagnosis BMB associated with PET must be applied. Despite of dependency on diagnosis the treatment by CHOP in association with rituximab is the most recommended chemotherapy alternative for patients with DLBCL. PMID:27594751

  3. [Teenage pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  4. Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?

    PubMed

    Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Grioni, S; Viola, G C V; Donato, F; Feretti, D; Festa, A; Bonizzoni, S; Bonetti, A; Monarca, S; Villarini, M; Levorato, S; Carducci, A; Verani, M; Casini, B; De Donno, A; Grassi, T; Bagordo, F; Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bonetta, Sa; Gelatti, U

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤ 3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥ 6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socio-economic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

  5. Teaching Styles of Israeli Four-Year-Olds and Their Mothers: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma D.

    The relationship between social class and patterns of reinforcement used by pre-school Israeli boys and girls and their mothers was investigated. Thirty lower and 30 middle class mothers instructed their own four year old in a simple task. These four year olds had previously taught a three year old a comparable task. Middle class children used…

  6. [Accidental mercury poisoning in a 12-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Alby-Laurent, F; Honoré-Goldman, N; Cavau, A; Bellon, N; Allali, S; Abadie, V

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to metallic mercury can cause severe accidental intoxications in children, whose clinical symptoms can vary depending on the route of administration, the dose, as well as the time and duration of the exposure. It has become unusual in France, yet it must be considered when taking a patient's medical history in cases of multisystemic involvement without a clear explanation. We report the case of a 12-year-old patient hospitalized because of a cough, poor general condition, chills, night sweats, psychomotor retardation, and skin lesions that had been developing for several weeks. The initial clinical examination also revealed sinus tachycardia, arterial hypertension, and abolition of osteotendinous reflexes. Complementary examination results were normal apart from a glomerular proteinuria without renal failure. When interviewing the mother, she reported that the child had played with mercury balls 3 months earlier. The suspicion of poisoning was confirmed by blood and urine analysis as well as renal biopsy showing an aspect of membranous glomerulonephritis with IgG and C3 depositions. An intoxication via a transdermal route being unlikely on healthy skin, the Regional Health Agency's survey concluded that chronic intoxication had occurred by inhalation of the mercury spread on the floor at the time of the exposure, which was then vacuum cleaned and released again by the contaminated vacuum cleaner. The patient's outcome was favorable within a few weeks after initiating DMSA chelation therapy. Mercury poisoning should be considered in cases of a multisystemic disorder without clear explanation, in order to intervene quickly and thus prevent irreversible renal and neurological consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  8. 51-year-old woman with double vision.

    PubMed

    Browning, Lisa; Leach, John; Watts, Christopher; Kuker, Wilhelm; Stacey, Richard

    2008-04-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of double vision and numbness around her left ear. She subsequently became unsteady on her feet and developed further cranial nerve abnormalities, before complaining of headache, nausea and vomiting. Imaging revealed features suggestive of two intracranial lesions; one non-contrast-enhancing high-signal area in the cerebellum with associated calcification, and a second contrast-enhancing low-signal area in association with the fourth ventricle, and at surgery there were two apparent components to the tumor. The histopathological features were those of a low-grade, focally calcified tumor comprising atypical ganglion and glial cells with interspersed Rosenthal fibres. Mitotic figures were not seen, and there was no necrosis. An infiltrate of small reactive lymphocytes was interspersed among the neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of synaptophysin by many of the dysplastic ganglion cells, with some co-expressing neurofilament protein and occasionally glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Several of the dysplastic ganglion cells also expressed CD34. The glial cell population was highlighted by GFAP. Ki-67 (MIB-1) activity was not noted among the neoplastic populations--the few positive nuclei in these areas were those of interspersed reactive CD3-positive T lymphocytes. In addition, at the edge of one of the biopsies was a dense infiltrate of mitotically-active large atypical CD 20-positive B lymphocytes, among which the Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index reached 80%. The final diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma arising within a ganglioglioma of the cerebellum, and this is believed to be the first reported case.

  9. Neurocysticercosis in a 23-year-old Chinese man

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Rosa Fontana Del; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Neurocysticerosis Symptoms: Diplopia • fever • headache • insomnia • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: Albendazole Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Neurocysticercosis is a brain infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium. It is the most important parasitic disease of the human central nervous system and represents the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Case Report: Here, we report the case of a 23-year-old Chinese man who presented to the emergency department with a 7-day history of helmet headache radiating to the nuchal region and associated with vomiting, confusion, and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was clear, with increased pressure, lymphocytic pleocytosis, decreased glucose, and increased protein levels. Bacterial antigen detection test on CSF was negative, as were CSF bacterial and fungal cultures. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic and antiviral therapy, the patient still complained of insomnia, diplopia, headache, neck stiffness, and pain in the sacral region. A second LP was performed and CSF had the same characteristics as the first LP. A brain and spinal cord MRI revealed widespread arachnoiditis and small septated cysts with CSF-like signal in the cisterna magna, within the fourth ventricle, and at the level of L3–L4. Cysticercus-specific immunoglobin G antibodies were detected by ELISA in the CSF. The patient received albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) and dexamethasone (5 mg/day) for 4 weeks, with progressive resolution of neurological symptoms. Conclusions: This case shows that, even if rare, neurocysticercosis may be responsible for meningeal symptoms and should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients from endemic countries. PMID:24459541

  10. "Media addiction" in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott; Scharf, Michael A; Bustos, Cristina; Chavira, Denise; Stein, Martin T

    2013-06-01

    Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines. He refuses to go to bed at night. His family feels unable to take him to public places because he "climbs all over everything." At school, he acts up in class, is often disruptive, and requires close supervision by teachers. He was recently kicked off of the school bus. He has very few friends, and his parents state that other children do not enjoy to be around him. Bryan's parents also report that he is "obsessed" with electronics. He spends most his free time watching TV and movies and playing computer games. He has a television in his bedroom because otherwise he "monopolizes" the family television. The family also owns several portable electronic devices that he frequently uses. Bryan insists on watching TV during meals and even that the TV stays on in an adjacent room while showering. He gets up early each morning and turns on the television. He refuses to leave the house unless he can take a portable screen device with him. His parents admit to difficulty placing limits on this behavior because they feel it is the only way to keep his other behaviors under control. His mother explains "it is our only pacifier" and that attempts to place restrictions are met with explosive tantrums and have thus been short lived. These efforts have also been impeded due to the habits of his parents and older sibling, who also enjoy spending a significant amount of time watching television.

  11. Snapping popliteus tendon in a 21-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Krause, David A; Stuart, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Case report. Determining the cause of painful snapping on the lateral aspect of the knee can be a challenge. The differential diagnosis includes iliotibial band friction syndrome, lateral meniscus tear, intra-articular loose body, discoid lateral meniscus, snapping biceps femoris tendon, degenerative joint disease, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, and snapping popliteus tendon. A 21-year-old female presented with a 7-year history of a painful snapping on the lateral aspect of her left knee. She reported the snapping occurred with all activities involving knee flexion and extension, including running and walking. With a diagnosis of snapping iliotibial band, she had received a variety of physical therapy interventions, including various lower extremity stretching and strengthening exercises. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications were also prescribed by her physician. Conservative and pharmoclogical interventions were unsuccessful in improving her symptoms. Similarly, our attempt with conservative treatment consisting of ice, taping, and a short period of immobilization was not successful. The patient underwent a surgical procedure consisting of removal of a prominent tubercle on the lateral femoral condyle and tenodesis of the popliteus tendon to the proximal aspect of the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament, followed by a postoperative program of physical therapy including range-of-motion and progressive strengthening exercises. At 6 weeks following surgery, the patient had returned to all activities with complete resolution of her symptoms. Painful snapping at the lateral aspect of the knee may be caused by a variety of disorders, including the popliteus tendon. Clinical diagnosis is challenging. Clinical suspicion of a snapping popliteus tendon as a source of the signs and symptoms of the condition is important for inclusion in the differential diagnosis. Differential diagnosis, level 4.

  12. "Media Addiction" in a 10-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott; Scharf, Michael A; Bustos, Cristina; Chavira, Denise; Stein, Martin T

    Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines. He refuses to go to bed at night. His family feels unable to take him to public places because he "climbs all over everything." At school, he acts up in class, is often disruptive, and requires close supervision by teachers. He was recently kicked off of the school bus. He has very few friends, and his parents state that other children do not enjoy to be around him.Bryan's parents also report that he is "obsessed" with electronics. He spends most his free time watching TV and movies and playing computer games. He has a television in his bedroom because otherwise he "monopolizes" the family television. The family also owns several portable electronic devices that he frequently uses. Bryan insists on watching TV during meals and even that the TV stays on in an adjacent room while showering. He gets up early each morning and turns on the television. He refuses to leave the house unless he can take a portable screen device with him. His parents admit to difficulty placing limits on this behavior because they feel it is the only way to keep his other behaviors under control. His mother explains "it is our only pacifier" and that attempts to place restrictions are met with explosive tantrums and have thus been short lived. These efforts have also been impeded due to the habits of his parents and older sibling, who also enjoy spending a significant amount of time watching television.

  13. Body Size and Intelligence in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Methods Two prospective study cohorts were assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980’s and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990’s. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Results Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Conclusions Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children. PMID:18683038

  14. School and the 17-Year-Old: A Comparison of Career Development Skills of 17-Year-Olds Attending School and Those Not Attending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…

  15. School and the 17-Year-Old: A Comparison of Career Development Skills of 17-Year-Olds Attending School and Those Not Attending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…

  16. Uterine leiomyoma causing menometrorrhagia with a concomitant mature teratoma in a 15-year-old child: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naiditch, Jessica A; Milad, Magdy P; Rowell, Erin E

    2011-10-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is the most common uterine tumor in adult females but is rare in the pediatric population with only 10 previous cases reported. We describe the unique case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain and menometrorrhagia and was found to have a uterine leiomyoma as well as a mature ovarian teratoma that required surgical resection. We review diagnostic imaging and optimal management for the 2 gynecologic masses in this teenage girl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teenagers' experiences of living with food hypersensitivity: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-06-01

    Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.

  18. Obturator externus abscess in a 9-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    de Bodman, Charlotte; Ceroni, Dimitri; Dufour, Justine; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Bregou-Bourgeois, Aline; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Obturator pyomyositis is a rare condition in children. Diagnosis is often delayed because of its rarity, and the vagaries of its presentation cause it to be easily be missed. Physicians should therefore familiarize themselves with this condition and consider it as a possible differential diagnosis in patients presenting with an acutely painful hip. Inflammatory syndrome is also frequent among sufferers and the MRI is a very sensitive diagnostic tool for obturator pyomyositis. Additionally, joint fluid aspirations and blood cultures are also useful in identifying the pathogen. The appropriate antibiotic therapy provides a rapid regression of symptoms during the early stage of pyomyositis. In cases of MRI-confirmed abscess, surgical treatment is indicated. Patient concerns: Our report focuses on a case of obturator pyomyositis in a 9-year-old boy. The child was febrile for 5 days and could only manage to walk a few steps. His hip range of motion was restricted in all directions. In addition, the patient had presented pain and swelling of his right elbow for a day, with a restriction of motion in the joint. There was a clear inflammatory syndrome. A diagnosis of hip and elbow septic arthritis was suspected, and the child underwent joint aspiration of the both cited joints. The aspiration of the elbow returned pus. Conversely, no effusion was found in the hip aspiration. The administration of empiric intravenous antibiotherapy was started. Diagnoses: An MRI revealed an osteomyelitis of the ischio-pubic area associated with a subperiosteal abscess. Interventions: Subsequently, 3 days after elbow arthrotomy, a surgical treatment was performed on the patient's right hip in order to evacuate the subperiosteal abscess and muscular collection because of the persistence of the patient's symptoms and inflammatory syndrome despite susceptible intravenous antibiotics. Postsurgery the patient showed steady improvement. Lessons: Such cases demonstrate how

  19. Homebound Teenage Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Justin F.

    Teenage parenting and pregnancy is discussed in terms of incidence, health consequences, effect on teenage growth and development, social and economic costs, and existing programs sponsored by DHEW (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare). (SBH)

  20. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences in Ayrshire teenagers' attitudes to sexual relationships, responsibility and unintended pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hooke, A; Capewell, S; Whyte, M

    2000-08-01

    Disadvantages and risks related to teenage pregnancy, together with a recent increase in Scottish conception rates among teenagers aged 13-15 years old, give cause for concern. Using an illustrated short story and questionnaire, attitudes of 129 Ayrshire teenagers aged 14-15 years old were examined to teenage pregnancy, and more generally to early sex. Seventy-three percent of girls advocated joint responsibility for contraceptive protection compared with only 46% of boys (p<0.01). Also, significantly more boys than girls saw nothing wrong with casual sex (21%vs. 5%, p<0.01), and significantly less boys than girls upheld the virtue of commitment in sexual relationships (27%vs. 54%, p<0.01). Sex education programmes should explore these gender-related disparities.

  2. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  3. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  4. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE.

  5. Evaluation of oral cavity condition with regard to decay in 18-year old from urban and rural areas in Podkarpackie Province, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria; Rudnicka-Siwek, Katarzyna; Warsz, Magdalena; Struska, Anna; Krajewska-Kurzępa, Agnieszka; Pels, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The studies have indicated the necessity to intensify dental health care in certain Polish provinces. The purpose of study was to evaluate dental condition and establish dental health needs in the population of 18-year old youth from urban and rural region in Podkarpackie Province, Poland. Mean DMFT index (D-decayed, M-missing and F-filled teeth) was calculated as a key measure of dental decay and dental health needs identified. The results found the highest percentage of teeth affected by active decay (D) in the second molars, both upper and lower (>20%), the highest F score in the first and second maxillary and mandibular molars (>50% and >40% respectively), and the highest M score was observed in the first upper and lower molars. Mean DMFT score was 7.13. Higher scores were observed among the urban teenagers (DMFT=7.72 and D=2.86) compared to the teenagers from rural areas (DMFT=6.42 and D=1.37). The analysis of DMFT index with regard to gender found almost the same DMFT in males and females (males 7.15, females 7.12), and D, M and F scores differed slightly. No dental health needs were found in 36.67% examined, however 63.33% teenagers needed dental treatment. Professional prophylactic activities should be intensified in the group of children and teenagers living in Podkarpackie Province. A scheme of refunded fissure sealing of teeth should cover second molars as well. Professional dental health care should be extended in the group of teenagers attending vocational schools.

  6. Study on Growth Rhythm of Juveniles Cistolemmys Flavomarginata for One and Two Years Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin

    Growth of one and two year old Cistolemmys flavomarginata is studied. In natural temperature and under artificial feeding condition, juvenile turtles grow for 180 days in Xinyang, one year old turtle average body weight increased from 18.1 g to 54.5 g, the relative growth rate is 204.1%, the absolute growth rate is 0.21. two year old turtle average body weight increased from 46.8 g to 101.1 g, the relative growth rate is 115.98%, the absolute growth rate is 0.30. But two year old turtle growth rate is slower than that of one year old turtle. The body weight, carapace length, carapace width, plastron length, plastron width and carapace high are correlated positively to daily age. The body weight growth equations of one and two year old turtles are deduced. Compared with other reptiles, whole growth cycle is grasped systemically by the growth patterns.

  7. The role of imagination in facilitating deductive reasoning in 2-, 3- and 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Richards, C A; Sanderson, J A

    1999-09-30

    When 4- and 6-year-olds are cued to use their imagination, they can overcome the belief bias effect and demonstrate deductive reasoning ability on syllogisms containing contrary-to-fact material. This study tested whether 2- and 3-year-olds could also reason with incongruent syllogisms when encouraged to use their imagination. Eighty-four 2-, 3- and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: no cue, word cue, fantasy planet or imagery. Children were then presented with six syllogistic reasoning problems containing incongruent information. In the imagination conditions, 2- and 3-year-olds performed as competently as 4-year-olds. The findings are discussed in relation to other research which suggests that under certain circumstances 2- and 3-year-olds have the capacity for counterfactual thinking.

  8. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  9. Employment of Minors. A Guide for 14- through 17-year-olds, Their Parents and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Bureau of Labor and Industry, Portland.

    This guide on the employment of minors is intended for 14- through 17-year olds, their parents, and employers. It first lists requirements for employers who hire minors. Then it lists the jobs that 14- and 15-year-old workers can do, both the types of businesses that would hire them and examples of the kinds of jobs that 14- and 15-year-olds may…

  10. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Energy Efficiency: An Experiential-Based Energy Unit for Youth Ages 13-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…

  12. Energy Efficiency: An Experiential-Based Energy Unit for Youth Ages 13-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…

  13. The impact of salivary mutans streptococci and sugar consumption on caries experience in 6-year olds and 12-year olds in Riga.

    PubMed

    Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda

    2010-01-01

    To assess possible relationship between caries experience, salivary cariogenic microflora and free sugar consumption in 6 year and 12 year old children in Riga, to evaluate these variables in risk assessment. 79 children aged 6 and 96 children aged 12 were examined clinically and by bitewing X-ray for caries diagnosis. Also all children or their parents were questioned about number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup and frequency of cups used daily. Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) (CRT-bacteria; Ivoclar; Vivadent; Liechtenstein) were determined only for children with dmft/DMFT>4: 27.8% at the age of 6, 40.6% at the age of 12. All data were statistically analyzed using frequency tables and analysis of variance. Statistical significance of differences in proportions was tested using chi-square test, Analysis included evaluation of how changes in variables such as free sugar consumption affects caries in particular age group. Mean number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup was 1.47 in 6 year olds and 1.86 in 12 year olds, but daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar was 2.71 and 4.36 in each age group accordingly. Tea spoons of sugar per cup were associated with caries experience only in 6 year olds (p=0.098). A significant association was observed between caries experience, salivary MS and an amount of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup in both age groups (for 6 y.o. p= 0.037, for 12 y.o. p=0.037). Also caries experience was strongly associated with salivary MS and daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar, but only in 12 year olds (p=0.041). The information of free sugar consumption per cup or daily gives the possibility to control free sugar use in order to reduce caries development in 6 year old and 12 year old children in Riga.

  14. ATS-6 - Preliminary results from the 13/18-GHz COMSAT Propagation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, G.

    1975-01-01

    The 13/18-GHz COMSAT Propagation Experiment (CPE) is reviewed, the data acquisition and processing are discussed, and samples of preliminary results are presented. The need for measurements of both hydrometeor-induced attenuation statistics and diversity effectiveness is brought out. The facilitation of the experiment - CPE dual frequency and diversity site location, the CPE ground transmit terminals, the CPE transponder on Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6), and the CPE receive and data acquisition system - is briefly examined. The on-line preprocessing of the received signal is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the off-line processing of this database to remove signal fluctuations not due to hydrometeors. Finally, samples of the results of first-level analysis of the resultant data for the 18-GHz diversity site near Boston, Mass., and for the dual frequency 13/18-GHz site near Detroit, Mich., are presented and discussed.

  15. ATS-6 - Preliminary results from the 13/18-GHz COMSAT Propagation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, G.

    1975-01-01

    The 13/18-GHz COMSAT Propagation Experiment (CPE) is reviewed, the data acquisition and processing are discussed, and samples of preliminary results are presented. The need for measurements of both hydrometeor-induced attenuation statistics and diversity effectiveness is brought out. The facilitation of the experiment - CPE dual frequency and diversity site location, the CPE ground transmit terminals, the CPE transponder on Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6), and the CPE receive and data acquisition system - is briefly examined. The on-line preprocessing of the received signal is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the off-line processing of this database to remove signal fluctuations not due to hydrometeors. Finally, samples of the results of first-level analysis of the resultant data for the 18-GHz diversity site near Boston, Mass., and for the dual frequency 13/18-GHz site near Detroit, Mich., are presented and discussed.

  16. Influence of Mandarin tone exposure on the processing of intonation by 14-year-old American adolescents: An fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia; Wang, Yue

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated, for American adolescents, whether the learning of non-native speech contrasts in one prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese tones) would influence the processing of non-native contrasts in another prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese intonation). Two groups of 14-year-old American teenagers were tested using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, including eight who had received a two-week Mandarin tone training program and eight with no exposure to Mandarin. Subjects were scanned during identification tasks. Despite their similar behavioral performance on identification of Mandarin intonation, preliminary results showed different cortical activation patterns for the two groups. Teenagers exposed to Mandarin showed similar activation patterns for the Mandarin intonation and Mandarin tone task, with more right-hemisphere activation for intonation, which differed from activation for English intonation. Teenagers without exposure activated similar areas for Mandarin and English intonation. Familiarity with Mandarin tonal contrasts affects brain activation, not only for Mandarin tones but also for Mandarin intonation, suggesting that training effects may transcend levels. [Work supported by NIH (HD 37954) and the Talaris Research Institute.

  17. Immune memory responses to HBV vaccine 13-18 years after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hou, L; Li, W; Wei, X; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, Y; Wu, H; Shen, B

    2015-07-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune memory response 13-18 years after an hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine by performing a specific in vitro stimulation experiment. Thirty healthy volunteers who had been inoculated 13-18 years ago with the HBV vaccine were collected from the physical examination center. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with 50 ng/mL recombinant HBsAg. An ELISA kit was used for the detection of antibodies that were produced by these cells in vitro. It was found that even 13-18 years after inoculation with the HBV vaccine, an anamnestic antibody response still existed, and was not correlated with the serum antibody levels (r = -0.177, P = 0.377). In conclusion, our data showed that the individuals after inoculation, including those with anti-HBs <10 IU/L as well as those individuals in whom the antibody was not detected, retained immune memory, which may be the main role of memory B cells.

  18. Effects of soil temperature on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Ryyppö, A; Lehto, T; Mannerkoski, H

    2005-01-01

    Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 degrees C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 degrees C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 degrees C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 degrees C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.

  19. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  20. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to writing in…

  1. The Young Child Learns: A Guide for Four-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus Christi Independent School District, TX.

    The purpose of this teaching guide is to orient preschool teachers to the unique needs and abilities of the four-year-old child and to offer a suggested program of pre-kindergarten activities. Specific capabilities characteristic of the four-year-old are listed, followed by the scope of the preschool program in the areas of cognitive development,…

  2. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 572 RIN 2127-AJ49 Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child... specifications and qualification requirements for a Hybrid III 10-year- old size child test dummy (HIII-10C). In... Correlates 4. Repeatability in Systems Testing f. Dummy Development Efforts 1. Hybrid III Child Dummy...

  3. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  4. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  5. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  6. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  7. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  8. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  9. Brief Report: Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT): Development and Preliminary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Ousley, Opal Y.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) as a stage 2 screening instrument in a clinic-based sample of two-year-olds with autism (n=12) and with nonautistic developmental disorders (n=21). Results provide preliminary support for the utility of the STAT as an early screening of autism. (Contains…

  10. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  11. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  12. Four- and Six-Year-Olds Use Pragmatic Competence to Guide Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Maria D.; Delisle, Sarah S.; Saylor, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates whether four- and six-year-old children use pragmatic competence as a criterion for learning from someone else. Specifically, we ask whether children use others' adherence to Gricean maxims to determine whether they will offer valid labels for novel objects. Six-year-olds recognized adherence to the maxims of…

  13. The MMPI-A and 13-Year-Old Inpatients: How Young Is Too Young?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janus, Mark-David; de Groot, Christopher; Toepfer, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A) (J. Butcher and others, 1992) with 13-year olds by examining the profiles produced. Investigated the effect of scoring with standard MMPI-A norms. Findings support the use of standard MMPI-A norms with 13-year-old inpatients. (SLD)

  14. Five- to Twelve-Year-Olds' Control of Movement Velocity in a Dynamic Collision Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Velde, Arenda F.; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated age-related differences in a dynamic collision avoidance task that bears a resemblance to pedestrian road crossing. Five- to seven-year-old children, ten- to twelve-year-old children and adults were instructed to push a doll across a small-scale road between two toy vehicles, which approached one after the other. We analysed the…

  15. Noncontent Speech Convergence among Talkative and Reticent Three Year-olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; And Others

    The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the extent to which three-year-old children converged noncontent speech to that of adults and (2) whether a talkativeness-reticence factor influenced the degree of convergence. Four three-year-old girls individually interacted with six to eight unfamiliar adults in free-play settings. From…

  16. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to writing in…

  17. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  18. [Bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shi-Rong; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wan, Lei; Wei, Hua; Wang, Ya-Hui; Zhu, Guang-You

    2013-08-01

    To discuss bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Sichuan province and to effectively update the database for estimating the living age of Tibetan teenagers in terms of bone age of the knee joint. Radiographs including epiphysis of distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula were taken from 483 Tibetan male and female teenagers aged from 14 to 19 years old in Aba prefecture of Sichuan province in order to observe epiphyseal growth situation. The descriptive data of the epiphyseal closure ages of these teenagers' knee joints were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. The distal femur epiphyseal closure occurred earliest, while the proximal fibula epiphyseal closure occurred latest. The epiphyseal growth of knee joints of females occurred about one year earlier than that of males. The forensic information and data related to Tibetan teenagers' bone age identification should be updated regularly. These results provide potential value for the practice of forensic medicine, anthropology and clinical medicine.

  19. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  20. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    out the actual observations, taking all the specific requirements into account. "We were actually trying to measure a faint signal from intergalactic gas caused by the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation. But as often happens in science, we got a surprise and found something we weren't looking for - dozens of faint, discrete objects emitting radiation from neutral hydrogen in the so-called Lyman alpha line, a fundamental signature of protogalaxies," explains Rauch. The same small patch of sky, centred on a quasar, was observed between 2004 and 2006 for an unprecedented 92 hours, the equivalent of about 12 complete nights, allowing the astronomers to obtain a spectrum of the Universe when it was only 2 billion years old. The result of this search is the detection of 27 faint objects. The weak light signal that the team has detected from these distant objects implies low star formation rates and a small amount of chemical enrichment, suggesting that they are indeed at an early stage of formation. "The properties of the emitters seem to provide an excellent match to those of 'Damped Lyman Alpha Systems', the main reservoir of neutral hydrogen in the far Universe," says Andy Bunker. "This suggests that the objects found are the long-sought counterparts of the DLAS in emission. The new observations confirm theoretical research proposing that galaxies like our own have formed by the amalgamation of small proto-galaxies early on in the history of the Universe," he adds. "What makes our discovery particularly exciting is that it opens the route to find large numbers of building blocks of normal galaxies and that we will now be able to study in detail how galaxies like our Milky Way have come together," says Martin Haehnelt.

  1. Passenger effects on teenage driving and opportunities for reducing the risks of such travel.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; Ferguson, Susan A; McCartt, Anne T

    2007-01-01

    To review the research evidence concerning the effects of passengers on teenage driving and crash involvement, and to explore ways to reduce negative effects. Review of the international literature on these topics. Passenger presence increases crash risk for teenage drivers, especially when the passengers are other teenagers and especially when they are male. Female passengers do not have the same effects. Teenagers are more susceptible to peer influences than adults. The combination of passenger-induced distraction and driving inexperience can disrupt driving behavior, and there is evidence that teenage driver risk taking increases in vehicles with multiple teenagers. Possible ways to reduce the resulting crash problem include altering the in-vehicle behavior of teenagers or influencing their selection of travel partners. Legal restrictions on passengers with teenage drivers have been found effective in reducing the crash problem. Parental monitoring of teenage driving behavior, and programs aimed at teenagers themselves, could be other options but their efficacy is unproven. It currently is unknown why female passengers have a different effect than males or if that might offer clues about future interventions. Despite passenger restrictions in the majority of states, 42% of 16- and 17-year-old drivers in fatal crashes in 2005 were transporting teenagers with no adults in the vehicle; 61% of teenage passenger deaths (1,222 in 2005) occurred in vehicles driven by other teenagers. Wider application of passenger restrictions is indicated. Ways to make passenger restrictions more effective are needed, and other techniques for reducing this major problem need development and testing.

  2. Stability of IQ Measures in Teenagers and Young Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2006-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed to investigate the stability of IQ measures in a group of dyslexic teenagers and young adults. Earlier research had shown contradictory results. The 65 subjects, 12 years old on the average at first test, were retested after a mean interval of six and a half years. There was a significant relative decrease in…

  3. A Research Report for Adults Who Work with Teenagers. Facts about Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageton, Suzanne S.

    This report on sexual assault was written for adults who work with adolescents. It contains data on teenage sexual assault from the National Youth Survey (NYS), a survey of a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,700 youths who were between 11 and 17 years old at the time of the project's initial interview and who were interviewed…

  4. Iranian pregnant teenage women tell the story of "fast development": A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Montazeri, Simin; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Gharacheh, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major health problem significantly associated with negative impacts on the health of both teenage mothers and their newborn. However, little is known about teenage pregnancy from teenager's perspective, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the experience of pregnancy in Iranian teenage women. An interpretive phenomenological study was used as a suitable research design to conduct this research. Data were collected through individual, semi structured and in-depth interview with 11 married teenage women aged between 15 and 19 years old, primigravida with singleton pregnancy. Data were analysed through thematic analysis approach. "Fast development" was the main theme that emerged from the participants' experiences. It refers to the unexpected development process that occurs simultaneously with other important development events. Fast development consists of three themes, 'unexpected development', 'development within development', and 'struggle with development'. Teenage pregnant women simultaneously encounter multiple developmental challenges related to adolescence period, marriage, pregnancy, and mothering responsibilities. According to the results, fast development concept should be considered by healthcare providers in order to offer comprehensive and age-appropriate health services to pregnant teenage women for successful transition from the multiple developmental stages. Moreover, this concept will help health care providers, especially midwives, to understand how to deal with pregnant teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing pregnancy: a girls' issue. Seventeen-year-old Swedish boys' perceptions on abortion, reproduction and use of contraception.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja; Darj, Elisabeth; Larsson, Margareta

    2007-06-01

    To gain deeper understanding of how teenage males view abortion, adolescent fatherhood, sexual behavior, and use of contraception. We conducted six focus-group interviews with 17-year-old boys (n = 40). The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest content analysis. Adolescent fatherhood was considered to be a catastrophe and abortion a moral dilemma. Most participants agreed that the unrestricted right to decide on abortion rests upon the girl, but some were frustrated by not having any legal right to influence the decision. Contraceptive failure was viewed as common and mainly due to the influence of alcohol or in relation to unplanned sex. Boys perceived girls as having a greater responsibility in avoiding pregnancy, and they often put a blind trust in the girls' use of hormonal contraceptives or initiation of emergency contraception. Several groups had insufficient knowledge about fetal development and other aspects of reproduction. Many were unsatisfied with the sex education they had received at school, but still considered it to be an important counterweight to other sources of information concerning sex, such as pornography. Equal responsibility among boys and girls regarding reproductive issues is still a challenge, but nevertheless an important key to the prevention of unwanted pregnancies.

  6. Outcomes and parent-child relationships of former adolescent mothers and their 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    East, P L; Felice, M E

    1990-08-01

    This study compared former adolescent mothers and their 12-year-old children with adult child-bearing mothers and their children along three dimensions: mothers' life-course characteristics (e.g., educational attainment, employment status, current annual family income); children's scholastic, psychological, social, and behavioral adjustment; and dimensions of the parent-child relationship (e.g., companionship, affection, intimacy). Results showed that adolescent mothers had significantly lower levels of completed education than adult mothers, and children of teenage mothers exhibited more learning problems (as rated by self, mother, and teacher) than children of adult mothers. Younger childbearing mothers and fathers felt they provided less esteem enhancement support to their children than older childbearing parents. In addition, early childbearing mothers felt less satisfied with their mother-child relationships, and early childbearing fathers shared fewer companionate activities with their children than adult childbearing mothers and fathers, respectively. The long-term implications of adolescent parenting for the adolescent and her child are discussed.

  7. Analysis of eating disorders among 12-17 year-old adolescents in the island of Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Padorno, C; Scoffier, S; Polifrone, M; Martínez-Patiño, M J; Martínez-Vidal, A; Zagalaz Sánchez, M L

    2010-09-01

    A clinical pathology characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour has been often associated to socio-cultural factors that influence the psychopathology of these disorders. The alarming increase in the number of teenagers with eating disorders underscores the need to promote research on the underlying causes, and to identify high-risk subpopulations in need of effective targeted treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among an adolescent population of both sexes on the island of Gran Canaria. The sample was composed of adolescent boys and girls aged 12 to 17 years old (N=1364) who resided in different municipalities of Gran Canaria. The EAT-40 questionnaire was administered (cut-off point at 30), and body mass index measurements were assessed. The mean BMI for the 1364 subjects was 21.8 Kg/m²; 15% were underweight, and of these at least 1% obtained BMI values below 15 Kg/m². Thus, 13.4% of adolescents were potentially at risk of eating disorders according to the EAT-40 questionnaire. Moreover, the BMI was not significantly correlated to the EAT-40 and was not considered a sufficient parameter to establish the incidence of eating disorders.

  8. How the economy affects teenage weight.

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2009-06-01

    Much research has focused on the proximate determinants of weight gain and obesity for adolescents, but not much information has emerged on identifying which adolescents might be at risk or on prevention. This research focuses on a distal determinant of teenage weight gain, namely changes in the economy, which may help identify geographical areas where adolescents may be at risk and may provide insights into the mechanisms by which adolescents gain weight. This study uses a nationally representative sample of individuals, between 15 and 18 years old from the 1997 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to estimate a model with state and year fixed effects to examine how within-state changes in the unemployment rate affect four teenage weight outcomes: an age- and gender-standardized percentile in the body-mass-index distribution and indicators for being overweight, obese, and underweight. I found statistically significant estimates, indicating that females gain weight in weaker economic periods and males gain weight in stronger economic periods. Possible causes for the contrasting results across gender include, among other things, differences in the responsiveness of labor market work to the economy and differences in the types of jobs generally occupied by female and male teenagers.

  9. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Violent causes of death in young people of 10 to 24 years old. Argentina 1991 - 2000].

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Edith M; Foglia, Luis; Masaútis, Alicia; Negri, Griselda

    2003-01-01

    to study the most frequent death causes between young people during 1991 to 2000. We worked at the Epidemiological Research Center of the Buenos Aires Academy of Medicine, with all the country's death dates certified by the Ministry of Health. Argentine young population (10 to 24 years old) was of about 10,000,000 people, after the increase of 15% during the studied period. The population studied were all violent causes of death of people between 10 to 24 years old, of Argentina, since 1991 to 2000. The violent causes of death studied were: Accident (other than traffic), traffic accidents, suicide, homicide, between 10-14 year old, 15-19 year old and 20-24 year old, male and female youngsters. Mortality rates were calculated on yearly basis per province and per country. Of 100% of death causes among 10-24 years old adolescents: 15% were accidents (non traffic), 14,6 traffic accidents, 10,1% homicides and 9,1% were suicides. Mortality rates were higher for males, in all ages and during all the period. We observed an increase in external causes of death during 1991 to 2000. Mortality rates of homicide and suicide increased for males between 1991 and 2000. Adolescents (15-19 year old) and male gender are risk factors for external causes of death (accidents, aggression and suicide). The results of this study showed that mortality by violent causes should be a priority problem for the Public Health and for all the community.

  11. Assessing Physicians' Intentions to Talk about Sex when They Vaccinate Nine-Year-Old to 15-Year-Old Girls against HPV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…

  12. Assessing Physicians' Intentions to Talk about Sex when They Vaccinate Nine-Year-Old to 15-Year-Old Girls against HPV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…

  13. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  14. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  15. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  16. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  17. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49 U.S.C...

  18. Ultrasound manifestations of unusual trisomies-excluding trisomy 13, 18, and 21: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Manjiri; Cheng, Edith; Dubinsky, Theodore

    2009-03-01

    Trisomy is the most commonly identified chromosome abnormality, occurring in at least 4% of all clinically recognized pregnancies (1). Most of the trisomies are associated with a single additional chromosome, although 2 other types of trisomic conceptions are occasionally observed, those with 2 additional chromosomes or double trisomy and those with both a normal and trisomic cell line or mosaic trisomies. The adverse effects of trisomy on the phenotype are well established. In this review article, we consider the prevalence of the unusual trisomies (excluding 13, 18, and 21) and present a review of their ultrasound findings.

  19. Sex and America's Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alan Guttmacher Inst., New York, NY.

    Although sexual activity is common among teenagers, it is not as widespread, and does not begin as early, as most adults believe. This report provides detailed data and analysis of sex among adolescents. Adolescent sexual activity is grouped in ten categories: (1) Rites of passage; (2) The context of adolescents' lives; (3) Sex among teenagers;…

  20. School and Teenage Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraj, Liba

    1984-01-01

    Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)

  1. NUTRITIONAL HEALTH OF TEENAGERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, MARY

    SURVEYS HAVE SHOWN THAT SOME TEENAGERS HAVE FOOD INTAKES THAT FAIL TO SUPPLY THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE FOR EACH OF THE NUTRIENTS. HOWEVER, THE NUMBER OF TEENAGERS CLASSIFIED AS HAVING INADEQUATE NUTRIENT INTAKES DEPENDS UPON WHICH REVISION OF THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES HAS BEEN USED AS A BASE FOR EVALUATION. IN EXAMINING THE…

  2. School and Teenage Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraj, Liba

    1984-01-01

    Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)

  3. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort task.

    PubMed

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P; Samuelson, Larissa K

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that prior experience with the postswitch dimension can enhance 3-year-olds' performance in the DCCS. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to preexpose 3-year-olds (n = 36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In , 3-year-olds (n = 18) were preexposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The model was used to explain this asymmetry. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Kienböck's disease in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Luc

    2003-08-01

    A case of avascular necrosis of the lunate in a 12-year-old girl is described. Conservative treatment resulted in a clinically normal wrist at three years' follow-up, despite obvious radiological changes.

  5. Response to commercial thinning in a 110-year-old Douglas-fir stand.

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Williamson

    1982-01-01

    During a 19-year period after a 110-year-old Douglas-fir stand was thinned, both standard plot compilations and stem analysis showed that growth of heavily and lightly thinned stands equaled growth of stands in control plots.

  6. Success of trees and shrubs in an 18-year-old planting on mine spoil

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Wade; Ralph L. Thompson; Willis G. Vogel; Willis G. Vogel

    1985-01-01

    Reports the status of l&year-old plantings of 25 tree and 25 shrub species on surface-mine spoil. The value of the species for wood products, wildlife habitat, site stabilizers, and soil builders is discussed

  7. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  8. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  9. Basilar impression and osteogenesis imperfecta in a three-year-old girl: CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Rush, P J; Berbrayer, D; Reilly, B J

    1989-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with osteogenesis imperfecta developed symptomatic basilar impression. Her neurological symptoms were treated by foramen magnum decompression and laminectomy. This is an unusually young patient to have this condition.

  10. Paroxysmal hemicrania with visual aura in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Stefan; Wöber, Christian

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy presenting with a history of recurrent episodes of isolated visual aura later followed infrequently by indomethacin-responsive headache attacks resembling paroxysmal hemicrania.

  11. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  12. Are U.S. Teens Now as Inactive as 60-Year-Olds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_166666.html Are U.S. Teens Now as Inactive as 60-Year-Olds? The lack of exercise more ... Here's some compelling evidence that Americans have become a sedentary bunch: Research suggests that the average teen ...

  13. An Investigation into Understanding of Geological Time among 10- and 11-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the understanding of British children (N=189) of geologic time as they participate in related activities. Indicates that 10- and 11-year-old children lack a clear chronology of geologic events. Contains 22 references. (DDR)

  14. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  15. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  16. Filariasis presenting as a scrotal nodule in a 2 year old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yagain, Kiran; Mathew, Mary

    2011-02-01

    A two year old boy from southwestern village of India presented with a 2 cm × 1 cm size swelling in scrotum for 8 months. It was excised surgically and the histopathological examination revealed a gravid filarial worm. The occurrence of adult filarial worm in 2 year old boy signifies the endemicity and high larval load of insect vectors in western coast of south India.

  17. Self-Definition and Peer Relations in Two-Year-Old Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.

    The major hypothesis of the present study is that interest and competence in interacting with age-mates emerges in two-year-olds out of the process of defining self as separate from other in the context of the mother-child bond during the first two years. Seventy-eight two-year-old boys were administered four measures of self-definition and 40…

  18. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  19. Salafi Jihadism: A 1,400-Year-Old Idea Rises Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Salafi-Jihadism: A 1,400-Year- old Idea Rises Again A Monograph by MAJ Jacob M. Teplesky United...Salafi-Jihadism: A 1,400-Year- old Idea Rises Again 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d PROJECTNUMBER MAJ Jacob M. Teplesky... old Idea Rises Again Approved by: _____________________________________, Monograph Director Alice Butler-Smith, PhD

  20. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  1. The Social Development of Two Year Old Children in Residential Nurseries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tizard, Jack; Tizard, Barbara

    This study focuses upon some aspects of the social behavior of 2-year-old children being reared in long-stay residential nurseries. These children are compared with working class 2-year-old children being raised in two-parent homes in which the mother is not working full-time and there are no older siblings of preschool age. All children were…

  2. A Rare Case: Struma Ovarii in a 14-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Iltar, Elif; Ureyen, Isin; Toptas, Tayfun; Savas, Melike; Çekiç, Sema; Uysal, Aysel

    2017-07-31

    Ovarian tumors presented with ovarian mass in childhood and adolescence, these are uncommon but an important part of gynecological cases. Struma ovarii is one of the rare cystic benign ovarian tumors that is observed predominantly in women who are between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. It is extremely rare in adolescents. Herein, we present a 14-year-old adolescent girl with struma ovarii who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain.

  3. Treatment of Cataplexy in a Three-Year-Old Using Venlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Ratkiewicz, Michelle; Splaingard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is rare in children under 5 years of age. There is limited information on safe and effective treatment of cataplexy in young children. We describe successful treatment of cataplexy in a 3-year-old using venlafaxine and subsequently followed for over 2 years. Citation: Ratkiewicz M; Splaingard M. Treatment of cataplexy in a three-year-old using venlafaxine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1341-1342. PMID:24340297

  4. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  5. Recognition of facial expressions of emotions by 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Székely, Eszter; Tiemeier, Henning; Arends, Lidia R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Herba, Catherine M

    2011-04-01

    Very few large-scale studies have focused on emotional facial expression recognition (FER) in 3-year-olds, an age of rapid social and language development. We studied FER in 808 healthy 3-year-olds using verbal and nonverbal computerized tasks for four basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, and fear). Three-year-olds showed differential performance on the verbal and nonverbal FER tasks, especially with respect to fear. That is to say, fear was one of the most accurately recognized facial expressions as matched nonverbally and the least accurately recognized facial expression as labeled verbally. Sex did not influence emotion-matching nor emotion-labeling performance after adjusting for basic matching or labeling ability. Three-year-olds made systematic errors in emotion-labeling. Namely, happy expressions were often confused with fearful expressions, whereas negative expressions were often confused with other negative expressions. Together, these findings suggest that 3-year-olds' FER skills strongly depend on task specifications. Importantly, fear was the most sensitive facial expression in this regard. Finally, in line with previous studies, we found that recognized emotion categories are initially broad, including emotions of the same valence, as reflected in the nonrandom errors of 3-year-olds. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Using virtual environments to investigate wayfinding in 8- to 12-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Jamie; Blades, Mark; Farran, Emily K; Courbois, Yannick; Matthews, Danielle

    2017-09-20

    Wayfinding is the ability to learn and recall a route through an environment. Theories of wayfinding suggest that for children to learn a route successfully, they must have repeated experience of it, but in this experiment we investigated whether children could learn a route after only a single experience of the route. A total of 80 participants from the United Kingdom in four groups of 20 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were shown a route through a 12-turn maze in a virtual environment. At each junction, there was a unique object that could be used as a landmark. Participants were "walked" along the route just once (without any verbal prompts) and then were asked to retrace the route from the start without any help. Nearly three quarters of the 12-year-olds, half of the 10-year-olds, and a third of the 8-year-olds retraced the route without any errors the first time they traveled it on their own. This finding suggests that many young children can learn routes, even with as many as 12 turns, very quickly and without the need for repeated experience. The implications for theories of wayfinding that emphasize the need for extensive experience are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Management with soya of 1-4 years-old suffering malnutrition].

    PubMed

    García-Garro, Alberto Javier; Gernández-Flores, María Guadalupe; Ramos-Ortega, Gregorio

    2007-02-01

    To show that children from 1 to 4 years old suffering malnutrition who are treated with soya have a better chance of recovering height and weight. Observational, prospective, case-control study. Family Medicine Unit No. 52, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico. For this survey, a sample of 83 undernourished children from 1 to 4 years old was taken and 3 experimental and 3 control groups were formed. The first group held children from 1 to 2 years old; the second group, from 2 years one month to 3 years old; and the third group, from 3 years one month to 4 years old. The study lasted for 12 months. We found that the experimental group from 1 to 2 years old increased in weight and size by over 80%, whilst the weight and size gain in the other groups was significant, but not as much as expected. It is important to emphasize that there was greater impact in the group given soya, in which there was clear improvement. The degree of malnutrition dropped and in some cases nutritional status was restored. We can affirm that, if mothers' understanding improved, malnutrition could be prevented by proper training.

  8. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  9. Teenage childbearing and welfare: preventive and ameliorative strategies.

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Wertheimer, R F

    1984-01-01

    The results of seven computer simulations suggest that strategies to prevent teenage childbearing may be more effective in reducing the number of young women who require welfare assistance than are strategies to improve the circumstances of teenagers who have already given birth. The first simulation constitutes a baseline projection, in which current levels and patterns of adolescent childbearing are assumed to continue to 1990. Three "preventive" simulations assume that no births or fewer births occur among teenagers during the projection period; and three "ameliorative" simulations assume that changes occur in the completed family size, marriage rate and educational attainment of teenage childbearers. Compared with the baseline projection, the three preventive strategies are estimated to reduce by 22-48 percent the number of adolescent childbearers who, as 20-24-year-olds in 1990, will be receiving welfare payments; the three ameliorative strategies cause only a 6-12 percent drop. The strategy with the least impact is the education scenario, in which adolescent mothers are assumed to be no more likely to drop out of school than are other comparable teenagers. The primary reason for the surprisingly small effect appears to be the relatively low earnings of women--even when they are high school graduates. All of the experimental scenarios tested, however, bring about at least some reduction in projected government spending for the three major public assistance programs considered (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid and Food Stamps).

  10. Teenage pregnancy antenatal and perinatal morbidity: results from a tertiary centre in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, V; Vlachos, D-E G; Gkioka, E; Tsotra, K; Papantoniou, N; Vlachos, G D

    2015-01-01

    We present the experience of a tertiary referral hospital in Greece, evaluating obstetric and perinatal outcomes among teenage and average maternal age (AMA) women. We retrospectively assessed all singleton pregnancies during a twelve-month period (January-December 2012). A total of 1,704 cases were reviewed and divided into two groups: one of AMA mothers (20-34 years old) (1,460 women) and the other of teenage mothers (12-19 years old) (244 women). We observed significantly higher incidence rates of preterm births (p < 0.001), preterm premature rupture of the membranes (p < 0.001), gestational hypertension (p < 0.001), preeclampsia (p = 0.043) and Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min (p = 0.015) among teenage mothers. Antenatal surveillance was decreased among teenage mothers (p < 0.001), while rates of anaemia were higher (p < 0.001). Teenage pregnancy is accompanied by significant antenatal and perinatal complications that need specific obstetrical attention. Obstetricians should be aware of these complications in order to ameliorate the antenatal outcome of childbearing teenagers.

  11. A giant uterine leiomyoma simulating an ovarian mass in a 16-year-old girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grapsa, D; Smymiotis, V; Hasiakos, D; Kontogianni-Katsarou, K; Kondi-Pafiti, A

    2006-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are extremely rare neoplasms in the pediatric and adolescent population. We report a case of a giant uterine leiomyoma measuring 30 cm in the largest diameter in a 16-year-old girl. To our knowledge this is the largest leiomyoma reported thus far in women under the age of 20 years. The patient was admitted to our hospital for the investigation of menstrual disorders, vaginal bleeding and progressive abdominal enlargement. Preoperative diagnosis was ovarian malignancy. Myomectomy was performed. Histopathologic study of the tumor showed an otherwise typical leiomyoma, both grossly and microscopically, with extensive hydropic and myxomatous degeneration and areas of prominent vessels, suggesting an angiomatous neoplasm. Leiomyomas in teenagers often exhibit histological features favoring the diagnosis of malignancy, and should be evaluated with extreme caution. The management of leiomyomas in these young patients should be conservative for the preservation of fertility.

  12. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    PubMed

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  13. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  14. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents at Risk: Depression, Low Academic Performance, Violence, and Alcohol Increase Bolivian Teenagers' Risk of Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Kirk A.; De La Cruz, Natalie G.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Clark, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence of depression and suicidal tendencies as well as risk factors for attempted suicide among students in Bolivia. Adolescents 13-18 years old (182 females, 394 males) from randomly selected schools in La Paz completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Frequencies and logistic regression were used to identify…

  16. Characteristics of sexually active teenage girls who would be pleased with becoming pregnant.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2013-04-01

    To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15-18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they became pregnant. In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics (i.e., how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control) or had only discussed birth control with a parent were more likely to be very pleased with a teenage pregnancy than participants who had discussed both topics with a parent. Prior pregnancy, racial/ethnic group status, older age, and having parents with a high school education or less also increased the odds of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Being pleased with a teenage pregnancy was correlated with a lack of discussion of sexual health topics with parents, prior pregnancy, and sociodemographic factors (having less educated parents, racial/ethnic group status). Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes.

  17. Characteristics of Sexually Active Teenage Girls Who Would Be Pleased with Becoming Pregnant

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15–18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they became pregnant. In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics (i.e., how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control) or had only discussed birth control with a parent were more likely to be very pleased with a teenage pregnancy than participants who had discussed both topics with a parent. Prior pregnancy, racial/ethnic group status, older age, and having parents with a high school education or less also increased the odds of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Being pleased with a teenage pregnancy was correlated with a lack of discussion of sexual health topics with parents, prior pregnancy, and sociodemographic factors (having less educated parents, racial/ethnic group status). Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes. PMID:22527768

  18. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior.

  19. [Optimism of 13-year olds in Poland in the context of self-assessment of health and selected family characteristics].

    PubMed

    Stalmach, Małgorzata; Jodkowska, Maria; Tabak, Izabela; Oblacińska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    To examine the level of optimism in 13-year-olds and the relationship between optimism and self-reported health and family psychosocial and economic factors. Adolescents at the age of 13 years (n=605) and their parents, identified in the third stage of a prospective cohort study in 2008, was analysed. To examine the level of optimism the short Polish version of the Wagnilda and Young scale (Resilience Scale) were used. The level of optimism and the relationship between family socio-economic factors and family functioning in the family (parenting practices, satisfaction with family contacts) were examined. For the evaluation of probability of a high level of optimism among 13-year-old girls and boys the multivariate model of logistic was used. Girls had a significantly higher level of optimism. Girls and boys with positive attitude to life rated their health significantly better than their peers with negative attitude. Univariate analyses showed that with the level of optimism father's education level among girls and the professional status of the parents among boys, was significantly associated. Family affluence reported by children, positive parenting and satisfaction with family contacts, were significantly associated with the attitude to life, both in girls and boys. The level of optimism among boys was also related with the level of discipline by the mother and the level of control exercised by both parents. Finally, for girls multiple regression analyses showed that father's positive parenting was a predictor of high level of optimism [OR=0,45; CI(OR):0,23-0,85; p=0,014]. In boys, mother's positive parenting [OR=0,39; CI(OR):0,19-0,82; p=0,013] and appropriate father's control were found to be significant predictors of optimism [OR=0,33; CI(OR): 0,13-0,84; p=0,020]. Very high self-reported health by the majority of young people with positive attitude to life shows that optimism is a strong predictor of subjective health. Positive parenting practices and good

  20. Speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Sasa T; Karalejic, Milivoje S; Pajic, Zoran B; Macura, Marija M; Erculj, Frane F

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to identify and compare the speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players and (b) to investigate relations between speed and agility for both age groups of basketball players, to help coaches to improve their work. Sixty-four players aged 12 (M = 11.98 years, SD = 0.311) and 54 players aged 14 (M = 14.092 years, SD = 0.275) were tested. Three agility tests: agility t-test, zigzag agility drill, and agility run 4 × 15 m and 3 speed tests: 20-m run, 30-m run, and 50-m run were applied. Fourteen-year-old players achieved significantly better results in all speed and agility tests compared with 12-year-old players. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, p = 0.001) showed that 12-year-old players have the same ability in the 30- and 50-m runs. The other correlation coefficient (r = 0.59, p = 0.001) indicated that 20- and 30-m runs had inherently different qualities. The correlation coefficients between agility tests were <0.71, and therefore, each test in this group represents a specific task. In 14-year-old players, the correlation coefficients between the speed test results were <0.71. In contrast, the correlation coefficients between the agility tests were >0.71, which means that all the 3 tests represent the same quality. During the speed training of 12-year-old players, it is advisable to focus on shorter running distances, up to 30 m. During the agility training of the same players, it is useful to apply exercises with various complexities. In speed training of the 14-year-old players, the 30- and 50-m runs should be applied, and agility training should include more specific basketball movements and activities.

  1. Dentin caries risk indicators in 1-year-olds. A two year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Ann Ingemansson; Bågesund, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) risk factors are suspected to vary between regions with different caries prevalence. Identify ECC risk factors for 1-year-olds predicting dentin caries at 3 years of age in a region with low caries prevalence. Caries risk was assessed by dental hygienist or dental assistant in 779 one-year-olds. The oral mutans streptococci (MS) score was performed from a tooth surface or (in pre-dentate children) from oral mucosa. A parental questionnaire with questions regarding family factors (siblings with or without caries), general health, food habits (night meals, breastfeeding, other beverage than water), oral hygiene habits and emerged teeth were answered by parents of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was assessed when the children were 3-year-olds. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for identification of caries-associated factors. An increased caries risk was assessed in 4.4% of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was found in 2.6% of the 3-year-olds. Caries risk at 1 year was associated with caries at 3 years (OR = 6.5, p = .002). Multiple regression analysis found the variables Beverages other than water (OR = 7.1, p < 0.001), Caries in sibling (OR = 4.8, p = .002), High level of MS (score 2-3) (OR = 3.4, p = .03) and Night meal (OR = 3.0, p = .03) to be associated with caries. The single variables Beverage other than water between meals and Caries in sibling were more reliable than Caries risk assessed performed by dental personnel. Behavioural, family and microbial factors are important when assessing caries risk among 1-year-olds in a region with low caries experience.

  2. Paraxial Schematic Eye Models for 7- and 14-Year-Old Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Ming; Wang, Ningli; Zhou, Yuehua; Li, Si-Yuan; Kang, Meng-Tian; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Yun-Yun; Meng, Bo; Zhan, Si-Yan; Atchison, David A

    2015-06-01

    To develop three-surface paraxial schematic eyes with different ages and sexes based on data for 7- and 14-year-old Chinese children from the Anyang Childhood Eye Study. Six sets of paraxial schematic eyes, including 7-year-old eyes, 7-year-old male eyes, 7-year-old female eyes, 14-year-old eyes, 14-year-old male eyes, and 14-year-old female eyes, were developed. Both refraction-dependent and emmetropic eye models were developed, with the former using linear dependence of ocular parameters on refraction. A total of 2059 grade 1 children (boys 58%) and 1536 grade 8 children (boys 49%) were included, with mean age of 7.1 ± 0.4 and 13.7 ± 0.5 years, respectively. Changes in these schematic eyes with aging are increased anterior chamber depth, decreased lens thickness, increased vitreous chamber depth, increased axial length, and decreased lens equivalent power. Male schematic eyes have deeper anterior chamber depth, longer vitreous chamber depth, longer axial length, and lower lens equivalent power than female schematic eyes. Changes in the schematic eyes with positive increase in refraction are decreased anterior chamber depth, increased lens thickness, decreased vitreous chamber depth, decreased axial length, increased corneal radius of curvature, and increased lens power. In general, the emmetropic schematic eyes have biometric parameters similar to those arising from regression fits for the refraction-dependent schematic eyes. The paraxial schematic eyes of Chinese children may be useful for myopia research and for facilitating comparison with other children with the same or different racial backgrounds and living in different places.

  3. Event-related potential indices of auditory vowel processing in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ceponiene, R; Lepistö, T; Alku, P; Aro, H; Näätänen, R

    2003-04-01

    To determine the ERP characteristics and ERP indices of central speech sound encoding and discrimination in young children. Auditory sensory event-related potentials (ERPs) and the ERP index of auditory sensory discrimination (the mismatch negativity, MMN) were elicited by vowel stimuli in 3-year-old children. In an oddball paradigm, the standard stimulus was vowel /a/, one deviant stimulus was vowel /o/ (the across-category change), and the other was nasalized vowel /a/ (within-category change). In addition, the ERP changes occurring during the 14 min uninterrupted recording were examined. As indexed by the sensory P1, N2, and N4 peaks, the 3-year-old children's transient neural encoding of vowels was comparable to that earlier registered in 1-year-old children but also showed vowel-specific characteristics observed in school-age children. The 3-year-old's MMN was comparable in amplitude to the school-age children's MMN and appeared to be sensitive to the across-category aspects of vowel changes. However, its latency was longer in the 3-year-olds than in school-age children. Among the sensory ERPs, only the N4 peak showed significant diminution during the experiment. The across-category change MMN diminished after 10 min of the recording, however, over the frontal areas only. In the 3-year-old children, the sensory processing of vowels exhibited transitional characteristics between those observed in infants and school-age children. The auditory sensory discrimination in the 3-year-olds appeared to be sensitive to the phonemic aspects of stimulus change. The frontally-predominant MMN diminution during the experiment might indicate the greater refractoriness of its frontal-lobe generators. In general, the auditory sensory ERPs show distinct maturational profiles from that of the MMN.

  4. [Comparative study of clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in women with 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older].

    PubMed

    Cuan Martínez, Juan Ramón; Mainero Ratchelous, Fernando Enrique; Aguilar Gallegos, Israel Uriban; Bernechea Miranda, Abel; Buenrostro Pineda, Marco Antonio; Burgos Portillo, Iván; Cortés Herrera, Ana Edelmira Angeles; Burguete Vera, José Juan

    2008-06-01

    Invasive breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in women attended at IMSS health system since 2004. To compare clinical and radiological characteristics on initial appraisal, as well as surgical treatment, pathological features and adjuvant treatment in women with primary breast cancer of 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older. Clinical, radiological and pathological data of 150 patients with breast cancer treated at Hospital de ginecoobstetricia Luis Castelazo Ayala, from January 2003 to June 2006 were collected, and after divided in two groups: 1) patients with 40 years old and younger (n = 50), and 2) patients with 70 years old and older (n = 100). Tumoral size and radiological characteristics were similar in both groups. Group 1 and group 2 had 22 and 13%, respectively, of family history of breast cancer. Fine needle biopsy has positive predictive value of 50% for group 1, and 36% for group 2. Conservative surgery was less common at group 2. Most frequent histological type in both groups was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, followed by infiltrating lobular carcinoma, most common in older women (19 vs 12%), and we found more well differentiated ductal carcinomas in the group of 70 years old and older (12 vs 4%). Seventy-six percent of group 1 and 75% of group 2 were classified as early stage breast cancer (stages I and II). Cytotoxic therapy was offered mostly to group 1, 92 vs 35%. Radiotherapy (80 vs 59%), and hormonal therapy was given only to 56% of group 1 vs 80% of group 2. Clinical and staging features were similar in both groups. Family history was more influential to group 1. Fine needle biopsy has a low positive predictive value for diagnostic. Well-differentiated carcinomas were higher in patients of group 2, and group 1 had more high-grade carcinomas. There was a trend to perform more conservative surgery at group 1, as well as they underwent more adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Use of hormonal therapy was more common at group 2.

  5. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  6. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  7. Normative health-related fitness values for children: analysis of 85347 test results on 9-17-year-old Australians since 1985.

    PubMed

    Catley, Mark J; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2013-01-01

    To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for health-related fitness of 9-17-year-old Australians. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed studies reporting health-related fitness data on Australian children since 1985-the year of the last national fitness survey. Only data on reasonably representative s amples of apparently healthy (free from known disease or injury) 9-17-year-old Australians, who were tested using field tests of health-related fitness, were included. Both raw and pseudo data (generated using Monte Carlo simulation) were combined with sex- and age-specific normative centile values generated using the Lambda Mu and Sigma (LMS) method. Sex- and age-related differences were expressed as standardised effect sizes. Normative values were displayed as tabulated percentiles and as smoothed centile curves for nine health-related fitness tests based on a dataset comprising 85347 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, speed and power tests, but lower on the flexibility test. The magnitude of the age-related changes was generally larger for boys than for girls, especially during the teenage years. This study provides the most up-to-date sex- and age-specific normative centile values for the health-related fitness of Australian children that can be used as benchmark values for health and fitness screening and surveillance systems.

  8. Stop-consonant and vowel perception in 3- and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ohde, R N; Haley, K L

    1997-12-01

    Recent research on 5- to 11-year-old children's perception of stop consonants and vowels indicates that they can generally identify these sounds with relatively high accuracy from short duration stimulus onsets [Ohde et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3800-3812 (1995); Ohde et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3813-3824 (1996)]. The purpose of the current experiments was to determine if younger children, aged 3-4 years, can also recover consonant and vowel features from stimulus onsets. Ten adults, ten 3-year olds, and ten 4-year-olds listened to synthesized syllables composed of combinations of [b d g] and [i u a]. The synthesis parameters included manipulations of the following stimulus variables: formant transition (moving or straight), noise burst (present or absent), and voicing duration (10, 30, or 46 ms). Developmental effects were found for the perception of both stop consonants and vowels. In general, adults identified these sounds at a significantly higher level than children, and perception by 4-year-olds was significantly better than 3-year-olds. A developmental effect of dynamic formant motion was obtained, but it was limited to only the [g] stop consonant. Stimulus duration affected the children's perception of vowels indicating that they may utilize additional auditory information to a much greater extent than adults. The results support the importance of information in stimulus onsets for syllable identification, and developmental changes in sensitivity to these cues for consonant and vowel perception.

  9. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  10. Access by the unaccompanied under-16-year-old adolescent to general practice without parental consent.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lin

    2003-10-01

    The views of primary health care providers concerning their willingness to consult with under-16-year-old adolescent patients without the presence of a parent or guardian are not well documented. Many young people believe they have to be aged over 16 years to see their general practitioner (GP) alone. Confidentiality is a major concern for young people. It is important that more is known about the willingness of GPs and practice nurses (PNs) to offer unaccompanied consultations without known parental consent. To provide information on the willingness of GPs and PNs to consult with under-16-year-olds and whether policies exist in general practices to facilitate access by unaccompanied under-16-year-olds. Cross-sectional study using a postal questionnaire. Seventeen general practices in the West of Cornwall. All GPs, PNs and receptionists were sent questionnaires. The overall response rate was 79% (166/209 questionnaires). The majority of GPs and PNs (91%) were willing to consult with unaccompanied under-16-year-olds. A substantial number of primary health care team members are not aware of the existence of any practice policy on access. Only 41% of receptionists, 46% of PNs and 38% of GPs were aware of a definite practice policy. GPs and PNs are willing to consult with under-16-year-olds without a parent or guardian being present. Many practices in this region do not appear to have policies in place to guide health professionals on under-16 access issues.

  11. Addressing the psychosocial wellbeing of teenage children of cancer patients and survivors.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; Surbone, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    Thomas is 13 years old. His parents report a sharp decline in his school grades caused, according to his teachers' opinions, by listlessness and lack of concentration. The parents of Julia, 16 years old, describe her as restless, evasive, isolated, and withdrawn from others and from her usual activities. Linda, 18 years old, is described by her parents as indecisive, uncertain, and almost lethargic. Normally resolute and a high academic achiever, she appears locked in herself, unable to make choices. We first learned about them through the accounts of their concerned parents. Claire, 19 years old, lost weight and exercised hard enough to induce amenorrhea after her young mother underwent treatment for breast cancer, including antihormonal treatment. These four teenagers have in common a parent diagnosed with cancer, undergoing or having just completed treatment.

  12. Teenage pregnancy: who suffers?

    PubMed

    Paranjothy, S; Broughton, H; Adappa, R; Fone, D

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we examine the epidemiology of teenage pregnancy (girls aged 15-17 years) in the UK and consider the evidence for its impact on the health and well-being of the mother, the baby, the father and society. There has been some decrease in the teenage pregnancy rate over the last decade in the UK but rates are still considerably higher than those in other European countries. Pregnancy and childbirth during the teenage years are associated with increased risk of poorer health and well-being for both the mother and the baby, possibly reflecting the socio-economic factors that precede early pregnancy and childbirth. There is little evidence concerning the impact of teenage fatherhood on health and future studies should investigate this. The effect on society is a perpetuation of the widening gap in health and social inequalities. Public health interventions should aim to identify teenagers who are vulnerable and support those who are pregnant with evidence based interventions such as teenage antenatal clinics and access to initiatives that provide support for early parenthood.

  13. [Sedentary behaviour 13-years-olds and its association with selected health behaviours, parenting practices and body mass].

    PubMed

    Jodkowska, Maria; Tabak, Izabela; Oblacińska, Anna; Stalmach, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    1. To estimate the time spent in sedentary behaviour (watching TV, using the computer, doing homework). 2. To assess the link between the total time spent on watching TV, using the computer, doing homework and dietary habits, physical activity, parental practices and body mass. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Poland in 2008 among 13-year olds (n=600). They self-reported their time of TV viewing, computer use and homework. Their dietary behaviours, physical activity (MVPA) and parenting practices were also self-reported. Height and weight were measured by school nurses. Descriptive statistics and correlation were used in this analysis. The mean time spent watching television in school days was 2.3 hours for girls and 2.2 for boys. Boys spent significantly more time using the computer than girls - respectively 1.8 and 1.5 hours, while girls took longer doing homework - respectively 1.7 and 1.3 hours. Mean screen time was about 4 hours in school days and about 6 hours during weekend, statistically longer for boys in weekdays. Screen time was positively associated with intake of sweets, chips, soft drinks, "fast food" and meals consumption during TV, and negatively with regularity of meals and parental supervision. There was no correlation between screen time with physical activity and body mass. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity are not competing behaviours in Polish teenagers, but their relationship with unhealthy dietary patterns may lead to development of obesity. Good parental practices, both mother's and father's supervision seems to be crucial for screen time limitation in their children. Parents should become aware that relevant lifestyle monitoring of their children is a crucial element of health education in prevention of civilization diseases. This is a task for both healthcare workers and educational staff.

  14. Impact of parent-daughter communication about sex on the use of less effective contraception among women from 15 to 24 years old in France.

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, Solène; Bajos, Nathalie; Ringa, Virginie

    2017-08-11

    Most women begin sexual activity as teenagers but nearly 20% of women in France younger than 25 years rely on less effective contraceptive methods (condoms or methods such as withdrawal or periodic abstinence). We sought to analyze the association with less effective contraception among women aged 15-24 years in France and communication about sex and contraception with their parents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The analyses focused on 713 sexually active women who did not currently want a child, were using contraception, and were interviewed in 2010 in a national cross-sectional probability survey (FECOND) when they were 15-24 years old. Associations between the use of less effective contraception, social and demographic characteristics, sexual activity, health characteristics, and communication with parents and friends about sexuality and contraception were tested with logistic regression models by age group. Less effective contraception (condoms, and barrier or natural methods) is used more often by younger women: 27.5% of 15-19 year olds and 14.7% of 20-24 year olds (p<.001). After adjustment for demographic characteristics and aspects of their sex lives (regularity and frequency of intercourse), women who reported difficulty discussing contraception and sex with their mothers at age 15 were more likely than those with easier communication to use less effective contraception (for those 15-19, odds ratio=1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.94, 4.10] and for those 20-24, 2.36 [1.31, 4.26]). Difficulty in communicating with their parents, especially their mothers, about sex, is associated with young women's choice of less effective contraception. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives.

  16. 91-Year-Old Allograft: Oldest Surviving Donor Heart Still Going: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Doctorian, T; Narasimha, D; Stoletniy, L; Sakr, A

    2017-09-01

    For patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation remains one of the most successful therapies with excellent long-term survival rates. However, over the past few decades, there has been a worsening supply/demand mismatch given the rising epidemic of heart failure and the relatively fixed availability of donor hearts. In this case report, we describe the case of a 30-year-old woman who underwent transplantation with a 68-year-old donor heart and who has survived for 23 years without any major cardiac problems. To our knowledge, this patient has one of the oldest surviving donor hearts (91-year-old heart). Review of the latest guidelines and recent studies have demonstrated a gradual expansion of donor criteria to meet this critical shortage of donor organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Four- and six-year-olds use pragmatic competence to guide word learning.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Maria D; Delisle, Sarah S; Saylor, Megan M

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates whether four- and six-year-old children use pragmatic competence as a criterion for learning from someone else. Specifically, we ask whether children use others' adherence to Gricean maxims to determine whether they will offer valid labels for novel objects. Six-year-olds recognized adherence to the maxims of quality and relation and subsequently trusted the labels provided by a maxim adherer. Four-year-olds displayed this pattern when judging adherence to quality but not relation. A linear regression revealed that children's ability to identify maxim adherers predicted their ability to choose the correct object during word-learning trials. This research demonstrates that children use others' pragmatic history when judging the reliability of the information they offer.

  18. The First Report of Fetal Alcohol Effect in a 12 Year-Old Child in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Jin; An, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present the first report of fetal alcohol effect in a 12 year-old child in Korea. The mother had consumed 162 g of alcohol per week continuously during pregnancy. His first febrile seizure occurred before he was 1 year old, and became more frequent 2 years later. He started showing signs of right paraplegia when he was 3.5 years old and brain MRI revealed periventricular leucomalacia near the left ventricle. He was microcephalic and his growth was retarded. He was irritable, impatient, impulsive, and inattentive, and showed disinterest in school activities and aggressive and dangerous behavior. After the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was made, psychopharmacological treatment and family support was initiated. After 10 months, he still had intermittent ideas of reference, although the aggressive behavior, inattentiveness, and impulsivity had improved. Using this case study, we stress the importance of maternal alcohol history in patients with these characteristics. PMID:20046374

  19. Restraint use in motor vehicle crash fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lois K; Farrell, Caitlin A; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-09-01

    Despite improvements in child passenger safety legislation and equipment, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in children younger than 10 years. The objective of this study was to describe factors associated with restraint use in fatal MVC in children 0 year to 9 years old. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System, maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, was used to obtain data on MVC fatalities from 2001 to 2010 in children 0 year to 9 years old. The main outcome was restraint use. Demographic information (age, sex, and race) and crash characteristics including vehicle type (sedan, van, truck, sports utility vehicle) and seat position in the vehicle were analyzed with the χ statistic to evaluate these factors for any restraint use compared with no restraint use in MVC fatalities. There were 7,625 MVC fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old from 2001 to 2010.Among these fatalities, 4,041 (53%) had any restraint use. Front seat passengers accounted for 20.9% (1,595 of 7,625) of the fatalities. Children 0 year to 3 years old had a higher proportion of restraint use than children 4 years to 9 years old (p < 0.001). White children compared with black children had higher use of restraints (p < 0.001). Children riding in sedans/vans compared with sport utility vehicles/trucks and those riding in the rear seats of the vehicle compared with those in front seats were significantly more likely to use restraints (p < 0.001). Overall, only half of children 0 year to 9 years old who died in an MVC were wearing any child restraint in the vehicle, and 20% were sitting in the front seat. Continued efforts must be made to enforce legislation and educate the public about best practices regarding child passenger safety to improve proper restraint use and to decrease MVC fatalities in children. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.

  20. Profiles of Social-Emotional Readiness for 4-Year-Old Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2017-01-01

    Children who are viewed as ready for kindergarten and/or first grade typically exhibit high attention, approach, and adaptability coupled with low activity and reactivity. These characteristics tend to be especially valued by teachers and describe a child who is “teachable,” or school ready. Since many children enter formal schooling earlier by attending pre-K for 4-year olds, often called 4-year-old kindergarten, there is a need to examine school readiness earlier than kindergarten, which may look very different developmentally. If we expect children to enter formal schooling at age 4, then it should be clear what we expect of them in order to succeed. We explored which temperament, behavior, and cognitive items teachers of 4-year-old kindergarten (N = 29) rated as highly characteristic versus uncharacteristic of ready 4-year-olds. This teacher-generated data identified five clusters of children who were deemed ready for 4-year-old kindergarten. Teachers noted high cognitive skills and following directions as salient in many of the clusters, which aligns with the readiness expectations for kindergarten and first grade. However, items that distinguished the five clusters from one another referenced differences in activity level, sociability, shyness, enthusiasm, and patience that were not expected based on the previous literature with slightly older children. Given that some of the children teachers identified as especially ready for 4-year-old kindergarten did not fit this static model of a “teachable” child, a single profile of school readiness at an early age may be inappropriate. PMID:28197124

  1. Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation among 9–13-year-olds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Kelly L.; Hendrix, Kristin S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The quadrivalent and 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are licensed for administration among 9–26-year-old males and females, with routine vaccination recommended for 11–12-year-olds. Despite the availability of the vaccine at younger ages, few studies have explored vaccine uptake prior to age 13, and national HPV vaccination surveillance data is limited to 13–17-year-olds. Our objective was to examine rates and predictors of HPV vaccine initiation among 9–13-year-olds in the United States. A national sample of mothers of 9–13-year-olds in the United States (N = 2446) completed a 2014 Web-based survey assessing socio-demographic characteristics, child's HPV vaccination history, provider communication regarding the vaccine, and other attitudes and behaviors pertaining to vaccination and healthcare utilization. The main outcome measure was child's initiation of the HPV vaccine (i.e., receipt of one or more doses). Approximately 35% of the full sample and 27.5% of the 9–10-year-olds had initiated HPV vaccination. Females were more likely than males to have initiated HPV vaccination by the age of 13 but not by younger ages. Strength of health provider recommendation regarding HPV vaccination was a particularly salient predictor of vaccine initiation. Approximately a third of children may be initiating the HPV vaccine series before or during the targeted age range for routine administration of the vaccine. Because coverage remains below national targets, further research aimed at increasing vaccination during early adolescence is needed. Improving providers' communication with parents about the HPV vaccine may be one potential mechanism for increasing vaccine coverage. PMID:26594616

  2. Profiles of Social-Emotional Readiness for 4-Year-Old Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele M; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2017-01-01

    Children who are viewed as ready for kindergarten and/or first grade typically exhibit high attention, approach, and adaptability coupled with low activity and reactivity. These characteristics tend to be especially valued by teachers and describe a child who is "teachable," or school ready. Since many children enter formal schooling earlier by attending pre-K for 4-year olds, often called 4-year-old kindergarten, there is a need to examine school readiness earlier than kindergarten, which may look very different developmentally. If we expect children to enter formal schooling at age 4, then it should be clear what we expect of them in order to succeed. We explored which temperament, behavior, and cognitive items teachers of 4-year-old kindergarten (N = 29) rated as highly characteristic versus uncharacteristic of ready 4-year-olds. This teacher-generated data identified five clusters of children who were deemed ready for 4-year-old kindergarten. Teachers noted high cognitive skills and following directions as salient in many of the clusters, which aligns with the readiness expectations for kindergarten and first grade. However, items that distinguished the five clusters from one another referenced differences in activity level, sociability, shyness, enthusiasm, and patience that were not expected based on the previous literature with slightly older children. Given that some of the children teachers identified as especially ready for 4-year-old kindergarten did not fit this static model of a "teachable" child, a single profile of school readiness at an early age may be inappropriate.

  3. A longitudinal comparison of drug use among 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents from the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Italia, Salvatore; Brüske, Irene; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal data on drug utilization between 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents and to analyse the association of drug use at the age of 15 years with drug use at the age of 10 years. Based on the German GINIplus (German infant study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influence of lifestyle factors on the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany plus the influence of traffic emissions and genetics) birth cohorts, data on drug utilization (past 4 weeks) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire for 3642 children (10-year follow-up) and 4677 adolescents (15-year follow-up). The drugs were classified by therapeutic categories (conventional drugs, homeopathic drugs, etc.) and by codes according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. Associations of adolescents' drug use with gender, study area, maternal education, parental income, presence of chronic conditions, and prior drug use at the age of 10 years were analysed using a logistic regression model. The 4-week prevalence rates of overall drug use were similar for adolescents (41.1%) and children (42.3%). However, adolescents used noticeably more anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and systemic antihistamines. Exactly 3194 children/adolescents participated in both follow-ups. Adolescents' use of anti-inflammatory drugs was predicted (OR = 3.37) by use of anti-inflammatory drugs as a child. In summary, the strongest predictor of adolescents' use of specific therapeutic categories or ATC groups was the previous use of the same therapeutic drug category or ATC group as a 10-year-old child. Despite similar prevalence rates of overall drug utilization among both age groups, there is a noticeable difference concerning the use of drugs from specific ATC groups. Drug use as a child may partly determine what they use as an

  4. [Prevalence of congenital abnormalities identified in fetuses with 13, 18 and 21 chromosomal trisomy].

    PubMed

    Emer, Caroline Soares Cristofari; Duque, Julio Alejandro Peña; Müller, Ana Lúcia Letti; Gus, Rejane; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; da Silva, André Anjos; Magalhães, José Antonio de Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of malformations found in fetuses with trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 by identifying the most frequent within each condition. A retrospective cross-sectional study with the analysis of trisomy cases of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 diagnosed through fetal karyotype obtained by amniocentesis/cordocentesis, between October 1994 and May 2014, at a Teaching Hospital in Brazil Southern Region. Malformations identified through morphological ultrasonography were described and, subsequently, confirmed in newborn examinations and/or fetal autopsy. The results were analyzed using Fisher's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a 5% level of significance (p=0.05). Sixty-nine cases of trisomy were diagnosed among 840 exams; nine were excluded due to outcome outside Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre or incomplete records, remaining 60 cases (nine cases of chromosome 13 trisomy, 26 of chromosome 18, and 25 of chromosome 21). In all three groups, heart disease occurred in most cases; the ventricular septal defect was more prevalent and occurred in 66.7% of the trisomy 13 group. Gastrointestinal abnormalities were more prevalent in the trisomy 18 group, especially omphalocele (38.5%; p<0.01). Genitourinary anomalies were more significantly frequent in the trisomy 13 group (pyelectasis, 55.6% - p<0.01; ambiguous genitalia, 33.3% - p=0.01). Central nervous system defects were identified in all cases of trisomy 13. Facial cracks were significantly more prevalent among fetuses with trisomy 13 (66.7%; p<0.01). Hand and feet malformations significantly differed among the trisomy groups. Hand defects occurred in 50% of trisomy 18 cases, and in 44.4% of all trisomy 13 cases (p<0.01); congenital clubfoot was more common in the trisomy 18 group, being detected in 46.2% of fetuses (p<0.01). The abnormalities were found in 50.9, 27.3 and 21.7% of trisomy 18, 13 and 21 cases respectively. Many fetal malformations identified at ultrasound are suggestive of

  5. Well-being among 50-year-old people. The population study "50-year-old people in Kungsör".

    PubMed

    Thorell, B; Svärdsudd, K

    1990-09-01

    Self-assessed well-being has been shown to be related to earlier medical events and to be a predictor of mortality. 50-year-old men and women (n = 314) in Kungsör were invited to an examination for traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and different aspects of self-assessed well-being. The differences between men and women concerning their well-being could not explain the differences in the expected mortality between the sexes. A well-developed social network and physical exercise were the most positive determinants of well-being, while drug intake, angina pectoris, and smoking were the most negative.

  6. A Case of Premature Ovarian Failure in a 33-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Colao, Emma; Granata, Teresa; Vismara, Marco F. M.; Bombardiere, Francesco; Nocera, Donatella; Luciano, Elisa; Perrotti, Nicola; Malatesta, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess aetiology of a POF in a 33-year-old woman and, if possible, plan a cure. Design. Case report. Setting. medical genetics diagnostic unit in a university hospital. Patient. A 33-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure (POF). Intervention(s). Genetic counseling, karyotyping, FISH study. Result(s). Turner-like diagnosis. Conclusion(s). Most cases of POF remain idiopathic. Turner syndrome can occur in very different phenotypes; cytogenetic and molecular profiling can provide a definitive diagnosis in cases with nonclassical phenotype. PMID:23509644

  7. Kienbock's disease in an eleven-year-old girl. A case report.

    PubMed

    Minami, A; Itoga, H; Kobayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    Kienbock's disease occurs most frequently between 20 and 30 years of age (Gillespie, 1961). The youngest patient with Kienbock's disease in literature written in English is a 10-year-old boy (Nakamura et al., 1990). We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with Kienbock's disease whom we treated with radial shortening. Five months after surgery, radiographs showed signs of rapid disappearance of avascular necrosis of the lunate, and the patient had excellent clinical results. Two years postoperatively no recurrence of avascular necrosis of the lunate has occurred.

  8. Discoidal impressions and trace-like fossils more than 1200 million years old.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Birger; Bengtson, Stefan; Fletcher, Ian R; McNaughton, Neal J

    2002-05-10

    The Stirling Range Formation of southwestern Australia contains discoidal impressions and trace-like fossils in tidal sandstones. The various disks have previously been linked to the Ediacaran biota, younger than 600 million years old. From this unit, we report U-Th-Pb geochronology of detrital zircon and monazite, as well as low-grade metamorphic monazite, constraining the depositional age to between 2016 +/- 6 and 1215 +/- 20 million years old. Although nonbiological origins for the discoidal impressions cannot be completely discounted, the structures resembling trace fossils clearly have a biological origin and suggest the presence of vermiform, mucus-producing, motile organisms.

  9. A case of premature ovarian failure in a 33-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Colao, Emma; Granata, Teresa; Vismara, Marco F M; Bombardiere, Francesco; Nocera, Donatella; Luciano, Elisa; Perrotti, Nicola; Malatesta, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess aetiology of a POF in a 33-year-old woman and, if possible, plan a cure. Design. Case report. Setting. medical genetics diagnostic unit in a university hospital. Patient. A 33-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure (POF). Intervention(s). Genetic counseling, karyotyping, FISH study. Result(s). Turner-like diagnosis. Conclusion(s). Most cases of POF remain idiopathic. Turner syndrome can occur in very different phenotypes; cytogenetic and molecular profiling can provide a definitive diagnosis in cases with nonclassical phenotype.

  10. Shared psychotic disorder ("folie a deux") between mother and 15 years old son.

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Degmecić, Dunja; Delalle, Mirela; Mihanović, Mate; Filaković, Pavo

    2008-12-01

    We presented a rare case in clinical practice: fifteen (15) years old male adolescent with shared psychotic disorder with his thirty seven (37) years old mother. In this case of "folie d deux" child was the passive psychotic partner and his mother who was the dominant psychotic partner. Both patients shared the same paranoid and imperative delusions. With complete psychiatric anamnesis, clinical interview, psychological testing, EEG (examination-electroencephalography) examination and control examinations we came to the diagnosis and efficacious pharmacological intervention for son.

  11. Short-Term Outcomes Following Hip Fractures in Patients at Least 100 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Arthur; Driesman, Adam; Marwin, Rebecca A; Konda, Sanjit; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-05

    The number of hip fractures is rising as life expectancy increases. As such, the number of centenarians sustaining these fractures is also increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients who are ≥100 years old and sustain a hip fracture fare worse in the hospital than those who are younger. Using a large database, the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS), we identified patients who were ≥65 years old and had been treated for a hip fracture over a 12-year period. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and treatment were collected. Three cohorts were established: patients who were 65 to 80 years old, 81 to 99 years old, and ≥100 years old (centenarians). Outcome measures included hospital length of stay, estimated total costs, and in-hospital mortality rates. A total of 168,087 patients with a hip fracture were identified, and 1,150 (0.7%) of them had sustained the fracture when they were ≥100 years old. Centenarians incurred costs and had lengths of stay that were similar to those of younger patients. Despite the similarities, centenarians were found to have a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate than the younger populations (7.4% compared with 4.4% for those 81 to 99 years old and 2.6% for those 65 to 80 years old; p < 0.01). Male sex and an increasing number of medical comorbidities were found to predict in-hospital mortality for centenarians sustaining extracapsular hip fractures. No significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified for centenarians who sustained femoral neck fractures. An increased time to surgery did not influence the odds of in-hospital mortality. Centenarians had increased in-hospital mortality, but the remaining short-term outcomes were comparable with those for the younger cohorts with similar fracture patterns. For this extremely elderly population, time to surgery does not appear to affect short-term mortality rates, suggesting a potential benefit to

  12. Retraction of a longevity record for a 36-year-old herring gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Pettingill, O.S.

    1974-01-01

    Full text: The longevity record for a 36-year-old Herring Gull, Larus argentatus (Pettingill 1967, Auk 84: 123), is erroneous. Herring Gull with band number A-676871, the basis of the record, was found dead on 20 June 1966 on the shore of Little Traverse Bay near Petoskey, Michigan, and reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The laboratory then mistakenly advised Pettingill that this gull was banded by him on 29 June 1930 on coastal Maine. He actually banded Herring Gull number A-676871 as a young bird on one of the Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan on 8 July 1948. The gull was thus 18 instead of 36 years old.

  13. Occult fracture of the lesser tuberosity in a 9-year-old female swimmer

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, KE; Lunsjö, K

    2017-01-01

    The adolescent avulsion of the lesser tuberosity of the humerus has historically been considered as very rare. The youngest patient reported in the literature is 11 years old. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl who suffered a subscapularis tendon tear with an occult avulsion of the lesser tuberosity. Late repair restored function. Despite that late repair in this present case resulted in excellent outcome, we strongly recommend the additional axillary lateral view of the plain radiographs, as well as proper physical examination to facilitate early diagnosis. PMID:28122897

  14. [Association between dental caries and nutritional status of 7-and 12-years-old children].

    PubMed

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Rataj-Kulmacz, Agata; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    One of the etiological factors of dental caries are improper eating habits, which also influence the nutritional state of the organism. This similarity tends to establish the relationship between the intensity of tooth decay, and body weight disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 7 and 12-year-old children, depending on the nutritional status. The study included 225 children of both sex, age 7 (132) and 12 years (93) attending to randomly selected schools in Poznań. Dental examination was performed by dentists in schools in artificial light using mirrors and dental probe (criteria according to WHO 1997 ). Based on collected data, caries frequency and caries intensity were calculated (DMF-t -7 and 12-year-olds and dmf-t 7-year olds). Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight were made by school nurses in accordance with guidelines for the performance of screening tests for people of school age. A deficiency or excess body weight in surveyed children rated BMI (Body Mass Index), including percentile ranges for the population of children in Poznań. Assessment of dental caries in groups of pupils were formed due to nutritional status of the respondents i. e. normal-weight and underweight and overweight. Caries frequency in children of normal weight in the population of 7-year-olds was 82.2% and 53.2% of children aged 12 years. In the group of 7-year-old pupils with overweight and underweight was respectively, 95.0% and 90.9%, 84.2% and 50.0% in the older group. A statistically significant difference between the attendance of dental caries in a group of 12-year-old children with overweight and normal weight and its deficiency was show. The average value of dmf-t in 7-year-old children was 4.02, and the DMF-permanent dentition - 0.19 and the children with over- and underweight respectively dmf- 4.25 and 3,82 and DMF- 0.35 and 0,27. In population of 12-year olds caries DMF was - 1.62, and for children with

  15. Maternal self-efficacy and 1-5-year-old children's brushing habits.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the relationships between maternal cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors and brushing practices in low-income African-American preschool children. Data are from a population-based sample of 1021 African-American families with at least one child <6 years of age and living in the 39 low-income Census tracts in Detroit, Michigan. Analyses were limited to 1-5-year-old children and their mothers (n = 719). Mothers were surveyed about oral health-related self-efficacy (OHSE), knowledge about appropriate bottle use (KBU), knowledge about children's oral hygiene (KCOH), oral health fatalism (OHF), their own toothbrushing behavior, depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress, practical social support, and their child's dental history. Children's 1-week reported brushing frequency was the main outcome measure. Analyses were conducted in SUDAAN to account for the complex sampling design. Children's 1-week brushing frequency (range 0-40) averaged 8.50 times per week among 1-3-year olds and 9.75 among the 4-5-year olds. Maternal OHSE was a strong and significant predictor of children's brushing frequency; for each unit increase in OHSE, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 18% more frequently on average during 1 week [incidence density ratios (IDR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.28; P < 0.001], and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 9% more often (IDR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; P < 0.10). Mothers' KCOH score was also significantly positively associated with brushing frequency; for each unit increase on the KCOH scale, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 22% more frequently (IDR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.35; P < 0.001) and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 13% more frequently (IDR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; P < 0.05). If a mother brushed her own teeth at bedtime during the week, her 1-3-year old child's brushing frequency was expected to increase by one-third (IDR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.60; P < 0.01) and among the 4-5-year olds

  16. Stress, sense of coherence and subjective health in adolescents aged 13-18 years.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between sex, age, stress and sense of coherence (SOC) and each of self-rated health (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHCs) in adolescents. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents aged 13-18 years. The participants reported scores on a questionnaire, including 12 items assessing SHC, the 13-item version of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and the 30-item Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Data were analysed with descriptive, comparative and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Boys scored significantly higher on SRH than girls, whereas girls scored higher on SHCs. In the multivariate model, stress was significantly associated with SHCs, but not with SRH. SOC was significantly positively related to SRH and negatively related to SHC; the associations were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. A significant moderation effect (protective role) of SOC was found on the relation between stress and SHC. No causal conclusion was possible, but the findings may be used as a basis for further investigation of the role of stress and SOC in longitudinal studies and intervention studies.

  17. [The legal framework to prevent teenage pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Leal, Ingrid; Luttges, Carolina; Troncoso, Paulina; Leyton, Carolina; Molina, Temistocles; Eguiguren, Pamela

    2016-05-01

    There are legal regulations about sexual and reproductive rights of adolescents. However, this legal framework (LF) may have contradictory elements: there are laws assuring confidentiality and access to contraception at any age but there are other laws that consider any sexual contact with an adolescent younger than 14 a sexual assault, whose report to the legal authorities in mandatory. To explore the knowledge and clinical practice of primary health care (PHC) providers regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy. Qualitative study collecting data using semi-structured interviews made to midwives and directors of PHC centers. Analysis of the data was based on Grounded Theory. There is a differentiated clinical care for pregnancy prevention among adolescents if they are over 14 years old. This is due to the LF, specifically to the sexual crime’s law (19,927) and the law about regulation of the fertility (20,418). The differences affect health care, access and counseling about contraception and confidentiality. Healthcare of teenagers under the age of 14 is perceived as problematic for providers, due to the possible legal implications. The LF causes insecurity on health care providers and derives in a differentiated clinical approach according to the patient´s age. This is a barrier to provide timely and confidential access to counseling and contraception.

  18. Is there an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child?

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Swanevelder, Sonja; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child in a rural village in South Africa where there is a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition (in particular, deficiencies of vitamin A and iron) and of maternal obesity. A blood sample and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 118 child-mother pairs. There was a positive mother-child correlation for serum ferritin (R=0.2304, P<0.05) and haemoglobin (R=0.2664, P<0.01) concentrations, respectively. The child of an anaemic mother had a relative risk of 1.632 of also being anaemic. There was no mother-child association for either serum retinol concentration or anthropometric measurements. Serum retinol concentrations showed a positive correlation with both serum ferritin (mothers only; R=0.2161, P<0.01) and haemoglobin (R=0.2807, P<0.01 for mothers; and R=0.2710, P < 0.01 for children) concentrations. The mother-child association for iron status is probably because of an inadequate dietary intake and low bioavailability of dietary iron, which are major causes of iron deficiency. The lack of mother-child association for serum retinol concentration could probably be ascribed to the fact that children are more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency than adults because of childhood diseases.

  19. Factors associated with the health and cognition of 6-year-old to 8-year-old children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi R; Matthews, Glenda; Taylor, Myra; Kvalsvig, Jane; Davidson, Leslie L; Kauchali, Shuaib; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate 6-year-old to 8-year-old children's health, nutritional status and cognitive development in a predominantly rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cohort study of 1383 children investigating the association of demographic variables (area of residence, sex, pre-school education, HIV status, height for age and haemoglobin level) and family variables (socioeconomic status, maternal and paternal level of education), with children's cognitive performance. The latter was measured using the Grover-Counter Scale of Cognitive Development and subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC-II). General linear models were used to determine the effect of these predictors. Area of residence and height-for-age were the statistically significant factors affecting cognitive test scores, regardless of attending pre-school. Paternal level of education was also significantly associated with the cognitive test scores of the children for all three cognitive test results, whereas HIV status, sex and their socioeconomic status were not. Children with low cognitive scores tended to be stunted (low height-for-age scores), lacked pre-school education and were younger. Area of residence and their parents' educational level also influenced their cognition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  1. Teenagers who plan parenthood.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Julie A

    2004-01-01

    It is clear that a variable number of teenage mothers have, to some extent, planned parenthood. From an evolutionary perspective, it could be argued that teenage childbearing may in fact be a positive adaptive mechanism for humans raised in a hostile environment. Life history theory suggests that in risky and uncertain environments the optimal reproductive strategy is to reproduce early in order to maximise the probability of leaving any descendents at all. If some teenagers are planning or hoping for pregnancy, it is possible that some positive behavioural changes may be observed. This has proven to be the case with many teenagers altering their risk taking behaviours in the anticipation and expectation of pregnancy. There is now substantial evidence that teenagers who become pregnant were at higher risk than the general population for using cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. However, once pregnant, rates of consumption are usually lower compared with their non-pregnant peers or even their own personal pre-pregnancy rates of consumption. Therefore, for some teenagers, the conscious or unconscious prospect of pregnancy represents a potential space in which to rethink behaviours that may be harmful to themselves as a future mother, and also to their child. Given that teenage motherhood is not going to simply vanish, it is important to remember to focus research and services on validated interventions that may assist teenage mothers fulfill their ambitions of parenthood and simultaneously provide the best outcomes for their offspring. Evidence-based interventions focus on sustained home visitation by nurses, with limited evidence supporting the use of volunteers. In contrast, evidence suggests that home visitation by paraprofessionals may not be effective. Other strategies that may be helpful include the use of multidisciplinary teenage pregnancy clinics that have been noted to be associated with improved pregnancy outcomes. The role of new mothers' groups, other

  2. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p < .001). The use and abuse of mood/mind-altering licit and illicit substances appear to be increasing among older teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  3. [Secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis in a 39-year-old man after rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jarosch, A; Tiller, M; Rohrbach, H; Leimbach, T; Schepp, W

    2016-05-01

    A 39-year-old man had been treated for rectal cancer 6 years ago by lower anterior resection of the rectum and perioperative radiochemotherapy. Since then follow-up had been unremarkable but now the patient presented with unspecific lower abdominal pain. The cause of the pain was identified as paraneoplastic retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to metachronous pulmonary metastases of the rectal cancer.

  4. Growth of a 45-year-old ponderosa pine plantation: An Arizona case study

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Cody L. Stropki; L. J. Heidmann

    2008-01-01

    Information on the growth of forest plantations is necessary for planning of ecosystem-based management of the plantations. This information is also useful in validating or refining computer simulators that estimate plantation growth into the future. Such growth information has been obtained from a 45-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)...

  5. Growth of a 45-year-old ponderosa pine plantation: An Arizona case study (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Cody L. Stropki; L. J. Heidmann

    2008-01-01

    Information on the growth of forest plantations is necessary for planning of ecosystem-based management of the plantations. This information is also useful in validating or refining computer simulators that estimate plantation growth into the future. Such growth information has been obtained from a 45-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantation in the Hart...

  6. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...

  7. Happiness and Depression in the Traditionally Bullied and Cyberbullied 12-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the overall happiness, school-related happiness, and depression of traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old Finnish students. Among the more than 700 participants, traditional bullying (26%) was more frequent than cyberbullying (18%). Receiving insulting text messages or being the subject of offensive comments on…

  8. Transition to Puberty as Experienced by 12-Year-Old Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembeck, Gun I.; Hermansson, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe 12-year-old girls' experiences of entering puberty. A qualitative approach was used to gather data from focus group interviews, and content analysis was used to identify common themes from the responses of 18 girls. Findings revealed four main themes: (a) growing up--awareness, bodily changes, longing; (b)…

  9. Bordetella holmesii meningitis in a 12-year-old anorectic girl.

    PubMed

    Van Balen, Tessa; Nieman, An-Emmie; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Schneeberger, Peter M; de Vries, Esther

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 12-year-old anorectic girl with Bordetella holmesii meningitis, the techniques used for its identification, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for 7 B. Holmesii strains collected in the Netherlands during the past 12 years. B. holmesii meningitis has not been previously reported.

  10. Thrombolytic stroke treatment of a 12-year-old girl with intracranial fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bolognese, Manuel; Griebe, Martin; Foerster, Alex; Hennerici, Michael G; Fatar, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia, predominantly found in adult women, is a rare disease of small and middle-sized arteries of the kidney and brain. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with acute ischemic stroke, due to fibromuscular dysplasia of the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral artery, which was successfully treated with t-PA.

  11. Becoming Warriors: Dramatic Inquiry with 11- to 12-Year-Olds in an EBD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, Brian; Sobjack, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Using a dialogue format, a college professor and a teacher of 11- to 12-year-old children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) report on a case study of four children (three boys and a girl) when over a three-week period dramatic inquiry pedagogy (focused on the meaning for students of fictional violent events depicted in extracts…

  12. Association of Generalized Psoriasis and Mixed Glomerulonephritis in a 10-year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Danko; Husar, Karmela; Batinić, Danica; Ćorić, Marijana; Jović, Anamaria; Turudić, Daniel; Pelajić, Stipe; Dumić Čule, Ivo

    2017-07-01

    Generalized psoriasis and renal function disorder were previously described in sporadic adult cases, revealing a new entity - psoriatic nephropathy. So far there have been only two cases describing this association in children. We present and discuss a case of 10-year-old girl with the unique biopsy findings of double glomerulonephritis associated with the simultaneous onset of generalized psoriasis.

  13. Quality of Classroom Interactions in Kindergarten and Executive Functions among Five Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Stéphanie; Bouchard, Caroline; Pagé, Pierre; Hamel, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the quality of classroom interactions in kindergarten and executive functions (EFs) among 5-year-old children. The sample consisted of 118 children, with a mean age of 73.34 months (SD = 4.22), from 12 kindergarten classes. The quality of classroom interactions was measured using the…

  14. Relationship Between Affective Determinants and Achievement in Science for Seventeen-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Riley, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Data collected in the 1976-1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress survey of 17-year-olds was used to reanalyze the hypothesis that there are affective determinants of science achievement. Results show that motivation, anxiety, student choice, and teacher support account for most of the correlation between affective determinants and…

  15. Lullaby Light Shows: Everyday Musical Experience among Under-Two-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on information gathered from a set of interviews carried out with 88 mothers of under-two-year-olds. The interviews enquired about the everyday musical experiences of their babies and very young children in the home. From the process of analysis, the responses to the interviews were grouped into three main areas: musical…

  16. Eating With Your Heart In Mind: 7 to 10 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this brightly illustrated guide is to teach 7-10 year old children that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol so as to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood…

  17. Cutaneous Larva Migrans Associated With Löffler's Syndrome in a 6-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Wei; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a frequent dermatologic problem among travelers in tropical areas, but its association with Löffler's syndrome is an extremely rare condition, particularly in children. Here, we describe a 6-year-old boy presenting cutaneous larva migrans associated with Löffler's syndrome.

  18. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  19. [A 35-year-old woman with fever, dyspnea, and pain in the left thigh].

    PubMed

    Picardi, A; Navajas, F; De Iorio, F; Amicarelli, M; Spoto, S; De Galasso, L; Vespaciani Gentilucci, U; Scarlata, S; Zardi, E; Di Cuonzo, G

    2001-01-01

    A thirty-five years old woman during her twelfth pregnancy presented fever and pain at the left thigh. After cesarean delivery dyspnea added to the first two symptoms and pulmonary embolism was suspected. A clinical history revaluation suggested a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis and femoural osteomielitis due to a septic embolus.

  20. Polydrug Use among 15- to 16-Year Olds: Similarities and Differences in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski, Deborah; Matias, Joao; Monshouwer, Karin; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We describe types of polydrug use among school students across Europe and explore differences between high, medium and low drug prevalence countries. Method: Analysis is based on survey data from over 70,000 15- to 16-year-old school students in 22 European countries. Polydrug use (defined as the use of two or more listed substances during…

  1. Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

  2. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  3. Herpes zoster in a 2-year-old vaccinated against varicella.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Catherine A; Trevino, Julian J; Gandhi, Rishi K

    2014-01-15

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.

  4. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  5. Stand Parameters of 11- to 15-Year Old Green Ash Plantings

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Krinard

    1989-01-01

    Three green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) plantings, ages 11, 13, and 15, and a 13-year-old pumpkin ash (F. profunda (Bush) Bush) planting were sampled to determine d.b.h. and height development and survival of free-to-grow trees. On medium-textured (Commerce) and clay-capped (Bowdre and Tunica) soils, the average d.b.h...

  6. Large as Life: Fiction about How 10-16 Year-Old Characters Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Nancy C.

    By reading fiction designed for adolescents, teachers can learn how to help middle school children to resolve the conflicts characteristic of their lives. Analyses of 23 such books that focused on the ways that 10- to 16-year-old characters cope with a variety of problems and on the roles that adults play in causing or helping to alleviate those…

  7. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  8. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  9. Two-Year-Olds' Sensitivity to Speakers' Intent: An Alternative Account of Samuelson and Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Markson, Lori; Akhtar, Nameera; Reudor, Ayelet

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two 2-year-olds participated in a study designed to test two competing accounts of the effect of contextual change on children's ability to learn a word for an object. The mechanistic account hypothesizes that any change in context that highlights a target object will lead to word learning; the social-pragmatic account maintains that a…

  10. Universally-Available Educational Programs for Four-Year-Olds: An Issue of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Virginia L.; Molnar, Janice

    In 1985, Edward Koch, Mayor of New York City, established an Early Childhood Education Commission and gave it the task of recommending how best to begin to provide public education for all of the city's 4-year-olds, beginning in September, 1986. After introductory remarks indicating the confluence and interplay of social elements underpinning the…

  11. Common Aetiology for Diverse Language Skills in 4 1/2-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate genetic analysis was used to examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of the interrelationships of diverse linguistic skills. This study used data from a large sample of 4 1/2-year-old twins who were tested on measures assessing articulation, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and verbal memory. Phenotypic analysis suggested two…

  12. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    PubMed

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes.

  13. Cognitive Components of a Mathematical Processing Network in 9-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Dénes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We determined how various cognitive abilities, including several measures of a proposed domain-specific number sense, relate to mathematical competence in nearly 100 9-year-old children with normal reading skill. Results are consistent with an extended number processing network and suggest that important processing nodes of this network are…

  14. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  15. Idea Retrieval in Argumentative Text Writing by 11-18 Year Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouit, Delphine; Golder, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show how general models of text production can account for argumentative text planning. It focuses in particular on retrieval process in 11- to 18-year-old children. Various experimental situations were designed to promote different ways of retrieving ideas from long-term memory. Essays written by students were…

  16. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching and Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Math Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Ellemor-Collins, David; Tabor, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    This fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasizing computational fluency and the…

  17. [Giant simple hepatic cysts as dyspnea symptom in a 93-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Macho Pérez, O; Gómez Pavón, J; Núñez González, A; Narvaiza Grau, L; Albéniz Aguiriano, L

    2007-03-01

    Giant simple hepatic cysts is generally asymptomatic in the 3% of cases of adult patients. We present a woman case of 93 years old who was diagnoses of giant simple hepatic cyst presented as dysnea. The management of this patient was with percutaneous aspiration and fenol alcohol. It made a review of cystic lesions of the liver and of simple hepatic cysts management.

  18. Time and Narrative at Eight Years Old: An Essay in Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article examines an eight-year-old's story as a literary work which throws light on the extent of a young child's knowledge of the human condition and on the child's capacity to set forth her knowledge in measured prose.

  19. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  20. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  1. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  2. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  3. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  4. Meritocratic Sharing Is Based on Collaboration in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Bender, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated young preschoolers' proportional allocation of rewards in 2 different work contexts. We presented 32 pairs of 3.5-year-old peers with a collaborative task to obtain rewards by pulling ropes. In order to establish differences in work input, 1 child's rope was not immediately accessible but had to be retrieved from the…

  5. Context and Linguistic Politeness in 7- and 9-Year-Old Italian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axia, Giovanna; Argenti, Emanuela

    The development of linguistic politeness in 7- and 9-year-old Italian children was examined. A total of 80 subjects, 40 males and 40 females, produced requests according to different contexts which were graphically presented. Factors considered for such contexts were: sex of the speaker; sex of the addressee; status of the addressee, either peer…

  6. Three- to Six-Year-Old Children's Recognition of Geometric Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Arnas, Yasare Aktas

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine three- to six-year-old pre-schoolers' recognition of basic geometric shapes, the criteria they use to distinguish members of a shape class and whether or not those criteria change in relation to age. Participants were 100 children aged three to six. Data were gathered from individual interviews…

  7. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  8. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  9. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  10. Three- and Four-Year-Old Children's Ability to Use Desire- and Belief-Based Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of 3-year olds' reliance on desire when predicting behavior and their performance on false-belief tasks. Results suggested that young children may use the desires of the agent, rather than their own desires, to predict behavior in standard false-belief paradigms. Older preschoolers also have difficulty…

  11. [In-patient psychoanalytical psychotherapy of a 12 year old boy with secondary encopresis].

    PubMed

    Pressel, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Case report on the in-patient psychoanalytical psychotherapy of a 12 year old boy, who developed a nonorganic encopresis at the age of nine after his mother died. One focal issue is his denial of this loss and the beginning of a process of mourning due to the treatment. The Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD) for Children and Adolescents are illustrated for this case.

  12. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  13. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  14. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  15. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  16. VII. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): factor structure for 3 to 15 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Widaman, Keith; Zelazo, Philip David; Tulsky, David; Heaton, Robert K; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David L; Gershon, Richard C

    2013-08-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used the evaluate the dimensional structure underlying the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and the measures chosen to serve as concurrent validity criteria for the NIH Toolbox CB. These results were used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB in children ranging from 3 to 15 years of age. Results were evaluated separately for a 3- to 6-year-old group and a 8- to 15-year-old group because different validation measures were used in these age groups. Three distinct dimensions were found for the 3- to 6-year-old group: Vocabulary, Reading, and Fluid Abilities. Five dimensions were found for 8-15 year olds: Vocabulary, Reading, Episodic Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Function/Processing Speed. CB measures and their validation analogues consistently defined common factors in a pattern that broadly supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB, but results showed higher intercorrelation and less differentiation of cognitive dimensions in younger than in older children and in older children compared with adults. Age was strongly related to the cognitive dimensions underlying test performance in both groups of children and results are consistent with broader literature showing increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities associated with the rapid brain development that occurs from early childhood into adulthood.

  17. Performance of Three-year-old Children on the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Mercedes Herrera; Hamersma, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    Beery contends that the Visual-motor Integration Test can be used to identify learning disability as a result of a deficit in visual-motor integration. The results of this study show that no or low correlation exists when the test is administered to three-year-old children. (Author/AL)

  18. Hearty Habits. Don't Eat Your Heart Out. 15-18 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated guide is to teach 15-18 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood cholesterol levels…

  19. Health in a population of eighteen-year-old males in Italy.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, A M; Falivene, C; Previtera, B

    1994-01-01

    A population of 18-year-old males were studied in order to investigate which biohumoral parameters were modified with respect to the so-called "reference values." To achieve our end, we analyzed the distribution curves of some biohumoral parameters, so selected to test various organs and apparatuses. Our results showed a clear incidence of hepatic affections and dislipidemias.

  20. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…