Science.gov

Sample records for 13-cis-retinoic acid ra

  1. Premature physeal closure following 13-cis-retinoic acid and prolonged fenretinide administration in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Angela; MacKenzie, John D; Twist, Clare J

    2016-11-01

    Retinoid therapy has contributed to improved outcomes in neuroblastoma. Clinical trials of fenretinide report favorable toxicity and disease stabilization in patients with high risk (HR) neuroblastoma. Skeletal effects have been described with other retinoids, but not with fenretinide to date. Two patients with HR, metastatic, refractory neuroblastoma received protracted courses of oral fenretinide for more than 5 years' duration. Both developed premature long bone physeal closure, causing limb length discrepancies; their neuroblastoma remains in remission. The radiographic and clinical findings reported suggest these skeletal abnormalities may be a consequence of treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA) followed by prolonged oral fenretinide exposure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 13-cis-retinoic acid suppresses hippocampal cell division and hippocampal-dependent learning in mice

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, James; Sakai, Yasuo; Zhang, Jinghua; Koul, Omanand; Mineur, Yann; Crusio, Wim E.; McCaffery, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The active component of the acne drug Accutane is 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA), and it is highly teratogenic for the developing central nervous system. Very little is known, however, regarding the effect of this drug on the adult brain. Regions of the brain that may be susceptible to RA are those that continue to generate new neurons. In the adult mouse, neurogenesis is maintained in the hippocampus and subventricular zone. This report demonstrates that a clinical dose (1 mg/kg/day) of 13-cis-RA in mice significantly reduces cell proliferation in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis, and severely disrupts capacity to learn a spatial radial maze task. The results demonstrate that the regions of the adult brain where cell proliferation is ongoing are highly sensitive to disruption by a clinical dose of 13-cis-RA. PMID:15051884

  3. 13-cis-retinoic acid suppresses hippocampal cell division and hippocampal-dependent learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Crandall, James; Sakai, Yasuo; Zhang, Jinghua; Koul, Omanand; Mineur, Yann; Crusio, Wim E; McCaffery, Peter

    2004-04-06

    The active component of the acne drug Accutane is 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA), and it is highly teratogenic for the developing central nervous system. Very little is known, however, regarding the effect of this drug on the adult brain. Regions of the brain that may be susceptible to RA are those that continue to generate new neurons. In the adult mouse, neurogenesis is maintained in the hippocampus and subventricular zone. This report demonstrates that a clinical dose (1 mg/kg/day) of 13-cis-RA in mice significantly reduces cell proliferation in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis, and severely disrupts capacity to learn a spatial radial maze task. The results demonstrate that the regions of the adult brain where cell proliferation is ongoing are highly sensitive to disruption by a clinical dose of 13-cis-RA.

  4. Teratogenicity and transplacental pharmacokinetics of 13-cis-retinoic acid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Eckhoff, C; Chari, S; Kromka, M; Staudner, H; Juhasz, L; Rudiger, H; Agnish, N

    1994-03-01

    No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects, considered to be treatment related, were observed in rabbits after daily oral doses of 3 mg/kg of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) from Day 8 to Day 11 of gestation. In contrast, treatment with 15 mg/kg/day significantly increased the rate of fetal resorptions (22%) and 13 out of 68 surviving fetuses (16%) were malformed. Pharmacokinetic studies with both dosing regimens of 13-cis-RA in pregnant rabbits showed that on Day 11 of gestation, high concentrations of parent compound, 13-cis-RA, and its major metabolite, 13-cis-4-oxoRA, existed in maternal plasma. Much lower concentrations were found for all-trans-4-oxoRA and all-trans-RA. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of all-trans-RA following the 15 mg/kg/day dosing regimen of 13-cis-RA was only 1.2% that of parent compound 13-cis-RA. At this dose, embryo levels of 13-cis-RA, 13-cis-4-oxoRA, and all-trans-4-oxoRA were 2.5-, 4.7-, and 3.6-fold higher by AUC comparison (24-hr period of Day 11) compared with the dose of 3 mg/kg. However, embryo levels of all-trans-RA were virtually identical at both doses and were, in fact, somewhat lower than endogenous concentrations measured in untreated rabbit embryos. In contrast to mice, where isomerization from 13-cis- to all-trans-RA was suggested to be crucial for the teratogenic action of 13-cis-RA, we found that the teratogenic action of 13-cis-RA (15 mg/kg/day) in rabbits is characterized by increased whole embryo concentrations of 13-cis-RA, 13-cis-4-oxoRA, and all-trans-4-oxoRA, but not of all-trans-RA.

  5. The Influence of 13-cis Retinoic Acid on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Kam, Wendy R.; Dieckow, Julia; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a primary cause of dry eye disease. One of the risk factors for MGD is exposure to 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), a metabolite of vitamin A. However, the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesize that 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell death, alters gene and protein expressions, and attenuates cell survival pathways in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. To test our hypotheses, immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured with or without 13-cis RA for varying doses and time. Cell proliferation, cell death, gene expression, and proteins involved in proliferation/survival and inflammation were evaluated. Results. We found that 13-cis RA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death, and significantly altered the expression of 6726 genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation, in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Further, 13-cis RA also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and increased the generation of interleukin-1β and matrix metallopeptidase 9. Conclusions. Exposure to 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, increases cell death, alters gene expression, changes signaling pathways, and promotes inflammatory mediator and protease expression in meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects may be responsible, at least in part, for the 13-cis RA–related induction of MGD. PMID:23722388

  6. Oral Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid) has no effects on spatial learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Berry, Kimberly J

    2007-01-01

    Descriptions of psychiatric effects with Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA)) use prompted a series of studies in a rodent model to ascertain its cognitive effects. Previously, we reported no effects on measures of anhedonia and depression in rats treated with 7.5, 22.5, or 30 mg/kg 13-cis-RA [S.A. Ferguson, F.J. Cisneros, B. Gough, J.P. Hanig, K.J. Berry, Chronic oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) or all-trans-retinoic acid does not alter depression-like behaviors in rats, Toxicol. Sci. 87 (2005) 451-459 [16]; S.A. Ferguson, F.J., Cisneros, J.P. Hanig, K.J. Berry, Chronic oral treatment with Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid) does not increase measures of anhedonia or depression in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, (in preparation) [19

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of 13-cis retinoic acid in Indian high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Gota, Vikram; Chinnaswamy, Girish; Vora, Tushar; Rath, Sanhita; Yadav, Akanksha; Gurjar, Murari; Veal, Gareth; Kurkure, Purna

    2016-10-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cisRA) between Indian and UK neuroblastoma patients receiving comparable treatment, alongside measures of toxicity and response. 13-cisRA (160 mg/m(2)/day) was administered to 36 patients ≤16 years in two divided doses. Plasma 13-cisRA concentrations were determined on days 1 and 14 of cycles 1 and 4 of treatment. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-6h) was estimated using non-compartment modelling. Patients were genotyped for UGT2B7, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A7*2 and *2, *3 and *4 variants of CYP2C8. Marked inter-patient variability in 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics was observed. There was a trend towards a higher AUC0-6h on day 1 versus day 14 for both treatment cycles studied. Children who swallowed 13-cisRA capsules (n = 18) achieved higher AUC0-6h values compared to those who could not (n = 16) (Mean AUC 21.53 vs. 9.35 µM h, P < 0.05). Patients who were event free at 1 year tended to have higher AUC0-6h on C1D1 compared to those patients who progressed, although this did not reach significance with the number of patients studied (P = 0.08). Similarly, patients who achieved a 13-cisRA C max of ≥2 µM on C1D1 tended to have higher median EFS compared to those who did not (17.0 vs. 8.1 months). UGT2B7, CYP2C8*2/*3/*4 or CYP3A5*3 genotype did not have any effect on 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics. Method of administration markedly affects 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics in Indian neuroblastoma patients, supporting similar findings in UK patients. An appropriate oral liquid formulation of 13-cisRA that can be administered to all children with neuroblastoma is urgently needed on an international level.

  8. [Acne conglobata: personality and psychological sequelae in 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. Initial results].

    PubMed

    Studt, H H; Riehl, A; Gollnick, H

    1986-05-15

    16 patients suffering from acne conglobata were prospectively examined by means of analytical interviews and 5 psychometric procedures before and 6 months after oral treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretinoin). In comparison with a control group of psychosomatic patients, acne conglobata patients are more frequently affected by childhood influences leading to a neurotic personality structure already before the outbreak of acne; the patients more often complain of disturbed social contact, depressive moods, or general disorders. After successful treatment with isotretinoin, we observed augmented self-confidence and positive aggressiveness, on one hand, and increase of anxiety depressive moods, and general complaints, on the other. These effects are not drug related in a pharmacological way. These observations suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne conglobata. Regarding the medical management of these patients, it should be considered that psychic and psychosomatic disorders might be intensified after successful drug therapy.

  9. 13-cis-retinoic acid alters the cellular morphology of slice-cultured serotonergic neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junko; Sutoh, Chihiro; Ishikawa, Akinori; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    Retinoids influence cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis via retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and have therapeutic applications in several cancers and dermatologic diseases. Recent reports indicate that depression occasionally occurs in patients using the acne drug Accutane, the active component of which is 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA). Although impairment of serotonin (5-HT)-expressing neurons, including morphologic changes, is thought to be associated with depressive symptoms, the effects of 13-cis-RA on 5-HT neurons have not been examined. The present study demonstrated that 13-cis-RA alters the morphology of 5-HT neurons in cultured rat midbrain slices. The 13-cis-RA-induced changes were partially blocked by RXR and RAR antagonists. Furthermore, cotreatment with RAR and RXR agonists altered the morphology of 5-HT neurons to a greater extent than the individual application of each agonist. The morphologic changes were completely blocked by RXR antagonist, whereas RAR antagonist partially blocked the effects. These results suggest that 13-cis-RA exerts its action on slice-cultured 5-HT neurons, at least in part, through specific retinoid receptors. Moreover, RXR has a greater influence on the morphology of 5-HT neurons than RAR. The receptor-mediated actions of 13-cis-RA presented here may provide a clue for further research on depression associated with the use of 13-cis-RA.

  10. Response of preclinical medulloblastoma models to combination therapy with 13-cis retinoic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA).

    PubMed

    Spiller, Susan E; Ditzler, Sally H; Pullar, Barbara J; Olson, James M

    2008-04-01

    Current medulloblastoma therapy, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, is unacceptably toxic. However, 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) and SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, have each been shown to induce apoptosis in medulloblastoma cultures and mouse models. Both drugs cross the blood brain barrier, have been given safely to children, and achieve brain concentrations that are at or near therapeutic levels. Retinoic acid acts by transcriptionally activating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and SAHA facilitates transcriptional activity through chromatin accessibility. We tested the hypothesis that these drugs additively induce BMP-2 transcription and apoptosis. RA + SAHA induction of BMP-2 transcription and apoptosis in medulloblastoma cultures was evaluated. Subsequently the response of mouse medulloblastomas to these two agents in the presence and absence of cisplatin was evaluated. BMP-2 transcription multiplied 3-fold with addition of RA to culture, and 7-fold with both agents. The IC50 of SAHA was reduced by 40% when low dose RA was added. Interestingly, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor that partially blocks RA-induced apoptosis did not inhibit the activity of RA + SAHA. Flank D283 tumors in athymic mice had slower growth in the RA + SAHA arm than single drug or control arms. Intracranial tumors in ND2:SmoA1 mice treated with RA + SAHA + cisplatin showed a 4-fold increase in apoptosis over controls, and a 2-fold increase over animals receiving only SAHA or RA + SAHA. RA + SAHA additively induce BMP-2 transcription and medulloblastoma apoptosis. The combination may act through a p38 MAPK independent mechanism. Efficacy increased with cisplatin, which has implications for clinical trial design.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of all-trans- and 13-cis-retinoic acid in pulmonary emphysema patients.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Josephia R; Roth, Michael D; Wise, Robert A; Connett, John E; O'Connor, George T; Ramsdell, Joe W; Schluger, Neil W; Romkes, Marjorie; Branch, Robert A; Sciurba, Frank C

    2008-01-01

    Retinoids promote lung alveolarization in animal models and were administered to patients as part of the Feasibility of Retinoid Therapy for Emphysema (FORTE) study. This FORTE substudy investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of 2 retinoic acid isomers-all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA)-in subjects with emphysema, evaluated strategies to overcome self-induced ATRA catabolism, and identified pharmacodynamic relationships. Comprehensive and limited pharmacokinetics were obtained at multiple visits in emphysema subjects treated with placebo (n = 30), intermittent dosing (4 days/week) with low-dose ATRA (1 mg/kg/day, n = 21), or high-dose ATRA (2 mg/kg/day, n = 25) or daily administration of 13-cRA (1 mg/kg/day, n = 40). High-dose ATRA produced the highest peak plasma ATRA Cmax. However, at follow-up, plasma ATRA C(max) was significantly decreased from baseline in subjects whose day 1 levels exceeded 100 ng/mL (P < .0001). In contrast, administration of 13-cRA produced lower plasma ATRA C(max) (<100 ng/mL), but the levels were significantly higher at follow-up than those on day 1 (P < .001). Plasma ATRA levels as determined on day 1 correlated with changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity at 6 months, consistent with concentration-dependent biologic effects (r2 = -0.25). The authors conclude that intermittent therapy with high-dose ATRA produced the greatest ATRA exposure, but alternative approaches for limiting self-induced ATRA catabolism should be sought.

  12. Combination of 13 cis-retinoic acid and tolfenamic acid induces apoptosis and effectively inhibits high-risk neuroblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shelake, Sagar; Eslin, Don; Sutphin, Robert M; Sankpal, Umesh T; Wadwani, Anmol; Kenyon, Laura E; Tabor-Simecka, Leslie; Bowman, W Paul; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Basha, Riyaz

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens used for the treatment of Neuroblastoma (NB) cause long-term side effects in pediatric patients. NB arises in immature sympathetic nerve cells and primarily affects infants and children. A high rate of relapse in high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB) necessitates the development of alternative strategies for effective treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of a small molecule, tolfenamic acid (TA), for enhancing the anti-proliferative effect of 13 cis-retinoic acid (RA) in HRNB cell lines. LA1-55n and SH-SY5Y cells were treated with TA (30μM) or RA (20μM) or both (optimized doses, derived from dose curves) for 48h and tested the effect on cell viability, apoptosis and selected molecular markers (Sp1, survivin, AKT and ERK1/2). Cell viability and caspase activity were measured using the CellTiter-Glo and Caspase-Glo kits. The apoptotic cell population was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V staining. The expression of Sp1, survivin, AKT, ERK1/2 and c-PARP was evaluated by Western blots. The combination therapy of TA and RA resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability (p<0.0001) when compared to individual agents. The anti-proliferative effect is accompanied by a decrease in Sp1 and survivin expression and an increase in apoptotic markers, Annexin-V positive cells, caspase 3/7 activity and c-PARP levels. Notably, TA+RA combination also caused down regulation of AKT and ERK1/2 suggesting a distinct impact on survival and proliferation pathways via signaling cascades. This study demonstrates that the TA mediated inhibition of Sp1 in combination with RA provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the effective treatment of HRNB in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High albumin levels restrict the kinetics of 13-cis retinoic acid uptake and intracellular isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid and inhibit its anti-proliferative effect on SZ95 sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Miki; Schröder, Mandy; Seltmann, Holger; Orfanos, Constantin E; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2002-07-01

    13-cis Retinoic acid is rapidly absorbed into cells and exerts its anti-proliferative effect on human sebocytes by specific isomerization to high levels of all-trans retinoic acid and binding the retinoic acid receptors. In this study, we have shown that bovine serum albumin, an extracellular binding protein for 13-cis retinoic acid, plays an important part in the uptake of 13-cis retinoic acid in human sebocytes, its intracellular isomerization to all-trans retinoic acid, and the induction of its anti-proliferative effect. The addition of highly concentrated bovine serum albumin (20 mg per ml) to the serum-free maintenance medium resulted in a rather controlled uptake of constant levels of 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid into the cells over the 72 h of treatment. As a consequence, significantly reduced and delayed isomerization of 13-cis retinoic acid to all-trans retinoic acid was detected. In parallel experiments, the anti-proliferative activity of 13-cis retinoic acid on SZ95 sebocytes was abrogated by adding 20 mg bovine serum albumin per ml into the serum-free medium. These results indicate a critical function of serum albumin as retinoid-binding protein in reducing the concentration of active retinoids and restricting their biologic effects on human sebocytes.

  14. Combination of 13-Cis Retinoic Acid and Lovastatin: Marked Antitumor Potential In Vivo in a Pheochromocytoma Allograft Model in Female Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  15. Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George; Grossman, Ashley; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  16. Interferon-alpha2a and 13-cis-retinoic acid with radiation treatment for high-grade glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, R. O.; Shea, W. M.; Tai, D. F.; Mahdavi, K.; Barth, N. M.; Kharkar, B. R.; Poor, M. M.; Church, C. K.; DePriest, C.

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been safely given concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) in treating gliomas. As single agents, both IFN-alpha and cis-retinoic acid (CRA) have produced objective tumor regressions in patients with recurrent gliomas. In vitro, IFN-alpha2a and CRA enhance radiation therapy effects on glioblastoma cells more than either agent alone. This trial was conducted to determine the clinical effects of IFN-alpha2a and CRA when given concurrently with radiation therapy to patients with high-grade glioma. Newly diagnosed patients with high-grade glioma received IFN-alpha2a at a dosage of 3 to 6 million IU s.c. 4 times a day for 3 days per week and 1 mg/kg CRA by mouth 4 times a day for 5 days per week during the delivery of partial brain radiation therapy at 180 cGy x 33 fractions for 5 days per week for a total of 59.4 Gy during the 7-week period. Use of the antiepileptic phenytoin was prohibited after observing that the combination of IFN-alpha2a, CRA, and phenytoin was associated with a high rate of dermatologic toxicity not seen in a previous study with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy. Forty patients (26 men and 14 women) with a median age of 60 (range, 19 to 81 years) were enrolled between August 1996 and October 1998. Histopathologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme or grade 4 anaplastic astrocytoma in 36 patients, and grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma in 4 patients. Only 4 patients (10%) underwent a gross total resection of tumor prior to this therapy; 50% were asymptomatic when treatment was initiated. The planned 7-week course of concurrent therapy was completed by 75% of patients; 30% completed the 16-week course of IFN-alpha and CRA alone. At a median follow-up of 36 months, there were 37 deaths, with a median overall survival of 9.3 months and a 1-year survival rate of 42%. There was no improvement in survival compared with a similar group of 19 patients treated with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy in a

  17. Inhaled isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is an effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent in A/J mice at low doses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dahl, A R; Grossi, I M; Houchens, D P; Scovell, L J; Placke, M E; Imondi, A R; Stoner, G D; De Luca, L M; Wang, D; Mulshine, J L

    2000-08-01

    In previously treated head-and-neck cancer patients, p.o. administered isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) reduced the occurrence of second aerodigestive tumors, including lung tumors, but side effects made chronic therapy problematic. We reasoned that inhaled isotretinoin might provide sufficient drug to the target cells for efficacy while avoiding systemic toxicity, and we proceeded with the pilot study reported here. Male A/J mice were given single i.p. doses of urethane, a common experimental lung carcinogen, or benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), putative major carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The following day, exposures to isotretinoin aerosols for 45 min daily at 1.3, 20.7, or 481 microg/l were initiated. After 2 weeks, the high dose caused severe toxicity on the snout skin, necessitating a reduction of dose frequency to twice a week. As a precaution, the mid dose was reduced to three exposures per week. The weekly total deposited doses after the dose frequency reductions were calculated to be 0.24, 1.6, and 24.9 mg/kg for the low, mid, and high doses, of which 16% was estimated to be deposited in the lungs. The weekly deposited pulmonary drug doses were calculated to be 0.01, 0.07, and 1.1% of a previously reported ineffective oral dose in urethane-treated A/J mice. After 10-16 weeks, mice were sacrificed to count areas of pulmonary hyperplasia and adenomas. For all carcinogens, the mice exposed to the high isotretinoin dose showed reductions of tumor multiplicity ranging from 56 to 80% (P < 0.005). The mid dose was associated with reductions of tumor multiplicity by 67 and 88% (P < 0.005) in BaP- and NNK-treated mice, respectively, and was tolerated until approximately 12 weeks, when both these and the high-dose mice began losing weight. The low-dose mice had nonsignificant reductions of 30% (P < 0.13) and 16% (P < 0.30) for BaP- and NNK-treated mice, respectively without any evidence of side effects. For BaP- and

  18. Long-term follow-up of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with moderate/severe anaemia receiving human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3: independent positive impact of erythroid response on survival.

    PubMed

    Crisà, Elena; Foli, Cristina; Passera, Roberto; Darbesio, Antonella; Garvey, Kimberly B; Boccadoro, Mario; Ferrero, Dario

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported a 60% erythroid response rate with recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis retinoic acid + dihydroxylated vitamin D3 in 63 elderly myelodysplastic patients (median age 75 years) with unfavourable features for response to erythropoietin alone [70% transfusion-dependent, 35% refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts/refractory anaemia with excess of blasts type 1 (RAEB1), 70% with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) Intermediate-1 or -2]. This report updates that case study at a 7-year follow-up, and compared the impact on overall survival of erythroid response to known prognostic factors. The erythroid response duration (median 17 months; 22 in non-RAEB patients, with 20% patients in response after 6 years of therapy) was longer than in most studies with erythropoietin alone. Overall survival (median 55 months in non-RAEB, 15 in RAEB1 patients) was negatively affected by RAEB1 diagnosis, IPSS and WPSS intermediate scores and transfusion-dependence. In the multivariate analysis, erythroid response maintained an independent positive impact on survival, particularly in non-RAEB patients in the first 3 years from diagnosis (90% survival compared to 50% of non-responders). In conclusion, the long-term follow-up confirmed the achievement, by our combined treatment, of fairly long-lasting erythroid response in the majority of MDS patients with unfavourable prognostic features for response to erythropoietin: this translated in a survival benefit that was independent from other prognostic features.

  19. Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Dario; Darbesio, Antonella; Giai, Valentina; Genuardi, Mariella; Dellacasa, Chiara Maria; Sorasio, Roberto; Bertini, Marilena; Boccadoro, Mario

    2009-02-01

    The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has generally been best in untransfused patients with 'refractory anaemia' according to the World Health Organization (WHO). We treated 63 MDS patients [excluding refractory anaemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB2)] with a previously tested combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 +/- 6-thioguanine in addition to rEPO. Most patients were categorized as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and RAEB1, with intermediate 1 International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score; all had Hb <95 g/l, and 70% required regular erythrocyte transfusions. Treatment was well tolerated, and erythroid response rate according to new International Working Group criteria was 60%: 50% in RAEB1 and 64% in non-RAEB patients (P = 0.383). Response rate was not affected by transfusion requirement (63%; 58% in untransfused), IPSS and WHO Prognostic Scoring System scores, and weekly rEPO dosage (30-50 000 U vs. 80 000 U). Median response duration was 16 months. Median survival reached 14 months for RAEB1 and 55 months for non-RAEB patients, with a significant difference in the latter between responders and non-responders (median 82 months vs. 44 months; P = 0.036). Our combined therapy, independent of rEPO dosage, achieved in patients with unfavourable response predictors, a rate of anaemia improvement comparable to the best obtained in lower risk patients by high-dose rEPO.

  20. Murine Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 Combined With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Cheung, Irene Y.; Kushner, Brian H.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Kramer, Kim; Modak, Shakeel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown efficacy against neuroblastoma (NB). Prognostic variables that could influence clinical outcome were explored. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty-nine children diagnosed with stage 4 NB (1988 to 2008) were enrolled onto consecutive anti-GD2 murine MoAb 3F8 ± GM-CSF ± 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) protocols after achieving first remission (complete remission/very good partial remission). Patients enrolled in regimen A (n = 43 high-risk [HR] patients) received 3F8 alone; regimen B (n = 41 HR patients), 3F8 + intravenous GM-CSF + CRA, after stem-cell transplantation (SCT); and regimen C (n = 85), 3F8 + subcutaneous GM-CSF + CRA, 46 of 85 after SCT, whereas 28 of 85 required additional induction therapy and were deemed ultra high risk (UHR). Marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Survival probability was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Results At 5 years from the start of immunotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) improved from 44% for HR patients receiving regimen A to 56% and 62% for those receiving regimens B and C, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was 49%, 61%, and 81%, respectively. PFS and OS of UHR patients were 36% and 75%, respectively. Relapse was mostly at isolated sites. Independent adverse prognostic factors included UHR (PFS) and post–cycle two MRD (PFS and OS), whereas the prognostic factors for improved outcome were missing killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand (PFS and OS), human antimouse antibody response (OS), and regimen C (OS). Conclusion Retrospective analysis of consecutive trials from a single center demonstrated that MoAb 3F8 + GM-CSF + CRA is effective against chemotherapy-resistant marrow MRD. Its positive impact on long-term survival can only

  1. The impact of retinoic acid treatment on the sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells to fenretinide.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jane L; Martin, Shaun; Illingworth, Nicola A; Jamieson, David; Neilson, Abbie; Lovat, Penny E; Redfern, Chris P F; Veal, Gareth J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the successful introduction of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) therapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma, approximately 50% patients do not respond or experience relapse. A retinoid analogue, fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4-HPR] can induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines and could have clinical use after therapy with 13cisRA. However, there are important questions concerning potential retinoid drug interactions which need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of retinoic acid pre-treatment on fenretinide-induced apoptosis and fenretinide metabolism in neuroblastoma cell lines. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained neuroblastoma cells and a live-cell imaging assay. Intracellular fenretinide metabolism was determined by HPLC analysis. Pre-treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with retinoic acid (RA) resulted in a significant decrease in the apoptotic response to fenretinide in three of the four lines tested. Comparison between responsive and non-responsive cell lines suggested that RA sensitivity was required to promote fenretinide resistance, and that this was mediated by up-regulation of Bcl-2 and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic fenretinide signalling pathways. Induction of the oxidative metabolism of fenretinide after RA pre-treatment did not significantly impact on intracellular parent drug levels and is unlikely to explain the decreased apoptotic response observed. The interaction between RA and fenretinide could have important implications for the scheduling of fenretinide in therapeutic protocols for neuroblastoma.

  2. Molecular targeting of retinoic acid metabolism in neuroblastoma: the role of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J L; Taylor, G A; Thomas, H D; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Veal, G J

    2007-01-01

    Isomerisation to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely accepted as the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA). As intracellular metabolism of ATRA by CYP26 may result in clinical resistance to 13cisRA, an increase in efficacy may be achieved through modulation of this metabolic pathway. We have evaluated the effect of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 on retinoid metabolism in neuroblastoma cell lines and a xenograft model. In neuroblastoma cells, which showed a high level of CYP26 induction in response to ATRA, R116010 selectively inhibited ATRA metabolism. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CYP26 selectively increased ATRA levels and the expression of retinoid-responsive marker genes was potentiated by R116010. Treatment of mice bearing SH-SY5Y xenografts with 13cisRA (100 mg kg−1) revealed substantial levels (16%) of intratumoral ATRA after 6 h, despite plasma ATRA levels representing only 1% total retinoids under these conditions. Co-administration of R116010 with 13cisRA in this mouse model resulted in significant increases in plasma ATRA and 13cisRA concentrations. Furthermore, R116010 induced significant decreases in levels of 4-oxo metabolites in hepatic tissue after co-administration with either ATRA or 13cisRA. These data suggest considerable potential for CYP26 inhibitors in the future treatment of neuroblastoma with 13cisRA. PMID:17486130

  3. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-alpha mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Harry D; Collins, Gary; Pyle, Robert; Key, Michael; Taub, Dennis D

    2008-04-16

    We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), and the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha)-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-beta/gamma ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR). The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-alpha-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-alpha-selective antagonist, RO 41-5253, inhibited these effects. These results strongly support a role for RAR-alpha engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production.

  4. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Harry D; Collins, Gary; Pyle, Robert; Key, Michael; Taub, Dennis D

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α)-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-β/γ ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR). Results The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-α-selective antagonist, RO 41–5253, inhibited these effects. Conclusion These results strongly support a role for RAR-α engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production. PMID:18416830

  5. Increasing the intracellular availability of all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J L; Ruiz, M; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Pearson, A D J; Veal, G J

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs), or specific inhibitors of the RA hydroxylase CYP26, such as R116010, can increase the intracellular availability of ATRA. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with acitretin (50 μM) or R116010 (1 or 10 μM) in combination with either 10 μM ATRA or 13cisRA induced a selective increase in intracellular levels of ATRA, while 13cisRA levels were unaffected. CRABP was induced in SH-SY5Y cells in response to RA. In contrast, acitretin had no significant effect on intracellular retinoid concentrations in those neuroblastoma cell lines that showed little or no induction of CRABP after RA treatment. Both ATRA and 13cisRA dramatically induced the expression of CYP26A1 in SH-SY5Y cells, and treatment with R116010, but not acitretin, potentiated the RA-induced expression of a reporter gene and CYP26A1. The response of neuroblastoma cells to R116010 was consistent with inhibition of CYP26, indicating that inhibition of RA metabolism may further optimise retinoid treatment in neuroblastoma. PMID:15714209

  6. Retinoic Acid and Affective Disorders: The Evidence for an Association

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J Douglas; Shearer, Kirsty; McCaffery, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid, or 13-cis-RA) (Accutane), approved by the FDA for the treatment of acne, carries a black box warning related to the risk of depression, suicide, and psychosis. Retinoic acid (RA), the active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression in the brain, and isotretinoin is its 13-cis isomer. Retinoids represent a group of compounds derived from vitamin A that perform a large variety of functions in many systems, in particular the CNS, and abnormal retinoid levels can have neurological effects. Although infrequent, proper recognition and treatment of psychiatric side effects in acne patients is critical given the risk of death and disability. This paper reviews the evidence for a relationship between isotretinoin, depression and suicidality. Data Sources Evidence examined includes: 1) case reports; 2) temporal association between onset of depression and exposure to the drug; 3) challenge-rechallenge cases; 4) class effect (other compounds in the same class, like vitamin A, having similar neuropsychiatric effects); 5) dose response; and 6) biologically plausible mechanisms. Study Selection All papers in the literature related to isotretinoin, depression and suicide were reviewed, as well as papers related to class effect, dose response, and biological plausibility. Data Extraction Information from individual articles in the literature was extracted. Data Synthesis The literature reviewed is consistent with an association between isotretinoin administration, depression and suicide in some individuals. Conclusions The relationship between isotretinoin and depression may have implications for a greater understanding of the neurobiology of affective disorders. PMID:21903028

  7. Normal phase LC-MS determination of retinoic acid degradation products.

    PubMed

    Bempong, D K; Honigberg, I L; Meltzer, N M

    1995-03-01

    The degradation products formed when 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA) and all-trans RA were exposed to fluorescent light and air were investigated. These retinoids are known to undergo Z-E isomerization (due to the existence of four unsaturated double bonds) and oxidation when exposed to light and air. Analysis by LC was carried out on a 25 cm x 4.6 mm Zorbax Rx-SIL (5 microns) with a mobile phase (1.4 ml min-1) of heptane-THF-acetic acid (96.5:3.5:0.015) and an in-line UV (365 nm) detector. The LC eluate was coupled through a Vestec universal interface to a Finnigan 4023 mass spectrometer. EI-mass spectra were obtained at 77 eV from m/z 200 to 350 with multiplier voltage of 1200 V. Solid samples of 13-cis RA and all-trans RA exposed to light and air and also solutions of these retinoids in the mobile phase exposed to the same conditions were used for the analysis. Tentative identities of the degradation products from the mass spectra suggest the isomerization of the retinoids (Z-E isomerism) and the formation of the 5,6-epoxides of these isomers. Identities of the 5,6-epoxides were confirmed with chromatographic and mass spectral data from synthetic samples of the epoxides. Isomerization occurred more readily in solution than in the solid form and the 13-cis RA isomer oxidized more readily than the all-trans isomer.

  8. The Role of Retinoic Acid (RA) in Spermatogonial Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Busada, Jonathan T; Geyer, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) directs the sequential, but distinct, programs of spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic differentiation that are both essential for the generation of functional spermatozoa. These processes are functionally and temporally decoupled, as they occur in distinct cell types that arise over a week apart, both in the neonatal and adult testis. However, our understanding is limited in terms of what cellular and molecular changes occur downstream of RA exposure that prepare differentiating spermatogonia for meiotic initiation. In this review, we describe the process of spermatogonial differentiation and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding RA signaling in spermatogonia.

  9. Retinoid and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    cells were cultured in this -t trichostatin A for 12 hr. Retinoids were isolated according to Guo et al. (16) and separated by HPLC . RA, 24.5 min...Shin DM, Khuri FR, Murphy B, et al. Combined interferon-alfa, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and alpha- tocopherol in locally advanced head and neck squamous

  10. p38-MAPK- and Caspase-3-Mediated Superoxide-Induced Apoptosis of Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells: Reversal by Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Noor Mohamed; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Wu, Tong; Watkins, Simon C.; Friedman, Scott L.; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate retinoid-containing quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs) to retinoid-deficient fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells (aHSCs). However, ROS also cause apoptosis of aHSCs, and apoptotic aHSCs are observed in inflammatory fibrotic liver. Here, we investigated mechanisms of the effects of oxidative stress on the survival of qHSCs and aHSCs. HSCs from normal rat liver were used after overnight culture (qHSCs), or in 3–5 passages (aHSCs). For in vivo induction of oxidative stress, tert-butylhydroperoxide was injected into control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats. Spontaneous caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, observed in cultured qHSCs, decreased with time and were unaffected by superoxide. In contrast, superoxide caused caspase-3 and p38-MAPK activation, reduction in Bcl-xL expression, and apoptosis in aHSCs. Inhibition of caspase-3 and p38-MAPK did not affect the viability of qHSCs in the absence or presence of superoxide, but inhibited superoxide-induced death of aHSCs. Glutathione (GSH) level and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were lower in aHSCs than qHSCs. Superoxide increased GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase and GPx in qHSCs but not in aHSCs. Incubation of 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA)-treated aHSCs with superoxide increased their GSH content significantly, and prevented superoxide-induced p38-MAPK and caspase-3 activation while dramatically reducing the extent of apoptosis. Finally, oxidative stress induced in vivo caused apoptosis of aHSCs in cirrhotic but not of qHSCs in control rats. These results suggest that the absence of retinoids render aHSCs susceptible to superoxide-induced apoptosis via caspase-3 and p38-MAPK activation. PMID:18792915

  11. Developmental stage-associated differences in the transplacental distribution of 13-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acid as well as their glucuronides in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tzimas, G; Collins, M D; Nau, H

    1995-07-01

    In mice and rats, 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) has a much lower teratogenic potency than all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA). Previous studies on Gestational Day (GD) 11 or 12 (in mice or rats, respectively) showed a limited transfer of 13-cis-RA to the embryo, in contrast to the efficient transplacental passage of all-trans-RA. In the present study we examined if the distribution between maternal circulation and embryo of 13-cis- and all-trans-RA as well as their metabolites is different at gestational times when the placenta is developing from a choriovitelline to a chorioallantoic type. In the first experiment, 13-cis-RA was administered orally to pregnant rats (75 mg/kg/day) daily, from either GD 7 to 12 or 11 to 16. In the second experiment, 13-cis-RA or all-trans-RA was given orally to pregnant mice once on either GD 11 or 14, at two dose levels (10 and 100 mg/kg). HPLC analysis of plasma and embryo samples collected at various time points post-treatment showed that 13-cis-RA was predominantly metabolized to its beta-glucuronide (13-cis-RAG) while all-trans-RA was primarily biotransformed to all-trans-4-oxo-RA and to a lesser extent to all-trans-RAG. 13-cis-RA showed a more efficient transplacental passage to the rat embryo on GD 16 than on GD 12, as indicated by higher ratios of embryonic to maternal plasma concentrations (E/M concentration ratio) on GD 16 vs. GD 12 and its E/M ratio of area-under-the-concentration-time-curve values (E/M AUC ratio; twofold higher on GD 16 vs. GD 12). In the mouse, the E/M concentration ratio of 13-cis-RA was significantly higher on GD 14 than on GD 11 only at the low dose. On the other hand, all-trans-RA and all-trans-4-oxo-RA showed an efficient transfer to the mouse embryo at both gestational times. In both species, 13-cis- and all-trans-RAG embryonic concentrations on the later gestational days exceeded significantly the corresponding ones on the earlier gestational days which resulted in far higher E

  12. Ra5G, a homologue of Ra5 in giant ragweed pollen: isolation, HLA-DR-associated activity and amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Goodfriend, L; Choudhury, A M; Klapper, D G; Coulter, K M; Dorval, G; Del Carpio, J; Osterland, C K

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies [Marsh et al. (1982) J. exp. Med. 155, 1439-1451; Coulter (1983) M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Coulter et al. (1983) in Genetic and Environmental Factors in Clinical Allergy (Edited by Marsh D.G., Blumenthal M.N. and Santilli J., Jr), University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN] have shown a highly significant association between HLA-Dw2/DR2 and host sensitivity to the 5000-D, 4-disulfide bonded protein Ra5S of short ragweed pollen. To extend these findings, we isolated Ra5G, an Ra5S-like protein, from giant ragweed pollen by gel and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (pH 4.3), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antigenic assays. Its mol. wt and amino acid composition (including 8 half-cystine residues) were closely similar to Ra5S, but the two proteins had little or no antigenic or allergenic cross-reactivity. In a study of 200 ragweed-sensitive individuals, host sensitivity simultaneously to Ra5G and Ra5S was significantly associated with the DR2 allele. The amino acid sequence of Ra5G was determined and showed close homology with Ra5S. The potential function of a highly homologous decapeptidyl sequence stretch is discussed in relation to Ir gene control of immune response to the 2 proteins.

  13. Additive Effects of Retinoic Acid (RA) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) Apoptosis Signaling in Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patrick; Doliva, Rebekka; Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RARα and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXRγ suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXRγ knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RARα, RARß, RXRß and RXRγ. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma.

  14. Additive Effects of Retinoic Acid (RA) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) Apoptosis Signaling in Retinoblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Doliva, Rebekka; Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RARα and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXRγ suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXRγ knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RARα, RARß, RXRß and RXRγ. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma. PMID:26173116

  15. RRD-251 enhances all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Yen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is known to induce terminal granulocytic differentiation and cell cycle arrest of HL-60 cells. Responding to an RA-induced cytosolic signaling machine, c-Raf translocates to the nucleus, providing propulsion for RA-induced differentiation. This novel mechanism is not understood, but presumably reflects c-Raf binding with nuclear gene regulatory proteins. RRD-251 is a small molecule that prevents the interaction of c-Raf and RB, the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. The involvement of c-Raf and RB in RA-induced differentiation motivates interest in the effects of combined RA and RRD-251 treatment on leukemic cell differentiation. We demonstrate that RRD-251 enhances RA-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, we find that nuclear translocated c-Raf associates with pS608 RB. RA causes loss of pS608 RB, where cells with hypophosphorylated S608 RB are G0/G1 restricted. Corroborating the pS608 RB hypophosphorylation, RB sequestration of E2F increased with concomitant loss of cdc6 expression, which is known to be driven by E2F. Hypophosphorylation of S608 RB releases c-Raf from RB sequestration to bind other nuclear targets. Release of c-Raf from RB sequestration results in enhanced association with GSK-3 which is phosphorylated at its S21/9 inhibitory sites. c-Raf binding to GSK-3 is associated with dissociation of GSK-3 and RARα, thereby relieving RARα of GSK-3 inhibition. RRD-251 amplifies each of these RA-induced events. Consistent with the posited enhancement of RARα transcriptional activity by RRD-251, RRD-251 increases the RARE-driven CD38 expression per cell. The RA/c-Raf/GSK-3/RARα axis emerges as a novel differentiation regulatory mechanism susceptible to RRD-251, suggesting enhancing RA-effects with RRD-251 in therapy. PMID:27331409

  16. RRD-251 enhances all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Aaron S; Supnick, Harrison T; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew

    2016-07-19

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is known to induce terminal granulocytic differentiation and cell cycle arrest of HL-60 cells. Responding to an RA-induced cytosolic signaling machine, c-Raf translocates to the nucleus, providing propulsion for RA-induced differentiation. This novel mechanism is not understood, but presumably reflects c-Raf binding with nuclear gene regulatory proteins. RRD-251 is a small molecule that prevents the interaction of c-Raf and RB, the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. The involvement of c-Raf and RB in RA-induced differentiation motivates interest in the effects of combined RA and RRD-251 treatment on leukemic cell differentiation. We demonstrate that RRD-251 enhances RA-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, we find that nuclear translocated c-Raf associates with pS608 RB. RA causes loss of pS608 RB, where cells with hypophosphorylated S608 RB are G0/G1 restricted. Corroborating the pS608 RB hypophosphorylation, RB sequestration of E2F increased with concomitant loss of cdc6 expression, which is known to be driven by E2F. Hypophosphorylation of S608 RB releases c-Raf from RB sequestration to bind other nuclear targets. Release of c-Raf from RB sequestration results in enhanced association with GSK-3 which is phosphorylated at its S21/9 inhibitory sites. c-Raf binding to GSK-3 is associated with dissociation of GSK-3 and RARα, thereby relieving RARα of GSK-3 inhibition. RRD-251 amplifies each of these RA-induced events. Consistent with the posited enhancement of RARα transcriptional activity by RRD-251, RRD-251 increases the RARE-driven CD38 expression per cell. The RA/c-Raf/GSK-3/RARα axis emerges as a novel differentiation regulatory mechanism susceptible to RRD-251, suggesting enhancing RA-effects with RRD-251 in therapy.

  17. Dual Regulation of RA-RhoGAP Activity by Phosphatidic Acid and Rap1 during Neurite Outgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Kurooka, Takao; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Takai, Yoshimi; Sakisaka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    During neurite outgrowth, Rho small G protein activity is spatiotemporally regulated to organize the neurite sprouting, extension, and branching. We have previously identified a potent Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP), RA-RhoGAP, as a direct downstream target of Rap1 small G protein in the neurite outgrowth. In addition to the Ras-associating (RA) domain for Rap1 binding, RA-RhoGAP has the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain for lipid binding. Here, we showed that phosphatidic acid (PA) bound to the PH domain and enhanced GAP activity for Rho. RA-RhoGAP induced extension of neurite in a diacylglycerol kinase-mediated synthesis of the PA-dependent manner. Knockdown of RA-RhoGAP reduced the diacylglycerol kinase-induced neurite extension. In contrast to the effect of the RA domain, the PH domain was specifically involved in the neurite extension, not in the sprouting and branching. These results indicate that PA and Rap1 cooperatively regulate RA-RhoGAP activity for promoting neurite outgrowth. PMID:21169361

  18. Altered expression of retinoic acid (RA) receptor mRNAs in the fetal mouse secondary palate by all-trans and 13-cis RAs: implications for RA-induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, H; Mori, C; Nishimura, Y; Shiota, K

    1998-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is mandatory for various biological processes and normal embryonic development but is teratogenic at high concentrations. In rodents, one of the major malformations induced by RA is cleft palate (CP). RA mediates its effects by RA receptors (RARs), but the expression patterns of RARs in the developing palate are still unclear. We investigated the normal expression of RAR alpha, beta, and gamma messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the fetal mouse secondary palate and the effects of all-trans and 13-cis RAs on the expression of RAR mRNAs by Northern blot analysis. RAR alpha (2.8, 3.8 kb), RAR beta (3.3 kb), and RAR gamma (3.7 kb) mRNAs were detected in the fetal palate on gestational days (GD) 12.5-14.5. The expression of RAR alpha and gamma mRNAs did not show apparent sequential changes, but that of RAR beta mRNA increased at GD 13.5. Treatment of pregnant mice with 100 mg/kg all-trans RA induced CP in 94% of the fetuses and elevated the levels of RAR beta and gamma mRNAs in the fetal palate. The up-regulation of RAR beta mRNA by all-trans RA was more marked than that of RAR gamma mRNA. Treatment with 100 mg/kg 13-cis RA induced CP in only 19% of the fetuses. Although 13-cis RA elevated the RAR beta and gamma mRNA levels in fetal palates, its up-regulation was slower and less marked than that induced by all-trans RA. These findings indicate that the induction of RAR beta mRNA in the fetal palate correlates well with the tissue concentration of all-trans RA after RA treatment, and RAR beta may be one of the most influential candidate molecules for RA-induced teratogenesis.

  19. Retinoic acid signaling and mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation: Cross talk between genomic and non-genomic effects of RA.

    PubMed

    Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, plays key roles in cell growth and differentiation by activating nuclear receptors, RARs (α, β and γ), which are ligand dependent regulators of transcription. The past years highlighted several novelties in the field that increased the complexity of RA effects. Indeed, in addition to its classical genomic effects, RA also has extranuclear and non-transcriptional effects. RA induces the rapid and transient activation of kinase cascades, which are integrated in the nucleus via the phosphorylation of RARs at a conserved serine residue located in the N-terminal domain and their coregulators. In order to investigate the relevance of RARs' phosphorylation in cell differentiation, mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells were used as a model. When treated with RA, these pluripotent cells give rise to neuronal cells. Cells invalidated for each RAR were generated as well as stable rescue lines expressing RARs mutated in phosphor acceptor sites. Such a strategy revealed that RA-induced neuronal differentiation involves the RARγ2 subtype and requires RARγ2 phosphorylation. Moreover, in gene expression profiling experiments, the phosphorylated form of RARγ2 was found to regulate a small subset of genes through binding a novel RA response element consisting of two direct repeats with a 7 base pair spacer. These new findings suggest an important role for RAR phosphorylation during cell differentiation, and pave the way for further investigations with other cell types and during embryonic development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pretreatment Effect of Folic Acid on 13-Cis-RA-Induced Cellular Damage of Developing Midfacial Processes in Cultured Rat Embryos.

    PubMed

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Chareonvit, Suconta; Iseki, Sachiko; Limwongse, Visaka

    2017-01-01

    Excess treatment of 13-cis-RA (Accutane(®)) on pregnant women induces craniofacial malformation found in infants. However, the effect of folic acid on 13-cis-RA-induced cellular damages of developing midfacial processes is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pretreatment effect of folic acid (FA) on 13-cis-RA-induced cellular damage in developing midfacial processes in rat embryos. The rat embryos at developing midfacial processes were performed by whole embryo culture in vitro, in the presence of 13-cis-RA (20 µM) with or without pre-treatment of FA (100 µM). The midfacial morphogenesis score, PCNA and TUNEL assay staining were evaluated for morphogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis of the midfacial processes, respectively. The 13-cis-RA-treated embryos at 24h showed atrophy of midfacial processes with significantly decreased morphogenesis score and cell proliferation, and increased apoptotic cell death. In contrast, the embryos pre-treated with FA for 18h, followed by 13-cis-RA treatment for 24h (FA-RA) showed significantly greater morphogenesis score, increased cell proliferation and lower apoptotic cell death compared to those of the 13-cis-RA-treated embryos. The results suggest that FA reduced the teratogenic effects of 13-cis-RA on midfacial process tissue. Future investigations regarding the anti-teratogenic mechanism of FA on the prevention of damages in midface processes induced by 13-cis-RA on pregnant woman are warranted.

  1. Determination of binding affinities of retinoids to retinoic acid-binding protein and serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Brahma P.; Titus, Belinda C.; Banerjee, Chandra K.

    1978-01-01

    Binding affinities of retinoic acid and its synthetic analogues to intracellular retinoic acid-binding protein, which is a possible candidate for mediating their biological function, and to serum albumin, the plasma transport protein, were evaluated. A quantitative method involving elimination of interfering serum albumin by immunoprecipitation was developed to measure the binding efficiency of these retinoids, some of which are active in modifying epithelial differentiation and preventing tumorigenesis. Two cyclopentenyl analogues of retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid showed, like retinoic acid, a binding efficiency of 100% for the cellular binding protein. With the phenyl, dichlorophenyl and trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogues of retinoic acid, the binding efficiency increased as the substituents on the aromatic ring increased; thus the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue binds almost as efficiently as retinoic acid itself. However, the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue with a sulphur atom on the side chain has a much decreased binding affinity. The correlation noticed between the binding efficiency of these retinoids and their biological activity in differentiation and/or in the control of tumorigenesis particularly enhances the confidence in the present method of determining the relative binding efficiencies. None of the vitamins, hormones and cofactors tested, showed appreciable affinity for the retinoic acid-binding site. Studies on binding of retinoic acid and its analogues to serum albumin indicate that no correlation exists between binding affinity for albumin and their biological potency. PMID:666734

  2. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) stimulates events in organ-cultured human skin that underlie repair. Adult skin from sun-protected and sun-exposed sites responds in an identical manner to RA while neonatal foreskin responds differently.

    PubMed Central

    Varani, J; Perone, P; Griffiths, C E; Inman, D R; Fligiel, S E; Voorhees, J J

    1994-01-01

    Adult human skin from a sun-protected site (hip) and from a sun-exposed site (forearm) was maintained in organ culture for 12 d in the presence of a serum-free, growth factor-free basal medium. Cultures were incubated under conditions optimized for keratinocyte growth (i.e., in 0.15 mM extracellular Ca2+) or for fibroblast growth (i.e., in 1.4 mM extracellular Ca2+). Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induced histological changes in the organ-cultured skin under both conditions which were similar to the changes seen in intact skin after topical application. These included expansion of the viable portion of the epidermis and activation of cells in the dermis. In sun-damaged skin samples, which were characterized by destruction of normal connective tissue elements and presence of thick, dark-staining elastotic fibers, a zone of healthy connective tissue could be seen immediately below the dermo-epidermal junction. This zone was more prominent in RA-treated organ cultures than in matched controls. Associated with these histological changes was an increase in overall protein and extracellular matrix synthesis. In concomitant studies, it was found that RA treatment enhanced survival and proliferation of adult keratinocytes and adult dermal fibroblasts under both low- and high-Ca2+ conditions. In all of these assays, responses of sun-protected and sun-exposed skin were identical. In contrast, responses of neonatal foreskin to RA were similar to those of adult skin in the presence of low-Ca2+ culture medium, but under conditions of high extracellular Ca2+ RA provided little or no additional stimulus. Together these studies suggest that the ability of RA to enhance repair of sun-damaged skin (documented in previous studies) may reflect its ability to influence the behavior of skin in a manner that is age dependent but independent of sun-exposure status. Images PMID:7962521

  3. 6-Formylindolo (3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) enhances retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew

    2013-05-09

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand 6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) has received increasing attention since its identification as an endogenous AhR ligand and a photoproduct of tryptophan. FICZ and its metabolites have been detected in human fluids. We recently reported that AhR promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells by restricting the nuclear abundance of the stem cell associated transcription factor Oct4. The standard clinical management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is differentiation induction therapy using RA. But RA is not effective for other myeloid leukemias, making the mechanism of RA-induced differentiation observed in a non-APL myeloid leukemia of interest. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the influence of FICZ on RA-induced differentiation in any type of leukemic blasts. Using flow cytometry and Western blotting assays, we determined the effects of FICZ on RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 human leukemia cells. All experiments were performed in triplicate. The groups RA and FICZ + RA were compared using the Paired-Samples T-Test. Western blot figures present the typical blots. We demonstrate that FICZ enhances RA-induced differentiation, assessed by the expression of the membrane differentiation marker CD11b; cell cycle arrest; and the functional differentiation marker, inducible-oxidative metabolism. FICZ causes changes in signaling events that are known to drive differentiation, and notably augments the RA-induced sustained activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK axis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. FICZ also augments expression of the known MAPK signaling regulatory molecules c-Cbl, VAV1, pY458 p85 PI3K, Src-family kinases (SFKs), and IRF-1, a transcription factor associated with this putative signalsome that promotes RA-induced differentiation. Moreover, FICZ in combination with RA also increases expression of AhR and even more

  4. The all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-regulated gene Calmin (Clmn) regulates cell cycle exit and neurite outgrowth in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cells.

    PubMed

    Marzinke, Mark A; Clagett-Dame, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) functions in nervous system development and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y and Neuro2a or N2A) exposed to atRA undergo growth inhibition and neuronal differentiation, both of which are preceded by an increase in Clmn mRNA. Treatment of N2A cells with atRA produces a reduction in phosphohistone 3 immunostaining and BrdU incorporation, both indicators of a reduction in cell proliferation. These effects are nearly eliminated in atRA-treated shClmn knockdown cells. Loss of Clmn in the mouse N2A cell line also results in a significant reduction of atRA-mediated neurite outgrowth, a response that can be rescued by reintroduction of the Clmn sequence. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Clmn produces an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), a decrease in cyclin D1 protein and an increase in hypophosphorylated Rb, showing that Clmn participates in G(1)/S arrest. Clmn overexpression alone is sufficient to inhibit N2A cell proliferation, whereas both Clmn and atRA must be present to induce neurite outgrowth. This study shows that the atRA-responsive gene Clmn promotes exit from the cell cycle, a requisite event for neuronal differentiation.

  5. Molecular pathways: current role and future directions of the retinoic acid pathway in cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Roisin M; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Retinoids and their naturally metabolized and synthetic products (e.g., all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, bexarotene) induce differentiation in various cell types. Retinoids exert their actions mainly through binding to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (α, β, γ), which are transcriptional and homeostatic regulators with functions that are often compromised early in neoplastic transformation. The retinoids have been investigated extensively for their use in cancer prevention and treatment. Success has been achieved with their use in the treatment of subtypes of leukemia harboring chromosomal translocations. Promising results have been observed in the breast cancer prevention setting, where fenretinide prevention trials have provided a strong rationale for further investigation in young women at high risk for breast cancer. Ongoing phase III randomized trials investigating retinoids in combination with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer aim to definitively characterize the role of retinoids in this tumor type. The limited treatment success observed to date in the prevention and treatment of solid tumors may relate to the frequent epigenetic silencing of RARβ. Robust evaluation of RARβ and downstream genes may permit optimized use of retinoids in the solid tumor arena.

  6. The all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-regulated gene Calmin (Clmn) regulates cell cycle exit and neurite outgrowth in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marzinke, Mark A.; Clagett-Dame, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) functions in nervous system development and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y and Neuro2a or N2A) exposed to atRA undergo growth inhibition and neuronal differentiation, both of which are preceded by an increase in Clmn mRNA. Treatment of N2A cells with atRA produces a reduction in phosphohistone 3 immunostaining and BrdU incorporation, both indicators of a reduction in cell proliferation. These effects are nearly eliminated in atRA-treated shClmn knockdown cells. Loss of Clmn in the mouse N2A cell line also results in a significant reduction of atRA-mediated neurite outgrowth, a response that can be rescued by reintroduction of the Clmn sequence. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Clmn produces an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21{sup Cip1}, a decrease in cyclin D1 protein and an increase in hypophosphorylated Rb, showing that Clmn participates in G{sub 1}/S arrest. Clmn overexpression alone is sufficient to inhibit N2A cell proliferation, whereas both Clmn and atRA must be present to induce neurite outgrowth. This study shows that the atRA-responsive gene Clmn promotes exit from the cell cycle, a requisite event for neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is a retinoic acid-responsive gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin promotes cell cycle exit in N2A cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin overexpression increases p21Cip1 and decreases cyclin D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is required for RA-induced growth inhibition and neurite outgrowth.

  7. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on the uptake of (226)Ra by corn (Zea mays L.) in a region of high natural radioactivity in Ramsar-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Sareh; Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar; Bahrami Samani, Ali; Ghannadi Maragheh, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    To study the benefit of including citric and oxalic acid treatments for phytoremediation of (226)Ra contaminated soils a greenhouse experiment with corn was conducted. A soil was sampled from a region of high natural (226)Ra radioactivity in Ramsar, Iran. After cultivation of corn seed and using organic acid treatments at 1, 10 and 100 mM concentrations, plants (shoots and roots) were harvested, digested and prepared to measure (226)Ra activity. Simultaneously, sequential selective extraction were performed to estimate the partitioning of (226)Ra among geochemical extraction. Results showed that the maximum uptake of (226)Ra in plants was observed in citric acid (6.3%) and then oxalic acid (6%) at 100 mM concentration. These treatments increased radium uptake by a factor of 1.5 than the control. Enhancement of radium uptake by plants was related to soil pH reduction of organic acids in comparison to control. Also, the maximum uptake of this radionuclide in all treatments was obtained in roots compared to shoots. (226)Ra fractionations results revealed that 91.8% of radium was in the residual phase of the soil and the available fractions were less than 2%. As the main percent of (226)Ra was in the residual phase of the soil in this region, it seems that organic acids had not significant effect on the uptake of (226)Ra for phytoremediation by corn in this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  9. Fasting Induces IL-1 Resistance and Free-Fatty Acid-Mediated Up-Regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    PubMed Central

    Joesting, Jennifer J.; Moon, Morgan L.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Tisza, Brittany L.; Blevins, Neil A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Weight-loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24 h fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24 h. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists, IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1β administration. Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver) and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver). Fasted mice were protected from IL-1β-induced weight-loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor, and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1β on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively). Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5- and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs) and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14- and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation. PMID:25071776

  10. Interactions of retinoids with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tarapcsák, Szabolcs; Szalóki, Gábor; Telbisz, Ágnes; Gyöngy, Zsuzsanna; Matúz, Krisztina; Csősz, Éva; Nagy, Péter; Holb, Imre J.; Rühl, Ralph; Nagy, László; Szabó, Gábor; Goda, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Retinoids – derivatives of vitamin A – are important cell permeant signaling molecules that regulate gene expression through activation of nuclear receptors. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and ABCG2 are plasma membrane efflux transporters affecting the tissue distribution of numerous structurally unrelated lipophilic compounds. In the present work we aimed to study the interaction of the above ABC transporters with retinoid derivatives. We have found that 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl-acetate inhibited the Pgp and ABCG2 mediated substrate transport as well as the substrate stimulated ATPase activity of these transporters. Interestingly, 9-cis-retinoic acid and ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid), both are stereoisomers of 13-cis-retinoic acid, did not have any effect on the transporters’ activity. Our fluorescence anisotropy measurements revealed that 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl-acetate selectively increase the viscosity and packing density of the membrane. Thus, the mixed-type inhibition of both transporters by retinol and ABCG2 by 13-cis-retinoic acid may be the collective result of direct interactions of these retinoids with the substrate binding site(s) and of indirect interactions mediated by their membrane rigidifying effects. PMID:28145501

  11. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates.

  12. Inhibitors of the arachidonic acid pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands have superadditive effects on lung cancer growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Avis, Ingalill; Martínez, Alfredo; Tauler, Jordi; Zudaire, Enrique; Mayburd, Anatoly; Abu-Ghazaleh, Raed; Ondrey, Frank; Mulshine, James L

    2005-05-15

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been shown to regulate the growth of epithelial cells. We have previously reported that exposure to the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein-directed inhibitor MK886 but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, reduced growth, increased apoptosis, and up-regulated PPARalpha and gamma expression in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, we explore approaches to maximizing the proapoptotic effects of PPARgamma on lung cancer cell lines. Non-small-cell cancer cell line A549 revealed dose-dependent PPARgamma reporter activity after treatment with MK886. The addition of indomethacin in combination with MK886 further increases reporter activity. We also show increased growth inhibition and up-regulation of apoptosis after exposure to MK886 alone, or in combination with indomethacin and the PPAR ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 compared with single drug exposures on the adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and small-cell cancer cell lines H345, N417, and H510. Real-time PCR analyses showed increased PPAR mRNA and retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha mRNA expression after exposure to MK886 and indomethacin in a time-dependent fashion. The results suggest that the principal proapoptotic effect of these drugs may be mediated through the known antiproliferative effects of the PPARgamma-RXR interaction. We therefore explored a three-drug approach to attempt to maximize this effect. The combination of low-dose MK886, ciglitazone, and 13-cis-retinoic acid interacted at least in a superadditive fashion to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299, suggesting that targeting PPARgamma and AA action is a promising approach to lung cancer growth with a favorable therapeutic index.

  13. Isotretinoin therapy for acne vulgaris: results in an Irish population.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D; Rogers, S; Daly, P

    1990-01-01

    The results of treatment of cystic and antibiotic-resistant acne vulgaris in 96 consecutive patients with the oral retinoid isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid; Roacentane) are reported retrospectively. The results show that the drug, while toxic in the short term, is highly effective in clearing acne.

  14. Phosphoproteome and Transcriptome of RA-Responsive and RA-Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marilyn; Joint, Mathilde; Lutzing, Régis; Page, Adeline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A metabolite, controls multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation through genomic programs and kinase cascades activation. Due to these properties, RA has proven anti-cancer capacity. Several breast cancer cells respond to the antiproliferative effects of RA, while others are RA-resistant. However, the overall signaling and transcriptional pathways that are altered in such cells have not been elucidated. Here, in a large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteins and in a genome-wide analysis of the RA-regulated genes, we compared two human breast cancer cell lines, a RA-responsive one, the MCF7 cell line, and a RA-resistant one, the BT474 cell line, which depicts several alterations of the "kinome". Using high-resolution nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry associated to phosphopeptide enrichment, we found that several proteins involved in signaling and in transcription, are differentially phosphorylated before and after RA addition. The paradigm of these proteins is the RA receptor α (RARα), which was phosphorylated in MCF7 cells but not in BT474 cells after RA addition. The panel of the RA-regulated genes was also different. Overall our results indicate that RA resistance might correlate with the deregulation of the phosphoproteome with consequences on gene expression.

  15. Phosphoproteome and Transcriptome of RA-Responsive and RA-Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Marilyn; Joint, Mathilde; Lutzing, Régis; Page, Adeline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A metabolite, controls multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation through genomic programs and kinase cascades activation. Due to these properties, RA has proven anti-cancer capacity. Several breast cancer cells respond to the antiproliferative effects of RA, while others are RA-resistant. However, the overall signaling and transcriptional pathways that are altered in such cells have not been elucidated. Here, in a large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteins and in a genome-wide analysis of the RA-regulated genes, we compared two human breast cancer cell lines, a RA-responsive one, the MCF7 cell line, and a RA-resistant one, the BT474 cell line, which depicts several alterations of the “kinome”. Using high-resolution nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry associated to phosphopeptide enrichment, we found that several proteins involved in signaling and in transcription, are differentially phosphorylated before and after RA addition. The paradigm of these proteins is the RA receptor α (RARα), which was phosphorylated in MCF7 cells but not in BT474 cells after RA addition. The panel of the RA-regulated genes was also different. Overall our results indicate that RA resistance might correlate with the deregulation of the phosphoproteome with consequences on gene expression. PMID:27362937

  16. Distribution of sulphuric acid aerosols in the clouds and upper haze of Venus using Venus Express VAST and VeRa temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher D.; Gao, Peter; Schulte, Rick; Bougher, Stephen W.; Yung, Yuk L.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Wilquet, Valérie; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Mahieux, Arnaud; Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Observations from Pioneer Venus and from SPICAV/SOIR aboard Venus Express (VEx) have shown the upper haze (UH) of Venus to be highly spatially and temporally variable, and populated by multiple particle size modes. Previous models of this system (e.g., Gao et al., 2014. Icarus 231, 83-98), using a typical temperature profile representative of the atmosphere (viz., equatorial VIRA profile), did not investigate the effect of temperature on the UH particle distributions. We show that the inclusion of latitude-dependent temperature profiles for both the morning and evening terminators of Venus helps to explain how the atmospheric aerosol distributions vary spatially. In this work we use temperature profiles obtained by two instruments onboard VEx, VeRa and SPICAV/SOIR, to represent the latitudinal temperature dependence. We find that there are no significant differences between results for the morning and evening terminators at any latitude and that the cloud base moves downwards as the latitude increases due to decreasing temperatures. The UH is not affected much by varying the temperature profiles; however, the haze does show some periodic differences, and is slightly thicker at the poles than at the equator. We also find that the sulphuric acid "rain" seen in previous models may be restricted to the equatorial regions of Venus, such that the particle size distribution is relatively stable at higher latitudes and at the poles.

  17. Retinoic acid (RA) and As2O3 treatment in transgenic models of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) unravel the distinct nature of the leukemogenic process induced by the PML-RARα and PLZF-RARα oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Eduardo M.; He, Li-Zhen; Warrell, Raymond P.; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2000-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with chromosomal translocations always involving the RARα gene, which variably fuses to one of several distinct loci, including PML or PLZF (X genes) in t(15;17) or t(11;17), respectively. APL in patients harboring t(15;17) responds well to retinoic acid (RA) treatment and chemotherapy, whereas t(11;17) APL responds poorly to both treatments, thus defining a distinct syndrome. Here, we show that RA, As2O3, and RA + As2O3 prolonged survival in either leukemic PML-RARα transgenic mice or nude mice transplanted with PML-RARα leukemic cells. RA + As2O3 prolonged survival compared with treatment with either drug alone. In contrast, neither in PLZF-RARα transgenic mice nor in nude mice transplanted with PLZF-RARα cells did any of the three regimens induce complete disease remission. Unexpectedly, therapeutic doses of RA and RA + As2O3 can induce, both in vivo and in vitro, the degradation of either PML-RARα or PLZF-RARα proteins, suggesting that the maintenance of the leukemic phenotype depends on the continuous presence of the former, but not the latter. Our findings lead to three major conclusions with relevant therapeutic implications: (i) the X-RARα oncoprotein directly determines response to treatment and plays a distinct role in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype; (ii) As2O3 and/or As2O3 + RA combination may be beneficial for the treatment of t(15;17) APL but not for t(11;17) APL; and (iii) therapeutic strategies aimed solely at degrading the X-RARα oncoprotein may not be effective in t(11;17) APL. PMID:10954752

  18. "Redefining RA": The RA Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    No one likes being two steps behind, and the fastest way to fall off the pace is by not keeping up with major titles and hot authors. Fortunately, there are numerous resources, both prepublication and postpublication, that can help. It is best when readers' advisory (RA) librarians know what is coming out months ahead of time--in order to think…

  19. Martin RA-30 Baltimore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Martin RA-30 Baltimore: The Martin RA-30 Baltimore was a light bomber ordered by the Royal Air Force. Some examples were retained in the United States as part of a 'Reverse Lend-Lease.' This example was flown by the NACA from June 1943 until March 1944.

  20. Prevention of cultured rat stellate cell transformation and endothelin-B receptor upregulation by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xuedong; Anselmi, Kristin; Watkins, Simon; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2003-06-01

    1 Physiologically, perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are quiescent and store retinoids. During liver injury and in cell culture, HSC transform into proliferating myofibroblast-like cells that express alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix. During transformation (also known as activation), HSC are depleted of the retinoid stores, and their expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system is increased. ET-1 causes contraction of transformed HSC and is implicated in their proliferation and fibrogenic activity. In order to understand the association between retinoids, ET-1 and the activation of HSC, we investigated the effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid on the transformation of cultured HSC and the expression of ET-1 system. 2 HSC derived from normal rat liver were maintained for 10-12 days in a medium supplemented with 5% serum and containing 2.5 micro M retinoic acid without or with 50 nM ET-1 (ETA+ETB agonist) or sarafotoxin S6c (ETB agonist). In another set of experiments, cells treated for 10-12 days with vehicle (ethanol) or retinoic acid were challenged with ET-1 or sarafotoxin S6c, and various determinations were made at 24 h. 3 Retinoic acid inhibited transformation and proliferation of HSC as assessed by morphological characteristics, expression of alpha-sma, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cell count. Retinoic acid also prevented upregulation of ETB receptors without affecting ET-1 or ETA expression. Total protein synthesis ([(3)H]leucine incorporation), collagen alpha types I mRNA expression and collagen synthesis ([(3)H]proline incorporation) were lower in retinoic acid-treated cells. Although ET-1-treated cells were morphologically similar to the control cells, their expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin was significantly inhibited. The presence of retinoic acid in the medium during treatment with ET-1 caused further reduction in the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. ET-1 and sarafotoxin

  1. A citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin inhibits sebum production and sebocyte proliferation, and augments sebum excretion in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Takahashi, Aiko; Kojima, Mika; Akimoto, Noriko; Yano, Masamichi; Ito, Akira

    2007-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is characterized by excess sebum production, and apart from all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) or 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cisRA), there are few effective agents for acne therapy that directly suppresses sebaceous lipogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that topical application of a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin, to hamster auricles decreased skin surface triacylglycerols (TG) level and the size of sebaceous glands along with inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-dependent TG synthesis and sebocyte proliferation. The inhibitory actions were similar to that observed with atRA and 13-cisRA in hamster sebocytes. The antilipogenic and antiproliferative actions of nobiletin were also reproduced in UVB (5.4 kJ/m2)-irradiated hamsters, which showed aberrant enhancement of sebum accumulation and sebaceous enlargement. Furthermore, nobiletin, but not 13-cisRA, augmented sebum excretion along with increases in intracellular cAMP level, protein kinase A (PKA) activation, and apoptosis-independent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization in cell membrane. These phenomena were reproduced by forskolin and inhibited by a PKA inhibitor, H-89. These results provide early evidence that nobiletin is an effective candidate for acne therapy through mechanisms that include the inhibition of DGAT-dependent TG synthesis and sebocyte proliferation, and the progression of apoptosis-independent and PS-externalization-dependent sebum excretion by PKA activation.

  2. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modification of the effect of tamoxifen, cis-platin, DTIC, and interferon-alpha 2b on human melanoma cells in culture by a mixture of vitamins.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K N; Hernandez, C; Edwards-Prasad, J; Nelson, J; Borus, T; Robinson, W A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of vitamins in modifying the efficacy of commonly used drugs in the treatment of human melanoma has not been studied. Vitamin C and d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TS) alone reduced the growth of human melanoma (SK-30) cells in culture, whereas beta-carotene (BC), 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA), or sodium selenite alone was ineffective. RA caused morphological changes, as evidenced by flattening of cells and formation of short cytoplasmic processes. A mixture of four vitamins (vitamin C, BC, alpha-TS, and RA) was more effective in reducing growth of human melanoma cells than a mixture of three vitamins. The growth-inhibitory effect of cis-platin, decarbazine, tamoxifen, and recombinant interferon-alpha 2b was enhanced by vitamin C alone, a mixture of three vitamins (BC, alpha-TS, and RA), and a mixture of four vitamins (vitamin C, BC, alpha-TS, and RA) that contained 50 micrograms/ml of vitamin C. These data show that a mixture of three or four vitamins can enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of currently used chemotherapeutic agents on human melanoma cells.

  4. Preparation of (228)Ra standard solution.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    For the preparation of a standard solution of (228)Ra, (228)Ra was isolated from (232)Th salt. Two simple methods were developed for Th-Ra separation. Both are based on a very good solubility of thorium nitrate in organic solvents. The first one used Ra co-precipitation with Pb in the form of Pb(NO3)2 from acetic acid solution. The second method was based on solvent extraction, remaining Th in the organic phase, while Ra was concentrated in the aqueous phase. The activity of (228)Ra (up to 20kBq) in the standard solution was related to the (232)Th standard by means of gamma ray spectrometry measurement. The obtained uncertainty was less than 0.7% (k=1). The standard solution was free of (232)Th and contained the carrier in the usual concentration (1gL(-1) BaCl2, 10gL(-1) HCl). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The RA Role Revisited: Differences in Perspectives of RA Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, John H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined resident assistants' (RA) role perceptions of students, parents, faculty, and administrators, full-time professional residence life staff, and resident assistants. Compared various constituent groups' perceptions of the RA role. (RC)

  6. Maintenance immunotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer: long term follow-up of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Di Orio, Ferdinando; Candeloro, Giampiero; Guerriero, Gabriele; Piazze, Juan; Rea, Silvio

    2010-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a mediator of tumor-associated immunodeficiency, plays a key role in angiogenesis and is a prognostic factor in advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Previously, we showed that low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) improved the tumor-associated immunodeficiency and decreased VEGF in patients with AOC. Here, we report long term follow-up of a group of patients with platinum-sensitive AOC who were treated with IL-2 and RA. Sixty-five patients with AOC who had a clinical benefit from second line chemotherapy and elevated serum levels of VEGF were entered into the study from 04/98 to 04/05. Therapy consisted of low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 and oral RA, administered on intermittent schedules for up to 5 years. A statistically significant improvement in lymphocyte and NK counts and a decrease in VEGF levels were observed with respect to baseline values among the 65 evaluable patients. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival rate were 29% and 38%, respectively. These data show that patients treated with low-dose IL-2 and RA have a statistically significant improvement in their lymphocyte and NK counts, a decrease in VEGF, and seem to have an improved clinical outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl tetrakis(2...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl tetrakis(2...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl tetrakis(2...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl tetrakis(2...

  11. Take the RA Talk Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    As a group, readers' advisory (RA) librarians are a chatty bunch when it comes to what they are reading. They share book ideas with their friends and families. The adoption of online RA conversation forms is helping to extend these opportunities even further and offers a fascinating testing ground for RA work. Librarians have found that offering…

  12. 226Ra determination in phosphogypsum by alpha-particle spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, J. L.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical method for226Ra determination by alpha-particle spectrometry in environmental samples has been developed in our laboratory. The method has been validated by measurements in samples with known concentrations of this radionuclide and it has been applied in studies related to226Ra behaviour in phosphogypsum (the main by-product of producing phosphoric acid from phosphate rocks).

  13. Rapid Method for Ra-226 and Ra-228 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III

    2006-02-10

    The measurement of radium isotopes in natural waters is important for oceanographic studies and for public health reasons. Ra-226 (1620 year half-life) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in natural waters can be tedious and time-consuming. Different sample preparation methods are often required to prepare Ra-226 and Ra-228 for separate analyses. A rapid method has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory that effectively separates both Ra-226 and Ra-228 (via Ac-228) for assay. This method uses MnO{sub 2} Resin from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) to preconcentrate Ra-226 and Ra-228 rapidly from water samples, along with Ba-133 tracer. DGA Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) and Ln-Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) are employed in tandem to prepare Ra-226 for assay by alpha spectrometry and to determine Ra-228 via the measurement of Ac-228 by gas proportional counting. After preconcentration, the manganese dioxide is dissolved from the resin and passed through stacked Ln-Resin-DGA Resin cartridges that remove uranium and thorium interferences and retain Ac-228 on DGA Resin. The eluate that passed through this column is evaporated, redissolved in a lower acidity and passed through Ln-Resin again to further remove interferences before performing a barium sulfate microprecipitation. The Ac-228 is stripped from the resin, collected using cerium fluoride microprecipitation and counted by gas proportional counting. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  14. New Developments in Acne Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stolman, Lewis P.

    1982-01-01

    Acne is a metabolic disorder of the pilosebaceous appendage in which microorganisms, hormones, inflammatory cells and fatty acids seem to contribute to the pathologic process. Through education and judicious use of therapeutic agents including benzoyl peroxide, vitamin A acid, topical and systemic antibiotics and 13 cis retinoic acid, most patients with acne can enjoy good control of their disease. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21286149

  15. Targeting Notch pathway induces growth inhibition and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara Anna; Uberti, Daniela; Buizza, Laura; Bettinsoli, Paola; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Facchetti, Fabio; Memo, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma is a severe pediatric tumor characterized by poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor development and progression is strategic for the improvement of pharmacological therapies. Notch was recently proposed as a pharmacological target for the therapy of several cancers and is emerging as a new neuroblastoma-related molecular pathway. However, the precise role played by Notch in this cancer remains to be studied extensively. Here, we show that Notch activation by the Jagged1 ligand enhances the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells, and we propose the possible use of Notch-blocking γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) in neuroblastoma therapy. Two different GSIs, Compound E and DAPT, were tested alone or in combination with 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) on neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells were chosen as paradigms of lower and higher malignancy, respectively. Used alone, GSIs induced complete cell growth arrest, promoted neuronal differentiation, and significantly reduced cell motility. The combination of GSIs and 13-cis RA resulted in the enhanced growth inhibition, differentiation, and migration of neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our data suggest that a combination of GSIs with 13-cis RA offers a therapeutic advantage over a single agent, indicating a potential novel therapy for neuroblastoma.

  16. Occurrence of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, gross alpha, and uranium in California groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, Shiyamalie R; Liu, Yun-Gang; Perera, S Kusum

    2005-12-01

    One hundred and twelve groundwater wells sampled from all the major aquifers in California were analyzed for 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, gross alpha, and uranium. The results showed that radium is found in relatively low concentration, 1.56 x 10(-2)-1.23 Bq L(-1) (0.42-33 pCi L(-1)) for 224Ra, 2.2 x 10(-3)-0.81 Bq L(-1) (0.06-22 pCi L(-1)) for 226Ra, and 8.5 x 10(-3)-1.31 Bq L(-1) (0.23-35 pCi L(-1)) for 228Ra in California groundwater. Uranium was found at the highest concentration on both mass and activity basis and was correlated with the gross alpha measurement. Short-lived radioisotopes showed no significant contribution to gross alpha measurements. There was a strong correlation between 224Ra and 228Ra activities, suggesting the latter to be an indicator for the occurrence of the former. Comparison of 226Ra to 238U, 224Ra to 226Ra, and 226Ra to 228Ra showed scattered data indicating no correlation between each of these isotope pairs. Approximately 4% of the wells were found to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established maximum contaminant level for total radium of 0.185 Bq L(-1) (5 pCi L(-1)). Analysis of 228Ra by gamma-ray spectroscopy was in good agreement with the U.S. EPA-approved procedure.

  17. 226Ra and 228Ra in Iowa drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kriege, L B; Hahne, R M

    1982-10-01

    The University Hygienic Laboratory has been performing radiochemical analyses on drinking water in the state of Iowa for over 20 yr. Approximately one half of the 1250 community water supplies that exist in Iowa have been sampled roughly once every 3 yr for the past decade. Originally, raw and finished waters that showed a gross alpha activity of greater than or equal to 3.0 pCi/L were analyzed for 226Ra, but starting in July 1976, finished waters were analyzed for both 226Ra and 228Ra if the gross alpha activity was greater than or equal to 2.0 pCi/L. As of 10 June 1981, 604 community water supplies had submitted composited samples that have been analyzed for gross alpha, 226Ra, and 228Ra concentrations in compliance with the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (Public Law 93-523). Approximately 10% of these supplies were found to exceed the EPA-established maximum contaminant level (MCL) for 226Ra plus 228Ra of 5 pCi/L. The results revealed, consistent with several other investigators (Mc81; Mi80; Mic80), that some supplies had higher concentrations of 228Ra than of 226Ra. It was also concluded, in agreement with McCurdy and Mellor (Mc81), that some ground water samples cannot be accurately measured for gross alpha activity due to their high dissolved solids content.

  18. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  19. Prolonged disease control after myeloablative chemotherapy, autologous transplantation and immunotherapy in high-risk early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Accorsi, Patrizia; Recchia, Cornelia Ortensia Carla; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Rea, Silvio

    2010-01-01

    Failure to eradicate all cancer stem cells, lymphocytopenia, and high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may explain the limited efficacy of high dose-chemotherapy (HDCT) with peripheral progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) in high-risk early breast cancer with more than 10 axillary nodes (HRBC). With the aim of increasing patient's lymphocyte count and reducing VEGF, wich could translate into an improved immune function and a better clinical outcome, patients with HRBC, received HDCT, PBPCT and immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA). A total of 30 HRBC patients were entered into the study. Grade 4 hematological toxicity was universal, while major adverse effects of IL-2 were fever, rash and autoimmune reactions. After a median follow-up of 61 months, immune function improved with a statistically significant increase of lymphocyte count and a decrease in VEGF levels. This translated into an unexpected 5-year relapse-free and overall survival rates of 76% and 85%, respectively. These data show that IL-2 and RA administration after HDCT and PBPCT is feasible and, as well as giving a statistically significant improvement in lymphocyte count and a decrease of VEGF, also seems to improve the expected clinical outcome.

  20. Radium isotope ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thais H; de Oliveira, Joselene; Sanders, Christian J; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M; Machado, Eunice C; Sá, Fabian

    2016-10-15

    This work investigates the (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, (223)Ra/(224)Ra and (223)Ra/(228)Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Research Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of ... a project plan to address relevant challenges for rheumatoid arthritis. Read Part 1 on Lupus in MedlinePlus magazine, ...

  2. Functionalized NaA nanozeolites labeled with 224,225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Agata; Leszczuk, Edyta; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    2013-11-01

    The 223Ra, 224Ra, and 225Ra radioisotopes exhibit very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately the lack of appropriate bifunctional ligand for radium is the reason why these radionuclides have not found application in receptor-targeted therapy. In the present work, the potential usefulness of the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. 224Ra and 225Ra, α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite (30-70 nm) through simple ion exchange. 224,225Ra-nanozeolites exhibited very high stability in solutions containing physiological salt, EDTA, amino acids, and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface was modified with a silane coupling agent containing poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. This functionalization approach let us covalently attach a biomolecule to the NaA nanozeolite surface.

  3. Functionalized NaA nanozeolites labeled with (224,225)Ra for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Agata; Leszczuk, Edyta; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The (223)Ra, (224)Ra, and (225)Ra radioisotopes exhibit very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately the lack of appropriate bifunctional ligand for radium is the reason why these radionuclides have not found application in receptor-targeted therapy. In the present work, the potential usefulness of the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. (224)Ra and (225)Ra, α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite (30-70 nm) through simple ion exchange. (224,225)Ra-nanozeolites exhibited very high stability in solutions containing physiological salt, EDTA, amino acids, and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface was modified with a silane coupling agent containing poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. This functionalization approach let us covalently attach a biomolecule to the NaA nanozeolite surface.

  4. Compilation of Spectroscopic Data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II, have been compiled. Wavelengths and wavenumbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The information is beneficial for present and future experiments aimed at different physics motivations using neutral Ra and singly ionized Ra.

  5. Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in soft tissue sarcoma cells by interferon-α and retinoids

    PubMed Central

    Brodowicz, T; Wiltschke, C; Kandioler-Eckersberger, D; Grunt, T W; Rudas, M; Schneider, S M; Hejna, M; Budinsky, A; Zielinski, C C

    1999-01-01

    Uncontrolled proliferation and a defect of apoptosis constitute crucial elements in the development and progression of tumours. Among many other biological response modifiers known to influence these mechanisms, the efficacy of retinoids and interferons in the treatment of various malignant entities is currently matter of discussion. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA), all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) and interferon-α on proliferation and apoptosis of human soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cell lines HTB-82 (rhabdomyosarcoma), HTB-91 (fibrosarcoma), HTB-92 (liposarcoma), HTB-93 (synovial sarcoma) and HTB-94 (chondrosarcoma) in relation to p53 genotype as well as p53 expression. HTB-91, HTB-92 and HTB-94 STS cells exhibited mutant p53, whereas wild-type p53 was found in HTB-93 STS cells, and a normal p53 status in HTB-82 STS cells, carrying a silent point mutation only. Interferon-α, irrespective of p53 status, inhibited the proliferation of all five cell lines dose- and time-dependently. Similarly, 9cRA, 13cRA and tRA decreased the proliferation of HTB-82 and HTB-93 STS cells, whereas the proliferation of p53-mutated HTB-91, HTB-92 and HTB-94 STS cells remained unchanged. Furthermore, only 9cRA and tRA were capable of inducing apoptosis in HTB-82 and HTB-93 STS cells, whereas HTB-91, HTB-92 and HTB-94 STS cells did not undergo apoptosis under the influence of 9cRA or tRA. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-α and RAR-β mRNA were not detectable by Northern blot analysis in the five STS cell lines, whereas mRNA for the universal retinoic acid receptor, RAR-γ, was expressed in all STS cell lines indicating that retinoid resistance was not associated with a lack of RAR expression. Apoptosis was not induced by interferon-α or 13cRA in any of the five STS cell lines tested. Our results indicate that within the panel of tested STS cell lines, inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis result

  6. IL2RA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The interleukin 2 receptor exists in three forms which differ in their ability to bind interleukin 2. The low affinity form of the receptor is a monomer of IL2RA, the alpha subunit. The alpha/beta subunit heterodimer, formed by IL2RA and IL2RB, is an intermediate affinity form. The alpha/beta/gamma heterotrimer formed by IL2RA, IL2RB, and IL2RG is the high affinity form. IL2RA is normally an integral membrane protein, although soluble IL2RA has been isolated. There are known alternately-spliced versions of IL2RA mRNAs, but their functions are unknown. Mutations in the IL2RA gene are associated with diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 10 (IDDM10). Complications of IDDM10 can adversely affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.

  7. RA induces differentiation of multipotent P19 cells towards male germ cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Tang, Jiangjing; Haines, Christopher J; Feng, Huai; Teng, Xiaoming; Han, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Generating male germ cells in vitro from multipotent stem cells is still a challenge for stem cell biologists. The difficulty is caused by the lack of knowledge about spermatogenesis molecular-controlling mechanisms. In vivo, PGCs differentiate into male germ cells in a very complicated environment through many middle steps. In this study, we use the pluripotent p19 cells to test their responses to different retinoic acid (RA) concentrations by evaluating markers for stem cells (bmp4, egr3), primordial germ cells (ddx4), spermatogonia (c-kit), premeiotic cells (stra8), and male germ cells (dazl and plzf). We have found that cyp26b1, which will catalyze RA, increases dramatically in p19 cells 1 d after RA treatment. Bmp3, egr3, and stra8 are stimulated after 1 d of RA treatment and then recover to normal after 3 d of RA treatment. C-kit keeps being expressed when treated with 10 nM-4 μM RA. Dazl and plzf are gained after 3 d of stimulation. The morphology of RA (100 nM-4 μM)-treated cells changes distinctively, and cell colonies are formed. Typical neural cell-like and germ cell-like morphologies appear in the 100 nM and 4 μM RA groups, respectively. We conclude that 100-500 nM RA can cause responses in p19 cells, but a high concentration of RA (1-4 μM) can drive these pluripotent cells' differentiation towards male germ cells. However, high concentrations of RA are also toxic. Some colonies that survived from 4 μM RA begin to express ddx4 and c-kit. Selection of the c-kit(+), dazl(+), and ddx4(+) cells after RA stimulation and creating a special culture medium for their propagation might benefit successful spermatogenesis induction in vitro.

  8. Maintenance immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Sica, Gigliola; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Bisegna, Roberta; Bratta, Massimo; Rea, Silvio

    2008-11-01

    Maintenance chemotherapy provides only a modest survival advantage in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We have previously shown that a maintenance immunotherapy (MI) regimen based on low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) improved the lymphocyte and natural killer cell (NK) counts, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in patients with a clinical benefit from chemotherapy. With the aim of improving progression-free survival (PFS), 100 consecutive MBC patients with a clinical benefit from chemotherapy were treated with an MI. Patients with MBC were eligible if they had no evidence of progression after 6-8 courses of epirubicin-paclitaxel induction chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of low-dose IL-2 and oral RA given until progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), and changes in immunological parameters. From 04/1997 to 04/2002, 100 patients with MBC were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 49 months, median PFS and OS were 37.1 and 57.5 months, respectively. No WHO grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed; grade 2 cutaneous toxicity and autoimmune reactions occurred in 19 and 16% of patients, respectively. A sustained improvement in lymphocytes, NKs, and in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was observed, with respect to baseline values. In conclusion, MI with IL-2 and RA in MBC patients who do not progress after 6-8 courses of chemotherapy is well-tolerated, improves lymphocyte, NK, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and appears to delay disease recurrence. A randomized trial is warranted.

  9. TLRs, future potential therapeutic targets for RA.

    PubMed

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Essani, Abdul E; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Fox, David A; Shahrara, Shiva

    2017-02-01

    Toll like receptors (TLR)s have a central role in regulating innate immunity and in the last decade studies have begun to reveal their significance in potentiating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier investigations have highlighted the importance of TLR2 and TLR4 function in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the newer data that indicate roles for TLR5 and TLR7 in RA and its preclinical models. We evaluate the pathogenicity of TLRs in RA myeloid cells, synovial tissue fibroblasts, T cells, osteoclast progenitor cells and endothelial cells. These observations establish that ligation of TLRs can transform RA myeloid cells into M1 macrophages and that the inflammatory factors secreted from M1 and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts participate in TH-17 cell development. From the investigations conducted in RA preclinical models, we conclude that TLR-mediated inflammation can result in osteoclastic bone erosion by interconnecting the myeloid and TH-17 cell response to joint vascularization. In light of emerging unique aspects of TLR function, we summarize the novel approaches that are being tested to impair TLR activation in RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Opposing RA and FGF signals control proximodistal vertebrate limb development through regulation of Meis genes.

    PubMed

    Mercader, N; Leonardo, E; Piedra, M E; Martínez-A, C; Ros, M A; Torres, M

    2000-09-01

    Vertebrate limbs develop in a temporal proximodistal sequence, with proximal regions specified and generated earlier than distal ones. Whereas considerable information is available on the mechanisms promoting limb growth, those involved in determining the proximodistal identity of limb parts remain largely unknown. We show here that retinoic acid (RA) is an upstream activator of the proximal determinant genes Meis1 and Meis2. RA promotes proximalization of limb cells and endogenous RA signaling is required to maintain the proximal Meis domain in the limb. RA synthesis and signaling range, which initially span the entire lateral plate mesoderm, become restricted to proximal limb domains by the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) activity following limb initiation. We identify fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the main molecule responsible for this AER activity and propose a model integrating the role of FGF in limb cell proliferation, with a specific function in promoting distalization through inhibition of RA production and signaling.

  11. RA-dimer B, a New Dimeric RA-series Cyclopeptide Incorporating Two Different Types of Cycloisodityrosine Units, from Rubia cordifolia L.

    PubMed

    Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Ohata, Masako; Yoshida, Ayaka; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Park, Hyun Sun; Takeya, Koichi; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2016-12-06

    RA-dimer B, a new cytotoxic RA-series peptide, was isolated from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis to be a dimeric cyclopeptide composed of deoxybouvardin and allo-RA-V. Those two cyclopeptide units are connected by an ether linkage between the phenolic oxygen atom of deoxybouvardin and the ϵa carbon atom of Tyr-6 of allo-RA-V. RA-dimer B was synthesized by the coupling reaction of deoxybouvardin with the boronic acid derivative of allo-RA-V, and subsequent deprotection, confirming the relative stereochemistry and establishing the absolute configuration of this peptide. RA-dimer B showed cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60, human colonic carcinoma HCT-116, and human renal cell carcinoma ACHN cells with IC50 values of 0.59, 0.54, and 0.74 μm, respectively. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Clinical Investigation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Combined Modality Treatment of 47 8122(8 Extensive Small Cell Lung Cancer, Phase Ill (0) SWOG berg, J. Treatment of Acute Nonlymphocytic 48 8124,’?5/26...in the Treatment of Osteosarcoma , Phase 11 (0) POG Stephenson, S. R. Cis-Platinum in Recurrent Brain 110 8140(83) Tumors, Phase II (0) POG Stephenson...Levels of Retinoic Acid Binding 73 Protein in the Four Major Histologic Types of Human Lung Cancer (0) HOG Uphouse, W. 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid in the

  13. Occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T; Yang, X

    2001-01-01

    222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U were determined in a total of 552 groundwater samples collected throughout Fujian Province of China. The geometric mean concentrations of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and total U in the groundwater were 147.8 kBq m-3, 12.7 Bq m-3, 30.2 Bq m-3 and 0.54 microgram kg-1, respectively. High groundwater 222Rn was explained by the predominantly granitic rock aquifers in Fujian. A lifetime risk of 1.7 x 10(-3) was estimated for the ingestion of groundwater 222Rn. High ratios of 228Ra to 226Ra contents (geometric mean of 2.4) and their disproportion suggest that 228Ra should also be measured in the assessment of population doses from drinking water in the regions of high rock or soil 232Th. No significant correlation between the 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and air was found.

  14. Adjuvant Ovarian Suppression, High-dose Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Premenopausal Patients with High-risk Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Rosselli, Michele; Bratta, Massimo; Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Fumagalli, Luca A; Rea, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    Premenopausal patients with breast cancer and more than 10 positive axillary nodes (BC>10) have a poor prognosis: In these patients the best adjuvant therapy (CT) has not yet been established. Forty-two BC>10 received, in sequence, the following adjuvant treatments: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog for 5 years; anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy; radiation therapy; platinum-based high-dose CT, with autologous bone marrow transplantation; immunotherapy with interleukin 2 (IL2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA); anastrazole given 5 years to estrogen receptor-positive patients. Primary endpoints of the study were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall (OS) survival. A secondary endpoint was toxicity. The median age of patients was 41 years, and the mean number of positive axillary nodes was 14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 57% and 29% of patients respectively, while 14% of patients had triple-negative disease. With a median follow-up of 120 months for patients remaining alive at the end of study, median DFS and OS, had not yet been reached. The 20-year DFS and OS rates were 63.8%, and 81.6%, respectively. One to two years after the end of the therapy, three patients had had four full-term pregnancies. Treatment with LH-RH analog, high-dose CT, peripheral blood progenitor cells and IL2 with RA for patients with BC>10 is feasible, has moderate toxicity, while preserving ovarian function, seems to improve the expected DFS and OS for these high-risk patients. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with RA compared to matched non-RA patients.

    PubMed

    Alemao, Evo; Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Liao, Katherine P; Solomon, Daniel H

    2016-05-01

    RA is associated with a 50-60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presenting with an incident RA diagnosis were matched 1:4 to non-RA patients based on a propensity score for RA, entry year, CV risk category and treatment received at index date (date of RA diagnosis). Patients tested and treated for CV risk factors as well as those attaining CV risk factor management goals were evaluated in both groups. Between 1987 and 2010, 24 859 RA patients were identified and matched to 87 304 non-RA patients. At index date, groups had similar baseline characteristics. Annual blood pressure, lipids and diabetes-related testing were similar in both groups, although CRP and ESR were higher in RA patients at diagnosis and decreased over time. RA patients prescribed antihypertensives increased from 38.2% at diagnosis to 45.7% at 5 years, from 14.0 to 20.6% for lipid-lowering treatments and from 5.1 to 6.4% for antidiabetics. Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. Modest (2%) but significantly lower attainment of lipid and diabetes goals at 1 year was observed in RA patients. There were no differences between groups in the frequency of testing and treatment of CV risk factors. Higher CV risk in RA patients seems unlikely to be driven by differences in traditional CV risk factor management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  16. Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): factors associated with recording RA on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Molina, Emily; del Rincon, Inmaculada; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Battafarano, Daniel F; Escalante, Agustin

    2015-10-05

    Death certificates can be used to assess disease prevalence and incidence; however, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often remains unreported in death certificates. We sought to determine to what extent RA is underreported and what demographic and clinical characteristics could predict mention of RA in the death certificate. We recruited 1328 patients with RA from private, public and military rheumatology practices and followed them prospectively for yearly evaluations. A rheumatologist assessed clinical characteristics of RA and comorbidities at each evaluation. Deaths were identified through family members, other physicians, obituaries and public death databases. All were confirmed with state-issued death certificates. Patients with and without RA in death certificate were compared using bivariate and multivariate analyses. By December 2013, 326 deaths had occurred. We received and reviewed death certificates for all confirmed deaths, of which 58 (17.7 %) mentioned RA on the death certificate. Bivariate analysis revealed that younger age, a greater number of deformities, higher Sharp score and lower socioeconomic status were each associated with recording RA. Multivariable analyses revealed that comorbidity [OR (95 % CI) = 0.84 (0.73, 0.97); P = 0.022] was inversely associated with listing RA on the death certificate, while the number of deformities [OR (95 % CI) = 1.04 (1.00, 1.07); P = 0.033] and a certified physician's signature on the death certificate [OR (95 % CI) = 4.79 (1.35, 16.9); P = 0.015] increased likelihood of reporting RA. In this cohort, RA was not listed in over 80 % of death certificates. Younger patients with fewer comorbidities and more joint deformities were more likely to have RA reported. RA is often not included in death certificates. The findings of this study suggest that older patients may have a greater number of comorbidities, thus decreasing the likelihood that RA be included when completing the death certificate.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with RA compared to matched non-RA patients

    PubMed Central

    Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Liao, Katherine P.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. RA is associated with a 50–60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presenting with an incident RA diagnosis were matched 1:4 to non-RA patients based on a propensity score for RA, entry year, CV risk category and treatment received at index date (date of RA diagnosis). Patients tested and treated for CV risk factors as well as those attaining CV risk factor management goals were evaluated in both groups. Results. Between 1987 and 2010, 24 859 RA patients were identified and matched to 87 304 non-RA patients. At index date, groups had similar baseline characteristics. Annual blood pressure, lipids and diabetes-related testing were similar in both groups, although CRP and ESR were higher in RA patients at diagnosis and decreased over time. RA patients prescribed antihypertensives increased from 38.2% at diagnosis to 45.7% at 5 years, from 14.0 to 20.6% for lipid-lowering treatments and from 5.1 to 6.4% for antidiabetics. Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. Modest (2%) but significantly lower attainment of lipid and diabetes goals at 1 year was observed in RA patients. Conclusion. There were no differences between groups in the frequency of testing and treatment of CV risk factors. Higher CV risk in RA patients seems unlikely to be driven by differences in traditional CV risk factor management. PMID:26705329

  18. Nuclear Structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L.M.; Borge, M.J.G.; Aas, A.J.; Fogelberg, B.; Garcia-Raffi, L.M.; Grant, I.S.; Gulda, K.; Hagebo, E.; Kurcewicz, W.; Lopez-Jimenez, M.J.; Lovhoiden, G.; Mach, H.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Teijeiro, A.G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.

    1999-12-31

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr - Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  19. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L. M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Lopez-Jimenez, M. J.; Teijeiro, A. G.; Aas, A. J.; Hageboe, E.; Fogelberg, B.; Mach, H.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J. L.; Grant, I. S.; Gulda, K.; Kurcewicz, W.; Loevhoeiden, G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.

    1999-11-16

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr-Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  20. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  1. RA Construction KC, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RA Construction KC, LLC (the Company) is located in Gladstone, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Kansas City, Missouri.

  2. SoRa first flight. Summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, S.; Flamini, E.

    The SoRa (Sounding Radar) experiment was successfully launched from Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway) during the summer 2009 campaign managed by the Italian/Norwegian "Nobile Amundsen / Stratospheric Balloon Centre" (NA/SBC). SoRa is part of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) programs for Long Duration Balloon Flights. Carried by the biggest balloon (800.000 m3) ever launched in polar regions, SoRa main experiment and its three piggyback payloads (DUSTER, ISA and SIDERALE) performed a nominal flight of almost 4 days over the North Sea and Greenland, until the separation, landing and recovery in Baffin Island (Canada). Despite the final destructive event that compromise the scientific main goal of SoRa, the 2009 ASI balloon campaign can be considered an important milestone, because of the obtained scientific and technical results but also for the lesson learned by the science, engineering and managerial teams looking at the future ASI scientific balloon-born activities.

  3. Revealed: The spy who regulates neuroblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K

    2014-11-30

    Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonal tumour of the sympathetic nervous system, is thought to originate from undifferentiated neural crest cells and is known to exhibit extremely heterogeneous biological and clinical behaviors. Occurring in very young children, the median age at diagnosis is 17 months and it accounts for 10% of all pediatric cancer mortalities. The standard treatment regimen for patients with high-risk NB includes induction and surgery followed by isotretinoin or Accutane (13-cis retinoic acid) treatment, which is shown to induce terminal differentiation of NB cells. However, molecular regulators that maintain an undifferentiated phenotype in NB cells are still poorly understood.

  4. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a late presentation following treatment for stage IV neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Edward; Glaser, Adam W; Picton, Susan V

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a child who develops Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia 7 months after high-dose chemotherapy for stage IV neuroblastoma. In addition to chemotherapy the child had also been treated with abdominal radiotherapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Standard practice has been to treat patients with prophylactic co-trimoxazole for 3 months after high-dose therapy, but this report highlights the intensity and complexity of current treatment for stage IV neuroblastoma and the need to be aware of prolonged lymphopenia after such treatment.

  5. A modified photometric quantification of skin surface lipids sampled using the cigarette paper method.

    PubMed

    Bolanca-Bumber, S; Basta-Juzbasić, A; Kansky, A; Gross, T

    1988-01-01

    In severe cases of acne conglobata the use of substances which considerably reduce the sebum excretion rate, such as 13-cis-retinoic acid, is reasonable. To monitor the effect of such preparation a noninvasive and accurate method for measuring skin surface lipids (SSLs) is required. A new modified photometric quantification of SSLs sampled using the cigarette paper method based on reaction with phosphovanilic reagent was introduced. Our overall results indicate that a 3-h SSLs assessment measured photometrically is as accurate as the gravimetric technique; it is reproducible in situations with low and high levels of SSLs.

  6. Thymosin-β4 is a determinant of drug sensitivity for Fenretinide and Vorinostat combination therapy in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Belamy B; Tan, Owen; Koach, Jessica; Liu, Bing; Shum, Michael S Y; Carter, Daniel R; Sutton, Selina; Po'uha, Sela T; Chesler, Louis; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Kavallaris, Maria; Liu, Tao; O'Neill, Geraldine M; Marshall, Glenn M

    2015-08-01

    Retinoids are an important component of neuroblastoma therapy at the stage of minimal residual disease, yet 40-50% of patients treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) still relapse, indicating the need for more effective retinoid therapy. Vorinostat, or Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), is a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) classes I & II and has antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Fenretinide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid which acts on cancer cells through both nuclear retinoid receptor and non-receptor mechanisms. In this study, we found that the combination of 4-HPR + SAHA exhibited potent cytotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells, much more effective than 13-cis-RA + SAHA. The 4-HPR + SAHA combination induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through activation of caspase 3, reduced colony formation and cell migration in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo. The 4-HPR and SAHA combination significantly increased mRNA expression of thymosin-beta-4 (Tβ4) and decreased mRNA expression of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). Importantly, the up-regulation of Tβ4 and down-regulation of RARα were both necessary for the 4-HPR + SAHA cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, Tβ4 knockdown in neuroblastoma cells increased cell migration and blocked the effect of 4-HPR + SAHA on cell migration and focal adhesion formation. In primary human neuroblastoma tumor tissues, low expression of Tβ4 was associated with metastatic disease and predicted poor patient prognosis. Our findings demonstrate that Tβ4 is a novel therapeutic target in neuroblastoma, and that 4-HPR + SAHA is a potential therapy for the disease. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and flux of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Stallard, R.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1985-07-20

    Measurements of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the /sup 226/Ra and approximately 2.6% of the /sup 228/Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine /sup 226/Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine /sup 228/Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone.

  8. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture.

  9. Estuarine geochemistry of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 222/Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Elsinger, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess /sup 226/Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in /sup 226/Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 20/sup 0//oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for /sup 226/Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the /sup 228/Ra//sup 226/Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of /sup 228/Ra. In the Yangtze River the /sup 228/Ra//sup 226/Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 16/sup 0//oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by /sup 232/Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay /sup 228/Ra increases faster than /sup 226/Ra in the less than or equal to22/sup 0//oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm/sup 2/-year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. /sup 224/Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm/sup 2/-day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed /sup 224/Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant /sup 224/Ra in concentration over the 2.5/sup 0//oo to 12/sup 0//oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from /sup 228/Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes (/sup 224/Ra > /sup 228/Ra > /sup 226/Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess /sup 222/Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21..mu.. to 62..mu...

  10. Retinoids in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Toma, S; Raffo, P; Isnardi, L; Palumbo, R

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we aim to synthesize the emerging picture of retinoids in lung cancer through a summary of ongoing investigations in biology, chemoprevention and therapy settings, in an attempt to clarify the possible role of these agents in such a disease. Early work in head and neck cancer has evidenced the capability of retinoids to interrupt field carcinogenesis by reversing premalignant lesions and decreasing the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). At this time, the completed randomized trials in lung cancer have failed to demonstrate an evident chemopreventive effect of the tested agents on different study end points, although both a marginally significant benefit of retinol palmitate in time-to-development rates for smoke-related SPTs and a potential preventive effect of retinol supplementation against mesothelioma in selected populations of asbestos-exposed workers have been recently reported. Concerning the role of retinoids in lung cancer treatment, a moderate activity of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) or all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) as single agents has been reported in small series of advanced, mostly pretreated lung cancer patients. More encouraging findings derive from combination studies, in which retinoids, especially ATRA, are added to either alpha-interferon or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Major recent advances have been made towards the understanding of retinoids mechanisms of action; at this regard, the role of RAR-beta basal or treatment-induced levels seems to be of particular interest as intermediate end point and/or independent prognostic factor, besides their known importance in lung carcinogenesis. Future research for chemopreventive and therapeutic programs with retinoids in lung cancer should be focused on the investigation of new generation compounds with a specificity for individual retinoid nuclear receptors. Such selective molecules may have a greater activity against lung cancer, with a more favourable toxicity profile, as

  11. Ra-226 and Pb-210/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi-Ju, L.; Yu-Chia, C.; Tsung-En, W.

    2004-05-01

    The surface water distributions and vertical profiles of Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have been measured. Surface water Ra-226 varies between 10 and 16 dpm/100 kg with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. Each Ra-226 profile shows an increase from the surface toward the bottom. Above 1000m depth Ra-226 is systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher in the northern South China Sea than in the western North Pacific. This difference may be attributed to a strong Ra-226 source from the shelf and slope area of the SCS. Below this depth Ra-226 displays large variation within some of the profiles with lower limits being comparable to the activities of the western North Pacific but higher limits being systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher. These high Ra-226 activities may reflect effects of the longer isolation time for the deep water in the SCS basin and strong Ra input from the underlying sediments. The Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 1.4 and 2.7 in the surface water with higher activity ratio at the station closer to the Luzon Strait. The Pb-210 in excess over Ra-226 in the surface water due to atmospheric input may penetrate to a depth of about 200 to 500m. Below this depth, Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 because Pb-210 is scavenged by settling particulates. Box model calculations within a mixed layer of 50m in the area yield a mean residence time of about 1 yr for Pb-210 if an atmospheric Pb-210 flux of 1 dpm/cm2/y is adopted. The activity ratio of about 0.5 to 0.7 in the deep water corresponds to a Pb-210 mean residence time of about 30 to 70 yrs with respect to particulate scavenging.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in natural water by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, Yasser F; Seliman, Ayman F; Abdel-Rassoul, A A

    2007-01-01

    Several types of bottled drinking water originating from three different areas in Egypt are studied through measurement of radium activity, assessment of related annual dose for adults and finally to define the role of water quality on radium levels. The mean levels of (226)Ra activity range from 0.44 to 0.92 Bq/L and the mean levels of (228)Ra from 0.30 to 0.78 Bq/L, with related (226)Ra/(228)Ra ratios ranging from 2.61 to 0.56. Water types originating from the Eastern Nile Delta area are characterized by low (226)Ra levels and relatively high (228)Ra activity, presumably due to the muddy agricultural nature of this area, which is subject to water from several surface resources for irrigation. In general, the mean activity levels for both (226)Ra and (228)Ra are within those in drinking water in several other countries and the annual ingested dose is comparable with the typical range reported by UNSCEAR. Also, the effect of TDS, pH, calcium, bicarbonate, sulphate and chloride ion concentrations on radium levels is studied and discussed.

  13. Techniques for precise mapping of 226Ra and 228Ra in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the analyses of 226Ra and 228Ra in seawater made possible by better extraction and processing techniques reduce significantly the errors associated with these measurements. These improvements and the extensive sampling for Ra isotopes conducted on the TTO North Atlantic Study should enable us to use the distribution of 228Ra to study mixing processes on a 3-15 year time scale in both the upper and deep North Atlantic. The 228Ra profiles already analyzed show a closer resemblance to GEOSECS tritium data than to TTO tritium data in the upper ocean. This is because the transient tracer tritium was responding on a 10-year time scale during GEOSECS and a 20-year time scale during TTO. The steady state tracer 228Ra should always respond on a time scale of 8 years. Thus the 228Ra data obtained on TTO should provide a means to extend the features of the GEOSECS tritium field to the regions of the TTO study. The 226Ra data are of high enough quality to identify features associated with different water masses. Changes in the positions of the deep-water masses since the GEOSECS cruise are revealed by the 226Radata.

  14. The Sophomore RA Experience: An Examination of Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions, and RA Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt Brecheisen, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this national, quantitative study was to (1) provide psychometrics for the ACUHO-I/EBI RA Survey, a joint project between between Educational Benchmarking, Inc (EBI) and The Association of College and University Housing Officers--International (ACUHO-I), and (2) explore the sophomore resident assistant (RA) experience. This study…

  15. Retinoid modulation of collagenase production by adherent human mononuclear cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, A; Louie, J S; Uitto, J

    1987-01-01

    Previous observations have suggested that retinoids might be useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we examined the effects of various retinoids on collagenase production by adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. We have previously shown that these cells, consisting predominantly of monocyte-macrophages, actively synthesize and secrete collagenase upon stimulation with concanavalin A. The cells were incubated in serum free medium with all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinal, or Ro 10-9359 (trimethylmethoxyphenyl retinoic acid ethyl ester) for up to 72 hours, and the collagenase activity was determined with [3H]proline labelled type I collagen as substrate. The incubation of mononuclear cells with all-trans-retinoic acid in the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of the collagenase production. All-trans-retinal was also a potent inhibitor, whereas 13-cis-retinoic acid and Ro 10-9359 in a concentration of 10(-5) mol/l had a lesser effect. Control experiments indicated that the inhibition of collagenase production by all-trans-retinoic acid did not result from inhibition of total protein synthesis nor could it be explained by induction of an inhibitory molecule. These results indicate that retinoids with distinct structural features can inhibit collagenase production by monocyte-macrophages, and suggest a role for retinoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3036026

  16. Successful treatment of photo-damaged skin of nano-scale atRA particles using a novel transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Nagasawa, Teruaki; Nakamura, Natsumi; Takenaga, Mitsuko; Mizoguchi, Masako; Kawai, Shin-Ichi; Mizushima, Yutaka; Igarashi, Rie

    2005-05-05

    We show a novel drug delivery system (DDS) for improved all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) therapy for external treatments of photo-damaged skin. We prepared inorganic-coated atRA nanoparticles, in turn an egg-like structure in nano-scale (Nano-atRA), using boundary-organized reaction droplets. The interfacial properties of organic architectures, in atRA micelles, were used to template the nucleation of inorganic minerals. As a result, irritation and inflammation associated with atRA therapy were substantially reduced due to the complete encapsulation of the carboxylic function. Both irritative symptoms and physicochemical instability of the atRA micelle were improved. Since Nano-atRA which is prepared following to this new DDS system developmentally improved the permeability to the stratum corneum, the remarkable pharmacological effects were resulted in comparison with atRA as such as follows: (1) thicker epidermis than classical atRA treatment and (2) the overexpression of mRNA for heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) as the provocation epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we found a surprising boost in production of hyaluronan (HA) among the intercellular spaces of the basal and spinous cell layers in epidermis. Nano-atRA technology for atRA therapy could not only efficiently regulate keratinocyte cell proliferation and differentiation, but also markedly produce the additional benefit. Severely injured human skin by chronic ultraviolet irradiation will completely repair due to the accelerated turnover of skin tissue, which is induced by Nano-atRA.

  17. The effect of RA on the chick Ebf1-3 genes expression in somites and pharyngeal arches.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Saleh, Ayman A; El-Aziz, Reda M Abd; Salama, Mohammed F

    2014-12-01

    Expression of chick early B cell factor 1-3 (cEbf1-3) genes in regions of high retinoic acid (RA) activity, such as somites and pharyngeal arches (PAs), and regulation of other EBF members by RA raise the possibility that the internal cue RA may regulate cEbf1-3 expression in these tissues. To check this possibility, RA gain and loss of function experiments were conducted. Ectopic expression of RA led to up-regulation of cEbf2, 3 but did not change cEbf1 expression in somites. Expectedly, inhibition of RA by disulfiram resulted in downregulation of cEbf2, 3, but did not change cEbf1 expression in somites. The same RA gain and loss of function experiments did not change cEbf1-3 expression in PAs. However, ectopic expression of RA in the cranial neural tube before migration of neural crest cells downregulated cEbf1, 3 and up-regulated cEbf2 expression in the PAs. The same experiment, but with application of disulfiram, resulted in downregulation of cEbf2, but did not alter the expression of the other two genes. We conclude that the three cEbf genes act differently in response to RA signals in somitic mesoderm. cEbf1 may be not RA dependant in somites; however, the other two cEbf genes positively respond to RA signalling in somites. Additionally, only the migratory cEbf-expressing cells into the PAs are affected by RA signals.

  18. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water.

    PubMed

    Loyd, D H; Drake, E N

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra and 224Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having 226Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring 226Ra, 224Ra and 228Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of 224Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 224Ra, with negligible contributions from 228Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of 228Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the 226Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to 228Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  19. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  20. Discovery of radioactive decay of /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra by /sup 14/C emission

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.; Stevenson, J.D.; Barwick, S.W.; Ravn, H.L.

    1985-01-28

    Using the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator at CERN to produce sources of /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra, /sup 222/Ra, /sup 223/Ra, and /sup 224/Ra, and using polycarbonate track-recording films sensitive to energetic carbon nuclei but not to alpha particles, we have discovered two new cases of the rare /sup 14/C decay mode: in /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra. Our results for branching ratios, B, relative to alpha decay are for /sup 221/Fr and /sup 221/Ra, B<4.4 x 10/sup -12/; for /sup 222/Ra, B = (3.7 +- 0.6) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 223/Ra, B = (6.1 +- 1.0) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 224/Ra, B = (4.3 +- 1.2) x 10/sup -11/. .AE

  1. Leaching of 226Ra from U mill tailings by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Landa, E R; Miller, C L; Updegraff, D M

    1986-10-01

    Relatively insoluble sulfate precipitates appear to be a major host for Ra in sulfuric acid-treated, U mill tailings. The dissolution of such precipitates by natural processes, such as metabolism by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), creates the potential for release of Ra to contacting waters. Significant leaching of Ra by SRB was achieved in the laboratory during the anaerobic incubation (1 to 119 days) of U mill tailings with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and mixed cultures containing SRB isolated from the tailings, all grown on a lactate medium at room temperature. While the maximum 226Ra concentration reached in a sterile media control was 0.44 Bq/L (12 pCi/L), that in the SRB systems was 61 Bq/L (1640 pCi/L) or about 20% of the total Ra inventory in the original tailings sample. The leaching of Ra in SRB systems was accompanied by a decrease in soluble sulfate concentration, an increase in total sulfide concentration, and an increase in the number of SRB. The observed leaching effect does not appear to be due to the action of microbial chelates or to binding to cell walls. Potential implications of these findings to the management of U mill tailings and other radioactive wastes are discussed.

  2. Does a family history of RA influence the clinical presentation and treatment response in RA?

    PubMed

    Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan

    2016-06-01

    To assess whether family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among the strongest risk factors for developing RA, also carries information on the clinical presentation and treatment response. The prospective Swedish Rheumatology register was linked to family history of RA, defined as diagnosed RA in any first-degree relative, ascertained through the Swedish Multi-Generation and Patient registers. Clinical presentation was examined among patients with early RA 2000-2011 (symptom onset <12 months before inclusion, N=6869), and response to methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy in the subset starting this treatment (N=4630). Response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) was examined among all patients with RA starting a TNFi as the first biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug 2000-2011 (N=9249). Association of family history with clinical characteristics, drug survival, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response and change in disease activity at 3 and 6 months was estimated using linear and generalised logistic regression models. Correlation in relatives' response measures was also assessed. Patients with early RA with family history of RA were more often rheumatoid factor positive, but with no other clinically meaningful differences in their clinical presentation. Family history of RA did not predict response to MTX or TNFi, with the possible exception of no versus good EULAR response to TNFi at 6 months (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Having a relative who discontinued TNFi within a year increased the odds of doing the same (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 7.5), although we found no significant familial correlations in change in disease activity measures. Family history of RA did not modify the clinical presentation of RA or predict response to standard treatment with MTX or TNFi. Treatment response, particularly drug survival, may itself be familial. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  3. An improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in water, soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The naturally occurring concentrations of radium (/sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra) in public and private water supplies have been studied for many years. Both general surveys ad local studies have established the geographical regions where well waters exceed 3 pCi/L (1-17). In general, the /sup 226/Ra was determined by the emanation method, while the /sup 228/Ra was determined from the beta activity of the /sup 228/Ac daughter. In a recent review (18) of the methods used ''a number of approved analytic methods can bear improvement, especially the method for 228Ra.'' The purpose of the work described here was to develop an improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. (228)Ra and (226)Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Martin, Paul; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David

    2014-10-14

    One of the most commonly-used methods for determination of (226)Ra, particularly in water samples, utilises co-precipitation of Ra with BaSO4, followed by microfiltration to produce a source for alpha counting. This paper describes two extensions to BaSO4 co-precipitation methods which enable determination of (228)Ra using the same source. The adaptations presented here do not introduce any contaminants that will affect the separation of radium or alpha counting for (226)Ra, and can be used for re-analysis of already existing sources prepared by BaSO4 co-precipitation. The first adaptation uses detection of (228)Ac on the source by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency is high, allowing analysis of water samples at sufficiently low activity to be suitable in testing for compliance with drinking water quality standards. As (228)Ac grows in quickly, taking less than 2 days to reach equilibrium with the (228)Ra parent, this can also be useful in radiological emergency response situations. The second adaptation incorporates a method for the digestion of BaSO4 sources, allowing separation of thorium and subsequent determination of (228)Th activity. Although ingrowth periods for (228)Th can be lengthy, very low detection limits for (228)Ra can be achieved with this technique. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetics of RA susceptibility, what comes next?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, James; Eyre, Stephen; Worthington, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to great effect to identify genetic susceptibility loci for complex disease. A series of GWAS and meta-analyses have informed the discovery of over 100 loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In common with findings in other autoimmune diseases the lead signals for the majority of these loci do not map to known gene sequences. In order to realise the benefit of investment in GWAS studies it is vital we determine how disease associated alleles function to influence disease processes. This is leading to rapid development in our knowledge as to the function of non-coding regions of the genome. Here we consider possible functional mechanisms for intergenic RA-associated variants which lie within lncRNA sequences. PMID:26509058

  6. Sulfur flows of Ra Patera, Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Nelson, R. M.; Baloga, S. M.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager 1 imaging data have been used to investigate the color and morphology of several radial flow-like features at Ra Patera, a broad volcanic structure at approximately 8 deg latitude and 325 deg longitude on the Galilean satellite Io. It was found that downstream progressions of flow color and morphology are consistent with lava of a predominately sulfur composition cooling radiatively and erupting in the range of 470 to 520 K at effusion rates at 10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th cubic cm/sec. This implies global resurfacing rates by volcanic flows on Io of the order of 1 cm/year. Calculated energy content and effusion rates for flows at Ra Patera, using the physical parameters of sulfur, are of the order of the largest known terrestrial basaltic eruptions and are consistent with calculations of globally available energy.

  7. Fenretinide Activates Caspases and Induces Apoptosis in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Puduvalli, Vinaykumar K.; Saito, Yoshiki; Xu, Ruishu; Kouraklis, Gregory P.; Levin, Victor A.; Kyritsis, Athanassios P.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic retinoid fenretinide (N-[4-hydroxyphenyl] retinamide or 4HPR) has been shown to not only inhibit cell growth but also to induce apoptosis in a variety of malignant cell lines. It is being tested presently for its potential as a chemopreventive agent against several cancers. A related retinoid, 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA), has been shown to have activity against gliomas in vitro as well as in a recent clinical study. The present study aimed at assessing the activity of fenretinide against glioma cells in vitro and comparing it with that of cRA at pharmacologically relevant doses. We hypothesized that the ability of fenretinide to induce apoptosis would make it more potent against gliomas than cRA. Four glioma cell lines (D54, U251, U87MG, and EFC-2) were treated with fenretinide (1–100 µM) and showed dose- and time-dependent induction of cell death. At pharmacologically relevant doses, fenretinide was more active against glioma cells than cRA because of its ability to induce apoptosis. Flow cytometric studies using D54 cells demonstrated no significant changes in the cell cycle distribution compared with untreated control, but a sub-G1 fraction consistent with apoptosis was detected. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay indicated that the apoptotic fraction was cell cycle nonspecific. Fenretinide treatment resulted in cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating an activation of the caspase 3. Immunofluorescence studies using the nuclear stain 4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole dihydrochloride showed nuclear condensation and an apoptotic morphology. Hence, this study demonstrates that, at clinically relevant doses, fenretinide is a potent inducer of apoptosis in gliomas acting via the caspase pathway. We also show that at clinically achievable doses, fenretinide has more activity against gliomas than comparable doses of cRA. The favorable side effect profile seen in previous clinical studies and the in vitro

  8. Error-control and processes optimization of (223/224)Ra measurement using Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Cheng; Lixin, Yi; Lingling, Liu; Guoqiang, Tang; Zhidong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    RaDeCC has proved to be a precise and standard way to measure (224)Ra and (223)Ra in water samples and successfully made radium a tracer of several environmental processes. In this paper, the relative errors of (224)Ra and (223)Ra measurement in water samples via a Radium Delayed Coincidence Count system are analyzed through performing coincidence correction calculations and error propagation. The calculated relative errors range of 2.6% ∼ 10.6% for (224)Ra and 9.6% ∼ 14.2% for (223)Ra. For different radium activities, effects of decay days and counting time on final radium relative errors are evaluated and the results show that these relative errors can decrease by adjusting the two measurement factors. Finally, to minimize propagated errors in Radium activity, a set of optimized RaDeCC measurement parameters are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rapid and inexpensive method for 226Ra and 228Ra measurements of high TDS groundwaters.

    PubMed

    El-Shrakawy, A; Ebaid, Y Y; Burnett, W C; Aldaihan, Soaad K

    2013-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale studies was conducted by preconcentrating (226)Ra from spiked water test samples using Purolite ion-exchange resin to evaluate the adsorption efficiency of the resin under varying conditions. After removing the resin from the columns, it was sealed in gas-tight containers and measured via gamma spectrometry. The Purolite resin showed high radium uptake and retention from natural waters in the presence of high iron and total dissolved solids (TDS). This procedure allowed us to process a large number of high TDS samples at a typical rate of 15 samples/day using three germanium detectors. Quality assurance and method validation have been achieved by analyzing selected groundwater samples, with different (226)Ra activities and high TDS values, and comparing the results to those using alpha spectrometry with a (133)Ba yield tracer. There was very good agreement between the obtained (226)Ra activities by both methods.

  10. Periadventitial atRA citrate-based polyester membranes reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Elaine K; Webb, Antonio R; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Ameer, Guillermo A; Kibbe, Melina R

    2014-11-15

    Oral all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia; however, the dose required was 30 times the chemotherapeutic dose, which already has reported side effects. As neointimal formation is a localized process, new approaches to localized delivery are required. This study assessed whether atRA within a citrate-based polyester, poly(1,8 octanediolcitrate) (POC), perivascular membrane would prevent neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. atRA-POC membranes were prepared and characterized for atRA release via high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Rat adventitial fibroblasts (AF) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were exposed to various concentrations of atRA; proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis were assessed in vitro. The rat carotid artery balloon injury model was used to evaluate the impact of the atRA-POC membranes on neointimal formation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression in vivo. atRA-POC membranes released 12 μg of atRA over 2 wk, with 92% of the release occurring in the first week. At 24 h, atRA (200 μmol/l) inhibited [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into AF and VSMC by 78% and 72%, respectively (*P = 0.001), with negligible apoptosis or necrosis. Histomorphometry analysis showed that atRA-POC membranes inhibited neointimal formation after balloon injury, with a 56%, 57%, and 50% decrease in the intimal area, intima-to-media area ratio, and percent stenosis, respectively (P = 0.001). atRA-POC membranes had no appreciable effect on apoptosis or proliferation at 2 wk. Regarding biocompatibility, we found a 76% decrease in macrophage infiltration in the intima layer (P < 0.003) in animals treated with atRA-POC membranes, with a coinciding 53% reduction in VCAM-1 staining (P < 0.001). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of atRA inhibited neointimal formation and restenosis. These data

  11. RA-RAR-β counteracts myelin-dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth via Lingo-1 repression.

    PubMed

    Puttagunta, Radhika; Schmandke, André; Floriddia, Elisa; Gaub, Perrine; Fomin, Natalie; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2011-06-27

    After an acute central nervous system injury, axonal regeneration is limited as the result of a lack of neuronal intrinsic competence and the presence of extrinsic inhibitory signals. The injury fragments the myelin neuronal insulating layer, releasing extrinsic inhibitory molecules to signal through the neuronal membrane-bound Nogo receptor (NgR) complex. In this paper, we show that a neuronal transcriptional pathway can interfere with extrinsic inhibitory myelin-dependent signaling, thereby promoting neurite outgrowth. Specifically, retinoic acid (RA), acting through the RA receptor β (RAR-β), inhibited myelin-activated NgR signaling through the transcriptional repression of the NgR complex member Lingo-1. We show that suppression of Lingo-1 was required for RA-RAR-β to counteract extrinsic inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, we confirm in vivo that RA treatment after a dorsal column overhemisection injury inhibited Lingo-1 expression, specifically through RAR-β. Our findings identify a novel link between RA-RAR-β-dependent proaxonal outgrowth and inhibitory NgR complex-dependent signaling, potentially allowing for the development of molecular strategies to enhance axonal regeneration after a central nervous system injury.

  12. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam

    2013-07-30

    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Speed RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  14. Ra-226 bioaccumulation and growth indices in fish.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaopei; Smith, Richard; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2017-06-01

    To determine the accumulated activity of Ra-226 in fathead minnows fed with environmentally relevant levels of Ra-226 for 5 months in water at 20 °C, and to evaluate the influence of this level of Ra-226 on the growth of fathead minnows. Fathead minnows were fed with fish food containing 10-10,000 mBq/g Ra-226 for 5 months. At the end of the experiment, the fish were sacrificed, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at -20 °C. Longitudinal sections of 40 μm thickness were cut at the middle of the fish body using a cryostat. The activity of Ra-226 in each section was determined using autoradiography with a nuclear track detector CR-39. According to the weight and the width of the fish, the activity of Ra-226 in the whole fish body could be estimated. In addition, the length and the weight of the fish were measured and the condition factor was calculated to evaluate the growth and fitness of the fish. There is a positive but non-linear relationship between the accumulated activity of Ra-226 in fish body and the concentration of Ra-226 in fish food. The highest activity of Ra-226 accumulated in fish body was found from fish fed with 10,000 mBq/g Ra-226 food. This was calculated as 256.4 ± 49.1 mBq/g, p < 0.05, and the calculated dose rate was 6.2 ± 1.2 mGy/y. For fish fed with food containing lower concentration of Ra-226 (up to 1000 mBq/g), the bioaccumulation of Ra-226 in the body saturated. The Ra-226 concentration factor (CF) for fish was inversely proportional to the Ra-226 activity in food, and the highest CF value was 2.489, obtained from the lowest dietary Ra-226 activity (10 mBq/g). In addition, condition factors (K) of fish in all Ra-226-treated groups were significantly lower than those of the controls. The results show that the bioaccumulation of Ra-226 in fish is not simply related to the dietary Ra-226 activity, and has a saturation value when the dietary activity is low. In addition, the environmental level of Ra-226 in the fish

  15. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  16. Ra-224 and Ra-226: A New Method for Measuring Groundwater Seepage in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. R.; Buyan, A. C.; Waples, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Radium isotopes have been used to estimate groundwater discharge (GWD) in coastal marine waters for decades, but this technique has never before been used in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we used a RAD7 radon-in-air monitor to measure naturally-occurring radium isotopes Ra-224 (half-life= 3.64 d) and Ra-226 (half-life = 1600 a) in groundwater and three shallow water sites along Lake Michigan's Wisconsin coastline. Radium-224 activities in groundwater ranged from 1153 dpm m-3 in a deep aquifer (New Berlin well no.7) to 31 dpm m-3 in a shallow aquifer (Pryor well). Nearshore Lake Michigan measurements of Ra-224 were lowest at Red Arrow Beach (0.2 dpm m-3), higher in the Milwaukee harbor (GLWI slip, 1.1 dpm m-3) and highest at Harrington Beach (4.1 dpm m-3) and correspond well with groundwater seepage estimates made by Cherkauer et al. (1990) using alternate methods (i.e., where higher radium activity is indicative of higher GWD). These Ra-224 measurements are the first ever made in Lake Michigan (and presumably any of the Great Lakes) and we conclude that, by sampling offshore radium activity gradients, this RAD7 technique is a viable method for directly measuring GWD in Lake Michigan and other freshwater systems.

  17. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  18. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  19. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus.

  20. Modifiable risk factors for RA: prevention, better than cure?

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Manjari; Morgan, Catharine; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To perform a meta-synthesis of the evidence for modifiable lifestyle risk factors for inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Methods. We performed a MEDLINE literature search. Case–control and cohort studies and systematic reviews published from 1948 through February 2011 and studying modifiable risk factors for RA were retrieved. The main outcome measure was diagnosis of RA according to the standard criteria. Results. Smoking contributes up to 25% of the population burden of RA. The risk is dose related, stronger in males and especially strong for anti-citrullinated peptide antibody positive (ACPA+) RA through an interaction with the shared epitope. After smoking cessation, there is, however, a latency of up to 20 years to return to baseline risk. Other associations are less definitive; however, prospective studies suggest that dietary antioxidants and breastfeeding may be protective and that high coffee consumption may increase RA risk. An inverse association with alcohol intake (especially in smokers) and with education/social class (especially seropositive RA) and an increased risk with obesity (seronegative RA) is also noted. Conclusion. There is a need for further large-scale prospective studies with a consistent definition of RA phenotype (undifferentiated IP through to ACPA+/RF+ disease). This will ultimately afford the opportunity to evaluate preventative population strategies for RA akin to the well-established programmes for cardiovascular disease and cancer, targeting common risk factors. PMID:22120459

  1. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  2. Dissolution of [²²⁶Ra]BaSO₄ and partial separation of ²²⁶Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr

    2016-01-01

    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes.

  3. Retinoic acid postconsolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients treated with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peinemann, Frank; van Dalen, Elvira C; Enk, Heike; Berthold, Frank

    2017-08-25

    methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The update search did not identify any additional studies. We identified one RCT that included people with high-risk neuroblastoma who received HDCT followed by autologous HSCT (N = 98) after a first random allocation and who received retinoic acid (13-cis-retinoic acid; N = 50) or no further therapy (N = 48) after a second random allocation. These 98 participants had no progressive disease after HDCT followed by autologous HSCT. There was no clear evidence of difference between the treatment groups either in overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.63; one trial; P = 0.66) or in event-free survival (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.49; one trial; P = 0.59). We calculated the HR values using the complete follow-up period of the trial. The study also reported overall survival estimates at a fixed point in time. At the time point of five years, the survival estimate was reported to be 59% for the retinoic acid group and 41% for the no-further-therapy group (P value not reported). We did not identify results for treatment-related mortality, progression-free survival, early or late toxicity, or health-related quality of life. We could not rule out the possible presence of selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias, and other bias. We judged the evidence to be of low quality for overall survival and event-free survival, downgraded because of study limitations and imprecision. We identified one RCT that evaluated additional retinoic acid as part of a postconsolidation therapy after HDCT followed by autologous HSCT versus no further therapy in people with high-risk neuroblastoma. There was no clear evidence of a difference in overall survival and event-free survival between the treatment alternatives. This could be the result of low power. Information on other outcomes was not available. This trial was performed in the 1990s, since when many changes in treatment and risk classification have occurred

  4. The role of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flare and cumulative burden of RA severity in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, Elena; Chandran, Arun; Ilhan, Birkan; Major, Brittny T; Michet, C John; Matteson, Eric L; Crowson, Cynthia S

    2016-03-01

    To examine the role of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flare, remission and RA severity burden in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a population-based cohort of patients with RA without CVD (age ≥30 years; 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria met in 1988-2007), we performed medical record review at each clinical visit to estimate flare/remission status. The previously validated RA medical Records-Based Index of Severity (RARBIS) and Claims-Based Index of RA Severity (CIRAS) were applied. Age- and sex-matched non-RA subjects without CVD comprised the comparison cohort. Cox models were used to assess the association of RA activity/severity with CVD, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year of RA, CVD risk factors and antirheumatic medications. Study included 525 patients with RA and 524 non-RA subjects. There was a significant increase in CVD risk in RA per time spent in each acute flare versus remission (HR 1.07 per 6-week flare, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15). The CVD risk for patients with RA in remission was similar to the non-RA subjects (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.59). Increased cumulative moving average of daily RARBIS (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.30) and CIRAS (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.70) was associated with CVD. CVD risk was higher in patients with RA who spent more time in medium (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.20) and high CIRAS tertiles (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.31) versus lower tertile. Our findings show substantial detrimental role of exposure to RA flare and cumulative burden of RA disease severity in CVD risk in RA, suggesting important cardiovascular benefits associated with tight inflammation control and improved flare management in patients with RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Nociceptive Afferent Activity Alters the SI RA Neuron Response to Mechanical Skin Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Favorov, O.V.; Li, Y.; Lee, J.; Quibrera, P.M.; Tommerdahl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Procedures that reliably evoke cutaneous pain in humans (i.e., 5–7 s skin contact with a 47–51 °C probe, intradermal algogen injection) are shown to decrease the mean spike firing rate (MFR) and degree to which the rapidly adapting (RA) neurons in areas 3b/1 of squirrel monkey primary somatosensory cortex (SI) entrain to a 25-Hz stimulus to the receptive field center (RFcenter) when stimulus amplitude is “near-threshold” (i.e., 10–50 μm). In contrast, RA neuron MFR and entrainment are either unaffected or enhanced by 47–51 °C contact or intradermal algogen injection when the amplitude of 25-Hz stimulation is 100–200 μm (suprathreshold). The results are attributed to an “activity dependence” of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action on the GABAA receptors of RA neurons. The nociceptive afferent drive triggered by skin contact with a 47–51 °C probe or intradermal algogen is proposed to activate nociresponsive neurons in area 3a which, via corticocortical connections, leads to the release of GABA in areas 3b/1. It is hypothesized that GABA is hyperpolarizing/inhibitory and suppresses stimulus-evoked RA neuron MFR and entrainment whenever RA neuron activity is low (as when the RFcenter stimulus is weak/near-threshold) but is depolarizing/excitatory and augments MFR and entrainment when RA neuron activity is high (when the stimulus is strong/suprathreshold). PMID:20308203

  6. Gene expression analysis in RA: towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Burska, A N; Roget, K; Blits, M; Soto Gomez, L; van de Loo, F; Hazelwood, L D; Verweij, C L; Rowe, A; Goulielmos, G N; van Baarsen, L G M; Ponchel, F

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression has recently been at the forefront of advance in personalized medicine, notably in the field of cancer and transplantation, providing a rational for a similar approach in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a prototypic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a poorly understood etiopathogenesis. Inflammation is the main feature of RA; however, many biological processes are involved at different stages of the disease. Gene expression signatures offer management tools to meet the current needs for personalization of RA patient's care. This review analyses currently available information with respect to RA diagnostic, prognostic and prediction of response to therapy with a view to highlight the abundance of data, whose comparison is often inconclusive due to the mixed use of material source, experimental methodologies and analysis tools, reinforcing the need for harmonization if gene expression signatures are to become a useful clinical tool in personalized medicine for RA patients. PMID:24589910

  7. Preparing concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Volynskii, L.D.; Garbuzov, V.M.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    A scheme has been devised for processing large amounts of old thorium salts to obtain concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra preparations. The process includes simple regeneration of the original thorium salt. The main stages in concentrating the /sup 228/Ra are precipitation and separation of thorium peroxide, isolating the radium with a carrier, ion-exchange separation of the radium from the carrier, and final purification by electrolysis. The /sup 228/Ra recovery is 70%.

  8. Assessing Medication Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-24

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) presented at/published to American Pharmacists Association (Journal/Abstract) & American Pharmacists Association Annual...Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: A ssessing Medication A dherence in...Patients with Rheumato id Arthritis (RA) 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0 YES cgj NO FUNDING SOURCE: 8. DO YOU NEED FUNDING SUPPORT FOR PUBLICATION

  9. Drugs or disease: evaluating salivary function in RA patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Regina; Pedrazas, Carlos Henrique Silva; Correia, Marcos Paulo Veloso; Azevedo, Mario Newton Leitão de; Zamprogno, Thaís; Silva, Arley; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Papi, José Angelo de Souza

    2016-10-10

    Oral complications of RA may include temporomandibular joint disorders, mucosa alterations and symptoms of dry mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary gland function of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) comparing it to healthy controls. Subjects with other systemic conditions known to affect salivary functions were excluded. A questionnaire was applied for the evaluation of xerostomia. Resting and chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates (SFR) were obtained under standard conditions. There were 145 subjects included of the study (104 RA and 38 controls). About 66.7% of the RA subjects and 2.4% in control group presented xerostomia. The median resting SFR were 0.24 ml/min for RA subjects and 0.40 mL/min for controls (p = 0.04). The median stimulated SFR were 1.31 mL/min for RA subjects and 1.52 ml/min for controls (p = 0.33). No significant differences were found between resting and stimulated SFR of RA subjects not using xerogenic medications and controls. There was significantly higher number of subjects presenting hyposalivation in the RA group than among controls, even when subjects using xerogenic medications were eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, hyposalivation and xerostomia were more frequent among RA subjects not using xerogenic medication than among controls, although there were no significant differences in the median SFR between groups.

  10. Heavy cigarette smoking is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in patients without a family history of RA

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D; Shepstone, L; Moots, R; Lear, J; Lynch, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the potential relation between cumulative exposure to cigarette smoking in patients with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a positive family history of the disease.
METHODS—239 outpatient based patients with RA were compared with 239 controls matched for age, sex, and social class. A detailed smoking history was recorded and expressed as pack years smoked. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the association between RA and pack years smoked. The patients with RA were also interviewed about a family history of disease and recorded as positive if a first or second degree relative had RA. The smoking history at the time of the study of the patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease was compared directly with that of their respective controls. Patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease were also compared retrospectively for current smoking at the time of disease onset.
RESULTS—An increasing association between increased pack years smoked and RA was found. There was a striking association between heavy cigarette smoking and RA. A history for 41-50 pack years smoked was associated with RA (odds ratio (OR) 13.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.89 to 63.38; p<0.001). The association between ever having smoked and RA was modest (OR 1.81, CI 1.22 to 2.19; p=0.002). Furthermore, cigarette smoking in the patients with RA without a positive family history of RA was more prevalent than in the patients with a positive family history of RA for ever having smoked (72% v 54%; p=0.006), the number of pack years smoked (median 25.0 v 4.0; p<0.001), and for smoking at the time of disease onset (58% v 39%; p=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS—Heavy cigarette smoking, but not smoking itself, is strongly associated with RA requiring hospital follow up and is markedly more prevalent in patients with RA without a family history of RA.

 PMID:11171682

  11. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, D M

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  12. Immune memory in CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, D; Chapman, M D; Sasama, J; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether human peripheral CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells possess antigen-specific immune memory. CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells were isolated by a combination of positive and negative selection. Putative CD4+ CD45RA+ cells expressed CD45RA (98.9%) and contained < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RO+ and < 0.5% CD4+ CD45RA+ CD45RO+ cells. Putative CD45RO+ cells expressed CD45RO (90%) and contained 9% CD45RA+ CD45RO+ and < 0.1% CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. The responder frequency of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-stimulated CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells was determined in two atopic donors and found to be 1:11,314 and 1:8031 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:1463 and 1:1408 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. The responder frequencies of CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells from two non-atopic, but exposed, donors were 1:78031 and 1:176,903 for CD4+ CD45RA+ and 1:9136 and 1:13,136 for CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells. T cells specific for D. pteronyssinus were cloned at limiting dilution following 10 days of bulk culture with D. pteronyssinus antigen. Sixty-eight clones were obtained from CD4+ CD45RO+ and 24 from CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells. All clones were CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ and proliferated in response to D. pteronyssinus antigens. Of 40 clones tested, none responded to Tubercule bacillus purified protein derivative (PPD). No difference was seen in the pattern of interleukin-4 (IL-4) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) producing clones derived from CD4+ CD45RA+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ precursors, although freshly isolated and polyclonally activated CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells produced 20-30-fold lower levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma than their CD4+ CD45RO+ counterparts. Sixty per cent of the clones used the same pool of V beta genes. These data support the hypothesis that immune memory resides in CD4+ CD45RA+ as well as CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells during the chronic immune response to inhaled antigen. PMID:9301520

  13. Determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in drinking water using a single sample preparation procedure.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail P

    2005-12-01

    The current federal and New Jersey State regulations have greatly increased the number of gross alpha and radium tests for public and private drinking water supplies. The determination of radium isotopes in water generally involves lengthy and complicated processes. In this study, a new approach is presented for the determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in water samples. The method includes a single sample preparation procedure followed by alpha counting and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The sample preparation technique incorporates an EPA-approved co-precipitation methodology for gross alpha determination with a few alterations and improvements. Using 3-L aliquots of sample, spiked with 133Ba tracer, the alpha-emitting radionuclides are isolated by a BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 co-precipitation scheme. First the gross alpha-particle activity of the sample is measured with a low-background gas-flow proportional counter, followed by radium isotopes assay by gamma-ray spectroscopy, using the same prepared sample. Gamma-ray determination of 133Ba tracer is used to assess the radium chemical recovery. The 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in the sample are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb/214Bi, and 228Ac, respectively. In cases where 224Ra determination is required, the gamma-ray counting should be performed within 2-4 d from sample collection. To measure 226Ra activity in the sample, the gamma-ray spectroscopy can be repeated 21 d after sample preparation to ensure that 226Ra and its progeny have reached the equilibrium state. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with parent 228Ra is already established. Analysis of aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with NIST-traceable 230Th, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra standards demonstrated the accuracy and precision of this method. Various performance evaluation samples were also assayed for gross alpha as well as radium isotope activity determination using this procedure and the

  14. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  15. Improved limit on the Ra225 electric dipole moment

    DOE PAGES

    Bishof, Michael; Parker, Richard H.; Bailey, Kevin G.; ...

    2016-08-03

    In this study, octupole-deformed nuclei, such as that of 225Ra, are expected to amplify observable atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) that arise from time-reversal and parity-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015 we reported the first “proof-of-principle” measurement of the 225Ra atomic EDM.

  16. Paraprofessional Staff in Transition: The Sophomore RA Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt Brecheisen, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    The sophomore resident assistant (RA) experience exists at the point where the sophomore experience and the RA position intersect. Sophomore students contend with specific transition struggles and challenges unique to their class standing as they make decisions about their sense of purpose and future career, and those who choose to become RAs face…

  17. Exogenous IL-1Ra attenuates intestinal mucositis induced by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Wen; Ye, Hao; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.

  18. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC.

  19. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1988-12-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake.

  20. Prognosis of pneumocystis pneumonia complicated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-RA rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuji; Takahashi, Yuko; Minemura, Nobuyoshi; Ueda, Yo; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Mimori, Akio

    2012-08-01

    Clinical presentation of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) during immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatic diseases was compared between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 7) and those without RA (non-RA; n = 12) based on a chart review. Both RA and non-RA patients with PCP were treated with methotrexate (n = 7) combined with steroids (n = 6) and/or biologics (n = 4). RA-PCP patients were found to have a higher mortality rate than non-RA-PCP patients (3/7 vs. 0/12, respectively; p = 0.036) due to a later exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and a higher presentation rate of diffuse pulmonary lesions (4/7 vs. 1/12, respectively; p = 0.036) despite lower mean levels of serum beta-D: -glucan (314 ± 214 vs. 1139 ± 1114 pg/ml, respectively; p = 0.02) that suggested a lower burden of Pneumocystis jirovecii. In conclusion, PCP in RA patients with existing pulmonary lesions may trigger subsequent progression to lethal interstitial pneumonia.

  1. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  2. Measurement of 224Ra and 225Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, G; Burnett, W C; Dulaiova, H; Swarzenski, P W; Moore, W S

    2001-12-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn 218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  3. Differentiation and apoptosis in human immortalized sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Anna; Seltmann, Holger; Fimmel, Sabine; Müller-Decker, Karin; Tsukada, Miki; Bogdanoff, Birgit; Mandt, Nathalie; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Orfanos, Constantin E; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2003-02-01

    Increased cell volume, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and nuclear degeneration are phenomena indicating terminal differentiation of human sebocytes followed by holocrine secretion and cell death. The molecular pathways of natural and induced sebocyte elimination are still unknown, however. In this study, SZ95 sebocytes were found to exhibit DNA fragmentation after a 6 h culture followed by increased lactate dehydrogenase release after 24 h, indicating cell damage. With the help of morphologic studies and using Oil Red detection of cellular lipids, cell enlargement, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and nuclear fragmentation could be observed under treatment with arachidonic acid. Staurosporine, a potent inhibitor of phospholipid Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, increased externalized phosphatidylserine levels on SZ95 sebocytes, detected by annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry, as early as after 1 h, whereas dose-dependent reduction of bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, enhanced DNA fragmentation, and increased caspase 3 levels, detected by caspase 3 inhibitor/propidium iodide flow cytometry, were found after 6 h of treatment. SZ95 sebocyte death was detected as early as after 6 h of SZ95 sebocyte treatment with high staurosporine concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M). 5Alpha-dihydrotestosterone (10(-8)-10(-5) M) did not affect externalized phosphatidylserine levels and DNA fragmentation in SZ95 sebocytes but slightly decreased lactate dehydrogenase cell release. Neither acitretin nor 13-cis retinoic acid (10(-8)-10(-5) M) affected externalized phosphatidylserine levels, DNA fragmentation, and lactate dehydrogenase cell release, despite the increased caspase 3 levels under treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid. The combined staurosporine and 13-cis retinoic acid treatment enhanced DNA fragmentation in SZ95 sebocytes to the same magnitude as in cells only treated with staurosporine. In conclusion, SZ95 sebocytes in vitro undergo apoptosis

  4. Altered gut microbiota in RA: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Cai, Y; Zhang, X; Kong, X; Su, J

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive joint disorder. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. A growing body of evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with RA. Certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses in RA experimental models, suggesting that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of RA. Oral intake of probiotics/prebiotics can therefore represent a therapeutic approach for RA treatment. However, the relevant scientific work has only just begun, and the available data in this field remain limited. Fortunately, utilization of new sequencing technologies allows expanded research on the association of intestinal bacterial flora and human diseases to be attempted. In this review, we summarize the role of gut microbiota in RA progression and address how specific bacterial strains regulate the immune response in disease process. Probiotics/prebiotics in the treatment of RA is also discussed.

  5. Concurrent determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 212Pb in a single analysis for drinking water and wastewater: dissolved and suspended fractions.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail

    2004-02-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 2t2Pb concurrently in a single analysis. The procedure can be applied to both drinking water and wastewater, including the dissolved and suspended fractions of a sample. For drinking water samples, using 3-L aliquots, the radium isotopes are isolated by a fast PbSO4 co-precipitation and then quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The radium isotopes 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb (and/or 214Bi), and 228Ac, respectively. Because of the short half-life of 224Ra (T1/2 = 3.66 d), the precipitate should be counted within 4 d of the sample collection date. In case the measurement of unsupported 212Pb (T1/2 = 10.64 h) is required, the gamma-ray analysis should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably on the same day of collection. The counting is repeated after about 21 d to ensure the 226Ra progeny are in equilibrium with their parent. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with its 228Ra parent is already established. In the case of samples containing suspended materials, an aliquot of sample is filtered and then the filtrate is treated as described above for drinking water samples. The suspended fraction of sample, collected on the filter, is directly analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with no further chemical separation. Aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with various radium standards were analyzed to check the accuracy and precision of the method. In addition, analysis results of actual samples using this method were compared with the ones performed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved procedures, and the measured values were in close agreement. This method simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces the labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection concentration requirements of EPA's Regulations.

  6. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  7. Progress toward an EDM measurement in {sup225}Ra.

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R. J.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are a signature of time-reversal and parity violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped {sup 225}Ra atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, {sup 225}Ra is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than {sup 199}Hg, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss progress toward realizing a first EDM measurement for {sup 225}Ra.

  8. Evaluation of retinoids for induction of the redundant gene ABCD2 as an alternative treatment option in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Franziska D; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Einwich, Angelika; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Muneer, Zahid; Maier, Harald; Weber, Willi H A; Berger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most common peroxisomal disorder, is a clinically heterogeneous disease that can manifest as devastating inflammatory cerebral demyelination (CALD) leading to death of affected males. Currently, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, HSCT is only effective when performed at an early stage because the inflammation may progress for eighteen months after HSCT. Thus, alternative treatment options able to immediately halt the progression are urgently needed. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ABCD1, resulting in impaired very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The related ABCD2 protein is able to functionally compensate for ABCD1-deficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we demonstrated that of the cell types derived from CD34+ stem cells, predominantly monocytes but not lymphocytes are metabolically impaired in X-ALD. As ABCD2 is virtually not expressed in these cells, we hypothesize that a pharmacological up-regulation of ABCD2 should compensate metabolically and halt the inflammation in CALD. Retinoids are anti-inflammatory compounds known to act on ABCD2. Here, we investigated the capacity of selected retinoids for ABCD2 induction in human monocytes/macrophages. In THP-1 cells, 13-cis-retinoic acid reached the highest, fivefold, increase in ABCD2 expression. To test the efficacy of retinoids in vivo, we analyzed ABCD2 mRNA levels in blood cells isolated from acne patients receiving 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. In treated acne patients, ABCD2 mRNA levels were comparable to pre-treatment levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when primary monocytes were in vitro differentiated into macrophages and treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid, we observed a fourfold induction of ABCD2. However, the level of ABCD2 induction obtained by retinoids alone is probably not of therapeutic relevance for X-ALD. In

  9. Evaluation of Retinoids for Induction of the Redundant Gene ABCD2 as an Alternative Treatment Option in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Franziska D.; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Einwich, Angelika; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Muneer, Zahid; Maier, Harald; Weber, Willi H. A.; Berger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most common peroxisomal disorder, is a clinically heterogeneous disease that can manifest as devastating inflammatory cerebral demyelination (CALD) leading to death of affected males. Currently, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, HSCT is only effective when performed at an early stage because the inflammation may progress for eighteen months after HSCT. Thus, alternative treatment options able to immediately halt the progression are urgently needed. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ABCD1, resulting in impaired very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The related ABCD2 protein is able to functionally compensate for ABCD1-deficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we demonstrated that of the cell types derived from CD34+ stem cells, predominantly monocytes but not lymphocytes are metabolically impaired in X-ALD. As ABCD2 is virtually not expressed in these cells, we hypothesize that a pharmacological up-regulation of ABCD2 should compensate metabolically and halt the inflammation in CALD. Retinoids are anti-inflammatory compounds known to act on ABCD2. Here, we investigated the capacity of selected retinoids for ABCD2 induction in human monocytes/macrophages. In THP-1 cells, 13-cis-retinoic acid reached the highest, fivefold, increase in ABCD2 expression. To test the efficacy of retinoids in vivo, we analyzed ABCD2 mRNA levels in blood cells isolated from acne patients receiving 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. In treated acne patients, ABCD2 mRNA levels were comparable to pre-treatment levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when primary monocytes were in vitro differentiated into macrophages and treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid, we observed a fourfold induction of ABCD2. However, the level of ABCD2 induction obtained by retinoids alone is probably not of therapeutic relevance for X-ALD. In

  10. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Noriyo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Takemura, Tamiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takaki, Yasunobu; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kamata, Noriko

    2013-11-01

    The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial release of 226Ra2+ from (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludges from uranium mine wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, P M; Westlake, D W; Anders, C; Kratochvil, B; Motkosky, N; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    1986-01-01

    226Ra2+ is removed from uranium mine effluents by coprecipitation with BaSO4. (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge samples from two Canadian mine sites were found to contain active heterotrophic populations of aerobic, anaerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Under laboratory conditions, sulfate reduction occurred in batch cultures when carbon sources such as acetate, glucose, glycollate, lactate, or pyruvate were added to samples of (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge. No external sources of nitrogen or phosphate were required for this activity. Further studies with lactate supplementation showed that once the soluble SO4(2-) in the overlying water was depleted, Ba2+ and 226Ra2+ were dissolved from the (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge, with the concurrent production of S2-. Levels of dissolved 226Ra2+ reached approximately 400 Bq/liter after 10 weeks of incubation. Results suggest that the ultimate disposal of these sludges must maintain conditions to minimize the activity of the indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria to ensure that unacceptably high levels of 226Ra2+ are not released to the environment. PMID:3752993

  12. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors and retinoic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived morphogen controlling important developmental processes in vertebrates, and more generally in chordates, including axial patterning and tissue formation and differentiation. In the embryo, endogenous RA levels are controlled by RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and the RA signal is transduced by two retinoid receptors: the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Both RAR and RXR are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and mainly act as heterodimers to activate the transcription of target genes in the presence of their ligand, all-trans RA. This signaling pathway was long thought to be a chordate innovation, however, recent findings of gene homologs involved in RA signaling in the genomes of a wide variety of non-chordate animals, including ambulacrarians (sea urchins and acorn worms) and lophotrochozoans (annelids and mollusks), challenged this traditional view and suggested that the RA signaling pathway might have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously thought. In this chapter, we discuss the evolutionary history of the RA signaling pathway, and more particularly of the RARs, which might have experienced independent gene losses and duplications in different animal lineages. In sum, the available data reveal novel insights into the origin of the RA signaling pathway as well as into the evolutionary history of the RARs.

  13. Retinoic Acid Regulates Embryonic Development of Mammalian Submandibular Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Diana M.; Buenger, Deanna E.; Abashev, Timur M.; Lindeman, Robert P.; Ding, Jixiang; Sandell, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis is orchestrated by cell and tissue interactions mediated by molecular signals. Identification of relevant signals, and the tissues that generate and receive them, are important goals of developmental research. Here, we demonstrate that Retinoic Acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule important for morphogenesis of mammalian submandibular salivary glands (SMG). By examining late stage RA deficient embryos of Rdh10 mutant mice we show that SMG development requires RA in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we find that active RA signaling occurs in SMG tissues, arising earlier than any other known marker of SMG development and persisting throughout gland morphogenesis. At the initial bud stage of development, we find RA production occurs in SMG mesenchyme, while RA signaling occurs in epithelium. We also demonstrate active RA signaling occurs in glands cultured ex vivo, and treatment with an inhibitor of RA signaling blocks growth and branching. Together these data identify RA signaling as a direct regulator of SMG organogenesis. PMID:26278034

  14. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. RA and FGF Signalling Are Required in the Zebrafish Otic Vesicle to Pattern and Maintain Ventral Otic Identities

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Esther C.; Whitfield, Tanya T.

    2014-01-01

    During development of the zebrafish inner ear, regional patterning in the ventral half of the otic vesicle establishes zones of gene expression that correspond to neurogenic, sensory and non-neural cell fates. FGF and Retinoic acid (RA) signalling from surrounding tissues are known to have an early role in otic placode induction and otic axial patterning, but how external signalling cues are translated into intrinsic patterning during otic vesicle (OV) stages is not yet understood. FGF and RA signalling pathway members are expressed in and around the OV, suggesting important roles in later patterning or maintenance events. We have analysed the temporal requirement of FGF and RA signalling for otic development at stages after initial anteroposterior patterning has occurred. We show that high level FGF signalling acts to restrict sensory fates, whereas low levels favour sensory hair cell development; in addition, FGF is both required and sufficient to promote the expression of the non-neural marker otx1b in the OV. RA signalling has opposite roles: it promotes sensory fates, and restricts otx1b expression and the development of non-neural fates. This is surprisingly different from the earlier requirement for RA signalling in specification of non-neural fates via tbx1 expression, and highlights the shift in regulation that takes place between otic placode and vesicle stages in zebrafish. Both FGF and RA signalling are required for the development of the otic neurogenic domain and the generation of otic neuroblasts. In addition, our results indicate that FGF and RA signalling act in a feedback loop in the anterior OV, crucial for pattern refinement. PMID:25473832

  16. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  17. 6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)Carbazole (FICZ) Modulates the Signalsome Responsible for RA-Induced Differentiation of HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Rodica P; Jensen, Holly A; MacDonald, Robert J; LaTocha, Dorian H; Varner, Jeffrey D; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) is a photoproduct of tryptophan and an endogenous high affinity ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It was previously reported that, in patient-derived HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation is driven by a signalsome containing c-Cbl and AhR. FICZ enhances RA-induced differentiation, assessed by expression of the membrane differentiation markers CD38 and CD11b, cell cycle arrest and the functional differentiation marker, inducible oxidative metabolism. Moreover, FICZ augments the expression of a number of the members of the RA-induced signalsome, such as c-Cbl, Vav1, Slp76, PI3K, and the Src family kinases Fgr and Lyn. Pursuing the molecular signaling responsible for RA-induced differentiation, we characterized, using FRET and clustering analysis, associations of key molecules thought to drive differentiation. Here we report that, assayed by FRET, AhR interacts with c-Cbl upon FICZ plus RA-induced differentiation, whereas AhR constitutively interacts with Cbl-b. Moreover, correlation analysis based on the flow cytometric assessment of differentiation markers and western blot detection of signaling factors reveal that Cbl-b, p-p38α and pT390-GSK3β, are not correlated with other known RA-induced signaling components or with a phenotypic outcome. We note that FICZ plus RA elicited signaling responses that were not typical of RA alone, but may represent alternative differentiation-driving pathways. In clusters of signaling molecules seminal to cell differentiation, FICZ co-administered with RA augments type and intensity of the dynamic changes induced by RA. Our data suggest relevance for FICZ in differentiation-induction therapy. The mechanism of action includes modulation of a SFK and MAPK centered signalsome and c-Cbl-AhR association.

  18. 6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)Carbazole (FICZ) Modulates the Signalsome Responsible for RA-Induced Differentiation of HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) is a photoproduct of tryptophan and an endogenous high affinity ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It was previously reported that, in patient-derived HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation is driven by a signalsome containing c-Cbl and AhR. FICZ enhances RA-induced differentiation, assessed by expression of the membrane differentiation markers CD38 and CD11b, cell cycle arrest and the functional differentiation marker, inducible oxidative metabolism. Moreover, FICZ augments the expression of a number of the members of the RA-induced signalsome, such as c-Cbl, Vav1, Slp76, PI3K, and the Src family kinases Fgr and Lyn. Pursuing the molecular signaling responsible for RA-induced differentiation, we characterized, using FRET and clustering analysis, associations of key molecules thought to drive differentiation. Here we report that, assayed by FRET, AhR interacts with c-Cbl upon FICZ plus RA-induced differentiation, whereas AhR constitutively interacts with Cbl-b. Moreover, correlation analysis based on the flow cytometric assessment of differentiation markers and western blot detection of signaling factors reveal that Cbl-b, p-p38α and pT390-GSK3β, are not correlated with other known RA-induced signaling components or with a phenotypic outcome. We note that FICZ plus RA elicited signaling responses that were not typical of RA alone, but may represent alternative differentiation-driving pathways. In clusters of signaling molecules seminal to cell differentiation, FICZ co-administered with RA augments type and intensity of the dynamic changes induced by RA. Our data suggest relevance for FICZ in differentiation-induction therapy. The mechanism of action includes modulation of a SFK and MAPK centered signalsome and c-Cbl-AhR association. PMID:26287494

  19. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoishi; Ueno, Kaoru; Hinoide, Moriyo; Ohkubo, Yoshiteru

    1994-11-01

    {sup 226}Ra concentrations in human teeth from several cities, mainly Tokyo, Japan, were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 226}Ra by alpha-ray spectrometry following chemical separation. No appreciable differences in {sup 226}Ra concentration were found among various permanent teeth samples of different age groups in Tokyo. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration for Tokyo was 0.51 {+-} 0.06 mBq (g CA){sup -1}. {sup 226}Ra concentration [mean: 0.67 {+-} 0.11 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in teeth in western regions of the country was statistically higher than that [mean: 0.48 {+-} 0.09 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in eastern ones. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration [0.51 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] in teeth from Tokyo was less than the concentration [1.11 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] reported for vertebral bone samples of this city. 27 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Vhnf1 acts downstream of Bmp, Fgf, and RA signals to regulate endocrine beta cell development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Kim, Hyon J; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Ning-Ai; Lin, Shuo

    2007-03-15

    Bmp, Fgf, and retinoic acid (RA) signals have been implicated as regulators of pancreas development. However, the integration of these signaling pathways in vivo is not fully understood. Variant hnf1 (Vhnf1) is a transcription factor involved in pancreas, liver, and kidney development and its mutation in zebrafish causes underdeveloped pancreas and liver. We investigated the signaling pathways that regulate vhnf1 expression during pancreas development. First, we showed that Bmp activity is required for vhnf1 expression in the endoderm. In chordin (a Bmp antagonist) morpholino (MO)-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in endoderm and in endocrine beta cells is expanded. On the other hand, in alk8 (a type I TGFbeta receptor) MO-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in the endoderm is significantly reduced. Second, we showed that Fgf signaling participates in regulation of pancreas development through the vhnf1 pathway. Third, we demonstrated that RA fails to rescue reduction of insulin expression in vhnf1 mutants, whereas overexpression of vhnf1 restores insulin expression that is repressed by treatment with a RA receptor inhibitor. And finally, we revealed that both Bmp and Fgf signals act genetically upstream of RA in directing pancreas development. Taken together, our data establish that vhnf1 acts downstream of the signaling pathways of RA, Bmp, and Fgf to regulate pancreas development in zebrafish.

  1. RA Acts in a Coherent Feed-Forward Mechanism with Tbx5 to Control Limb Bud Induction and Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoko; Wilde, Susan M.; Wood, Sophie; Logan, Malcolm P.O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The retinoic acid (RA)- and β-catenin-signaling pathways regulate limb bud induction and initiation; however, their mechanisms of action are not understood and have been disputed. We demonstrate that both pathways are essential and that RA and β-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling act cooperatively with Hox gene inputs to directly regulate Tbx5 expression. Furthermore, in contrast to previous models, we show that Tbx5 and Tbx4 expression in forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, are not sufficient for limb outgrowth and that input from RA is required. Collectively, our data indicate that RA signaling and Tbx genes act in a coherent feed-forward loop to regulate Fgf10 expression and, as a result, establish a positive feedback loop of FGF signaling between the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm. Our results incorporate RA-, β-catenin/TCF/LEF-, and FGF-signaling pathways into a regulatory network acting to recruit cells of the embryo flank to become limb precursors. PMID:26212321

  2. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Johan Zoffany RA: Society...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed,'' imported from abroad...

  3. Concentration of 210Po, 226Ra and 228Ac in non-siliceous environmental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houmani, Zidan Mohamed M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Ahmed, Zaharuddin

    2001-06-01

    The present interest concerns the possible anthropomorphic enhancement of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in non-siliceous media, in particular, sediment from a river running alongside a crude oil facility and alluvial samples from the site of a now defunct minerals benefication plant. We use gamma spectrometry for 226Ra and 228Ac, and for 210Po we use alpha spectrometry in association with a hydrochloric acid based radiochemical method for the extraction of 210Po. Using 209Po to monitor polonium extraction from samples we find the concentrations of 210Po, 226Ra and 228Ac in river sediments to be in accord with typical background values (˜0.04 Bq g -1 dry), while for sub-surface soils located nearby we find the respective activity concentrations to accord with low background values (˜0.02 Bq g -1dry). For alluvial material from the site of a defunct minerals benefications plant we have found 210Po concentrations of ˜11 Bq g -1 (dry) in two of three samples and 30 Bq g -1 (dry) in the remaining sample; 226Ra and 228Ac were some several times these concentrations. In support of the methods we have adopted in present evaluations we find IAEA-300 Baltic Sea sediment reference material to contain 210Po concentrations that are within the IAEA confidence interval for this material.

  4. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  5. Initiating meiosis: the case for retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Michael D; Hogarth, Cathryn A; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction and development was first determined from studies of nutritional deficiencies. Subsequent research has shown that embryonic development and both male and female reproduction are modulated by retinoic acid (RA), the active form of vitamin A. Because RA is active in multiple developmental systems, its synthesis, transport, and degradation are tightly regulated in different tissues. A growing body of evidence implicates RA as a requirement for the initiation of meiosis in both male and female mammals, resulting in a mechanistic model involving the interplay of RA, RA synthesis enzymes, RA receptors, and degradative cytochrome P450 enzymes in this system. Recently, that model has been challenged, prompting a review of the established paradigm. While it remains possible that additional molecules may be involved in regulating entry into meiosis, the weight of evidence supporting a key role for RA is incontrovertible.

  6. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed.

  7. Coelimination and Survival in Gene Network Evolution: Dismantling the RA-Signaling in a Chordate.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Belyaeva, Olga V; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Kedishvili, Natalia Y; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    The bloom of genomics is revealing gene loss as a pervasive evolutionary force generating genetic diversity that shapes the evolution of species. Outside bacteria and yeast, however, the understanding of the process of gene loss remains elusive, especially in the evolution of animal species. Here, using the dismantling of the retinoic acid metabolic gene network (RA-MGN) in the chordate Oikopleura dioica as a case study, we combine approaches of comparative genomics, phylogenetics, biochemistry, and developmental biology to investigate the mutational robustness associated to biased patterns of gene loss. We demonstrate the absence of alternative pathways for RA-synthesis in O. dioica, which suggests that gene losses of RA-MGN were not compensated by mutational robustness, but occurred in a scenario of regressive evolution. In addition, the lack of drastic phenotypic changes associated to the loss of RA-signaling provides an example of the inverse paradox of Evo-Devo. This work illustrates how the identification of patterns of gene coelimination-in our case five losses (Rdh10, Rdh16, Bco1, Aldh1a, and Cyp26)-is a useful strategy to recognize gene network modules associated to distinct functions. Our work also illustrates how the identification of survival genes helps to recognize neofunctionalization events and ancestral functions. Thus, the survival and extensive duplication of Cco and RdhE2 in O. dioica correlated with the acquisition of complex compartmentalization of expression domains in the digestive system and a process of enzymatic neofunctionalization of the Cco, while the surviving Aldh8 could be related to its ancestral housekeeping role against toxic aldehydes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A High Throughput Phenotypic Screening reveals compounds that counteract premature osteogenic differentiation of HGPS iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Jaskowiak, Anne-Laure; Egesipe, Anne-Laure; Tournois, Johana; Brinon, Benjamin; Pitrez, Patricia R.; Ferreira, Lino; de Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Levy, Nicolas; Nissan, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare fatal genetic disorder that causes systemic accelerated aging in children. Thanks to the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), HGPS iPSC-based modeling opens up the possibility of access to different relevant cell types for pharmacological approaches. In this study, 2800 small molecules were explored using high-throughput screening, looking for compounds that could potentially reduce the alkaline phosphatase activity of HGPS mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) committed into osteogenic differentiation. Results revealed seven compounds that normalized the osteogenic differentiation process and, among these, all-trans retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, that also decreased progerin expression. This study highlights the potential of high-throughput drug screening using HGPS iPS-derived cells, in order to find therapeutic compounds for HGPS and, potentially, for other aging-related disorders. PMID:27739443

  9. A High Throughput Phenotypic Screening reveals compounds that counteract premature osteogenic differentiation of HGPS iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Jaskowiak, Anne-Laure; Egesipe, Anne-Laure; Tournois, Johana; Brinon, Benjamin; Pitrez, Patricia R; Ferreira, Lino; de Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Levy, Nicolas; Nissan, Xavier

    2016-10-14

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare fatal genetic disorder that causes systemic accelerated aging in children. Thanks to the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), HGPS iPSC-based modeling opens up the possibility of access to different relevant cell types for pharmacological approaches. In this study, 2800 small molecules were explored using high-throughput screening, looking for compounds that could potentially reduce the alkaline phosphatase activity of HGPS mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) committed into osteogenic differentiation. Results revealed seven compounds that normalized the osteogenic differentiation process and, among these, all-trans retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, that also decreased progerin expression. This study highlights the potential of high-throughput drug screening using HGPS iPS-derived cells, in order to find therapeutic compounds for HGPS and, potentially, for other aging-related disorders.

  10. Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings ( Ra- 226, Tn-230).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major part of the extractable uranium is associated with a readily acid-soluble fraction in both ore and tailings. The major part of the extractable 226Ra was associated with an iron, manganese hydrous-oxide fraction in the ore and tailings. Thorium-230 was the least leachable of the radionuclides studied. The major portion of the extractable 230Th was associated with alkaline-earth sulphate precipitates, organic matter, or both. The specific effects of milling on each of the nuclides are discussed.-Author

  11. Metabolic modeling of Rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Deepak K

    2010-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyllacticacid. It is commonly found in Coleus blumei, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis. The biosynthesis of RA starts with precursor molecules L‐phenylalanine and L‐tyrosine. Simulation of RA biosynthetic pathway was done using Gepasi Software, includes the reaction kinetics of each step of the pathway and different integration methods such as Euler's method. Optimization of the significant parameters responsible for RA biosynthesis was carried out. As the goal of the work was to increase the productivity of i.e. to maximize the concentration of the RA, the final concentration of RA ([RA]t) was selected as an objective function and selected initial concentration of the Caffeoyl‐3’‐4’hydroxyphenyllactic acid (3’C4HPLA) as parameter constraint and varied its initial concentration as: 0≤ [3’C4HPLA]i ≤ 0.025. Several optimization methods such as Simulated annealing, Evolutionary algorithms and Genetic algorithms were used to optimize the objective function. After optimization the final concentration of RA was slightly higher (4.566132e‐002 mM) than before optimization (4.047119e‐ 002 mM). On the basis of results obtained, it is clear that 4‐hydroxyphenyllactic acid and 3’C4HPLA play major role in the high productivity of the RA. PMID:21364781

  12. HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinoids and tocopherols in human serum for monitoring of anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Krcmová, Lenka; Urbánek, Lubor; Solichová, Dagmar; Kasparová, Markéta; Vlcková, Hana; Melichar, Bohuslav; Sobotka, Lubos; Solich, Petr

    2009-08-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method requiring small volumes (250 microL) of human serum after C18 SPE sample preparation was developed using monolithic technology for simultaneous determination of all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinol, gamma- and alpha-tocopherol. The monolithic column, Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100x4.6 mm), was operated at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 1% ammonium acetate in water (AMC) at pH 7.0. The mobile phase started at 98:2 (v/v) ACN/AMC (column pre-treatment) at a flow rate of 2 mL/min, then changed to 95:5 (v/v) ACN/AMC for 4 min at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and a further 3 min at a flow rate of 3.2 mL/min. Detection and identification were performed using a photodiode array detector. Retinol, 13-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acid were monitored at 325 nm. Both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were detected at 295 nm. The total analysis time was 7.2 min. Tocol (synthesized tocopherol, not occurring in humans) was used as internal standard. The method was linear in the range of 0.125-10.00 micromol/L for all-trans-retinoic acid, 0.125-5.00 micromol/L for 13-cis-retinoic acid, 0.25-10.00 micromol/L for retinol, 0.5-50.00 micromol/L for gamma-tocopherol, and 0.5-50.00 micromol/L for alpha-tocopherol. The present method may be useful for monitoring of retinoids and tocopherols in clinical studies.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    DOE PAGES

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; ...

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs)more » were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.« less

  14. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12.…

  15. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12.…

  16. An efficient and simple method for measuring (226)Ra using the scintillation cell in a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Waska, Hannelore; Kim, Seolwon; Kim, Guebuem; Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C

    2008-12-01

    A delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC), developed to determine ultra-low levels of (223)Ra (half life = 11.1 days) and (224)Ra (half life = 3.6 days) in seawater, was adapted to measure (226)Ra (half life = 1622 years). After pre-concentration of Ra from seawater onto MnO(2)-coated fiber we show in this study that the (226)Ra activity can be determined using the RaDeCC's ability to record alpha decay of its daughters as total counts. For sufficient ingrowth of (222)Rn, the Mn-fiber is hermetically sealed in a column for a few days. Then, the ingrown (222)Rn is circulated through the RaDeCC air-loop system followed by shutting down of the pump and closure of the scintillation cell for equilibration. Counting may be completed within a few hours for seawater samples. Sample measurements with this method agreed well with data obtained using gamma-ray spectrometry. This proves that a set of Ra isotopes ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, and (226)Ra), commonly used for geophysical studies such as mixing rates of different water masses and submarine groundwater discharge, can be efficiently and rapidly measured using the RaDeCC.

  17. Polymorphism of the mouse gene for the interleukin 10 receptor alpha chain (Il10ra) and its association with the autoimmune phenotype.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zan-Mei; Wang, Jun; Sun, Zheng-Rong; Ma, Feng-Mao; Zhang, Qing-Rui; Hirose, Sachiko; Jiang, Yi

    2005-10-01

    Several studies suggest that interleukin (IL)-10 pathway is involved in murine lupus, while no linkage of IL-10 gene polymorphism to disease susceptibility has been reported in studies with lupus-prone mice. Since IL-10 functions through the specific IL-10 receptor alpha (IL-10RA) chain and the IL-10RA gene (Il10ra) is linked to the susceptibility loci of atopic dermatitis and Crohn's disease identified using mouse models, we supposed that IL-10RA might be involved in murine lupus. By flow cytometry analysis, we found that NZW mice, one of the parental strains of lupus-prone (NZBxNZW) F1 mice, express extremely low levels of IL-10RA compared with NZB mice, the other parental strain, and the healthy BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Sequence analyses of Il10ra cDNA of NZW mice showed multiple nucleotide mutations compared with that of NZB and C57BL/6 strains, some of which would result in amino acid substitutions in the IL-10RA protein. Lupus-prone MRL mice shared the same polymorphism with NZW. Analyses using (NZBxNZW) F1xNZB backcross mice showed that high serum levels of IgG antichromatin antibodies were regulated by a combinatorial effect of the NZW Il10ra allele and a heterozygous genotype for Tnfa microsatellite locus. Our data suggest that the polymorphic NZW-type Il10ra may be involved in the pathologic production of antichromatin antibodies and, if so, may contribute in part to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus as one susceptibility allele.

  18. Quantum-state-selective decay spectroscopy of 213Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ch.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Rudolph, D.; Ward, D. E.; Block, M.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Cortés, M. L.; Droese, C.; Dworschak, M.; Eibach, M.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hoischen, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Nesterenko, D.; Ragnarsson, I.; Schaffner, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolze, S.; Wenzl, J.

    2017-09-01

    An experimental scheme combining the mass resolving power of a Penning trap with contemporary decay spectroscopy has been established at GSI Darmstadt. The Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI Darmstadt provided a 48Ca beam impinging on a thin 170Er target foil. Subsequent to velocity filtering of reaction products in the Separator for Heavy Ion reaction Products (SHIP), the nuclear ground state of the 5 n evaporation channel 213Ra was mass-selected in SHIPTRAP, and the 213Ra ions were finally transferred into an array of silicon strip detectors surrounded by large composite germanium detectors. Based on comprehensive geant4 simulations and supported by theoretical calculations, the spectroscopic results call for a revision of the decay path of 213Ra, thereby exemplifying the potential of a combination of a mass-selective Penning trap device with a dedicated nuclear decay station and contemporary geant4 simulations.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for (223)Ra and (225)Ra for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J V; Woodward, J D; Chen, N; Rondinone, A J; Castano, C H; Mirzadeh, S

    2015-07-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing micro-metastases with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. In-vivo generator radionuclides, such as(223)Ra, (225)Ra, and (225)Ac, are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple α-particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. In this work, LaPO4 core and core+2 shells nanoparticles (NPs) (NPs with 2 layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) were synthesized containing either (223)Ra or(225)Ra/(225)Ac, and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Core LaPO4 NPs were synthesized in aqueous solution by reacting 1 equivalent of La(NO3)3, along with few microcuries of either (223)Ra or (225)Ra/(225)Ac, with 1 equivalent of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) under moderate heating and purified by membrane dialysis. Core-shell NPs were also synthesized with one (core+1 shell) and two (core+2 shells) cold LaPO4 layers deposited onto the radioactive cores. The NPs were then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Identification and quantification of radioactive parents and daughters released from the NPs in vitro were investigated using gamma-ray spectroscopy. XRD and TEM analysis revealed that the NPs crystallized in the rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO4 NPs retained up to 88% of (223)Ra over 35days. However, in the core+2 shells NPs, the retention of (223)Ra and its daughter, (211)Pb, was improved to >99.9% over 27days. Additionally, the retention of (225)Ra/(225)Ac parents was >99.98% and ~80% for the (221)Fr and (213)Bi daughters over 35days for the core+2 shells NPs

  20. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  1. IL7RA polymorphisms are not associated with AIDS progression.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Luz María; Jiménez, José Luis; Jiménez-Sousa, María A; Fernández-Rodíguez, Amanda; Gutiérrez-Rivas, Mónica; Bellón, José María; Blanco, José Ramón; Inciarte, Alexy; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles; Resino, Salvador

    2017-08-10

    Our aim was to determine whether α-chain of the IL-7 receptor (IL7RA) polymorphisms (rs10491434, rs6897932 and rs987106) are associated with the clinical pattern of AIDS progression in ART-naïve HIV-infected patients. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 673 HIV-infected patients who were classified into three groups according to the clinical pattern of AIDS progression (188 long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), 334 moderate progressors (MPs) and 151 rapid progressors (RPs)). Additionally, 134 healthy blood donors participated as a Control-group. We selected three IL7RA polymorphisms located at three regulatory regions [rs6897932 (exon 6), rs987106 (intronic region) and rs10491434 (3'UTR)]. DNA genotyping was performed using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. The Control-group and all HIV-infected patients had similar age and percentage of males. LTNP-group was older at HIV diagnosis and at the inclusion in the study and had higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IDU) (P < 0·001). Besides, LTNP-group had lower proportion of male patients and homosexual HIV transmission than MP and RP groups (P < 0·001). Moreover, similar values of allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequencies for IL7RA polymorphisms were found between healthy controls and HIV-infected patients (P > 0·05), and among different subgroups of HIV patients according to AIDS progression (LTNPs, MPs and RPs) (P > 0·05). The adjusted logistic regression did not show any significant association between IL7RA polymorphisms and AIDS progression. IL7RA polymorphisms (rs6897932, rs987106 and rs10491434) were not associated with AIDS progression in Spanish population. Therefore, IL7RA polymorphisms do not seem to help us to understand HIV pathogenesis in untreated HIV-infected patients with different clinical evolution. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  3. Process waste assessment: Color print processing (RA-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Catlett, P.

    1994-05-01

    The Kodak RA-4 process is used to develop prints and overhead transparencies from photographic negatives. The assessment was based on usage, effluent discharge, and final disposition of waste generated by the process. Two options explored were bleach-fix regeneration and the conversion to a digital image processing system. The RA-4 process is process is environmentally sound and generates a relatively small amount of waste. The bleach-fix option would provide only a small effluent reduction. The digital imaging conversion option, if fully implemented, could greatly reduce waste generated in the photo lab.

  4. Feasibility and Domain Validation of RA Flare Core Domain Set: A Report of the OMERACT 2014 RA Flare Group Plenary

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Susan J.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Cooksey, Roxanne; Choy, Ernest H.; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E.; Guillemin, Francis; Halls, Serena; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye L.; Lyddiatt, Anne; March, Lyn; Montie, Pamela; Orbai, Ana Maria; Pohl, Christoph; Voshaar, Marieke Scholte; Woodworth, Thasia G.; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The OMERACT RA Flare Group was established to develop an approach to identify and measure rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flares. Here, we provide an overview of our OMERACT 2014 plenary. Methods Feasibility and validity of flare domains endorsed at OMERACT 11 (2012) were described based on initial data from three international studies collected using a common set of questions specific to RA flare. Mean flare frequency, severity, and duration data were presented, and domain scores were compared by flare status to examine known-groups validity. Breakout groups provided input for stiffness, self-management, contextual factors, and measurement considerations. Results Flare data from 501 patients in a observational study indicated 39% were in a flare, with mean (SD) severity of 6.0 (2.6) and 55% lasting > 14 days. Pain, physical function, fatigue, participation and stiffness scores averaged ≥ 2 times higher (2 of 11 points) in flaring individuals. Correlations between flare domains and corresponding legacy instruments were r’s from 0.46 to 0.93. A combined definition (patient-report of flare and DAS28 increase) was evaluated in two other trials with similar results. Breakout groups debated specific measurement issues. Conclusion These data contribute initial evidence of feasibility and content validation of the OMERACT RA Flare Core Domain Set. Our research agenda for OMERACT 2016 includes establishing duration/intensity criteria and developing criteria to identify RA flares using existing disease activity measures. Ongoing work will also address discordance between patients and physician ratings, facilitate applications to clinical care, elucidate the role of self-management and help finalize recommendations for RA flare measurement. PMID:25684764

  5. CD45RA+ T cells: not simple virgins.

    PubMed

    Lightstone, L; Marvel, J

    1993-11-01

    1. The T cells which mediate immunological memory remain elusive. Identification of such cells would open the door to increasingly specific immunotherapy in areas such as transplantation and autoimmunity. 2. Over the last few years attempts have been made to identify phenotypic markers which can distinguish naive or virgin T cells from primed or memory ones. In humans, great hopes were raised when it was shown that the level of expression of the higher-molecular-mass isoforms (CD45RA) of the tyrosine phosphatase, CD45, correlated with previous exposure to antigen. 4. However, our studies in the mouse and more recent studies in rat and human suggest that expression of CD45RA more closely correlates with the state of responsiveness of the T cell. 5. Thus, with time, activated/memory T cells return to a state of quiescence or hypo-responsiveness and express high levels of CD45RA. Hence, not all CD45RA+ T cells are virgins.

  6. Observation of the negative ions: Ra[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Nadeau, M.; Garwan, M.A.; Kilius, L.R.; Litherland, A.E. )

    1993-11-01

    The negative ions of the isotopes [sup 226]Ra, [sup 231]Pa, and [sup 244]Pu have been observed by means of accelerator mass spectrometry and their properties compared with the negative ions of Th and U. The electron affinities of all these elements have been estimated to be similar and greater than 50 meV.

  7. "LJ" Series "Redefining RA": Keeping up with Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Genre is a hot issue in readers' advisory (RA) circles right now. Many people are looking at how genre functions and morphs. Studying a genre is not a new idea. Over two decades ago, and even longer in less formal ways, librarians began gathering to study genres--asking such questions as in what genre does this book fit and why, what are its…

  8. "LJ" Series "Redefining RA": Keeping up with Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Genre is a hot issue in readers' advisory (RA) circles right now. Many people are looking at how genre functions and morphs. Studying a genre is not a new idea. Over two decades ago, and even longer in less formal ways, librarians began gathering to study genres--asking such questions as in what genre does this book fit and why, what are its…

  9. Diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layers at the continental slopes off Peru and Mauritania based on 224Ra/223Ra-ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, P.; Scholten, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Miquel, J. C.; Gasser, B.; Liebetrau, V.; Sommer, S.; Dengler, M.; Bryant, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Marine sediments may act as sources and/or sinks of nutrients in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) where solute fluxes between sediments and the above water column are believed to be an important component for the bioproductivity in the mixed layer. However, solute fluxes between sediments and the water column above are difficult to obtain. We determined the diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layer at the OMZs off Peru and Mauritania using nutrient concentration profiles and vertical diffusion coefficients derived from 224Ra/223Ra isotope ratios. The radium isotopes 223Ra (half-life: 11.4 days) and 224Ra (half-life: 3.66 days) are produced in sediments by radioactive decay of 227Th and 228Th ,respectively: Diffusion of radium out of the sediments results in gradients of 224Ra/223Ra above the sediments; and these gradients may be used to estimate vertical diffusion coefficients. We determined 224Ra/223Ra along two transects at the continental slopes off Peru (12° S) and off Mauritania (18° N) in water depths between 65m - 1000mand 53m - 1100m, respectively. For the 223Ra/224Ra sampling we used acrylic fibers/cartridges coated with MnO2. The Mn-fibers were attached to benthic landers (moored for ~ 24 hours at the sea floor) and the Mn-cartridges were placed in series on several in-situ filtration pumps (Challenger Oceanic and McLane pumps). 223Ra and 224Ra were measured on-board using a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). In our presentation we will present the 224Ra/223Ra distribution along these transects investigated and we will compare the diapycnal radium-derived nutrient fluxes with those determined using benthic chambers and microstructure measurements.

  10. Raldh3 expression in diabetic islets reciprocally regulates secretion of insulin and glucagon from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Sachiko; Shinagawa, Akira

    2010-10-08

    We have previously reported that obesity-induced diabetes developed in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BDF1 mice. This is caused by insufficient insulin response to an excess glucose load. In this study, we have shown that the enhanced expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (Raldh3) causes functional disorders of pancreatic islets in diabetic mouse models. In the pancreatic islets of HFD-induced diabetic BDF1 mice and spontaneously diabetic C57BL/KsJ(db/db) mice, gene expression analysis with oligonucleotide microarray revealed a significant increase in Raldh3 expression. Exposure to a culture medium containing a higher glucose concentration (25 mM) significantly increased Raldh3 expression in murine MIN6 and alphaTC1 clone 9 cells, which derived from the α and β-cells of pancreatic islets, respectively. Overexpression of Raldh3 reduced the insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, and surprisingly, increased the glucagon secretion in alphaTC1 clone 9 cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of Raldh3 expression with siRNA decreased the glucagon secretion in alphaTC1 clone 9 cells. Raldh3 catalyzes the conversion of 13-cis retinal to 13-cis retinoic acid and we revealed that 13-cis retinoic acid significantly reduces cell viability in MIN6 and alphaTC1 clone 9 cells, but not in cells of H4IIEC3, 3T3-L1, and COS-1 cell lines. These findings suggest that an increasing expression of Raldh3 deregulates the balanced mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion in the pancreatic islets and may induce β-cell dysfunction leading to the development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of surfactants on Ra-sHSPI - A small heat shock protein from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus annulatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahein, Yasser E.; Hussein, Nahla; Khan, Rizwan H.

    2016-09-01

    Electrostatic interaction plays an important role in protein aggregation phenomenon. In this study, we have checked the effect of anionic - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and cationic-Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) surfactant on aggregation behavior of Ra-sHSPI, a small heat shock protein purified from Rhipicephalus annulatus tick. To monitor the effect of these surfactants, we have employed several spectroscopic methods such as Rayleigh light scattering measurements, ANS (8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) fluorescence measurements, ThT (Thioflavin T) binding assays, Far-UV CD (Circular Dichroism) and dynamic light scattering measurements. In the presence of anionic surfactant-SDS, Ra-sHSPI forms amyloid fibrils, in contrast, no amyloid formation was observed in presence of cationic surfactant at low pH. Enhancement of ANS fluorescence intensity confirms the exposition of more hydrophobic patches during aggregation. ThT binding assay confirms the amyloid fibrillar nature of the SDS induced Ra-sHSPI aggregates and supported by PASTA 2.0 (prediction of amyloid structural aggregation) software. This study demonstrates the crucial role of charge during amyloid fibril formation at low pH in Ra-sHSPI.

  12. Early molecular events during retinoic acid induced differentiation of neuromesodermal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Colas, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) residing in the caudal epiblast drive coordinated body axis extension by generating both posterior neuroectoderm and presomitic mesoderm. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for body axis extension, however the early molecular response to RA signaling is poorly defined, as is its relationship to NMP biology. As endogenous RA is first seen near the time when NMPs appear, we used WNT/FGF agonists to differentiate embryonic stem cells to NMPs which were then treated with a short 2-h pulse of 25 nM RA or 1 µM RA followed by RNA-seq transcriptome analysis. Differential expression analysis of this dataset indicated that treatment with 25 nM RA, but not 1 µM RA, provided physiologically relevant findings. The 25 nM RA dataset yielded a cohort of previously known caudal RA target genes including Fgf8 (repressed) and Sox2 (activated), plus novel early RA signaling targets with nearby conserved RA response elements. Importantly, validation of top-ranked genes in vivo using RA-deficient Raldh2−/− embryos identified novel examples of RA activation (Nkx1-2, Zfp503, Zfp703, Gbx2, Fgf15, Nt5e) or RA repression (Id1) of genes expressed in the NMP niche or progeny. These findings provide evidence for early instructive and permissive roles of RA in controlling differentiation of NMPs to neural and mesodermal lineages. PMID:27793834

  13. Input overload: Contributions of retinoic acid signaling feedback mechanisms to heart development and teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Enrico; Waxman, Joshua S

    2015-03-01

    Appropriate levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling are critical for normal heart development in vertebrates. A fascinating property of RA signaling is the thoroughness by which positive and negative feedback are employed to promote proper embryonic RA levels. In the present short review, we first cover the advancement of hypotheses regarding the impact of RA signaling on cardiac specification. We then discuss our current understanding of RA signaling feedback mechanisms and the implications of recent studies, which have indicated improperly maintained RA signaling feedback can be a contributing factor to developmental malformations.

  14. Evaluating North Sea carbon sources using radiogenic (224Ra and 228Ra) and stable carbon isotope (DI13C) tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Paetsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nikki

    2015-04-01

    In the North Sea, much uncertainty still exists regarding the role of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) in the overall biogeochemical cycling of the system. The stable carbon isotope signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) is a common tool for following transformations of carbon in the water column and identifying carbon sources and sinks. Here, analyses of the first basin-wide observations of δ13C-DIC reveal that a balance between biological production and respiration, as well as a freshwater input near the European continental coast, predominantly control surface distributions in the North Sea. A strong relationship between the biological component of DIC (DICbio) and δ13C-DIC is then used to quantify the metabolic DIC flux associated with changes in the carbon isotopic signature. Correlations are also found between δ13C-DIC and naturally-occurring Radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra), which have well-identified sources from the seafloor and coastal boundaries. The relationship between δ13C-DIC and the longer-lived 228Ra isotope (half-life = 5.8 years) is used to derive a metabolic DIC flux from the European continental coastline. 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (TA) compared to the more conventional use of salinity as a tracer. Coastal alkalinity inputs are calculated using relationships with 228Ra, and ratios of DIC and TA suggest denitrification as the main metabolic pathway for the formation of these coastal inputs. Finally, coastal TA inputs are translated into inputs of protons to quantify their impact on the buffering capacity of the Southern North Sea.

  15. Antagonism between retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor signaling during limb development.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas J; Zhao, Xianling; Sandell, Lisa L; Evans, Sylvia M; Trainor, Paul A; Duester, Gregg

    2013-05-30

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) provides patterning information during vertebrate embryogenesis, but the mechanism through which RA influences limb development is unclear. During patterning of the limb proximodistal axis (upper limb to digits), avian studies suggest that a proximal RA signal generated in the trunk antagonizes a distal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal. However, mouse and zebrafish genetic studies suggest that loss of RA suppresses forelimb initiation. Here, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that limb proximodistal patterning is not RA dependent, thus indicating that RA-FGF antagonism does not occur along the proximodistal axis of the limb. Instead, our studies show that RA-FGF antagonism acts prior to limb budding along the anteroposterior axis of the trunk lateral plate mesoderm to provide a patterning cue that guides formation of the forelimb field. These findings reconcile disparate ideas regarding RA-FGF antagonism and provide insight into how endogenous RA programs the early embryo.

  16. [Case of goodpasture syndrome associated with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoko; Abe, Aya; Toki, Takeshi; Komaba, Hirotaka; Abe, Takaya; Umezu, Michio; Joh, Kensuke; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    In early June 2004, a 50-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for slight fever, general fatigue, hemoptysis, dyspnea, and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine[Cr] : 6.05 mg/dL). She had been treated with prednisolone (PSL : 10-20 mg/day) for RA. She was diagnosed with Goodpasture syndrome based on a high titer of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (87 EU), and pulmonary hemorrhage. The renal and pulmonary impairments were markedly improved by the pulse therapy, plasma exchange and temporary hemodialysis. However, the Cr level remained at 2.0 mg/dL, indicating nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopy with Periodic acid-Shiff(PAS) staining demonstrated global sclerosis in three of ten glomeruli. Five glomeruli showed the formation of cellular, and fibrocellular crescents, and the formation of fibrous crescents. Tubular damage and interstitial fibrosis were severe. Immunofluorescence microscopy disclosed major depositions of IgG in a linear pattern along the glomerular basement membrane(GBM). Electron microscopy revealed foot process effacement (>50%)and no electron-dense deposits. Therefore, we diagnosed Goodpasture syndrome associated with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Some reports have dealt with the association of RA and Goodpasture syndrome with D-penicillamine, and of RA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-related vasculitis with pulmonary hemorrhage, but none has dealt with cases complicated with RA and Goodpasture syndrome associated with MCNS. Accordingly, whether or not there is a causal relationship between RA and Goodpasture syndrome remains obscure, but since the number of reported cases is small, experience with more cases is necessary to clarify this matter.

  17. The biological effects of {sup 224}Ra injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of injected {sup 224}Ra in the dog. Radium-224 is a short-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 3.62 d. When administered parenterally, it deposits on bone surfaces; because of its short half-life, most of its energy is deposited on bone surfaces, in a manner similar to plutonium. The experimental design included a comparison to the exposed human population. Instead of using a single injection of {sup 224}Ra, groups were included in which dogs were injected once, 10 times, or 50 times. This design provided groups that could be compared to the multiple injections often used in people for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  18. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Enrichment of Vitamin D response elements in RA associated loci supports a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of RA

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Annie; Martin, Paul; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of vitamin-D in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating enrichment of vitamin-D response elements (VDREs) in confirmed RA susceptibility loci and testing variants associated with vitamin-D levels for association with RA. Bioinformatically, VDRE genomic positions were overlaid with non HLA confirmed RA susceptibility regions. The number of VDREs at RA loci was compared to a randomly selected set of genomic loci to calculate an average relative risk (RR). SNPs in the DHCR7/NADSYN1 and CYP2R1 loci, previously associated with circulating vitamin-D levels, were tested in UK RA cases (n = 3870) and controls (n = 8430). Significant enrichment of VDREs was seen at RA loci (p=9.23×10−8) when regions were defined either by gene (RR 5.50) or position (RR 5.86). SNPs in the DHCR7/NADSYN1 locus showed evidence of positive association with RA, rs4944076 (p=0.008, OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03-1.24). The significant enrichment of VDREs at RA associated loci and the modest association of variants in loci controlling levels of circulating vitamin-D, supports the hypothesis that vitamin-D plays a role in the development of RA. PMID:23636220

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1 RA).

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1RA) are a relatively new class of drugs, used for management of type 2 diabetes. This review studies the characteristics of these drugs, focusing upon their mechanism of action, intra-class differences, and utility in clinical practice. It compares them with other incretin based therapies, the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, and predicts future developments in the use of these molecules, while highlighting the robust indications for the use of these drugs.

  1. Characterization of the CpxRA regulon in Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J

    2010-11-01

    The Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP genome encodes a homolog of the CpxRA two-component cell envelope stress response system originally characterized in Escherichia coli. CpxR, the cytoplasmic response regulator, was shown previously to be involved in repression of the expression of the lspB-lspA2 operon (M. Labandeira-Rey, J. R. Mock, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 77:3402-3411, 2009). In the present study, the H. ducreyi CpxR and CpxA proteins were shown to closely resemble those of other well-studied bacterial species. A cpxA deletion mutant and a CpxR-overexpressing strain were used to explore the extent of the CpxRA regulon. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR analyses indicated several potential regulatory targets for the H. ducreyi CpxRA two-component regulatory system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to prove that H. ducreyi CpxR interacted with the promoter regions of genes encoding both known and putative virulence factors of H. ducreyi, including the lspB-lspA2 operon, the flp operon, and dsrA. Interestingly, the use of EMSAs also indicated that H. ducreyi CpxR did not bind to the promoter regions of several genes predicted to encode factors involved in the cell envelope stress response. Taken together, these data suggest that the CpxRA system in H. ducreyi, in contrast to that in E. coli, may be involved primarily in controlling expression of genes not involved in the cell envelope stress response.

  2. Preparation of (212)Pb-labeled monoclonal antibody using a novel (224)Ra-based generator solution.

    PubMed

    Westrøm, Sara; Generalov, Roman; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Larsen, Roy H

    2017-08-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides have gained considerable attention as payloads for cancer targeting molecules due to their high cytotoxicity. One attractive radionuclide for this purpose is (212)Pb, which by itself is a β-emitter, but acts as an in vivo generator for its short-lived α-emitting daughters. The standard method of preparing (212)Pb-labeled antibodies requires handling and evaporation of strong acids containing high radioactivity levels by the end user. An operationally easier and more rapid process could be useful since the 10.6h half-life of (212)Pb puts time constraints on the preparation protocol. In this study, an in situ procedure for antibody labeling with (212)Pb, using a solution of the generator nuclide (224)Ra, is proposed as an alternative protocol for preparing (212)Pb-radioimmunoconjugates. Radium-224, the generator radionuclide of (212)Pb, was extracted from its parent nuclide, (228)Th. Lead-212-labeling of the TCMC-chelator conjugated monoclonal antibody trastuzumab was carried out in a solution containing (224)Ra in equilibrium with progeny. Subsequently, the efficiency of separating the (212)Pb-radioimmunoconjugate from (224)Ra and other unconjugated daughter nuclides in the solution using either centrifugal separation or a PD-10 desalting size exclusion column was evaluated and compared. Radiolabeling with (212)Pb in (224)Ra-solutions was more than 90% efficient after only 30min reaction time at TCMC-trastuzumab concentrations from 0.15mg/mL and higher. Separation of (212)Pb-labeled trastuzumab from (224)Ra using a PD-10 column was clearly superior to centrifugal separation. This method allowed recovery of approximately 75% of the (212)Pb-antibody-conjugate in the eluate, and the remaining amount of (224)Ra was only 0.9±0.8% (n=7). The current work demonstrates a novel method of producing (212)Pb-based radioimmunoconjugates from a (224)Ra-solution, which may be simpler and less time-consuming for the end user compared with the method

  3. An improved limit on the EDM of 225 Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2016-05-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) are sensitive probes of symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225 Ra (t1/2 = 15 days, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its octupole-deformed nucleus, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large nuclear charge make 225 Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015, we reported the first ``proof of principle'' measurement of the 225 Ra EDM, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5* 10-22 e-cm; representing the first EDM measurement using laser-trapped atoms as well as the first EDM measurement of an atom with an octupole-deformed nucleus. After implementing upgrades to our apparatus, we now observe nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement. A new EDM measurement based on the upgraded system improved the 95% confidence upper limit by a factor of 36. We also report on the progress of current experimental upgrades that have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Microbiota and bile acid profiles in retinoic acid-primed mice that exhibit accelerated liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Xin; Hu, Ying; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims All-trans Retinoic acid (RA) regulates hepatic lipid and bile acid homeostasis. Similar to bile acid (BA), RA accelerates partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced liver regeneration. Because there is a bidirectional regulatory relationship between gut microbiota and BA synthesis, we examined the effect of RA in altering the gut microbial population and BA composition and established their relationship with hepatic biological processes during the active phases of liver regeneration. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with RA orally followed by 2/3 PHx. The roles of RA in shifting gut microbiota and BA profiles as well as hepatocyte metabolism and proliferation were studied. Results RA-primed mice exhibited accelerated hepatocyte proliferation revealed by higher numbers of Ki67-positive cells compared to untreated mice. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla dominated the gut microbial community (>85%) in both control and RA-primed mice after PHx. RA reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, which was associated with a lean phenotype. Consistently, RA-primed mice lacked transient lipid accumulation normally found in regenerating livers. In addition, RA altered BA homeostasis and shifted BA profiles by increasing the ratio of hydrophilic to hydrophobic BAs in regenerating livers. Accordingly, metabolic regulators fibroblast growth factor 21, Sirtuin1, and their downstream targets AMPK and ERK1/2 were more robustly activated in RA-primed than unprimed regenerating livers. Conclusions Priming mice with RA resulted in a lean microbiota composition and hydrophilic BA profiles, which were associated with facilitated metabolism and enhanced cell proliferation. PMID:26701854

  5. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V.; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D.; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W.; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M.; Wood, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  6. Protective Effect of RA on Myocardial Infarction-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis via AT1R/p38 MAPK Pathway Signaling and Modulation of the ACE2/ACE Ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaofeng; Tian, Jingwei; Xu, Yanan; Li, Chunmei; Meng, Xiangjing; Fu, Fenghua

    2016-09-07

    Rosmarinic acid (α-o-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, RA) is a major active constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. (rosemary) having significant anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects. However, the cardioprotection of RA is still not understood. The present study was designed, for the first time, to investigate the cardioprotection of RA on myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac fibrosis and to clarify the possible mechanisms. MI was induced in adult rats by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and animals were then administered RA (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) by gavage. Compared with the model group, RA treatment ameliorated changes in the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), +dp/dtmax, and -dp/dtmax after 4 weeks. This was associated with attenuation of infarct size, collagen volume fraction (CVF), expression of collagen I, collagen III, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentrations. RA treatment was also associated with decreased angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression and increased ACE2 expression, as well as decreased expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Thus, RA can protect against cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis following MI, likely due to decreasing ACE expression and increasing ACE2 expression via the AT1R/p38 MAPK pathway.

  7. Tn5563, a transposon encoding putative mercuric ion transport proteins located on plasmid pRA2 of Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Tham, J M; Kwong, S M; Yiin, S; Poh, C L

    1998-08-15

    Sequence analysis of pRA2, an endogenous 33-kb plasmid from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (strain P25X), revealed the presence of a 6256-bp transposon of the Tn3 family, designated Tn5563. Tn5563, which is flanked by two 39-bp inverted repeats, encodes a transposase, a resolvase, and two open reading frames which share amino acid sequence similarities with the mercuric ion transport proteins MerT and MerP encoded by several mer operons. However, no other mer operon genes were found on Tn5563. Sequencing of a RP4::XIn hybrid plasmid indicates possible interactions between pRA2 and the P25X chromosome mediated by Tn5563.

  8. Decay and In-Beam Studies of Neutron-Deficient Po and Ra Isotopes at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, M.; Allatt, R. G.; Andreyev, A. N.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Enqvist, T.; Eskola, K.; Helariutta, K.; Huyse, M.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Muikku, M.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Trzaska, W. H.; Uusitalo, J.; van Duppen, P.

    1999-05-01

    An extensive program to study the production, decay properties, and nuclear structure of very neutron-deficient polonium and radium nuclei is underway at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland (JYFL). The main tools used in these studies are the gas-filled recoil separator RITU and various germanium gamma-ray arrays. In the course of these studies, among others the following new isotopes have been produced: 204Ra, 203Ra, and 202Ra. Isomeric alpha decaying states have been discovered in 203Ra and 191Po. Fine structure in the decay of 192Po to the oblate and prolate band heads in 188Pb has been observed. In-beam gamma-ray spectra have been, for the first time, measured for 192Po, 206Ra, 208Ra, and 210Ra. Development of collectivity in nuclei in the Po-Ra region and the systematics of reduced alpha widths will be discussed.

  9. An evaluation of ²²⁶Ra and ²²⁸Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S G; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem.

  10. Importance of ALDH1A enzymes in determining human testicular retinoic acid concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Samuel L.; Kent, Travis; Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Schlatt, Stefan; Prasad, Bhagwat; Haenisch, Michael; Walsh, Thomas; Muller, Charles H.; Griswold, Michael D.; Amory, John K.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is required for spermatogenesis and many other biological processes. RA formation requires irreversible oxidation of retinal to RA by aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes of the 1A family (ALDH1A). While ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3 all form RA, the expression pattern and relative contribution of these enzymes to RA formation in the testis is unknown. In this study, novel methods to measure ALDH1A protein levels and intrinsic RA formation were used to accurately predict RA formation velocities in individual human testis samples and an association between RA formation and intratesticular RA concentrations was observed. The distinct localization of ALDH1A in the testis suggests a specific role for each enzyme in controlling RA formation. ALDH1A1 was found in Sertoli cells, while only ALDH1A2 was found in spermatogonia, spermatids, and spermatocytes. In the absence of cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)1, ALDH1A1 was predicted to be the main contributor to intratesticular RA formation, but when CRBP1 was present, ALDH1A2 was predicted to be equally important in RA formation as ALDH1A1. This study provides a comprehensive novel methodology to evaluate RA homeostasis in human tissues and provides insight to how the individual ALDH1A enzymes mediate RA concentrations in specific cell types. PMID:25502770

  11. Immunodiagnostic Significance of Anti-RA33 Autoantibodies in Saudi Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the immunodiagnostic significance and utility of anti-RA33 with anti-CCP, RF, and CRP in Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. This was a prospective controlled clinical study conducted at King Abdul Aziz University Tertiary Medical Centre. The sera of 41 RA patients, 31 non-RA patients, and 29 healthy controls were collected. Anti-RA33 and anti-CCP were measured using commercially available ELISA principle kits. RF and CRP were measured using nephelometry. Results. Anti-RA33 antibodies had the lowest positive and negative predictive values and showed a sensitivity of 7.32% with 95.12% specificity. Of the other three markers (including anti-CCP antibodies, CRP, and RF), only anti-CCP showed specificity of 90.46% with sensitivity of 63.41% compared to non-RA patients + healthy control. There was a significant correlation with rheumatoid factor positivity with anti-CCP. With respect to CRP, a notable correlation was seen only with anti-RA33. Conclusion. Compared to rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP antibodies, and C-reactive proteins, the anti-RA33 autoantibodies seem to be not representing as an important additional immunodiagnostic marker in Saudi patients with established RA. RA33 may have more interest in early RA or less severe RA and other systemic connective tissue disorders. PMID:25883991

  12. 7 CFR 1940.577 - Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. 1940.577... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.577 Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart. RA appropriated for existing...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.577 - Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. 1940.577... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.577 Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart. RA appropriated for existing...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.577 - Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. 1940... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.577 Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart. RA appropriated for existing...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.577 - Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. 1940... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.577 Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart. RA appropriated for existing...

  16. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  17. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra) Bees

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Souza, Silvana; Camara, Celso Amorim; Monica Sarmento da Silva, Eva; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra) stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1) and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3), 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4), 7,4′-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5), 4′-O-methyl kaempferol (6), 3-O-methyl quercetin (7), 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8), and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9). The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1) was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. PMID:23935683

  18. RA Differentiation Enhances Dopaminergic Features, Changes Redox Parameters, and Increases Dopamine Transporter Dependency in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda M; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; De Bastiani, Marco A; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Aguiar, Bianca W; de Souza, Luiz F; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Vargas, Daiani M; Schönhofen, Patrícia; Londero, Giovana F; de Medeiros, Liana M; Freire, Valder N; Dafre, Alcir L; Castro, Mauro A A; Parsons, Richard B; Klamt, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    Research on Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug development is hampered by the lack of suitable human in vitro models that simply and accurately recreate the disease conditions. To counteract this, many attempts to differentiate cell lines, such as the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, into dopaminergic neurons have been undertaken since they are easier to cultivate when compared with other cellular models. Here, we characterized neuronal features discriminating undifferentiated and retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SYSY cells and described significant differences between these cell models in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) cytotoxicity. In contrast to undifferentiated cells, RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells demonstrated low proliferative rate and a pronounced neuronal morphology with high expression of genes related to synapse vesicle cycle, dopamine synthesis/degradation, and of dopamine transporter (DAT). Significant differences between undifferentiated and RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells in the overall capacity of antioxidant defenses were found; although RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells presented a higher basal antioxidant capacity with high resistance against H2O2 insult, they were twofold more sensitive to 6-OHDA. DAT inhibition by 3α-bis-4-fluorophenyl-methoxytropane and dithiothreitol (a cell-permeable thiol-reducing agent) protected RA-differentiated, but not undifferentiated, SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative damage and cell death caused by 6-OHDA. Here, we demonstrate that undifferentiated and RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are two unique phenotypes and also have dissimilar mechanisms in 6-OHDA cytotoxicity. Hence, our data support the use of RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro model of PD. This study may impact our understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PD and the development of new therapies and drugs for the management of the disease.

  19. Emergency Radiobioassay Method for Determination of ⁹⁰Sr and ²²⁶Ra in a Spot Urine Sample.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki B; Fontaine, Allison; McAlister, Daniel; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-08-04

    A new radiobioassay method has been developed for simultaneous determination of (90)Sr and (226)Ra in a spot urine sample. The method is based on a matrix removal procedure to purify the target radionuclides from a urine sample followed by an automated high performance ion chromatographic (HPIC) separation of (90)Sr and (226)Ra and offline radiometric detection by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). A Sr-resin extraction chromatographic cartridge was used for matrix removal and purification of (90)Sr and (226)Ra from a urine sample prior to its introduction to the HPIC system. The HPIC separation was carried out through cation exchange chromatography using methanesulfonic acid (75 mM) as the mobile phase at 0.25 mL/min flow rate. The performance criteria of the method was evaluated against the American National Standard Institute ANSI/HPS N13.30-2011 standard for the root mean squared error (RMSE) of relative bias (Br) and relative precision (SB) at two different spiked activity levels. The RMSE of Br and SB for (90)Sr and (226)Ra were found to be satisfactory (≤0.25). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the method for (90)Sr and (226)Ra are 2 Bq/L and 0.2 Bq/L, respectively. The MDA values are at least 1/10th of the concentrations of (90)Sr (190 Bq/L) and (226)Ra (2 Bq/L) excreted in urine on the third day following an acute exposure (inhalation) that would lead to an effective dose of 0.1 Sv in the first year. The sample turnaround time is less than 8 h for simultaneous determination of (90)Sr and (226)Ra.

  20. 226Ra or 226Ra/Ba dating of Holocene volcanic rocks: application to Mt. Etna and Merapi volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, M.; Gauthier, P. J.; Tanguy, J. C.; Gertisser, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Berthommier, P.; Camus, G.

    2005-02-01

    This paper shows how 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria can be used to date Holocene volcanic rocks from some well selected volcanoes. A systematic study of these disequilibria on historical or well-dated volcanic samples is indeed first required to test the applicability of this method. Two examples are described here to illustrate its potential. In the case of Mt. Etna, the good correlation observed between ( 226Ra) 0 activities at the time of eruption and Th contents in lava flows from the last two millennia [M. Condomines, J.C. Tanguy, V. Michaud, Magma dynamics at Mt. Etna: constraints from U-Th-Ra-Pb radioactive disequilibria and Sr isotopes in historical lavas, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 132 (1995) 25-41] is used to infer the ages of several newly analysed lava flows. The calculated ages are in good agreement with those deduced from the archaeomagnetic curve describing the variation of the geomagnetic field direction in southern Italy [J.C. Tanguy, I. Bucur, J.F.C. Thompson, Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mt. Etna, Nature 318 (1985) 453-455, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, C. Principe, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Variation séculaire de la direction du champ géomagnétique enregistrée par les laves de l'Etna et du Vésuve pendant les deux derniers millénaires, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 329 (1999) 557-564, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, C. Principe, S. Arrighi, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Archaeomagnetic dating of Mediterranean volcanics of the last 2100 years: validity and limits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211 (2003) 111-124]. We also present a whole set of new U-series data on historical, recent, and older samples from Merapi (Indonesia), and show that the ( 226Ra)/Ba ratio has probably maintained a quasi-steady state value during at least the past four millennia, and can be used to infer the ( 226Ra) 0/Ba ratio of old volcanics at the time of eruption, and thus their ages. Comparison with

  1. Io, the Ra Patera, Mazda Catena, and Gibil Patera Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    Io's volcanic plains are shown in this Voyager 1 image mosaic. Also visible are numerous volcanic calderas and lava flows. Ra Patera with its multihued lava flows is below and right of the mosaic's center. This scene is about 1300 miles (2100 km) long. The composition of Io's volcanic plains and lava flows has not been determined, but they could consist dominantly of sulfur or of silicates (such as basalt) coated with sulfur condensates. The bright whitish patches probably consist of freshly deposited SO2 frost. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00321

  2. Assessing Medication Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-26

    REV1E\\\\’ER 50. "E PFlEV101JS EOmC»lS ARE C . E1E ?~e 3 01 3 FlIll!!S D ~.!!fitt Assessing Medication Adherence in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA...Background • Rheumatoid arthritis - Affecting 1-3 million Americans - Seventy percent are women - Associated with higher risk of heart disease and stroke...and Objectives Purpose: Assess medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Objectives: 1. Primary: Assess whether there is a correlation

  3. The isotype repertoire of antibodies against novel UH-RA peptides in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Liesbeth M; Geusens, Piet; Lenaerts, Jan; Vanhoof, Johan; Stinissen, Piet; Somers, Veerle

    2016-06-07

    Recently, autoantibodies against novel UH-RA peptides (UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21) were identified as candidate biomarkers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are seronegative for the current diagnostic markers rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies. Previously, screening for anti-UH-RA autoantibodies was based on measuring the immunoglobulin (Ig) G response. We aimed to investigate whether measurement of other isotypes could improve the performance of diagnostic testing. In addition, assigning the isotype profile might provide valuable information on effector functions of the antibodies. The isotype profile of antibodies against UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21 was studied. The IgG, IgM, and IgA classes, together with the 4 different IgG subclasses, were determined in 285 patients with RA, 88 rheumatic control subjects, and 90 healthy control subjects. Anti-UH-RA.1 antibodies were primarily of the IgM isotype and twice as prevalent as IgG (IgG3-dominated) and IgA. RA sensitivity when testing for anti-UH-RA.1 IgM was shown to be higher than when testing for the IgG isotype: 18 % versus 9 % sensitivity when RA specificity was set to 90 %. Within antibodies against UH-RA.21, IgG and IgA were more common than IgM. Different anti-UH-RA.21 IgG subclasses were found, with the highest prevalence found for IgG2. Combined testing for IgG and IgA slightly increased RA sensitivity of UH-RA.21-specific antibody testing to 27 % compared with solely testing for IgG (23 %). Notably, a higher number of anti-UH-RA.21 antibody isotypes was related to increased levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Finally, for both antibody responses, the full antibody isotype use was demonstrated in early and seronegative disease. The isotype distribution of anti-UH-RA.1 and anti-UH-RA.21 antibodies was successfully outlined, and, for antibodies against UH-RA.1, we found that isotype-specific testing might have implications for diagnostic testing. The exact mechanisms by

  4. The role of CYP26 enzymes in retinoic acid clearance

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Jayne E.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule that regulates gene transcription and the cell cycle. Understanding of RA signaling has increased dramatically over the past decades, but the connection between whole body RA homeostasis and gene regulation in individual cells is still unclear. It has been proposed that cytochrome P450 family 26 (CYP26) enzymes have a role in determining the cellular exposure to RA by inactivating RA in cells that do not need RA. The CYP26 enzymes have been shown to metabolize RA efficiently and they are also inducible by RA in selected systems. However, their expression patterns in different cell types and a mechanistic understanding of their function is still lacking. Based on preliminary kinetic data and protein expression levels, one may predict that if CYP26A1 is expressed in the liver at even very low levels, it will be the major RA hydroxylase in this tissue. As such, it is an attractive pharmacological target for drug development when one aims to increase circulating or cellular RA concentrations. To further the understanding of how CYP26 enzymes contribute to the regulation of RA homeostasis, structural information of the CYP26’s, commercially available recombinant enzymes and good specific and sensitive antibodies are needed. PMID:19519282

  5. MRA_1571 is required for isoleucine biosynthesis and improves Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra survival under stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rishabh; Keshari, Deepa; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Yadav, Shailendra; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Threonine dehydratase is a pyridoxal 5-phosphate dependent enzyme required for isoleucine biosynthesis. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) participates in conversion of threonine to 2-oxobutanoate and ammonia is released as a by-product. MRA_1571 is annotated to be coding for IlvA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a recombinant (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating IlvA. The growth studies on different carbon sources suggested reduced growth of KD compared to wild-type (WT), also, isoleucine concentration dependent KD growth restoration was observed. The expression profiling of IlvA suggested increased expression of IlvA during oxygen, acid and oxidative stress. In addition, KD showed reduced survival under pH, starvation, nitric oxide and peroxide stresses. KD was more susceptible to antimycobacterial agents such as streptomycin (STR), rifampicin (RIF) and levofloxacin (LVF), while, no such effect was noticeable when exposed to isoniazid. Also, an increase in expression of IlvA was observed when exposed to STR, RIF and LVF. The dye accumulation studies suggested increased permeability of KD to ethidium bromide and Nile Red as compared to WT. TLC and Mass studies confirmed altered lipid profile of KD. In summary down-regulation of IlvA affects Mtb growth, increases its susceptibility to stress and leads to altered cell wall lipid profile. PMID:27353854

  6. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  7. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  8. Characterization of the RaD-X Mission Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Mertens, Christopher J.; Norman, Ryan B.; Straume, Tore; Lusby, Terry C.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission, launched on 25 September 2015, provided dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum. The goal of taking these measurements is to improve aviation radiation models by providing a characterization of cosmic ray primaries, which are the source of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. The RaD-X science payload consists of four instruments. The main science instrument is a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The other instruments consisted of three solid state silicon dosimeters: Liulin, Teledyne total ionizing dose (TID) and RaySure detectors. To properly interpret the measurements, it is necessary to evaluate how the payload affects the radiation environment of the detectors. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate how the detectors react to the different particles impacting them. We present the results of the Geant-4 simulations of the interaction of the different radiations with the payload and the instruments. We show how it affect the measurements, and which instruments are better suited for future missions

  9. Creative trial design in RA: optimizing patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buch, Maya H; Pavitt, Sue; Parmar, Mahesh; Emery, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The rheumatology community has witnessed remarkable advances in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) made possible by the development of highly effective biologic DMARDs. Robust randomized controlled trials of clinical efficacy, equipped with validated outcome measures, ensured these therapies could enter the clinical arena and thus substantially improve patient outcomes. Current management principles, which follow a 'treat-to-target' paradigm, advocate tight control of disease activity with the aim of achieving clinical remission. However, efficacy trials are not yet aligned with this approach, hampering patient recruitment. This impediment and the usual approach of inclusion of previously failed treatment arms (to protect methodological concerns) is prompting reappraisal of RA trial design and the consideration of more pragmatic studies that reflect real-life practice. In addition, the aspirations of the rheumatology community to strive for personalized medicine means innovative approaches to trial design are needed to complement the efficacy trial. This Review appraises the current trial landscape and provides insights and key concepts from other fields such as oncology as to the potential utility (as well as the limitations) of pragmatic trial designs such as adaptive trials and biomarker-driven trials.

  10. [ICO-166 monoclonal antibodies against the CD45RA antigen].

    PubMed

    Frolova, E A; Baryshnikov, A Iu; Novikov, V V; Syrkin, A B

    1993-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) ICO-166 against CD45RA antigen were generated and characterized. In the indirect IFA, MCA ICO-166 reacted with 54.1 +/- 1.9% lymphocytes of human peripheral blood and 15.2 +/- 2.3% monocytes but not with granulocytes or thrombocytes. The method of double labelling of cells demonstrated that MCA ICO-166 detected all B-lymphocytes, all NK-cells and 31% of mature T-lymphocytes but only 55% of CD8 suppressor cells and only 21% of CDA helper cells carried this antigen on the surface. Experiments were carried out to block binding of FITC-labeled MCA ALB11 against CD45RA antigen with human lymphocytes by pretreatment of cells with different concentrations of MCA ICO-166. Treatment of cells with MCA ALB11 blocked binding of MCA ALB11-FITC by 85% on the average. MCA ICO-166 blocked binding of MCA ALB11-FITC by 66% on the average. When different dilutions of MCA ICO-166 were used, the dose-dependent effect of blocking of MCA ALB11-FITC binding was observed. MCA ICO-166 immunoprecipitated a protein band of molecular weight 220 kDa from lysates of mononuclear cells of the human peripheral blood.

  11. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  12. Characterization of the RaD-X Mission Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C. J.; Norman, R. B.; Straume, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission, launched on 25 September 2015, provided dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum. The goal of taking these measurements is to improve aviation radiation models by providing a characterization of cosmic ray primaries, which are the source of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. The RaD-X science payload consists of four instruments. The main science instrument is a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The other instruments consisted of three solid state silicon dosimeters: Liulin, Teledyne total ionizing dose (TID) and RaySure detectors.To properly interpretate the measurements, it is necessary to evaluate how the payload affects the radiation environment of the detectors. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate how the detectors react to the different particle impacting them.We present the results of the Geant-4 simulations of the interaction of the different radiations with the payload and the instruments, and conclude on how it affect the results of the mission, and which are the instruments better suited for future missions.

  13. Mechanisms of retinoic acid signalling and its roles in organ and limb development

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Duester, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signalling has a central role during vertebrate development. RA synthesized in specific locations regulates transcription by interacting with nuclear RA receptors (RARs) bound to RA response elements (RAREs) near target genes. RA was first implicated in signalling on the basis of its teratogenic effects on limb development. Genetic studies later revealed that endogenous RA promotes forelimb initiation by repressing fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8). Insights into RA function in the limb serve as a paradigm for understanding how RA regulates other developmental processes. In vivo studies have identified RAREs that control repression of Fgf8 during body axis extension or activation of homeobox (Hox) genes and other key regulators during neuronal differentiation and organogenesis. PMID:25560970

  14. Retinoic acid and meiosis induction in adult versus embryonic gonads of medaka

    PubMed Central

    Adolfi, Mateus C.; Herpin, Amaury; Regensburger, Martina; Sacquegno, Jacopo; Waxman, Joshua S.; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, one of the first recognizable sex differences in embryos is the onset of meiosis, known to be regulated by retinoic acid (RA) in mammals. We investigated in medaka a possible meiotic function of RA during the embryonic sex determination (SD) period and in mature gonads. We found RA mediated transcriptional activation in germ cells of both sexes much earlier than the SD stage, however, no such activity during the critical stages of SD. In adults, expression of the RA metabolizing enzymes indicates sexually dimorphic RA levels. In testis, RA acts directly in Sertoli, Leydig and pre-meiotic germ cells. In ovaries, RA transcriptional activity is highest in meiotic oocytes. Our results show that RA plays an important role in meiosis induction and gametogenesis in adult medaka but contrary to common expectations, not for initiating the first meiosis in female germ cells at the SD stage. PMID:27677591

  15. Production of ricinoleic acid-containing monoestolide triacylglycerides in an oleaginous diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuki; Ifuku, Kentaro; Furutani, Ken-ichi; Yan, Dongyi; Okuda, Tomoyo; Ando, Akinori; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid (RA), a hydroxyl fatty acid, is suitable for medical and industrial uses and is produced in high-oil-accumulating organisms such as castor bean and the ergot fungus Claviceps. We report here the efficient production of RA in a transgenic diatom Chaetoceros gracilis expressing the fatty acid hydroxylase gene (CpFAH) from Claviceps purpurea. In transgenic C. gracilis, RA content increased at low temperatures, reaching 2.2 pg/cell when cultured for 7 d at 15 °C, without affecting cell growth, and was enhanced (3.3 pg/cell) by the co-expression of a palmitic acid-specific elongase gene. Most of the accumulated RA was linked with monoestolide triacylglycerol (ME TAG), in which one RA molecule was esterified to the α position of the glycerol backbone and was further esterified at its hydroxy group with a fatty acid or second RA moiety, or 1-OH TAG, in which RA was esterified to the glycerol backbone. Overall, 80% of RA was accumulated as ME TAGs. Furthermore, exogenous RA-methyl ester suppressed the growth of wild-type diatoms in a dose-dependent manner and was rapidly converted to ME TAG. These results suggest that C. gracilis masks the hydroxyl group and accumulates RA as the less-toxic ME TAG. PMID:27830762

  16. Quantitative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of H37Ra and H37Rv Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Renu; Pinto, Sneha Maria; Patil, Arun Hanumana; Advani, Jayshree; Subba, Pratigya; Kumar, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Dey, Gourav; Ravikumar, Raju; Buggi, Shashidhar; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Sharma, Kusum; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Tripathy, Srikanth Prasad; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Gowda, Harsha; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gandotra, Sheetal; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-03-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, accounts for 1.5 million human deaths annually worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate tuberculosis, it still remains a deadly disease. The two best characterized strains of M. tuberculosis, virulent H37Rv and avirulent H37Ra, provide a unique platform to investigate biochemical and signaling pathways associated with pathogenicity. To delineate the biomolecular dynamics that may account for pathogenicity and attenuation of virulence in M. tuberculosis, we compared the proteome and phosphoproteome profiles of H37Rv and H37Ra strains. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was performed using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Analysis of exponential and stationary phases of these strains resulted in identification and quantitation of 2709 proteins along with 512 phosphorylation sites derived from 257 proteins. In addition to confirming the presence of previously described M. tuberculosis phosphorylated proteins, we identified 265 novel phosphorylation sites. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed more than five-fold upregulation of proteins belonging to virulence associated type VII bacterial secretion system in H37Rv when compared to those in H37Ra. We also identified 84 proteins, which exhibited changes in phosphorylation levels between the virulent and avirulent strains. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteins altered in their level of expression or phosphorylation revealed enrichment of pathways involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and two-component regulatory system. Our data provides a resource for further exploration of functional differences at molecular level between H37Rv and H37Ra, which will ultimately explain the molecular underpinnings that determine virulence in tuberculosis.

  17. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation.

  18. The retinoic acid machinery in invertebrates: ancestral elements and vertebrate innovations.

    PubMed

    Albalat, Ricard

    2009-12-10

    Recent discoveries have changed our view of the evolutionary history of retinoic acid (RA) machinery. It is no longer considered a vertebrate or chordate invention but rather a common genetic toolkit of diverse lineages of metazoans. In particular, the basic machinery of RA-metabolizing enzymes, retinoid-binding proteins and RA-binding nuclear receptors has been identified in protostome and deuterostome lineages. Moreover, the retinoid content and the effects of RA treatment have been described in a number of invertebrates, although the physiological role of RA signaling outside vertebrates is still not fully understood. This review summarizes the evidence gathered over many years on the invertebrate RA system, highlighting the ancient origin of the RA genetic machinery and a basic role in neuronal differentiation. Comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate RA toolkits suggests some innovations in the RA machinery of vertebrates that might have contributed to improving the physiological control of retinoid homeostasis, compensating for vitamin A fluctuations in this lineage. Analysis of the RA machinery in invertebrates also reveals independent losses of RA components during evolution, which might be related to changes in embryonic developmental modes and the absence of the temporal collinearity of hox clusters. Additional studies analyzing the biochemical and functional characteristics of the invertebrate RA genetic machinery are warranted to lend experimental support to the hypotheses sketched in this review. These hypotheses open, however, new perspectives toward understanding how the RA genetic machinery evolved to suit the physiological and developmental requirements of metazoans.

  19. Decreased Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in Recent Years: Dawn of a New Era in Cardiovascular Disease in RA?

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, Elena; Gabriel, Sherine E; Matteson, Eric L; Davis, John M; Therneau, Terry M; Crowson, Cynthia S

    2017-06-01

    To assess trends in cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with incident rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2000-07 versus the previous decades, compared with non-RA subjects. The study population consisted of Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA residents with incident RA (age ≥ 18 yrs, 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria was met in 1980-2007) and non-RA subjects from the same underlying population with similar age, sex, and calendar year of index. All subjects were followed until death, migration, or December 31, 2014. Followup was truncated for comparability. Aalen-Johansen methods were used to estimate CV mortality rates, adjusting for competing risk of other causes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare CV mortality by decade. The study included 813 patients with RA and 813 non-RA subjects (mean age 55.9 yrs; 68% women for both groups). Patients with incident RA in 2000-07 had markedly lower 10-year overall CV mortality (2.7%, 95% CI 0.6-4.9%) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (1.1%, 95% CI 0.0-2.7%) than patients diagnosed in 1990-99 (7.1%, 95% CI 3.9-10.1% and 4.5%, 95% CI 1.9-7.1%, respectively; HR for overall CV death: 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.94; CHD death: HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.95). This improvement in CV mortality persisted after accounting for CV risk factors. Ten-year overall CV mortality and CHD mortality in 2000-07 RA incidence cohort was similar to non-RA subjects (p = 0.95 and p = 0.79, respectively). Our findings suggest significantly improved overall CV mortality, particularly CHD mortality, in patients with RA in recent years. Further studies are needed to examine the reasons for this improvement.

  20. Endothelial protein C receptor is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritic (RA) synovium and mediates the anti‐inflammatory effects of activated protein C in RA monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; March, Lyn; Sambrook, Philip N; Fukudome, Kenji; Jackson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives (1) To investigate whether inflammatory synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) express endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and (2) to determine the major cell type(s) that EPCR is associated with and whether EPCR functions to mediate the effects of activated protein C (APC) on these cells. Methods EPCR, CD68 and PC/APC in synovial tissues were detected by immunostaining and in situ PCR. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of patients with RA and treated with APC, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and/or EPCR blocking antibody RCR252. Cells and supernatants were collected for RT‐PCR, western blotting, enzyme‐linked immuosorbent assay and chemotaxis assay. Results: EPCR was expressed by both OA and RA synovial tissues but was markedly increased in RA synovium. EPCR was colocalised with PC/APC mostly on CD68 positive cells in synovium. In RA monocytes, APC upregulated EPCR expression and reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1‐induced chemotaxis of monocytes by approximately 50%. APC also completely suppressed LPS‐stimulated NF‐κB activation and attenuated TNF‐α protein by more than 40% in RA monocytes. The inhibitory effects of APC were reversed by RCR252, indicating that EPCR is required. Conclusions Our results demonstrate for the first time that EPCR is expressed by synovial tissues, particularly in RA, where it co‐localises with PC/APC on monocytes/macrophages. In addition, APC inhibits the migration and activation of RA monocytes via EPCR. These inhibitory effects on RA monocytes suggest that PC pathway may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in RA. PMID:17491095

  1. Investigation of retinoic acid function during embryonic brain development using retinaldehyde-rescued Rdh10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Christina; Cunningham, Thomas J; Duester, Gregg

    2013-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls patterning and neuronal differentiation within the hindbrain, but forebrain RA function remains controversial. RA is produced from metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde by retinol dehydrogenase (RDH), followed by metabolism of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH). Previous studies on Raldh2-/- and Raldh3-/- mice demonstrated an RA requirement for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and dopaminergic differentiation in forebrain basal ganglia, but no RA requirement was observed during early forebrain patterning or subsequent forebrain cortical expansion. However, other studies suggested that RA controls forebrain patterning, and analysis of ethylnitrosourea-induced Rdh10 mutants suggested that RA synthesized in the meninges stimulates forebrain cortical expansion. We generated Rdh10-/- mouse embryos that lack RA activity early in the head and later in the meninges. We observed defects in hindbrain patterning and eye RA signaling, but early forebrain patterning was unaffected. Retinaldehyde treatment of Rdh10-/- embryos from E7-E9 rescues a cranial skeletal defect, resulting in E14.5 embryos lacking meningeal RA activity but maintaining normal forebrain shape and cortical expansion. Rdh10-/- embryos demonstrate that RA controls hindbrain but not early forebrain patterning, while studies on retinaldehyde-rescued Rdh10-/- embryos show that meningeal RA synthesis is unnecessary to stimulate forebrain cortical expansion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Investigation of Retinoic Acid Function During Embryonic Brain Development Using Retinaldehyde-Rescued Rdh10 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatzi, Christina; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Duester, Gregg

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls patterning and neuronal differentiation within the hindbrain, but forebrain RA function remains controversial. RA is produced from metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde by retinol dehydrogenase (RDH), followed by metabolism of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH). Previous studies on Raldh2−/− and Raldh3−/− mice demonstrated an RA requirement for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and dopaminergic differentiation in forebrain basal ganglia, but no RA requirement was observed during early forebrain patterning or subsequent fore-brain cortical expansion. However, other studies suggested that RA controls forebrain patterning, and analysis of ethylnitrosourea-induced Rdh10 mutants suggested that RA synthesized in the meninges stimulates forebrain cortical expansion. Results We generated Rdh10−/− mouse embryos that lack RA activity early in the head and later in the meninges. We observed defects in hindbrain patterning and eye RA signaling, but early forebrain patterning was unaffected. Retinaldehyde treatment of Rdh10−/− embryos from E7–E9 rescues a cranial skeletal defect, resulting in E14.5 embryos lacking meningeal RA activity but maintaining normal forebrain shape and cortical expansion. Conclusions Rdh10−/− embryos demonstrate that RA controls hindbrain but not early forebrain patterning, while studies on retinaldehyde-rescued Rdh10−/− embryos show that meningeal RA synthesis is unnecessary to stimulate forebrain cortical expansion. PMID:23765990

  3. Laser-trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Physics; Enrico Fermi Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-02-27

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  4. Laser Trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with Repumping by Room-Temperature Blackbody Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Lu, Z.-T.

    2007-03-02

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1}{yields}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1}{yields}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  5. Smoking and Subclinical ILD in RA versus the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cheilonda; Giles, Jon T.; Bathon, Joan; Lederer, David; Hoffman, Eric A.; Barr, R. Graham; Danoff, Sonye K.

    2016-01-01

    A population-based cohort showed an association between cigarette smoking and subclinical parenchymal lung disease defined as regions of increased computed tomography (CT) lung densitometry. This technique has not been applied to the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population where associated ILD is highly prevalent. The association between cumulative cigarette smoking and volume of areas of high attenuation (HAA: >-600 and <-250 Hounsfield Units) on full inspiratory CT was compared in 172 RA participants and 3,969 controls in a general population sample. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for demography, anthropometrics, percent emphysema, and CT parameters. The mean cumulative cigarette smoking exposure was 25 (IQR 10–42) and 15(IQR 5–31) pack-years for the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Mean HAA was 153(±57) cm3 and 129(±50) cm3 in the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Each 10 cigarette pack-year increment was associated with a higher HAA by 0.03% (95% CI, 0.007–0.05%) in RA patients and by 0.008% (95% CI, 0.003–0.01%) in those without RA (interaction p = 0.001). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher lung attenuation; with a magnitude of association more pronounced in those with RA than in the general population. These data suggest that cigarette smoking may be a more potent ILD risk factor for RA patients than in the general population. PMID:27050433

  6. Smoking and Subclinical ILD in RA versus the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheilonda; Giles, Jon T; Bathon, Joan; Lederer, David; Hoffman, Eric A; Barr, R Graham; Danoff, Sonye K

    2016-01-01

    A population-based cohort showed an association between cigarette smoking and subclinical parenchymal lung disease defined as regions of increased computed tomography (CT) lung densitometry. This technique has not been applied to the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population where associated ILD is highly prevalent. The association between cumulative cigarette smoking and volume of areas of high attenuation (HAA: >-600 and <-250 Hounsfield Units) on full inspiratory CT was compared in 172 RA participants and 3,969 controls in a general population sample. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for demography, anthropometrics, percent emphysema, and CT parameters. The mean cumulative cigarette smoking exposure was 25 (IQR 10-42) and 15(IQR 5-31) pack-years for the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Mean HAA was 153(±57) cm3 and 129(±50) cm3 in the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Each 10 cigarette pack-year increment was associated with a higher HAA by 0.03% (95% CI, 0.007-0.05%) in RA patients and by 0.008% (95% CI, 0.003-0.01%) in those without RA (interaction p = 0.001). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher lung attenuation; with a magnitude of association more pronounced in those with RA than in the general population. These data suggest that cigarette smoking may be a more potent ILD risk factor for RA patients than in the general population.

  7. Excessive feedback of Cyp26a1 promotes cell non-autonomous loss of retinoic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rydeen, Ariel; Voisin, Norine; D’Aniello, Enrico; Ravisankar, Padmapriyadarshini; Devignes, Claire-Sophie; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    Teratogenic levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling can cause seemingly contradictory phenotypes indicative of both increases and decreases of RA signaling. However, the mechanisms underlying these contradictory phenotypes are not completely understood. Here, we report that using a hyperactive RA receptor to enhance RA signaling in zebrafish embryos leads to defects associated with gain and loss of RA signaling. While the gain-of-function phenotypes arise from an initial increase in RA signaling, using genetic epistasis analysis we found that the loss-of-function phenotypes result from a clearing of embryonic RA that requires a rapid and dramatic increase in cyp26a1 expression. Thus, the sensitivity of cyp26a1 expression to increased RA signaling causes an overcompensation of negative feedback and loss of embryonic RA signaling. Additionally, we used blastula transplantation experiments to test if Cyp26a1, despite its cellular localization, can limit RA exposure to neighboring cells. We find that enhanced Cyp26a1 expression limits RA signaling in the local environment, thus providing the first direct evidence that Cyp26 enzymes can have cell non-autonomous consequences on RA levels within tissues. Therefore, our results provide novel insights into the teratogenic mechanisms of RA signaling and the cellular mechanisms by which Cyp26a1 expression can shape a RA gradient. PMID:26116175

  8. 230Th, 226Ra and 222Rn in abyssal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David

    1980-09-01

    A model that predicts the flux of 222Rn out of deep-sea sediment is presented. The radon is ultimately generated by 230Th which is stripped from the overlying water into the sediment. Data from many authors are compared with the model predictions. It is shown that the continental contribution of ionium is not significant, and that at low sedimentation rates, biological mixing and erosional processes strongly affect the surface concentration of the ionium. Two cores from areas of slow sediment accumulation, one from a manganese nodule region of the central Pacific and one from the Rio Grande Rise in the Atlantic were analyzed at closely spaced intervals for 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb. The Pacific core displayed evidence of biological mixing down to 12 cm and had a sedimentation rate of only 0.04 cm/kyr. The Atlantic core seemed to be mixed to 8 cm and had a sedimentation rate of 0.07 cm/kyr. Both cores had less total excess 230Th than predicted. Radium sediment profiles are generated from the 230Th model. Adsorbed, dissolved, and solid-phase radium is considered. According to the model, diffusional losses of radium are especially important at low sedimentation rates. Any particulate, or excess radium input is ignored in this model. The model fits the two analyzed cores if the fraction of total radium available for adsorption-desorption is about 0.5-0.7, and if K, the distribution coefficient, is about 1000. Finally, the flux of radon out of the sediments is derived from the model-generated radium profiles. It is shown that the resulting standing crop of 222Rn in the overlying water may be considered as an added constraint in budgeting 230Th and 226Ra in deep-sea sediments.

  9. Redox-Activating Dip-Pen Nanolithography (RA-DPN)

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2009-01-01

    Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) involves the direct transfer of an ink from a coated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to a substrate of interest and uses as many as 55,000 pens to form arbitrary patterns of alkanethiols, oligonucleotides, proteins and viruses. Two limitations of DPN are the difficulty in transporting high molecular weight inks and the need to optimize individually the transport rates and tip inking methods of each molecule. As an alternative strategy that circumvents these two challenges, a method termed redox activating DPN (RA-DPN), is reported. In this strategy, an electrochemically active quinone functionalized surface is toggled from the reduced hydroquinone form to the oxidized benzoquinone form by the delivery of an oxidant by DPN. While the benzoquinone form is susceptible to nucleophilic attack in Michael-type additions, hydroquinone is not and acts as a passivating agent. Because both forms of the quinone are kinetically stable, the patterned surface can be immersed in a solution of a target containing any strong nucleophile, which will react only where the benzoquinone form persists on the surface. For proof-of-concept demonstrations, quinone surfaces were patterned by the delivery of the oxidant cerric ammonium nitrate and were immersed in solutions of AF549 labeled cholera toxin β subunit or oligonucleotides modified at the 5’ end with an amine and the 3’ end with a fluorophore. Fluorescent patterns of both the proteins and oligonucleotides were observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Additionally, RA-DPN maintains the advantageous ability of DPN to control feature size by varying the dwell time of the tip on the surface, and variation of this parameter has resulted in feature sizes as small as 165 nm. With this resolution, patterns of 50,000 spots could be made in a 100 × 100 µm grid. PMID:19128060

  10. IL13RA2 targeted alpha particle therapy against glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Darpan N.; Almaguel, Frankis G.; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Herpai, Denise M.; Debinski, Waldemar; Mintz, Akiva

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary malignant brain cancer that invariably results in a dismal prognosis. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been completely effective as standard treatment options for patients due to recurrent disease. We and others have therefore developed molecular strategies to specifically target interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13RA2), a GBM restricted receptor expressed abundantly on over 75% of GBM patients. In this work, we evaluated the potential of Pep-1L, a novel IL13RA2 targeted peptide, as a platform to deliver targeted lethal therapies to GBM. To demonstrate GBM-specificity, we radiolabeled Pep-1L with Copper-64 and performed in vitro cell binding studies, which demonstrated specific binding that was blocked by unlabeled Pep-1L. Furthermore, we demonstrated real-time GBM localization of [64Cu]Pep-1L to orthotopic GBMs using small animal PET imaging. Based on these targeting data, we performed an initial in vivo safety and therapeutic study using Pep-1L conjugated to Actinium-225, an alpha particle emitter that has been shown to potently and irreversibly kill targeted cells. We infused [225Ac]Pep-1L into orthotopic GBMs using convection-enhanced delivery and found no significant adverse events at injected doses. Furthermore, our initial data also demonstrated significantly greater overall, median and mean survival in treated mice when compared to those in control groups (p < 0.05). GBM tissue extracted from mice treated with [225Ac]Pep-1L showed double stranded DNA breaks, lower Ki67 expression and greater propidium iodide internalization, indicating anti-GBM therapeutic effects of [225Ac]Pep-1L. Based on our results, Pep-1L warrants further investigation as a potential targeted platform to deliver anti-cancer agents. PMID:28562337

  11. Annual intakes of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in staple foodstuffs from a high background radiation area in the southwest region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ele Abiama, P; Ben-Bolie, G H; Amechmachi, N; Najib, F; El Khoukhi, T; Owono Ateba, P

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were determined in five most consumed vegetables in a high-level background radiation area (HLBRA) in the southwest region of Cameroon. A total of 25 foodstuff samples collected from Akongo, Ngombas, Awanda, Bikoué and Lolodorf rural districts were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration values of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were respectively 2.30, 1.50 and 140.40 Bq kg(-1) fresh-weights. The effective dose for individual consumption of the investigated foodstuff types was calculated on an estimated annual intake of such diets in the study area. The estimated total daily effective doses from the ingestion of the investigated foodstuffs for each studied long-life natural radionuclide were respectively 0.41 μSv for (226)Ra, 0.84 μSv for (228)Ra and 0.71 μSv for (40)K. The total annual effective dose was estimated at 0.70 mSv y(-1). (228)Ra (44%) and (40)K (36%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation which is very likely due to the specific uptake of these radionuclides by the studied plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of Dpp6 expression by Dnmt3b and its novel role in the inhibition of RA induced neuronal differentiation of P19 cells.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Muhammad Abid; Malik, Yousra Saeed; Yu, Huali; Lai, Mingming; Wang, Xingzhi; Zhu, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important mechanism of gene silencing in mammals catalyzed by a group of DNA methyltransferases including Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b which are required for the establishment of genomic methylation patterns during development and differentiation. In this report, we studied the role of DNA methyltransferases during retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation of P19 cells. We observed an increase in the mRNA and protein level of Dnmt3b, whereas the expression of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a was decreased after RA treatment of P19 cells which indicated that Dnmt3b is more important during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells. Dnmt3b enriched chromatin library from RA treated P19 cells identified dipeptidyl peptidase 6 (Dpp6) gene as a novel target of Dnmt3b. Further, quantitative ChIP analysis showed that the amount of Dnmt3b recruited on Dpp6 promoter was equal in both RA treated as well as untreated p19 cells. Bisulfite genomic sequencing, COBRA, and methylation specific PCR analysis revealed that Dpp6 promoter was heavily methylated in both RA treated and untreated P19 cells. Dnmt3b was responsible for transcriptional silencing of Dpp6 gene as depletion of Dnmt3b resulted in increased mRNA and protein expression of Dpp6. Consequently, the average methylation of Dpp6 gene promoter was reduced to half in Dnmt3b knockdown cells. In the absence of Dnmt3b, Dnmt3a was associated with Dpp6 gene promoter and regulated its expression and methylation in P19 cells. RA induced neuronal differentiation was inhibited upon ectopic expression of Dpp6 in P19 cells. Taken together, the present study described epigenetic silencing of Dpp6 expression by DNA methylation and established that its ectopic expression can act as negative signal during RA induced neuronal differentiation of P19 cells.

  13. 13cRA regulates the differentiation of antler chondrocytes through targeting Runx3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Cao, Hang; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Guo, Bin; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2017-03-01

    Although 13cRA is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, its physiological roles in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation still remain unknown. Here, we showed that 13cRA could induce the proliferation of sika deer antler chondrocytes and expression of Ccnd3 and Cdk6. Administration of 13cRA to antler chondrocytes resulted in an obvious increase in the expression of chondrocyte marker Col II and hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col X. Silencing of Crabp2 expression by specific siRNA could prevent the 13cRA-induced up-regulation of Col X, whereas overexpression of Crabp2 showed the opposite effects. Further study found that Crabp2 mediated the regulation of 13cRA on the expression of Runx3 which was highly expressed in the antler cartilage and inhibited the differentiation of antler chondrocytes. Moreover, attenuation of Runx3 expression greatly raised 13cRA-induced chondrocyte differentiation. Simultaneously, 13cRA could stimulate the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 in the antler chondrocytes. Inhibition of Cyp26a1 and/or Cyp26b1 reinforced the effects of 13cRA on the expression of Col X and Runx3, while overexpression of Cyp26b1 rendered the antler chondrocytes hyposensitive to 13cRA. Collectively, 13cRA may play an important role in the differentiation of antler chondrocytes through targeting Runx3. Crabp2 enhances the effects of 13cRA on chondrocyte differentiation, while Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 weaken the sensitivity of antler chondrocytes to 13cRA.

  14. Production of Ra225 precursor for Ac225/Bi213 generators. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    Russian subcontractors shipped two small deliveries of Ra225 to PNNL for evaluation. The activity was close to the requisite amount in the subcontract. The first labeled properly; the second did not. This showed that the Russians could supply Ra225 to the US; however they proved unable to meet future demands for larger amounts of activity. The US DOE attempts to get Ra225 from Russian should be terminated; the Russians, under Rosatom, are not interested in this business.

  15. Hadfield holds bubble detectors for the RaDI-N Experiment in the Columbus Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-25

    ISS034-E-034506 (25 Jan. 2013) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, holds bubble detectors for the RaDI-N experiment in the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory. RaDI-N measures neutron radiation levels onboard the space station. RaDI-N uses bubble detectors as neutron monitors which have been designed to only detect neutrons and ignore all other radiation.

  16. Albuminuria in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with RA Characteristics and Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sammut, Amanda; Shea, Steven; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Bathon, Joan M; Polak, Joseph F; Tracy, Russell; Giles, Jon T

    2017-03-03

    Background Albuminuria is a marker for subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. It is uncertain whether this association is present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a population with increased atherosclerosis and CVD events. Methods Urine albumin from a spot morning collection was measured and the ratio of urine albumin:creatinine (uACR) calculated for RA and a population-based sample of demographically matched non-RA controls. Associations of elevated uACR (≥25mg/g for women and ≥17mg/g for men) with CVD risk factors and measures of atherosclerosis [coronary artery calcification (CAC) and ultrasound-determined maximal intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common (CCA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries, and presence of focal plaque in the ICA] were compared cross-sectionally according to RA status. Results 196 RA patients were compared with 271 non-RA controls. Elevated uACR was found in 18% of the RA patients vs. 17% of the controls (p=0.89). After adjustment, RA was associated with 67% lower odds of elevated uACR (p=0.016). Higher serum creatinine levels and hypertension were both strongly and significantly associated with elevated uACR in the control group, but not in the RA group (p-value for interaction<0.05 for both). Among RA characteristics, the adjusted prevalence of elevated uACR among TNF inhibitor users was less than half that of non-users (9% vs. 20%, respectively; p=0.047). Conclusion There was no association in the RA group of elevated uACR with measures of atherosclerosis, nor with several key cardiometabolic risk factors, suggesting a lower utility for elevated uACR as an indicator of subclinical CVD in RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Retinoic acid in alveolar development, maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Maden, Malcolm; Hind, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Recent data suggest that exogenous retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, can induce alveolar regeneration in a rat model of experimental emphysema. Here, we describe a mouse model of disrupted alveolar development using dexamethasone administered postnatally. We show that the effects of dexamethasone are concentration dependent, dose dependent, long lasting and result in a severe loss of alveolar surface area. When RA is administered to these animals as adults, lung architecture and the surface area per unit of body weight are completely restored to normal. This remarkable effect may be because RA is required during normal alveolar development and administering RA re-awakens gene cascades used during development. We provide evidence that RA is required during alveologenesis in the mouse by showing that the levels of the retinoid binding proteins, the RA receptors and two RA synthesizing enzymes peak postnatally. Furthermore, an inhibitor of RA synthesis, disulphiram, disrupts alveologenesis. We also show that RA is required throughout life for the maintenance of lung alveoli because when rats are deprived of dietary retinol they lose alveoli and show the features of emphysema. Alveolar regeneration with RA may therefore be an important novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of respiratory diseases characterized by a reduced gas-exchanging surface area such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema for which there are currently no treatments. PMID:15293808

  18. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  19. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; ...

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  20. First Measurement of the Atomic Electric Dipole Moment of (225)Ra.

    PubMed

    Parker, R H; Dietrich, M R; Kalita, M R; Lemke, N D; Bailey, K G; Bishof, M; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Korsch, W; Lu, Z-T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J T

    2015-06-12

    The radioactive radium-225 ((225)Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment. Because of its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, (225)Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of (225)Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic electric dipole moment, reaching an upper limit of |d((225)Ra)|<5.0×10(-22)  e cm (95% confidence).

  1. Mapping of receptor binding sites on IL-1 beta by reconstruction of IL-1ra-like domains.

    PubMed

    Boraschi, D; Bossù, P; Ruggiero, P; Tagliabue, A; Bertini, R; Macchia, G; Gasbarro, C; Pellegrini, L; Melillo, G; Ulisse, E; Visconti, U; Bizzarri, C; Del Grosso, E; Mackay, A R; Frascotti, G; Frigerio, F; Grifantini, R; Grandi, G

    1995-11-15

    Upon structure comparison between IL-1 beta and its antagonist IL-1ra, single or multiple residues along the IL-1 beta sequence were replaced with the corresponding amino acids present in the IL-1ra protein, in the attempt to identify sites important for receptor binding and for biologic activity on the two molecules. Ten of fifteen mutant proteins had activity comparable to that of wild-type IL-1 beta in three different biologic assays and in receptor binding, indicating that the introduced changes did not influence the functional structure of the protein. Conversely, three mutants (SMIL-9: 127/263 R/T-->W/Y; SMIL-10: 125/127/263/265 T/R/T/Q-->R/W/Y/E; SMIL-15:222/227 I/E-->S/S) showed an increased binding capacity for IL-1RI, not paralleled by increased agonist activity, indicating that the introduced IL-1ra residues could be involved in the nonagonist IL-1RI binding site. On the other hand, two mutants showed diminished binding capacity with concomitant decrease in biologic activity. Both mutants (SMIL-1, five substitutions in the loop 202-214; and SMIL-3, total replacement of the loop 164-173 with the IL-1ra stretch 52-55) included substitutions of residues allegedly important for agonist binding to IL-1RI. Mutant SMIL-3 showed the most profound reduction in binding capacity for IL-1RI (CDw121a) and a more than 1,000-fold reduced biologic activity both in vitro and in vivo, but it retained full capacity of binding to IL-1RII (CDw121b) and acted as a selective antagonist of IL-1RII. From these results the following conclusions can be drawn. IL-1 beta binds to IL-1RI and to IL-1RII through different sites, and the loop 164-173 appears as one of the areas involved in the selective interaction with IL-1RI. Agonist (IL-1 beta) and nonagonist (IL-1ra) binding to IL-1RI occur through distinct sites, with loops 164-173 and 202-214 of IL-1 beta identified as two of the sites selectively involved in agonist binding to the activating receptor.

  2. Migration of the FDNPP-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs along with (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations across the northwestern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Shirotani, Y; Nagao, S; Kofuji, H; Volkov, Y N; Nishioka, J

    2016-10-01

    We examined lateral distributions of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra in the surface seawaters around the Kuril Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2014. The sampling area included three water current areas, the Oyashio Current, the current from the Okhotsk Sea, and the coastal current along the east Kamchatka Peninsula. (226)Ra and (228)Ra distributions differed along the three currents. Low levels of (134)Cs were detected in the surface waters of the Oyashio Current (0.09-0.35 mBq/L), but it was <∼0.1 mBq/L at the surface along the other two currents. This indicates that the distribution of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in surface waters off the Kamchatka and along the Kuril Islands is predominantly governed by the Oyashio current system.

  3. Association between anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis or anti-α-enolase antibody and severity of periodontitis or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in RA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Youn; Choi, In Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Lee, Yong-Moo; Song, Yeong Wook

    2015-08-12

    Periodontitis (PD) has been reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is recognized as one of the major pathogenic organisms in PD and is the only bacterium known to express peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD). Antibody against human α-enolase (ENO1) is one of the autoantibodies in RA. ENO1 is a highly conserved protein, and could be a candidate molecule for molecular mimicry between bacterial and human proteins. In the present study, we measured serum antibody against P. gingivalis and human ENO1 in patients with RA and investigated their association with the severity of PD or disease activity of RA. Two hundred, forty-eight patients with RA and 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated by rheumatologic and periodontal examinations. The serum levels of anti-P. gingivalis and anti-ENO1 antibodies were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with RA had significantly higher levels of anti-P. gingivalis and anti-ENO1 antibody titers than the controls (p = 0.002 and 0.0001, respectively). Anti-P. gingivalis antibody titers significantly correlated with anti-ENO1 antibody titers in RA patients (r = 0.30, p < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between anti-P. gingivalis antibody titers and the gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL) (p = 0.038, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.002, respectively) in RA. Anti-P. gingivalis antibody titers were not correlated with disease activity score 28 (DAS28) or anti-CCP titer. However, anti-ENO1 antibody titers were significantly correlated not only with the periodontal indices, such as PPD, BOP, and CAL (p = 0.013, 0.023 and 0.017, respectively), but also RA clinical characteristics, such as DAS28, anti-CCP titer, and ESR (p = 0.009, 0.015 and 0.001, respectively). Anti-P. gingivalis and anti-ENO1 antibody

  4. Distribution of (223)Ra and (224)Ra in the Bo Sea embayment in Tianjin and its implication of submarine groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Yi, Lixin; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. In this study, in order to analyze the distribution of naturally occurring short-lived radium isotopes and the relative SGD effect in Bo Sea embayment, (223)Ra and (224)Ra were measured in three parts of the embayment with the radium-delayed coincidence counting (RaDeCC) system. Subsequently, the mixing process was studied by the calculation of diffusion coefficients (Kx and Kz) and advection velocities (Vx and Vz) based on the 2D advection-diffusion model. Additionally, the apparent residence ages and SGD flux were quantified based on the (224)Ra and (223)Ra activities. The results showed that the Ra activities exponentially decreased with the distance offshore, and both the Kx and Vx took the order of northern part > southern part > middle part. In vertical direction, there was the maximum value of Vz and minimum Kz in middle part and the maximum Kz and minimum Vz in southern part. The average ages for the northern, middle and southern parts were 4.28, 7.38 and 3.73 days, respectively. The final SGD flux yielded by (224)Ra was 0.09, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in the northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The SGD flux yielded by (223)Ra was 0.08, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The result indicates that there is the fastest exchange rate and the biggest SGD flux in the southern part in Bo Sea embayment.

  5. A Prospective Approach to Investigating the Natural History of Pre-Clinical Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Using First-Degree Relatives of Probands with RA

    PubMed Central

    Kolfenbach, Jason R.; Deane, Kevin D.; Derber, Lezlie A.; O’Donnell, Colin; Weisman, Michael H.; Buckner, Jane H.; Gersuk, Vivian H.; Wei, Shan; Mikuls, Ted R.; O’Dell, James; Gregersen, Peter K.; Keating, Richard M.; Norris, Jill M.; Holers, V. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe a large, multi-center prospective cohort study of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of probands with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and outline the utility of such a study in investigating the natural history of RA development. Methods 1058 FDRs, none of whom met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA, have been enrolled into a prospective study investigating genetic and environmental influences on the development of RA-related autoimmunity. Demographic, epidemiologic, genetic, autoantibody, and physical examination data from the initial study enrollment visit is described for these FDRs, and the relationship is examined between genetic factors, autoantibodies, inflammation, and joint disease. Results Fifty-five percent of FDRs have ≥1 copy of the shared epitope (SE); 20% have ≥1 copy of PTPN22 polymorphism; ~16% are positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, including isotypes), and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. RF-IgM positivity is associated with ≥1 tender joint/s on examination (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.89, p<0.01), and elevated levels of CRP (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.45 to 19.52, p = 0.01). Conclusion FDRs without RA demonstrate high prevalence of genetic risk factors and RA-related autoantibodies. Additionally, RF association with tender joints and elevated CRP suggests autoantibodies are a valid intermediate marker of RA-related autoimmunity in this cohort. This prospective FDR cohort will be a valuable resource for evaluating the relationship between genetic, epidemiologic factors and the development of RA-related autoimmunity. PMID:19950324

  6. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  7. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kristin L.; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M.; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A.; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca2+ levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca2+-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca2+-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  8. ACPA-Negative RA Consists of Two Genetically Distinct Subsets Based on RF Positivity in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Chikashi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Maruya, Etsuko; Katayama, Masaki; Yurugi, Kimiko; Shimada, Kota; Murasawa, Akira; Honjo, Shigeru; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Suzuki, Akari; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Yamada, Ryo; Saji, Hiroo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2012-01-01

    HLA-DRB1, especially the shared epitope (SE), is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, recent studies have shown that SE is at most weakly associated with RA without anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA). We have recently reported that ACPA-negative RA is associated with specific HLA-DRB1 alleles and diplotypes. Here, we attempted to detect genetically different subsets of ACPA-negative RA by classifying ACPA-negative RA patients into two groups based on their positivity for rheumatoid factor (RF). HLA-DRB1 genotyping data for totally 954 ACPA-negative RA patients and 2,008 healthy individuals in two independent sets were used. HLA-DRB1 allele and diplotype frequencies were compared among the ACPA-negative RF-positive RA patients, ACPA-negative RF-negative RA patients, and controls in each set. Combined results were also analyzed. A similar analysis was performed in 685 ACPA-positive RA patients classified according to their RF positivity. As a result, HLA-DRB1*04:05 and *09:01 showed strong associations with ACPA-negative RF-positive RA in the combined analysis (p = 8.8×10−6 and 0.0011, OR: 1.57 (1.28–1.91) and 1.37 (1.13–1.65), respectively). We also found that HLA-DR14 and the HLA-DR8 homozygote were associated with ACPA-negative RF-negative RA (p = 0.00022 and 0.00013, OR: 1.52 (1.21–1.89) and 3.08 (1.68–5.64), respectively). These association tendencies were found in each set. On the contrary, we could not detect any significant differences between ACPA-positive RA subsets. As a conclusion, ACPA-negative RA includes two genetically distinct subsets according to RF positivity in Japan, which display different associations with HLA-DRB1. ACPA-negative RF-positive RA is strongly associated with HLA-DRB1*04:05 and *09:01. ACPA-negative RF-negative RA is associated with DR14 and the HLA-DR8 homozygote. PMID:22792215

  9. Analysis of the distribution characteristics of 226Ra and 228Ra and their sources in the western part of Qinghai Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fancui; Sha, Zhanjiang; Du, Jinzhou; Su, Weigang; Yu, Chenguang; Zhao, Shunli; Hu, Jufang; Ye, Mei

    2015-11-01

    The 226Ra and 228Ra activities of Qinghai Lake surface water, groundwater, river water, suspended particles, and bottom sediments were measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer. The sources of 226Ra and 228Ra were discussed according to their distribution characteristics. 226Ra and 228Ra activities (dpm/(100 L)) ranged from 14.13±0.22 to 19.22±0.42 and 17.72±0.66 to 30.96±1.47 in the surface water of the North Bay, respectively, and from 7.88±0.24 to 33.80±0.47 and 15.73±0.74 to 57.31±1.44, respectively, in the South Bay. The surface water near the estuary had a lower salinity and had a higher concentration of radium isotopes than the samples collected further away. The farther offshore the sample, the higher the salinity was, and the lower the radium isotope activity. The distribution of radium activities in the western part of Qinghai Lake is controlled by several factors, including Buha River runoff, desorption from suspended particles derived from the river, groundwater discharge, and a small amount of diffusion from the sediment.

  10. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RA diagnostics applying optical tomography in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Prapavat, Viravuth; Minet, Olaf; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim is to reconstruct the optical parameters in a slice of a finger joint phantom for further investigations about rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we have developed a flexible NIR scanning system in order to collect amplitude and phase delay of photon density waves in frequency-domain. A cylindrical finger joint phantom was embedded in a container of Intralipid solution due to the application of an inverse method for infinite geometry. The joint phantom was investigated by a laser beam obtaining several projections. The average optical parameters of each projection was calculated. Using different reconstruction techniques, e.g. ART and SIRT with a special projection operator, we reconstructed the optical parameters in a slice. The projection operator can be heuristically described by a photon path density function of a homogeneous media with infinite geometry. Applied to an object with an unknown distribution of optical parameters it calculates the expectation value of the investigated object. The potentials and limits of these fast reconstruction methods will be presented.

  12. Search for possible solar influences in Ra-226 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Daniel D.; Balci Yegen, Sümeyra; Dickey, David A.; Gould, Chris R.

    Measurements of Ra-226 activity from eight HPGe gamma ray detectors at the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor were analyzed for evidence of periodic variations, with particular attention to annual variations. All measurements were made using the same reference source, and data sets were of varying length taken over the time period from September 1996 through August 2014. Clear evidence of annual variations was observed in data from four of the detectors. Short time periodograms from the data sets suggest temporal variability of both the amplitude and frequency of these variations. The annual variations in two of the data sets show peak values near the first of February, while surprisingly, the annual variations in the other two are roughly out of phase with the first two. Three of the four detectors exhibited annual variations over approximately the same time period. A joint statistic constructed by combining spectra from these three shows peaks approximating the frequencies of solar r-mode oscillations with νR = 11.74 cpy, m = 1, and l = 3, 5, 6. The fact that similar variations were not present in all detectors covering similar time periods rules out variations in activity as the cause, and points to differing sensitivities to unspecified environmental parameters instead. In addition to seasonal variations, the modulation of environmental parameters by solar processes remains a possible explanation of periodogram features, but without requiring new physics.

  13. Background Characterization for Thermal Ion Release Experiments with 224Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, H.; Rowson, P.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay uses {sup 136}Ba identification as a means for verifying the decay's occurrence in {sup 136}Xe. A current challenge is the release of Ba ions from the Ba extraction probe, and one possible solution is to heat the probe to high temperatures to release the ions. The investigation of this method requires a characterization of the alpha decay background in our test apparatus, which uses a {sup 228}Th source that produces {sup 224}Ra daughters, the ionization energies of which are similar to those of Ba. For this purpose, we ran a background count with our apparatus maintained at a vacuum, and then three counts with the apparatus filled with Xe gas. We were able to match up our alpha spectrum in vacuum with the known decay scheme of {sup 228}Th, while the spectrum in xenon gas had too many unresolved ambiguities for an accurate characterization. We also found that the alpha decays occurred at a near-zero rate both in vacuum and in xenon gas, which indicates that the rate was determined by {sup 228}Th decays. With these background measurements, we can in the future make a more accurate measurement of the temperature dependency of the ratio of ions to neutral atoms released from the hot surface of the probe, which may lead to a successful method of Ba ion release.

  14. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  15. Performance Characterization of RaPToRS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Krieger, M.; Fallica, J.; Henchen, R.; Pogozelski, E.; Padalino, S.; SUNY Geneseo Collaboration; LaboratoryLaser Energetics at University of Rochester Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system can quickly and efficiently move radioactive materials from their activation site to a counting station. Facilities such as the NIF and LLE are considering these systems while NRL is currently using one. The system is essentially a 10 cm diameter pneumatic tube with a cylindrical sample carrier. The performance of the system depends on many factors, including the mass of the carrier, length of the tube, angle and difference in height of the tube's endpoints, the carrier's physical design, and the number, type, and distribution of blowers attached to the tube. These factors have been systematically examined to develop the fastest and most reliable system. The most significant factors are the mass and the vertical travel of the carrier. When the carrier mass is low, moving air supports the carrier in the tube, resulting in low friction. The terminal velocity ranges from 13.5 to 2.5 m/s for masses varying from 1 kg to 3 kg. Using a single 1100 W blower, the initial force exerted on the carrier was 11.3 N. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the LLE.

  16. Protective effect of rosmarinic acid against oxidative stress biomarkers in liver and kidney of strepotozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Nadia; Schmatz, Roberta; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; da Costa, Pauline; Reichert, Karine Paula; Dalenogare, Diéssica; Pelinson, Luana Paula; Vieira, Juliano Marchi; Stefanello, Naiara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Mulinacci, Nadia; Bellumori, Maria; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.

  17. [Signaling pathway of meiosis induced by retinoic acid during spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Ying-Ji

    2013-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an oxidative metabolite of vitamin A (retinol, ROH) and plays an important role in the spermatogenesis (as in meiosis) of mammals. In mammalian testes, RA, in combination with its retinoic acid receptor (RAR), regulates the expressions of related target genes in various types of cells at different times. It activates meiosis by up-regulating the expressions of the genes that promote meiosis and down-regulate those that inhibit it during spermatogenesis in a specific stage. The results of researches on mammalian spermatogenesis have a great application value in reproductive biology, developmental biology, and reproductive engineering. Therefore, it is of considerable significance to study the signaling pathway of RA-induced meiosis during mammalian spermatogenesis. This article presents an introduction of the RA signal transduction system and its action mechanisms, as well as an overview on the signaling pathway of RA-activated meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  18. A correlation between soil descriptions and {sup 226}Ra concentrations in Florida soils

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1992-12-31

    The soil radium content in Florida is highly variable. The range in radium concentrations, where the samples involved in this study are concerned, is from 0.1 pCi/g to 18.5 pCi/g. Low {sup 226}Ra concentrations (0.1 to 5 pCi/g) are evidenced in sands, moderate concentrations (5 to 11 pCi/g) are found in silt and gravel, and high {sup 226}Ra concentrations (>11 pCi/g) are found in soil horizons with shell, clay, and strata with phosphate. Strata containing phosphate yields a high concentration of {sup 226}Ra. The information obtained in this study, soil descriptions with their corresponding {sup 226}Ra concentrations, comes from geological cores drilled by geotechnical consultants with gamma spectrometry analysis performed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Concentration; of {sup 226}Ra generally increase with depth. These cores are usually terminated at 20 feet deep, with some cores being shallower than this due to hitting bedrock or encountering the water table. These frequency distributions give the core-logging geologist an approximate concentration of {sup 226}Ra based on the description of the soil. Since the correlation of {sup 226}Ra and soil descriptions can be used as a tool in assigning indoor radon potential, this study is of importance to land managers, contractors, developers, and regulating agencies who are attempting to place standards on tracts of land with {sup 226}Ra concentration used as a criterion.

  19. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  20. 7 CFR 1940.576 - Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. 1940.576 Section 1940.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.576 Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. (a) Amount...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.576 - Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. 1940.576 Section 1940.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.576 Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. (a) Amount...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.576 - Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. 1940.576 Section 1940.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.576 Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. (a) Amount...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.576 - Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. 1940.576 Section 1940.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.576 Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. (a) Amount...

  4. Vertical distribution of (226)Ra and (210)Po in agricultural soils in Buyuk Menderes Basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyil, S; Gurboga, G; Aslani, M A A; Aytas, S

    2008-09-15

    The vertical distribution of (226)Ra and (210)Po was investigated in the cultivated soils of the Buyuk Menderes Basin in Turkey. Five soil cores down to a depth of about 50 cm were taken from each site and divided into strata of 2-3 cm intervals. The samples were analyzed for their (226)Ra and (210)Po activity concentrations using radioanalytical methods. Down-core concentration profiles of (226)Ra and (210)Po in the soil cores from five sites are obtained. The activity concentrations of soil cores range from 80 to 1170 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and from 10 to 870 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po with the depth. Analysis of the vertical soil profiles indicate that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (210)Po for soil strata at all the sites have not extremely changed with depth.

  5. Systematic study of heavy cluster emission from 210-226Ra isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Sahadevan, Sabina; Priyanka, B.; Unnikrishnan, M. S.

    2012-05-01

    The half lives for various clusters lying in the cold reaction valleys of 210-226Ra isotopes are computed using our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The computed half lives of 4He and 14C clusters from 210-226Ra isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data. Half lives are also computed using the universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., and are found to be in agreement with CPPM values. Our study reveals the role of doubly magic 208Pb daughter in cluster decay process. Geiger-Nuttall plots for all clusters up to 62Fe are studied and are found to be linear with different slopes and intercepts. 12,14C emission from 220Ra; 14C emission from 222,224Ra; 14C and 20O emission from 226Ra are found to be most favourable for measurement and this observation will serve as a guide to the future experiments.

  6. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  7. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  8. Neuroendocrine factors regulate retinoic acid receptors in normal and hypoplastic lung development

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Terra, Patrícia; Moura, Rute S; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is characterised by a spectrum of lung hypoplasia and consequent pulmonary hypertension, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, CDH has been associated with an increase in the levels of pulmonary neuroendocrine factors, such as bombesin and ghrelin, and a decrease in the action of retinoic acid (RA). The present study aimed to elucidate the interaction between neuroendocrine factors and RA. In vitro analyses were performed on Sprague–Dawley rat embryos. Normal lung explants were treated with bombesin, ghrelin, a bombesin antagonist, a ghrelin antagonist, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), RA dissolved in DMSO, bombesin plus RA and ghrelin plus RA. Hypoplastic lung explants (nitrofen model) were cultured with bombesin, ghrelin, bombesin antagonist or ghrelin antagonist. The lung explants were analysed morphometrically, and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α, β and γ expression levels were assessed via Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of RAR was performed in normal and hypoplastic lungs 17.5 days post-conception (dpc). Compared with the controls, hypoplastic lungs exhibited significantly higher RARα/γ expression levels. Furthermore considering hypoplastic lungs, bombesin and ghrelin antagonists decreased RARα/γ expression. Normal lung explants (13.5 dpc) treated with RA, bombesin plus RA, ghrelin plus RA, bombesin or ghrelin exhibited increased lung growth. Moreover, bombesin and ghrelin increased RARα/γ expression levels, whereas the bombesin and ghrelin antagonists decreased RARα/γ expression. This study demonstrates for the first time that neuroendocrine factors function as lung growth regulators, sensitising the lung to the action of RA through up-regulation of RARα and RARγ. Key points Retinoic acid (RA) and ghrelin levels are altered in human hypoplastic lungs when compared to healthy lungs. Although considerable data have been obtained about RA, ghrelin and bombesin in the congenital

  9. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is known to be the largest high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, a bloom which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the shelves. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the polar front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales on the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the polar front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of the Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra data set suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shelves of the Kerguelen Islands may contribute to fueling the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the polar front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  10. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Southern Ocean is known as the largest High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the margins. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 223Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the Polar Front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales in the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the Polar Front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra dataset suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shallow sediments of the Kerguelen margins may contribute to fuel the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the Polar Front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process, but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  11. The CpxRA two-component system is essential for Citrobacter rodentium virulence.

    PubMed

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens.

  12. The CpxRA Two-Component System Is Essential for Citrobacter rodentium Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens. PMID:25712925

  13. Serum progranulin irrelated with Breg cell levels, but elevated in RA patients, reflecting high disease activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxi; Li, Shuang; Shi, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lili; Li, Jun; Chen, Shiyong; Wu, Chunlong; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Soluble progranulin (PGRN) is known to directly regulate regulatory T cells; however, whether PGRN levels are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and affect the regulatory subsets of B cells remain unknown. In this study, a total of 80 RA patients and 60 healthy controls were studied. Serum progranulin levels were determined using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of serum PGRN as a biomarker for distinguishing patients with RA. CD19(+)CD5(+)GrB(+) B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Serum progranulin levels in RA patients (median, 59.4 ng/mL) and in RA patients DAS28 > 5.1 (median, 71.98 ng/mL) were much higher than those in normal controls (median, 46.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for progranulin levels was 0.705 for RA versus normal controls and the area under the ROC curve for progranulin levels in RA patients DAS28 > 5.1 was 0.977 versus normal controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, serum progranulin and DAS28, CRP, ESR were all positively correlated in RA patients (P < 0.001). The number of CD19(+)CD5(+)GrB(+) B cells was significantly higher in RA patients (P < 0.05); however, the level of Breg cells was not related to PGRN (P > 0.05). Our findings indicated that induction of PGRN expression may play a role in RA immune reaction and PGRN levels could be a useful biomarker in RA inflammatory response, but irrelated with Breg cell levels.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; Rondinone, A. J.; Castano, C. H.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.

  15. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Jingbo; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R.; Chung, Dai H.

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  16. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum.

  17. Isotonic similarities in isotope shifts from Hg to Ra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. H.

    2003-04-01

    Isotope shifts (IS) in atomic spectra of heavy elements reflect largely the variation in of the nuclear charge distribution. Our early systematic measurements of IS for an extended range of stable and radioactive isotopes and nuclear isomers in Tl and Hg^1 showed that by displaying the relative IS, normalized to a chosen pair of isotopes, there was a striking similarity for the IS of isotones. This essentially divides out the electronic factor in the IS and allows the comparison of Δ for neighboring Z as N is varied. Following our further studies on Pb and Bi^2 and those on Fr at ISOLDE by the Orsay spectroscopy group^3, we found that the isotonic similarity extended to these elements. Since then, many additional measurements were made, principally at ISOLDE^4, extending to Ra the elements studied. The isotonic shift similarities persist from Z=80 to 88. We noted that the relative isotope and isomer shifts can be used to investigate the polarization of the nucleus by the added neutrons, a model used in a calculation by Barrett.^5 . The new data may serve further in this direction. ^1W,J.Tomlinson, H.H. Stroke, Nucl.Phys. 60, 614 (1964). ^2M. Barboza-Flores et al., Z.Phys. A 321, 85 (1985), ^3S. Liberman et al., Phys .Rev. A 22, 2732 (1980). ^4E,g. M.R. Pearson et al., J.Phys. G 26, 1829 (2000). ^5R.C. Barrett, Nucl. Phys. 88, 128 (1966).

  18. Spatiotemporal manipulation of retinoic acid activity in zebrafish hindbrain development via photo-isomerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Feng, Zhiping; Sinha, Deepak; Ducos, Bertrand; Ebenstein, Yuval; Tadmor, Arbel D; Gauron, Carole; Le Saux, Thomas; Lin, Shuo; Weiss, Shimon; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    2012-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a key player in many developmental pathways. Most methods used to study its effects in development involve continuous all-trans RA activation by incubation in a solution of all-trans RA or by implanting all-trans RA-soaked beads at desired locations in the embryo. Here we show that the UV-driven photo-isomerization of 13-cis RA to the trans-isomer (and vice versa) can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively control the concentration of all-trans RA in a developing embryo in time and space. This facilitates the global or local perturbation of developmental pathways with a pulse of all-trans RA of known concentration or its inactivation by UV illumination. In zebrafish embryos in which endogenous synthesis of all-trans RA is impaired, incubation for as little as 5 minutes in 1 nM all-trans RA (a pulse) or 5 nM 13-cis RA followed by 1-minute UV illumination is sufficient to rescue the development of the hindbrain if performed no later than bud stage. However, if subsequent to this all-trans RA pulse the embryo is illuminated (no later than bud stage) for 1 minute with UV light (to isomerize, i.e. deactivate, all-trans RA), the rescue of hindbrain development is impaired. This suggests that all-trans RA is sequestered in embryos that have been transiently exposed to it. Using 13-cis RA isomerization with UV light, we further show that local illumination at bud stage of the head region (but not the tail) is sufficient to rescue hindbrain formation in embryos whose all-trans RA synthetic pathway has been impaired.

  19. Shifting boundaries of retinoic acid activity control hindbrain segmental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Gresh, Lionel; Barra, Jacqueline; Duester, Gregg

    2005-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) generated by Raldh2 in paraxial mesoderm is required for specification of the posterior hindbrain, including restriction of Hoxb1 expression to presumptive rhombomere 4 (r4). Hoxb1 expression requires 3' and 5' RA response elements for widespread induction up to r4 and for r3/r5 repression, but RA has previously been detected only from r5-r8, and vHnf1 is required for repression of Hoxb1 posterior to r4 in zebrafish. We demonstrate in mouse embryos that an RA signal initially travels from the paraxial mesoderm to r3, forming a boundary next to the r2 expression domain of Cyp26a1 (which encodes an RA-degrading enzyme). After Hoxb1 induction, the RA boundary quickly shifts to r4/r5, coincident with induction of Cyp26c1 in r4. A functional role for Cyp26c1 in RA degradation was established through examination of RA-treated embryos. Analysis of Raldh2-/- and vHnf1-/- embryos supports a direct role for RA in Hoxb1 induction up to r4 and repression in r3/r5, as well as an indirect role for RA in Hoxb1 repression posterior to r4 via RA induction of vHnf1 up to the r4/r5 boundary. Our findings suggest that Raldh2 and Cyp26 generate shifting boundaries of RA activity, such that r3-r4 receives a short pulse of RA and r5-r8 receives a long pulse of RA. These two pulses of RA activity function to establish expression of Hoxb1 and vHnf1 on opposite sides of the r4/r5 boundary.

  20. Retinoic acid induces TGFbeta-dependent autocrine fibroblast growth.

    PubMed

    Fadloun, A; Kobi, D; Delacroix, L; Dembélé, D; Michel, I; Lardenois, A; Tisserand, J; Losson, R; Mengus, G; Davidson, I

    2008-01-17

    To evaluate the role of murine TFIID subunit TAF4 in activation of cellular genes by all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA), we have characterized the T-RA response of taf4(lox/-) and taf4(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts. T-RA regulates almost 1000 genes in taf4(lox/-) cells, but less than 300 in taf4(-/-) cells showing that TAF4 is required for T-RA regulation of most, but not all cellular genes. We further show that T-RA-treated taf4(lox/-) cells exhibit transforming growth factor (TGF)beta-dependent autocrine growth and identify a set of genes regulated by loss of TAF4 and by T-RA corresponding to key mediators of the TGFbeta signalling pathway. T-RA rapidly and potently induces expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) via a conserved DR2 type response element in its proximal promoter leading to serum-free autocrine growth. These results highlight the role of TAF4 as a cofactor in the cellular response to T-RA and identify the genetic programme of a novel cross talk between the T-RA and TGFbeta pathways that leads to deregulated cell growth.

  1. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role. PMID:27635169

  2. Microencapsulation of rosmarinic acid using polycaprolactone and various surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-J; Kim, T-H; Kang, K-C; Pyo, H-B; Jeong, H-H

    2010-06-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of RA is stronger than that of vitamin E. Despite its strong antioxidant activity, it was limited to use in cosmetics because of the low water solubility, discolouration and chemical instability. The purpose of this study was to prepare RA-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres using emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterize them with different surfactants used in the formation process. Finally, long-term stability of RA was evaluated in the cosmetic formulation. As a result, PCL microspheres were found to be spherical in shape, with zwitterionic surfactant-PCL particles being the smallest size distribution and highest entrapment efficiency of RA. Emulsions containing RA-loaded PCL microspheres showed a better long-term stability of the RA compared with those containing only RA. These results suggest that RA may be stably and efficiently encapsulated into polycaprolactone microspheres.

  3. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates.

    PubMed

    Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA) has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, we focus on the conserved roles of RA and its downstream mediators, the Hox genes, in conveying positional patterning information to different embryonic tissues, such as the endoderm and the central nervous system. We find that some of the control mechanisms governing RA-mediated patterning are well conserved between vertebrates and invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus. In contrast, outside the chordates, evidence for roles of RA signaling is scarce and the evolutionary origin of the RA pathway itself thus remains elusive. In sum, to fully understand the evolutionary history of the RA pathway, future research should focus on identification and study of components of the RA signaling cascade in non-chordate deuterostomes (such as hemichordates and echinoderms) and other invertebrates, such as insects, mollusks and cnidarians.

  4. Retinoic acid regulates embryonic development of mammalian submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diana M; Buenger, Deanna E; Abashev, Timur M; Lindeman, Robert P; Ding, Jixiang; Sandell, Lisa L

    2015-11-01

    Organogenesis is orchestrated by cell and tissue interactions mediated by molecular signals. Identification of relevant signals, and the tissues that generate and receive them, are important goals of developmental research. Here, we demonstrate that Retinoic Acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule important for morphogenesis of mammalian submandibular salivary glands (SMG). By examining late stage RA deficient embryos of Rdh10 mutant mice we show that SMG development requires RA in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we find that active RA signaling occurs in SMG tissues, arising earlier than any other known marker of SMG development and persisting throughout gland morphogenesis. At the initial bud stage of development, we find RA production occurs in SMG mesenchyme, while RA signaling occurs in epithelium. We also demonstrate active RA signaling occurs in glands cultured ex vivo, and treatment with an inhibitor of RA signaling blocks growth and branching. Together these data identify RA signaling as a direct regulator of SMG organogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metrological Determination of Natural Radioactive Isotopes {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by Means of Ge Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Maria Candida M. de; Delgado, Jose U.; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Silva, Ronaldo L. da

    2008-08-07

    A metrological method to determine the activity per mass unity (activity concentration) of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb ({sup 238}U decay series) and {sup 228}Ra ({sup 232}Th series) by gamma-ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure coaxial germanium detector was developed. In the soil the {sup 22}Ra (half-life = 1600 years) exhibits the same level of radioactivity as {sup 238}U (half-life 4.5x10{sup 9} years) because of a natural phenomenon called secular equilibrium. {sup 226}Ra decays into {sup 222}Rn (half-life = 3.8 days), a radioactive inert gas. After several days, the {sup 222}Rn naturally decays to {sup 218}Po (half-life = 3 minutes), where finally {sup 210}Pb (half-life = 22 years) is produced. The metrological capability of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is showed, with emphasis on the use of 2 mL standard sources volume in a glass ampoule. Source preparation and calibration procedures are described. Radionuclide standards in an activity range of 10 to 250 Bq/g were produced which can be applied in a variety of environmental sample analysis (water, plant material, sediment, etc.). Uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb around 3% (k = 1) were obtained.

  6. Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 variations in the water columns and the surface water plankton in the Luzon Strait and northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, P.; Su, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Profiles of Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 were measured in the Luzon Strait (LS) and northern South China Sea (SCS) areas to delineate the exchanges between the western Philippine Sea (WPS) and the northern SCS waters across the LS. Plankton samples were also collected for Po-210 and Pb-210 measurements to assess the balance between the Po-210 excess over Pb-210 in the plankton and the deficit in the surface water. Profiles of Ra-228 and Ra-226 seem to indicate the out flow of the SCS water below the salinity minimum and above around 1500m depth, below which the WPS water flows into the SCS through the LS above a sill depth of about 2600m. This is consistent with previous studies conducted in the area. All the Pb-210 profiles show a strong subsurface maximum with higher activity in the LS area. This maximum is in large excess over its parent, Ra-226 due to atmospheric input. Po-210 profiles generally follow the associated Pb-210 profiles but with lower activities, showing Po-210 deficiency. Po-210 is strongly enriched over Pb-210 in the plankton samples with an activity ratio generally over 10 and up to 40. Both nuclides in the plankton are higher in the LS area, a trend similar to the surface water. The Po-210 excess in the plankton can account for at least 70 percent of the surface water deficit, part of which may be removed by sinking particles.

  7. Evaluating the accuracy of core incubations to determine benthic fluxes of 222Rn, 228Ra, and 224Ra, measured in core incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. I.; Hammond, D. E.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Profiles of radioisotopes in bottom waters are often used to estimate vertical transport. However, horizontal transport often plays a role and may be difficult to evaluate. A boundary condition useful for constraining transport rates is to establish the isotope flux from benthic sediments. We tested a new method to estimate benthic fluxes of isotopes by incubating sediment cores from San Pedro Basin and measuring the changes in concentrations of 222Rn, 228Ra and 224Ra in the overlying water, over a six to seven day incubation period. These results have been compared to fluxes established by applying diffusion-reaction models to the sediment column, based on measuring isotope emanation from sediments, adsorption coefficients, and profiles of the parent isotopes in sediments. There was internal consistency (± 30%) between the core incubation measurement and the radon emanation flux calculated from diffusion-reaction models. The 224Ra flux measurements have been complicated by minor disturbances of cores during collection and the removal of its 228Th parent from core top water during incubation. The 228Ra measurements from San Pedro cores are still in progress, as they require a six month ingrowth period. Cores obtained from Cascadia Basin have also been incubated for two to four days. Incubation fluxes of 222Rn are consistent with the standing crop observed in bottom waters. Incubation fluxes of 228Ra are consistent with predictions from modeling solid phase profiles of radioisotopes in sediments.

  8. High sensitivity measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in water with an improved hydrous titanium oxide technique at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Cleveland, B. T.; Dai, X.; Doucas, G.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ford, R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Jelley, N. A.; Lange, R.; Majerus, S.; Mifflin, C.; Noble, A. J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Rodriguez-Jimenez, R.; Sinclair, D.; Yeh, M.

    2009-06-01

    The existing hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) technique for the measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in the water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been changed to make it faster and less sensitive to trace impurities in the HTiO eluate. Using HTiO-loaded filters followed by cation exchange adsorption and HTiO co-precipitation, Ra isotopes from 200 to 450 tonnes of heavy water can be extracted and concentrated into a single sample of a few millilitres with a total chemical efficiency of 50%. Combined with beta-alpha coincidence counting, this method is capable of measuring 1.5×10-3 μBq/kg of 224Ra and 3.3×10-3 μBq/kg of 226Ra from the 232Th and 238U decay chains, respectively, for a 275 tonne D2O assay, which are equivalent to 4×10-16 g Th/g and 3×10-16 g U/g in heavy water.

  9. 'If I didn't have RA I wouldn't give them house room': the relationship between RA, footwear and clothing choices.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Lynne J; Candy, Fiona J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the impact of RA on women's self-image and self-presentation via an exploration of their clothing choices. Located within a qualitative symbolic interactionist approach, 15 women with RA (age range 38-74 years, disease duration 1-47 years) each participated in two interviews. The first explored the impact of RA on their feelings about their bodies and their appearance; the second explored the factors that informed their clothing choices and the way they presented themselves. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, digital photographs of the women's clothes and shoes were taken. Data were analysed jointly by both authors using thematic network analysis. Shoes were identified as greatly influencing the women's clothing choices and how they presented themselves. Three themes were identified that explored the structural and symptomatic impact of RA on the women's feet, the strategies they had developed to resolve their footwear needs outside of prescription footwear and the significant impact that footwear had on their clothing choices and self-presentation. Insights from these data highlight the polarity that exists between the clinical, functional attitudes towards shoes and their social status. While aesthetic issues challenge the acceptability of prescription footwear, problems also exist with the functionality and comfort of footwear available on high streets. A more collaborative approach to the design of footwear is required for both prescription and mainstream footwear to meet the needs of women with RA.

  10. Determination of (210)Pb and (226)Ra/(228)Ra in continental water using HIDEX 300SL LS-spectrometer with TDCR efficiency tracing and optimized α/β-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Jäggi, M

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for determination of (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (228)Ra is presented based on adsorption on 3M Empore RadDiscs, and measurement applying liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) after elution. The LSC measurement was performed with optimized α/β-discrimination and isotope standardization using the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR). The consistency of measurement results between radioactive parent-daughter pairs (210)Pb/(210)Bi, (226)Ra/(222)Rn and (228)Ra/(228)Ac was checked in long-term counting experiments and the influence ofinterference of in-growing daughters from (226)Ra into the β-spectrum of (228)Ra+(228)Ac was studied as well. Recommendations for optimized LSC (228)Ra measurement besides presence of (226)Ra are given.

  11. Cutaneous Retinoic Acid Levels Determine Hair Follicle Development and Downgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1−/−) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/−) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1−/− skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/− tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

  12. Visualization of an endogenous retinoic acid gradient across embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-04-18

    In vertebrate development, the body plan is determined by primordial morphogen gradients that suffuse the embryo. Retinoic acid (RA) is an important morphogen involved in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of structures, including the hindbrain and paraxial mesoderm. RA diffuses over long distances, and its activity is spatially restricted by synthesizing and degrading enzymes. However, gradients of endogenous morphogens in live embryos have not been directly observed; indeed, their existence, distribution and requirement for correct patterning remain controversial. Here we report a family of genetically encoded indicators for RA that we have termed GEPRAs (genetically encoded probes for RA). Using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer we engineered the ligand-binding domains of RA receptors to incorporate cyan-emitting and yellow-emitting fluorescent proteins as fluorescence resonance energy transfer donor and acceptor, respectively, for the reliable detection of ambient free RA. We created three GEPRAs with different affinities for RA, enabling the quantitative measurement of physiological RA concentrations. Live imaging of zebrafish embryos at the gastrula and somitogenesis stages revealed a linear concentration gradient of endogenous RA in a two-tailed source-sink arrangement across the embryo. Modelling of the observed linear RA gradient suggests that the rate of RA diffusion exceeds the spatiotemporal dynamics of embryogenesis, resulting in stability to perturbation. Furthermore, we used GEPRAs in combination with genetic and pharmacological perturbations to resolve competing hypotheses on the structure of the RA gradient during hindbrain formation and somitogenesis. Live imaging of endogenous concentration gradients across embryonic development will allow the precise assignment of molecular mechanisms to developmental dynamics and will accelerate the application of approaches based on morphogen gradients to tissue engineering and

  13. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions.—Seritrakul, P., Samarut, E., Lama, T. T. S., Gibert, Y., Laudet, V., Jackman, W. R. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. PMID:22942074

  14. Involvement of NOS3 in RA-Induced neural differentiation of human NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Anna; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Sodja, Caroline; Walker, P Roy; Ly, Dao; Haukenfrers, Julie; Sandhu, Jagdeep K; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Sikorska, Marianna

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in neurogenesis as a regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. NO is synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine by nitric oxide synthases (NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3), which are encoded by separate genes and display different tissue distributions. We used an in vitro model of RA-induced neural differentiation of NT2 cells to examine which of the three NO-synthesizing enzymes is involved in this process. The results revealed a transient induction of NOS3 (known as the constitutively expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase; eNOS) during the time course of the RA treatment. The peak of gene expression and the nuclear presence of NOS3 protein coincided with cell cycle exit of NT2-derived neuronal precursors. The subsequent analysis of cytosine methylation and histone H3 acetylation of the human NOS3 5' regulatory sequences indicated that epigenetic modifications, especially upstream of the proximal promoter (-734 to -989, relative to exon 2 TSS at +1), were also taking place. NOS1 was expressed only in the differentiated neurons (NT2-N), whereas NOS2 was not expressed at all in this cellular model. Thus, a burst of NO production, possibly required to inhibit neural cell proliferation, was generated by the transient expression of NOS3. This pattern of gene expression, in turn, required epigenetic remodeling of its regulatory region. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Retinoic acid induces expression of the thyroid hormone transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8).

    PubMed

    Kogai, Takahiko; Liu, Yan-Yun; Richter, Laura L; Mody, Kaizeen; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Brent, Gregory A

    2010-08-27

    Retinoic acid (RA) and thyroid hormone are critical for differentiation and organogenesis in the embryo. Mct8 (monocarboxylate transporter 8), expressed predominantly in the brain and placenta, mediates thyroid hormone uptake from the circulation and is required for normal neural development. RA induces differentiation of F9 mouse teratocarcinoma cells toward neurons as well as extraembryonal endoderm. We hypothesized that Mct8 is functionally expressed in F9 cells and induced by RA. All-trans-RA (tRA) and other RA receptor (RAR) agonists dramatically (>300-fold) induced Mct8. tRA treatment significantly increased uptake of triiodothyronine and thyroxine (4.1- and 4.3-fold, respectively), which was abolished by a selective Mct8 inhibitor, bromosulfophthalein. Sequence inspection of the Mct8 promoter region and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR analysis in F9 cells identified 11 transcription start sites and a proximal Sp1 site but no TATA box. tRA significantly enhanced Mct8 promoter activity through a consensus RA-responsive element located 6.6 kilobases upstream of the coding region. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated binding of RAR and retinoid X receptor to the RA response element. The promotion of thyroid hormone uptake through the transcriptional up-regulation of Mct8 by RAR is likely to be important for extraembryonic endoderm development and neural differentiation. This finding demonstrates cross-talk between RA signaling and thyroid hormone signaling in early development at the level of the thyroid hormone transporter.

  16. Targeted effects of retinoic acid signaling upon photoreceptor development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Prabhudesai, Shubhangi N.; Cameron, David A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a signaling molecule important for photoreceptor development in vertebrates. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms of the effects of RA upon developing rod and cone photoreceptors in the embryonic zebrafish. Exposure to exogenous RA increased the number of photoreceptors expressing rod opsin and red cone opsin, and decreased the number of photoreceptors expressing the blue and UV cone opsins, suggesting targeted effects of RA on photoreceptor development. RA exposure also increased opsin expression in individual rods and red cones, but decreased opsin expression in individual blue and UV cones, as indicated by differences in the strength of opsin hybridization in identified photoreceptors. RA exposure did not, however, significantly alter quantitative measures of photoreceptor pattern in a manner expected for changes in photoreceptor fate. These observations collectively indicate that RA treatment does not affect photoreceptor fate, but rather differentially influences opsin transcription in determined photoreceptors. An enzyme involved in RA synthesis, RALDH2, was immunocytochemically localized to retinal progenitor cells and the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), suggesting the presence of RA in the vicinity of developing photoreceptors. However, expression of an RA response element-driven transgene was restricted to the RPE, retinal progenitors, and a small population of neurons in ventral retina, suggesting that the endogenous RA signaling system is spatially limited within the eye. PMID:16197938

  17. Sanshool on The Fingertip Interferes with Vibration Detection in a Rapidly-Adapting (RA) Tactile Channel

    PubMed Central

    Kuroki, Scinob; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Nishida, Shin’ya; Haggard, Patrick; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool), is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA) channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience. However, since the RA channel may not be the only channel activated by sanshool, there could be a possibility that the sanshool tingling percept may be caused in whole or in part by other sensory channels. Here, by using a perceptual interference paradigm, we show that the sanshool-induced RA input indeed contributes to the human tactile processing. The absolute detection thresholds for vibrotactile input were measured with and without sanshool application on the fingertip. Sanshool significantly impaired detection of vibrations at 30 Hz (RA channel dominant frequency), but did not impair detection of higher frequency vibrations at 240 Hz (Pacinian-corpuscle (PC) channel dominant frequency) or lower frequency vibrations at 1 Hz (slowly adapting 1 (SA1) channel dominant frequency). These results show that the sanshool induces a peripheral RA channel activation that is relevant for tactile perception. This anomalous activation of RA channels may contribute to the unique tingling experience of sanshool. PMID:27935970

  18. Radium Ra 223 dichloride injection: U.S. Food and Drug Administration drug approval summary.

    PubMed

    Kluetz, Paul G; Pierce, William; Maher, V Ellen; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Shenghui; Song, Pengfei; Liu, Qi; Haber, Martin T; Leutzinger, Eldon E; Al-Hakim, Ali; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd; Alebachew, Elleni; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Ibrahim, Amna; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2014-01-01

    On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium Ra 223 dichloride (Ra-223; Xofigo injection; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.) for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), symptomatic bone metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease. The FDA review was based on clinical trial BC1-06, which randomly allocated patients (2:1) to either Ra-223 plus best standard of care (BSoC) or placebo plus BSoC. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) with a key secondary endpoint of time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE). A statistically significant improvement in OS was demonstrated [HR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88, P = 0.0019]. At the prespecified interim analysis, the median OS durations were 14.0 and 11.2 months in the Ra-223 and placebo arms, respectively. The improvement in OS was supported by a delay in time to first SSE favoring the Ra-223 arm. The most common (>10%) adverse reactions in patients receiving Ra-223 were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and peripheral edema. The most common (>10%) hematologic laboratory abnormalities were anemia, lymphocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Ra-223 is the first α-emitting radiotherapeutic and the first radiopharmaceutical to demonstrate an OS advantage in metastatic prostate cancer.

  19. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Teshima, Teruki; Kihara, Ayaka; Suzumoto, Yuko; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-04-07

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  20. Sanshool on The Fingertip Interferes with Vibration Detection in a Rapidly-Adapting (RA) Tactile Channel.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Scinob; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Nishida, Shin'ya; Haggard, Patrick; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool), is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA) channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience. However, since the RA channel may not be the only channel activated by sanshool, there could be a possibility that the sanshool tingling percept may be caused in whole or in part by other sensory channels. Here, by using a perceptual interference paradigm, we show that the sanshool-induced RA input indeed contributes to the human tactile processing. The absolute detection thresholds for vibrotactile input were measured with and without sanshool application on the fingertip. Sanshool significantly impaired detection of vibrations at 30 Hz (RA channel dominant frequency), but did not impair detection of higher frequency vibrations at 240 Hz (Pacinian-corpuscle (PC) channel dominant frequency) or lower frequency vibrations at 1 Hz (slowly adapting 1 (SA1) channel dominant frequency). These results show that the sanshool induces a peripheral RA channel activation that is relevant for tactile perception. This anomalous activation of RA channels may contribute to the unique tingling experience of sanshool.

  1. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production.

  2. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  3. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Function in Models of Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Chapman, John D; Han, Chang Y; Hogarth, Cathryn A; Arnold, Samuel L M; Onken, Jennifer; Kent, Travis; Goodlett, David R; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-05-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The liver is the main storage organ of vitamin A, but activation of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in mouse liver and in human liver cell lines has also been shown. AlthoughatRA treatment improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle in rodents, its role in modulating mitochondrial function in the liver is controversial, and little data are available regarding the human liver. The aim of this study was to determine whetheratRA regulates hepatic mitochondrial activity.atRA treatment increased the mRNA and protein expression of multiple components of mitochondrialβ-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and respiratory chain. Additionally,atRA increased mitochondrial biogenesis in human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells with and without lipid loading based on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1αand 1βand nuclear respiratory factor 1 mRNA and mitochondrial DNA quantification.atRA also increasedβ-oxidation and ATP production in HepG2 cells and in human hepatocytes. Knockdown studies of RARα, RARβ, and PPARδrevealed that the enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis andβ-oxidation byatRA requires peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta. In vivo in mice,atRA treatment increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers after an overnight fast. Inhibition ofatRA metabolism by talarozole, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 26 specific inhibitor, increased the effects ofatRA on mitochondrial biogenesis markers in HepG2 cells and in vivo in mice. These studies show thatatRA regulates mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism and that increasingatRA concentrations in human liver via CYP26 inhibition may increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acidβ-oxidation and provide therapeutic benefit in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

  5. Age-dependent dose assessment of 226Ra from bottled water intake.

    PubMed

    Bronzovic, Maja; Marovic, Gordana

    2005-05-01

    Water may present a source of prolonged exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides. One of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in natural mineral and spring waters is 226Ra and its decay products. The contribution of drinking water to the total exposure is very small, at about 5% of the average effective dose attributable annually to natural background radiation, but that exposure contributes to the risk of adverse health consequences. In this study the mean values of 226Ra concentration determined in natural mineral and spring bottled waters range from 6 to 412 mBq L(-1), which is in accord with Croatian legislation. 226Ra effective doses per year from spring water consumption range up to 86 microSv, while 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral water consumption show much higher values. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral waters consumption, which are up to seven times higher than the dose recommended by WHO (100 microSv), were found in infants and teens. Based on this study, drinking of certain brands of bottled mineral water is not recommended for these age groups because assessed 226Ra effective doses per year exceed the recommended limits. From other research it is known that testosterone appears in elevated concentration during these life periods and affects bone calcification. Therefore, testosterone could affect the retention of 226Ra into the bone. To make more precise conclusions further research is necessary. Adults and especially elderly people are much less susceptible to the presence of 226Ra. According to the results obtained in this study, 226Ra effective doses per year assessed for these age groups were considerably lower (i.e., 10 microSv).

  6. Clinical characteristics of RA patients with secondary SS and association with joint damage.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay E; Frits, Michelle L; Iannaccone, Christine K; Weinblatt, Michael E; Shadick, Nancy A; Liao, Katherine P

    2015-05-01

    Secondary SS (sSS) is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA. There are conflicting data regarding the association of sSS with worse joint damage. This study aims to characterize sSS patients in an RA cohort and study the association between sSS and joint damage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of RA patients with ≥1 year of follow-up at a large academic centre. Subjects with co-morbid diseases that can also result in sicca symptoms were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were considered to have sSS if they were reported as having sSS by their rheumatologist at recruitment into the cohort and had the diagnosis confirmed by chart review. The primary outcome was Sharp score using bilateral hand radiographs at recruitment. We constructed a linear regression model to determine the association of sSS status and Sharp score adjusted by age, gender, disease duration and ACPA and RF status. We studied 829 RA subjects, mean age 57 years, 83% female, mean RA duration 13 years, 74% seropositive; 85 subjects (10.3%) had sSS. We observed a female predominance (95.3%), longer mean disease duration (16.9 years) and higher frequency of RF or ACPA positive among patients with sSS and RA. Having sSS at baseline was associated with higher Sharp scores (P = 0.03), independent of age, gender, RA disease duration and seropositive disease. In our RA cohort, RA subjects with sSS had worse joint damage, suggesting that sSS is a marker of more aggressive disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. NAMPT Is an Essential Regulator of RA-Mediated Periodontal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Lee, G; Huh, Y H; Lee, S Y; Park, K H; Kim, S; Kim, J; Koh, J; Ryu, J

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated a potential correlation between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal inflammation. We undertook this study to verify whether RA mediates periodontitis-like phenotypes in experimental mouse models of RA and to explore the role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) in periodontal inflammation during RA pathogenesis. Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss have been reported in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and in genetically modified tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) transgenic (TG) mouse models. Among the adipokines examined in our study, NAMPT expression was markedly upregulated in the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues in RA mouse models and in human PDL cells stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL) 1β and TNF-α. When NAMPT was overexpressed with the Nampt-synthesizing adenovirus vector (Ad- Nampt), the PDL cells exhibited an increased expression of cytokines (IL6), chemokines (IL8 and chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 5 [CCL5]), inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase 2 [COX-2]), and matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] 1 and MMP3). Inhibition of NAMPT by the intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) inhibitor, FK866, or by the sirtuin inhibitor, nicotinamide, in PDL cells led to inhibition of the IL1β or Ad- Nampt-induced upregulation of catabolic factors, whereas treatment with recombinant NAMPT protein or blockade of extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT) with blocking antibody did not. Moreover, NAMPT inhibition by the intraperitoneal or intragingival injection of FK866 in CIA mice inhibited periodontal tissue damage, under conditions of RA. Thus, our results verified the co-occurrence of RA and periodontal inflammation using experimental mouse models of RA, suggesting that iNAMPT in PDL cells plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of RA-mediated periodontal inflammation by regulating the expression levels of catabolic genes, such as IL6, IL8, CCL5, COX-2, MMP1, and MMP3.

  8. Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RA-RPLND) in the adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Glaser, A P; Bowen, D K; Lindgren, B W; Meeks, J J

    2017-04-01

    Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RA-RPLND) has built on success and techniques of laparoscopic RPLND, with the added benefits of robotic technology. This paper demonstrates use of the da Vinci Xi(®) system for RA-RPLND in two adolescent patients. Case #1: A 17-year-old male presented with a left testicular mass and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Pathology revealed a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (60% embryonal, 35% yolk sac, 5% choriocarcinoma, + lymphovascular invasion). Tumor marker normalized post-orchiectomy, and staging imaging was without evidence of metastatic disease. After discussion of options he opted to undergo RA-RPLND. Case #2: A 15-year-old male presented with a right para-testicular mass and negative tumor markers. He underwent inguinal exploration and excision of the paratesticular mass. Final pathology revealed an ectomesenchymoma with a spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma component. Staging imaging was negative, and after discussion of options he underwent completion orchiectomy and RA-RPLND. The patient in Case #1 underwent a left modified-template nerve-sparing RA-RPLND. Sixteen lymph nodes were negative for tumor. The patient in Case #2 underwent complete bilateral nerve-sparing RA-RPLND. Forty-two lymph nodes were negative for tumor. Estimated blood loss was <50 cc for both cases, and console time averaged 262 min. This was a report of two cases of RA-RPLND in the adolescent population. RA-RPLND is technically feasible in this population, and further study of RA-RPLND is needed to determine long-term outcomes, as this technique is becoming more widely adopted. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of 226Ra in Ground Waters From a Granitic Aquifer at the City of Itatiba, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, R. N.; Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Among the naturally occurring radionuclides, 226Ra play an important role in establishing the ground water radioactivity level. In this work, it is presented the 226Ra activity concentration measured in ground water drawn from a granitic fractured aquifer at the Ribeira Folded Belt, eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The ground water samples were collected twice in the same well in June, 2nd and July 6th, 2005. After discarding about fifteen minutes of continuous well pumping, ground waters samples are collected in 50 L polyethylene containers, previously conditioned with nitric acid, 0.03 mol/L. The water temperature, pH and Eh are measured at the sampling site. The water samples were preserved by addition of 2.0 mL of concentrated nitric acid to lower its pH to less than 2. In laboratory, three 20 L aliquots were selected for independent radiochemical processing. Radium is precipitated from water samples in the form of barium-radium sulfate. The barium-radium precipitate is filtered and dried over the filter paper. The radium containing filter is then sealed with an adhesive plastic film and hermetically closed in a rigid polystyrene sample holder. The sample is left at rest for at least 40 days to allow the short lived daughters (222Rn, 214Pb and 214Bi) reach secular radioactive equilibrium with 226Ra. The radium activity is then indirectly measured by gamma-ray spectrometry through the full absorption peaks from the 214Pb and 214Bi. The gamma-ray spectrometry activity measurements are made by comparison with 226Ra standards. These standards were prepared by the radium precipitation from secondary standard solutions obtained by dilution of a (19.52 +/- 0.72) Bq/g 226Ra solution. The precipitate standards were prepared following the procedure adopted for the ground water samples. The observed 226Ra activity concentration were (43 +/- 2) mBq/L and (46 +/- 3) mBq/L, for the first and second water sampling campaigns, respectively.

  10. Retinoic acid-dependent stimulation of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-initiated autoxidation of linoleic acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: a novel prooxidant effect of retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Freyaldenhoven, M A; Lehman, P A; Franz, T J; Lloyd, R V; Samokyszyn, V M

    1998-02-01

    (E)-Retinoic acid (RA) was shown to stimulate the rate of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)-initiated autoxidation of linoleic acid (18:2) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. RA-dependent stimulation of 18:2 autoxidation was characterized by enhanced rates of dioxygen uptake which were linear with retinoid concentration. In contrast, 5,6-epoxy-RA, a major oxidation product of RA, failed to affect the rate of dioxygen consumption at all concentrations tested. RA was also shown to stimulate peroxyl radical-dependent oxidation of styrene to the corresponding oxirane when styrene was included in the micellar system as a molecular probe. Furthermore, unequivocal evidence of RA-dependent stimulation of 18:2 autoxidation was obtained by relative quantitation of 13-hydroxy-(9Z, 11E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) plus 9-hydroxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) production. In addition, enhanced carbon-centered radical formation was demonstrated in the presence of RA by EPR spectroscopy using alpha-(4-pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) as a spin trap. Analysis and quantitation of RA oxidation products indicated that RA was oxidized to one primary product, 5,6-epoxy-RA, which was identified on the basis of cochromatography with synthetic standard (in a reverse-phase HPLC system), electronic absorption spectroscopy, and positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry of the corresponding methyl ester. Other minor oxidation products were also detected but not characterized. In contrast, reaction mixtures devoid of 18:2 failed to demonstrate significant retinoid oxidation. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the prooxidant effects of RA in this system.

  11. Stable, position-related responses to retinoic acid by chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells in serum-free cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, D F; Solursh, M; Langille, R M; Pang, L; Chen, W D

    1994-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has dramatic effects on limb-skeletal patterning in vivo and may well play a pivotal role in normal limb morphogenesis. RA's effects on the expression of pattern-related genes in the developing limb are probably mediated by cytoplasmic RA-binding proteins and nuclear RA-receptors. Little is known, however, about how RA modifies specific cellular behaviors required for skeletal morphogenesis. Earlier studies supported a role for regional differences in RA concentration in generating the region-specific cell behaviors that lead to pattern formation. The present study explores the possibility that position-related, cell-autonomous differences in the way limb mesenchymal cells respond to RA might have a role in generating pattern-related cell behavior. Mesenchymal cells from different proximodistal regions of stage 21-22 and 23-24 chick wing-buds were grown in chemically defined medium and exposed to 5 or 50 ng/ml of RA for 4 days in high-density microtiter cultures. The effects of RA on chondrogenesis in these cultures clearly differed depending on the limb region from which the cells were isolated. Regional differences in RA's effects on growth over 4 days in these cultures were less striking. The region-dependent responses of these cells to RA proved relatively stable in culture despite ongoing cytodifferentiation. This serum-free culture model will be useful in exploring the mechanisms underlying the region-dependent responsiveness of these cells to RA.

  12. Indirect cost assessment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA): comparison of data from the health economic patient questionnaire HEQ-RA and insurance claims data.

    PubMed

    Merkesdal, Sonja; Ruof, Joerg; Huelsemann, Jan Leo; Mittendorf, Thomas; Handelmann, Silke; Mau, Wilfried; Zeidler, Henning

    2005-04-15

    To render information on the accuracy of patient-reported indirect cost data compared with payer-derived data of the real indirect costs on a patient-by-patient basis concerning disease-related productivity losses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The assessment of indirect cost data was part of a clinical, multicenter, randomized RA trial. A total of 234 patients of working age with a diagnosis of RA (according to 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria) were recruited. Demographics of the cohort were mean age 53 years, mean disease duration 8 years, 76% were women, and all had membership in the regional statutory health insurance plan. Every 3 months corresponding indirect cost data were derived for the cohort from a health economic questionnaire for cost assessment in patients with RA and the payer's database over a period of 18 months. Comparative statistical analyses were performed between patient-reported and insurance claims data. The mean annual productivity losses due to sick leave amounted to 14 and 17 days per patient (questionnaire versus payer data), and productivity losses due to work disability amounted to 3 days (both); monetary valuation renders overall costs of 1,240 and 1,590, respectively. The difference of 17% in overall productivity losses is not significant. Comparison of productivity losses reveals a strong correlation of r = 0.83 in those due to sick leave and of kappa = 0.84 in those due to work disability between questionnaire and payer data. The comparison of questionnaire and payer data shows that RA patients report their productivity losses adequately. Indirect cost assessment should therefore be included in further RA trials and observational studies.

  13. Feasibility and Domain Validation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Flare Core Domain Set: Report of the OMERACT 2014 RA Flare Group Plenary.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Susan J; Bykerk, Vivian P; Cooksey, Roxanne; Choy, Ernest H; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E; Guillemin, Francis; Halls, Serena; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye L; Lyddiatt, Anne; March, Lyn; Montie, Pamela; Orbai, Ana Maria; Pohl, Christoph; Voshaar, Marieke Scholte; Woodworth, Thasia G; Bingham, Clifton O

    2015-11-01

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Flare Group was established to develop an approach to identify and measure RA flares. An overview of our OMERACT 2014 plenary is provided. Feasibility and validity of flare domains endorsed at OMERACT 11 (2012) were described based on initial data from 3 international studies collected using a common set of questions specific to RA flare. Mean flare frequency, severity, and duration data were presented, and domain scores were compared by flare status to examine known-groups validity. Breakout groups provided input for stiffness, self-management, contextual factors, and measurement considerations. Flare data from 501 patients in an observational study indicated 39% were in flare, with mean (SD) severity of 6.0 (2.6) and 55% lasting > 14 days. Pain, physical function, fatigue, participation, and stiffness scores averaged ≥ 2 times higher (2 of 11 points) in flaring individuals. Correlations between flare domains and corresponding legacy instruments were obtained: r = 0.46 to 0.93. A combined definition (patient report of flare and 28-joint Disease Activity Score increase) was evaluated in 2 other trials, with similar results. Breakout groups debated specific measurement issues. These data contribute initial evidence of feasibility and content validation of the OMERACT RA Flare Core Domain Set. Our research agenda for OMERACT 2016 includes establishing duration/intensity criteria and developing criteria to identify RA flares using existing disease activity measures. Ongoing work will also address discordance between patient and physician ratings, facilitate application of flare criteria to clinical care, elucidate the role of self-management, and finalize recommendations for RA flare measurement.

  14. Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins on retinoic acid signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Ruthardt, M; Testa, U; Nervi, C; Ferrucci, P F; Grignani, F; Puccetti, E; Grignani, F; Peschle, C; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Fusion proteins involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and the PML or PLZF nuclear protein are the genetic markers of acute promyelocytic leukemias (APLs). APLs with the PML-RAR alpha or the PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein are phenotypically indistinguishable except that they differ in their sensitivity to retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation: PML-RAR alpha blasts are sensitive to RA and patients enter disease remission after RA treatment, while patients with PLZF-RAR alpha do not. We here report that (i) like PML-RAR alpha expression, PLZF-RAR alpha expression blocks terminal differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cell lines (U937 and HL-60) in response to different stimuli (vitamin D3, transforming growth factor beta1, and dimethyl sulfoxide); (ii) PML-RAR alpha, but not PLZF-RAR alpha, increases RA sensitivity of hematopoietic precursor cells and restores RA sensitivity of RA-resistant hematopoietic cells; (iii) PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar RA binding affinities; and (iv) PML-RAR alpha enhances the RA response of RA target genes (those for RAR beta, RAR gamma, and transglutaminase type II [TGase]) in vivo, while PLZF-RAR alpha expression has either no effect (RAR beta) or an inhibitory activity (RAR gamma and type II TGase). These data demonstrate that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar (inhibitory) effects on RA-independent differentiation and opposite (stimulatory or inhibitory) effects on RA-dependent differentiation and that they behave in vivo as RA-dependent enhancers or inhibitors of RA-responsive genes, respectively. Their different activities on the RA signalling pathway might underlie the different responses of PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha APLs to RA treatment. The PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein contains an approximately 120-amino-acid N-terminal motif (called the POZ domain), which is also found in a variety of zinc finger proteins and a group of poxvirus proteins and which mediates protein

  15. CYP26A1 knockout embryonic stem cells exhibit reduced differentiation and growth arrest in response to retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Langton, Simne; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2008-03-15

    CYP26A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, metabolizes all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) into polar metabolites, e.g. 4-oxo-RA and 4-OH-RA. To determine if altering RA metabolism affects embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, we disrupted both alleles of Cyp26a1 by homologous recombination. CYP26a1(-/-) ES cells had a 11.0+/-3.2-fold higher intracellular RA concentration than Wt ES cells after RA treatment for 48 h. RA-treated CYP26A1(-/-) ES cells exhibited 2-3 fold higher mRNA levels of Hoxa1, a primary RA target gene, than Wt ES cells. Despite increased intracellular RA levels, CYP26a1(-/-) ES cells were more resistant than Wt ES cells to RA-induced proliferation arrest. Transcripts for parietal endodermal differentiation markers, including laminin, J6(Hsp 47), and J31(SPARC, osteonectin) were expressed at lower levels in RA-treated CYP26a1(-/-) ES cells, indicating that the lack of CYP26A1 activity inhibits RA-associated differentiation. Microarray analyses revealed that RA-treated CYP26A1(-/-) ES cells exhibited lower mRNA levels than Wt ES cells for genes involved in differentiation, particularly in neural (Epha4, Pmp22, Nrp1, Gap43, Ndn) and smooth muscle differentiation (Madh3, Nrp1, Tagln Calponin, Caldesmon1). In contrast, genes involved in the stress response (e.g. Tlr2, Stk2, Fcgr2b, Bnip3, Pdk1) were expressed at higher levels in CYP26A1(-/-) than in Wt ES cells without RA. Collectively, our results show that CYP26A1 activity regulates intracellular RA levels, cell proliferation, transcriptional regulation of primary RA target genes, and ES cell differentiation to parietal endoderm.

  16. Evaluation of 224Ra as a tracer for submarine groundwater discharge in Long Island Sound (NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Orellana, J.; Cochran, J. K.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Daniel, J. W. R.; Rodellas, V.; Heilbrun, C.

    2014-09-01

    The approach to quantify submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotopes generally involves developing a Ra mass balance in an estuary, bay or lagoon. In this work we present a 224Ra mass balance used to evaluate the importance of the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Long Island Sound (NY, US), the third most important estuary in US, located between Long Island and Connecticut that is usually affected by summertime hypoxia in the western basin. Three surveys were conducted between April 2009 and August 2010 where 25 water stations were sampled for Ra isotopes, oxygen and Mn. Stations were oriented along 4 transects: one axial extending from the western to the eastern Sound and three longitudinal transects in the western, central and eastern Sound. The inventory of 224Ra in the water column in summer was circa 2 times greater than in winter, suggesting an increased 224Ra flux to the Sound in summer. A mass balance for 224Ra was constructed considering tidal exchange, inputs from rivers, desorption from resuspended particles, diffusive fluxes (including bioirrigation) from bottom sediments and radioactive decay in the water column. Fluxes of 224Ra from bottom sediments were measured by incubating cores under oxic conditions in a continuous flow mode such that the overlying water was circulated through a Mn-oxide fiber to maintain a constant activity of 224Ra. Fluxes from muddy sediments (comprising ∼67% of the Sound bottom) ranged from 127 to 312 dpm m-2 d-1 and were ∼60 dpm m-2 d-1 in sandy sediments (33% of the Sound). Incubations under hypoxic conditions showed variable fluxes depending on reduction and mobilization of Mn. The 224Ra mass balance shows a net input of Ra to the Sound of 106 ± 50 × 1012 dpm y-1 in spring and 244 ± 112 × 1012 dpm y-1 in the summer that is attributed to SGD. Elevated 224Ra values were observed near shore and in the pore fluids of the coarse beach sands along the Long Island and Connecticut coasts, suggesting that SGD

  17. Disruption of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Reveals the Growth Promoter Face of Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ren, MingQiang; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2007-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA), the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A, by epigenetically controlling transcription through the RA-receptors (RARs), exerts a potent antiproliferative effect on human cells. However, a number of studies show that RA can also promote cell survival and growth. In the course of one of our studies we observed that disruption of RA-receptor alpha, RARα, abrogates the RA-mediated growth-inhibitory effects and unmasks the growth-promoting face of RA (Ren et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, 25:10591). The objective of this study was to investigate whether RA can differentially govern cell growth, in the presence and absence of RARα, through differential regulation of the “rheostat” comprising ceramide (CER), the sphingolipid with growth-inhibitory activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the sphingolipid with prosurvival activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that functional inhibition of endogenous RARα in breast cancer cells by using either RARα specific antagonists or a dominant negative RARα mutant hampers on one hand the RA-induced upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-mediated CER synthesis, and on the other hand the RA-induced downregulation of sphingosine kinase 1, SK1, pivotal for S1P synthesis. In association with RA inability to regulate the sphingolipid rheostat, cells not only survive, but also grow more in response to RA both in vitro and in vivo. By combining genetic, pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we mechanistically demonstrated that RA-induced growth is, at least in part, due to non-RAR-mediated activation of the SK1-S1P signaling. Conclusions/Significance In the presence of functional RARα, RA inhibits cell growth by concertedly, and inversely, modulating the CER and S1P synthetic pathways. In the absence of a functional RARα, RA–in a non-RAR-mediated fashion–promotes cell growth by activating the prosurvival S1P signaling. These two distinct, yet integrated processes

  18. Anti-tumor activity of all-trans retinoic acid-incorporated glycol chitosan nanoparticles against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu-Don; Jeong, Young-Il; Chung, Chung-Wook; Kim, Do Hyung; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2012-01-17

    The aim of this study is to investigate antitumor activity of all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles were prepared by electrostatic interaction between RA and amine group of GC. RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles have spherical shape and their particle size was 317 ± 34.5 nm. They were simply reconstituted into aqueous solution without changes of intrinsic properties. RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles were evidently inhibited the proliferation of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells at higher than 20 μg/ml of RA concentration while empty GC vegicles did not affect to the viablity of tumor cells. Apoptosis and necrosis analysis of tumor cells with treatment of RA or RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles also supported these results. Invasion test using Matrigel also showed that invasion of tumor cells was significantly inhibited at higher than 20 μg/ml of RA concentration. Wound healing assay also showed that RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles were inhibited migration of tumor cells as similar to RA itself. Our results suggested that RA-incorporated GC nanoparticles is a promising vehicles for RA delivery to HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells.

  19. RhoA/ROK pathway related to the mechanism of higher susceptibility to spasm in RA than in IMA.

    PubMed

    Kun, Xia; Lefeng, Wang; Rongjing, Ding; Xincun, Yang

    2009-01-01

    By investigating the expression and function of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in the radial artery (RA), internal mammary artery (IMA), and great saphenous vein (GSV), this study aimed to elucidate the mechanism for a higher susceptibility of spasm in the RA and provide an effective drug candidate to prevent and treat RA spasm. RA, IMA, and GSV that would otherwise have been discarded were collected from 25 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Eleven matched rings of RA, IMA, and GSV were used to evaluate the vasodilatory properties of 10(-7-)10(-4) mol/l of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, by using in vitro organ chambers. Another 14 matched RA, IMA, and GSV were used to demonstrate the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of RhoA and mRNA of RhoA and Rho kinase. The maximal vasodilation of RA to fasudil was significantly greater than IMA. RhoA protein IHC staining was different in IMA, RA, and GSV (RA > GSV >IMA). The expression of RhoA and Rho kinase mRNA in the RA was significantly greater than in the IMA. The expression of RhoA/Rho kinase mRNA and protein and function in the RA were significantly stronger than in the IMA, suggesting that RhoA/Rho kinase pathway may be one mechanism by which RA is more susceptible to spasm than IMA. Rho kinase inhibitors can be effective drug candidates to prevent and treat vasospasm.

  20. The Impact of Statin Use on Lipid Levels in Statin-Naive Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) vs. non-RA Subjects: Results from a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Elena; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Green, Abigail B.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine lipid profiles among statin-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those without RA before and after the initiation of statins. Methods Information regarding lipid measures and statin use was gathered in a population-based incident cohort of patients with RA (1987 ACR criteria first met between 1/1/1988 and 1/1/2008) and in a cohort of non-RA subjects from the same underlying population. Only patients with no prior history of statin use were included. Results The study included 161 patients with RA (mean age 56.3 years, 57% female) and 221 non-RA subjects (mean age 56.0 years, 66% female). Prior to the start of statins, the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were lower in RA vs non-RA cohort (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). The absolute and percent change in LDL after at least 90 days of statin use tended to be smaller in RA vs non-RA cohort (p=0.03 and p=0.09). After at least 90 days of statin use patients with RA were less likely to achieve therapeutic goals for LDL than the non-RA subjects (p=0.046). Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.26, 0.85) was associated with lower likelihood of achieving therapeutic LDL goals. Conclusion Patients with RA had lower TC and LDL levels before statin initiation and lower likelihood of achieving therapeutic LDL goals following statin use than the non-RA subjects. Some RA disease characteristics, in particular ESR at baseline, may have an adverse impact on achieving therapeutic LDL goals. PMID:23592565

  1. Deciphering the binding patterns and conformation changes upon the bovine serum albumin-rosmarinic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Xiangchao; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an importantly and naturally occurring polyphenol from plants of the mint family with potent biological activities. Here, the in vitro interaction of RA with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated using various biophysical approaches as well as molecular modeling methods, to ascertain its binding mechanism and conformational changes. The fluorescence results demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by RA was mainly the result of the formation of a ground state BSA-RA complex, and BSA had one high affinity RA binding site with a binding constant of 4.18 × 10(4) mol L(-1) at 298 K. Analysis of thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions were the dominant intermolecular force in the complex formation. The primary binding site of RA in BSA (site I) had been identified by site marker competitive experiments. The distance between RA and the tryptophan residue of BSA was evaluated at 3.12 nm based on Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed that the conformation and structure of BSA were altered in the presence of RA. Moreover, the nuclear magnetic spectroscopy showed that the aromatic groups of RA took part in the binding reaction during the BSA-RA complexation. In addition, the molecular picture of the interaction mechanism between BSA and RA at the atomic level was well examined by molecular docking and dynamics studies. In brief, RA can bind to BSA with noncovalent bonds in a relatively stable way, and these findings will be beneficial to the functional food research of RA.

  2. Assessment of (226)Ra age-dependent dose from water intake.

    PubMed

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Srisuksawad, Kanitha

    2008-11-01

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of (226)Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. (226)Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L(-1). The highest (226)Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated (226)Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 microSv yr(-1)). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 microSv yr(-1) from water intake of 2 Lday(-1).

  3. Guidance: Strategies to Achieve Timely Settlement and Implementation of RD/RA at Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum recommends strategies to encourage PRPs to enter into a settlement using the model RD/RA Consent Decree; discusses the current model UAO; and suggests practical alternatives to expedite Superfund settlements and the cleanup process.

  4. Release of 226Ra from uranium mill tailings by microbial Fe(III) reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were anaerobically incubated in the presence of H2 with Alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium known to couple the oxidation of H2 and organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of Fe(III) reduction and the accumulation of dissolved 226Ra. In sterile tailings in which Fe(III) was not reduced, there was negligible leaching of 226Ra. The behavior of Ba was similar to that of Ra in inoculated and sterile systems. These results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions, microbial reduction of Fe(III) may result in the release of dissolved 226Ra from uranium mill tailings. ?? 1991.

  5. A Study on Sorption of (226)Ra on Different Clay Matrices.

    PubMed

    Alhajji, E; Al-Masri, M S; Khalily, H; Naoum, B E; Khalil, H S; Nashawati, A

    2016-08-01

    The sorption of radium 226 ((226)Ra) on different clay materials (bentonite, illite and a mixture of bentonite-illite) was studied. Clay materials are used in the construction of disposal pits for technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes (i.e., contaminated soil and sludge) generated by the oil and gas industry operations. Experimental conditions (pH, clay materials quantity, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra) were changed in order to determine the optimal state for adsorption of (226)Ra. The results showed that the concentration of adsorbed (226)Ra on clay materials increased with time to reach an equilibrium state after approximately 5 h. More than 95 % of the radium was adsorbed. The mixture of bentonite-illite (1/9) exhibited the greatest adsorption of radium under all experimental conditions.

  6. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  7. Laser-cooled RaF as a promising candidate to measure molecular parity violation

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, T. A.; Berger, R.; Hoekstra, S.

    2010-11-15

    The parameter W{sub a}, which characterizes nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (PV) in the molecular spin-rotational Hamiltonian, was computed with a quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock approach for radium fluoride (RaF) and found to be one of the largest absolute values predicted so far. The peculiar electronic structure of RaF leads to highly diagonal Franck-Condon matrices between the energetically lowest two electronic states, which qualifies RaF for direct laser cooling. A subset of diatomic molecules with a wide range of internal structures suitable for this cooling technique is also indicated. As trapped cold molecules offer superior coherence times, RaF can be considered promising for high-precision experiments aimed at molecular PV.

  8. 73. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SOUTH END of WEST PLATE (INVERTED) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  9. 124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CHAIR RAIL FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  10. 117. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 OLD WALL PAPER from CUPBOARD in 1st. FLOOR WEST ROOM of MAIN HOUSE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 78. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REAR PLATE, LEAN-TO SHOWING NOTCHING for ATTIC FLOOR BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  12. 79. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ATTIC FLOOR TIMBER in LEAN-TO INVERTED - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  13. 115. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SIDE of DRESSER in PANTRY LEAN-TO - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 76. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION of INTERMEDIATE RAFTER in LEAN-TO - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  15. 71. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 RAFTER on REAR PLATE (INTERMEDIATE RAFTER LEAN-TO) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  16. 83. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SPLICING of PURLINS over INTERMEDIATE RAFTER in LEAN-TO LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  17. 69. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CORNER POST & RAFTER LOOOKING SOUTH WEST (NORTH WEST CORNER LEAN-TO) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  18. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION FRAMING of NORTH WEST CORNER LEAN-TO LOOKING SOUTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  19. NF1 is a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma that determines retinoic acid response and disease outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Michael; Huang, Sidong; Koster, Jan; Øra, Ingrid; Lakeman, Arjan; Caron, Huib; Nijkamp, Wouter; Xie, Jing; Callens, Tom; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C.; Messiaen, Ludwine; Versteeg, Rogier; Bernards, René

    2010-01-01

    Summary Retinoic acid (RA) induces differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and is used with variable success to treat aggressive forms of this disease. This variability in clinical response to RA is enigmatic, as no mutations in components of the RA signaling cascade have been found. Using a large-scale RNAi genetic screen, we identify crosstalk between the tumor suppressor NF1 and retinoic acid induced differentiation in neuroblastoma. Loss of NF1 activates RAS-MEK signaling, which in turn represses ZNF423, a critical transcriptional co-activator of the retinoic acid receptors. Neuroblastomas with low levels of both NF1 and ZNF423 have extremely poor outcome. We find NF1 mutations in neuroblastoma cell lines and in primary tumors. Inhibition of MEK signaling downstream of NF1 restores responsiveness to RA, suggesting a therapeutic strategy to overcome RA resistance in NF1 deficient neuroblastomas. PMID:20655465

  20. Half-life and excitation energy of the Iπ=13/2+ isomer in Ra209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dorvaux, O.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gall, B.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Guttormsen, M.; Jones, P.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Khouaja, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Malyshev, O. N.; Minkova, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pantelica, D.; Popeko, A. G.; Rotaru, F.; Saro, S.; Shutov, A. V.; Siem, S.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Syed, N. U. H.

    2008-04-01

    An isomeric state in Ra209 has been observed for the first time, using the GABRIELA setup at the focal plane of VASSILISSA, to decay to the ground state of Ra209 via a cascade of 238-keV (M2) and 644-keV transitions. The half-life of the isomer has been measured to be 117(5)μs and from systematics is assigned as a neutron i13/2-1 excitation.

  1. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed. The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.

  2. Ra isotopes in trees: Their application to the estimation of heartwood growth rates and tree ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Gary J.; Murray, Andrew S.; Brunskill, Gregg J.; Argent, Robert M.

    2006-12-01

    The difficulty in estimating growth rates and ages of tropical and warm-temperate tree species is well known. However, this information has many important environmental applications, including the proper management of native forests and calculating uptake and release of atmospheric carbon. We report the activities of Ra isotopes in the heartwood, sapwood and leaves of six tree species, and use the radial distribution of the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in the stem of the tree to estimate the rate of accretion of heartwood. A model is presented in which dissolved Ra in groundwater is taken up by tree roots, translocated to sapwood in a chemically mobile (ion-exchangeable) form, and rendered immobile as it is transferred to heartwood. Uptake of 232Th and 230Th (the parents of 228Ra and 226Ra) is negligible. The rate of heartwood accretion is determined from the radioactive decay of 228Ra (half-life 5.8 years) relative to long-lived 226Ra (half-life 1600 years), and is relevant to growth periods of up to 50 years. By extrapolating the heartwood accretion rate to the entire tree ring record the method also appears to provide realistic estimates of tree age. Eight trees were studied (three of known age, 72, 66 and 35 years), including three Australian hardwood eucalypt species, two mangrove species, and a softwood pine (P. radiata). The method indicates that the rate of growth ring formation is species and climate dependent, varying from 0.7 rings yr-1 for a river red gum (E. camaldulensis) to around 3 rings yr-1 for a tropical mangrove (X. mekongensis).

  3. 226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams.

  4. Antibacterial synergy between rosmarinic acid and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Balakrishnan, Ajay; Marappan, Nathiya; Gajendran, Sabari Srinivasan; Viswanathan, Vinodhini

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S. aureus and MRSA was investigated. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of RA against S. aureus and a clinical isolate of MRSA was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RA was determined by broth dilution method. Synergism of RA with various antibiotics against S. aureus and MRSA was studied by broth checkerboard method and time-kill kinetic assay. Effect of RA on microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM’s) of S. aureus and MRSA was studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: MIC of RA was found to be 0.8 and 10 mg/ml against S. aureus and MRSA, respectively. RA was synergistic with vancomycin, ofloxacin, and amoxicillin against S. aureus and only with vancomycin against MRSA. The time-kill analysis revealed that synergistic combinations were a more effective than individual antibiotics. MSCRAMM’s protein expression of S. aureus and MRSA was markedly suppressed by RA + vancomycin combination rather than RA alone. Conclusion: The synergistic effects of RA with antibiotics were observed against S. aureus and MRSA. RA showed inhibitory effect on the surface proteins MSCRAMM’s. Even though RA was shown to exhibit a synergistic effect with antibiotics, the MIC was found to be higher. Thus, further studies on increasing the efficacy of RA can develop it

  5. Retinoic Acid Attenuates Ileitis by Restoring the Balance between T-Helper 17 and T

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Colm B.; Aherne, Carol M.; Kominsky, Douglas; McNamee, Eóin N.; Lebsack, Matthew D.P.; Eltzschig, Holger; Jedlicka, Paul; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Retinoic acid (RA), produced by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) and regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, controls the enteric immune response by activating regulatory T (Treg) cells and preventing activation of T-helper (Th)17 cells Methods We studied the roles of RA in mice that overproduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and develop chronic ileitis (TNFΔARE mice). We assessed the frequency and function of CD103+ DCs and Th17 and Treg cells by flow cytometry; we measured expression of cytokines and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes in ileum samples, DCs, and IECs by real-time PCR. We quantified RA by electrochemical analysis and examined the effect of RA supplementation on TNF-induced ileitis using histologic, co-culture, and suppression assays and flow cytometry Results Numbers of CD103+ DCs decreased in the inflamed ilea of mice with chronic disease; RA synthetic machinery (RALDH1,2) was downregulated. Nevertheless, the proportion of CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+ Treg cells increased, indicating an alternate source for RA. IECs responded to reduced levels of RA by upregulating RALDH3 in vivo and in vitro. Net tissue levels of RA levels remained lower in TNFΔARE than wild-type mice, indicating that epithelial up-regulation of RALDH3 could not maintain adequate concentrations of RA, probably because of loss of IEC mass. RA supplementation significantly attenuated disease by increasing the number and function of CD103+ DCs and Treg cells and reducing Th17 cells Conclusions Reduced levels of RA appear to induce IEC to upregulate synthesis of RA. RA supplementation attenuates ileitis through its effects on CD103+ DCs and Treg and Th17 cells. RA supplementation might used to treat patients with Crohn's disease PMID:22027263

  6. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Investigating the Origin of Natural 226Ra, 228Ra, and 238U in South Carolina Coastal Plain Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.R.

    2003-04-08

    The objective of this investigation is to obtain baseline data for naturally occurring Ra and U from the water table, Gordon, Crouch Branch, and McQueen Branch Aquifers, which provide drinking water for private and city supply wells in the region. Background wells onsite (P-wells) and nearby offsite wells (C-Wells) will be sampled in this study.

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and administration of RA-related drugs in patients with RA: The NinJa 2012 study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saisho, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Norie; Sugata, Ko; Hamada, Hiroaki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the administration of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic-drugs (DMARDs), using data from the National Database of Rheumatic Disease by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) 2012 study. From a total of 11,940 RA patients, 7135 who underwent an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) test were studied. Renal dysfunction staging was assessed using Japanese eGFR equations and classified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. The prevalence of GFR stages was as follows: stage G1, 25.4%; stage G2, 55.9%; stage G3, 17.5%; stage G4, 0.8%; and stage G5, 0.2%. Overall, 92.7% of patients received at least one DMARD. Sulfasalazine, tacrolimus, and biologics (except inflixmab) were administered in all GFR stages. Methotrexate was not prescribed in patients with stage G5, but methotrexate 3.5 mg/week (mean) was prescribed in four patients (6.8%) with stage G4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids were prescribed in 40.5% and 43.7% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of kidney disease in this large sample of RA patients was higher than that in the general population, and the results suggest that RA patients with renal dysfunction require careful drug selection.

  9. Distribution and retention in bone of /sup 226/Ra and comparison with the ICRP 20 model

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses are presented of the ratios of /sup 226/Ra to calcium in over 650 samples of compact and cancellous bone from 66 female and 26 male subjects who had died from less than one to 60 years after first exposure to radium. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios were normalized to the terminal /sup 226/Ra skeletal content. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios for vertebrae were essentialy identical to those for other cancellous bone for a given subject. Comparisons of the data with predictions of the ICRP model of alkaline earth metabolism show that for female cancellous bone the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios tended to be greater than predicted, while those for female cortical bone (femoral and tibial shaft) tended to be less. The data for males were fitted better by the model. A modification of the model to reduce the amount of radium deposited in soft tissue fitted the data better in some respects. A straight line linear least squares fit to the data appeared to fit as well as, or better than, the models. A radiation effect was suggested in that the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratio for vertebrae relative to the ratio expected increased with skeletal absorbed dose for vertebra. However, no such effect was apparent for compact bone or for the cancellous bone as a whole.

  10. Argonne-Utah studies of /sup 224/Ra endosteal surface dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Smith, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of /sup 212/Pb relative to /sup 224/Ra and of /sup 222/Rn relative to /sup 226/Ra were measured in bone surface deposits 24 h after radium injection into beagles. The fractional retention of /sup 220/Rn atoms was measured in vitro with hydrated and dehydrated bone samples to determine the effect of water content on the escape of radon from bone surfaces. The experimental data suggest that substantial /sup 224/Ra daughter product disequilibrium exists in bone surface deposits. Estimates for the lower and upper limits on the fractional retention of /sup 220/Rn in vivo are 0.05 and 0.25, respectively. The average bone surface activity of /sup 212/Pb relative to /sup 224/Ra ranged from 0.34 to 0.71 for four dogs, with the majority of the values toward the low end of the range. Only a small portion of the deposited /sup 212/Pb came from lead in the injection solution despite near equilibrium between /sup 224/Ra and its daughters at the time of injection. The retention data indicate that the endosteal tissue dose rate in the dogs at one day was actually one-third to about one-half that which would be calculated assuming equilibrium of /sup 224/Ra daughter products in bone surface deposits. 11 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 N, 104.2 W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  12. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in RA projection neurons of adult zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songhua; Meng, Wei; Liu, Shaoyi; Liao, Congshu; Huang, Qingyao; Li, Dongfeng

    2014-10-17

    Zebra finches are ideal animals to investigate sex difference in songbirds. Only males can sing. The brain nuclei controlling song learning and production in males are considerably larger than in females. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus, playing a key role in controlling singing. RA receives denser synapse inputs in males than in females. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA projection neurons (PNs) have not been reported. In the present study, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording, spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) of RA PNs in the intact males and females were recorded. The average frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were higher than females. The half-width and decay time of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were longer than females. In order to verify whether these sex differences related to sex steroids, males were castrated. The average frequency of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in castrated males was lower than intact males and was similar to in females; the amplitude was not changed after castrating. These results demonstrate the sexually dimorphic of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA PNs, the RA PNs in males receive more excitatory synaptic transmission and these sex differences were partly affected by sex hormones. These findings contribute to further illuminate the neural mechanisms under the sexually dimorphism in song production of adult zebra finches.

  13. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) flight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5°N, 104.2°W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  14. Determination of (226)Ra in produced water by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Vianna, Lucas M; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; Almeida, Ana Cristina

    2016-08-01

    It is proposed a method for the determination of (226)Ra in offshore platform liquid effluent samples (produced water). The method is based on a two-phase liquid scintillation counting system and allows for the direct and simple determination of (226)Ra content. Samples with high barium content may also have high (226)Ra concentration. Therefore, the sample volume is based on the barium concentration and ranges from 10 mL to 100 mL. Our new method was tested using multiple real samples and was compared with the BaSO4 precipitation method. The results based on the LSC were 30% higher than the precipitation method, which is attributed to the self-absorption of alpha particles in the BaSO4 precipitate. The determination of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the liquid effluent of offshore oil platforms is mandatory in Brazil. Thus, a second method of accurately assessing (228)Ra content remains necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An easy method for Ra-226 determination in river waters by liquid-scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H. P.; Vioque, I.; Manjón, G.; García-Tenorio, R.

    1999-01-01

    226Ra activity concentration in river water was determined using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Radium was extracted from the samples as Ra-BaSO4 precipitate which, afterwards, was dissolved with EDTA in ammonia medium. Solution was transferred into a low potassium glass vial and then mixed with a scintillation cocktail. Two different scintillation cocktails were selected for comparison. Efficiency, recovery yield and α/β separation were studied with both liquid scintillation cocktails. One single measurement, made one month after radium separation, allows to calculate the226Ra concentration as well as to assess the presence of alpha contamination of the sample. In the case of negligible interferences,224Ra concentrations can be subsequently evaluated in the same sample by the measurement made just after chemical separation of radium. This method has been applied for the determination of226Ra and224Ra activity concentrations in river water collected from different locations along the Odiel river estuary area (South-west of Spain). The presence of chemical industry, the wastes of which are released into the river, could be connected with radium activity concentration enhancements in the water.

  16. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 N, 104.2 W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  17. Field study of Ra accumulation in trout with assessment of radiation dose to man

    SciTech Connect

    Ropes, S.K.; Whicker, F.W.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in edible fish from surface ponds near an open pit U mine. Because one reclamation plan for the U mine proposed formation of an artificial lake in the open pit, potential radiation dose to man from ingestion of fish needed to be investigated. Trout were collected from four existing ponds which varied in mean /sup 226/Ra concentration from 12-33 pCi/l and in Ca concentration from 30-330 mg Ca/l. Radium and Ca accumulation in trout flesh, skin, fins and bone were measured. Geometric mean concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in trout flesh from four ponds ranged from 6.3-30 pCi/kg wet weight. The distribution of Ra in the trout body was similar to that of Ca. The calculated dose equivalent commitment to human endosteal tissue range from 0.2-2 mrem per fish consumed, depending on the assumed dietary and environmental parameters. Neglecting the consumption of trout skin underestimated the ingestion dose from /sup 226/Ra by a factor of 5-10. Estimated annual dose equivalent rates to human endosteal tissue ranged from 1.0-83 mrem/yr for an individual who consumed one fish per week for a 50-yr period. The dose to man from ingestion of /sup 226/Ra in fish would not likely preclude the establishment of a recreational lake at this site.

  18. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  19. Opium Addiction Increases Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. Purpose To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. Methods The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. Results IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Conclusion Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels. PMID:23028694

  20. Topoisomerase IIβ Negatively Modulates Retinoic Acid Receptor α Function: a Novel Mechanism of Retinoic Acid Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Suzan; Wang, Hongling; Hanna, Nessrine; Miller, Wilson H.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between retinoic acid (RA) receptor α (RARα) and coregulators play a key role in coordinating gene transcription and myeloid differentiation. In patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the RARα gene is fused with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene via the t(15;17) translocation, resulting in the expression of a PML/RARα fusion protein. Here, we report that topoisomerase II beta (TopoIIβ) associates with and negatively modulates RARα transcriptional activity and that increased levels of and association with TopoIIβ cause resistance to RA in APL cell lines. Knockdown of TopoIIβ was able to overcome resistance by permitting RA-induced differentiation and increased RA gene expression. Overexpression of TopoIIβ in clones from an RA-sensitive cell line conferred resistance by a reduction in RA-induced expression of target genes and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that TopoIIβ is bound to an RA response element and that inhibition of TopoIIβ causes hyperacetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 and activation of transcription. Our results identify a novel mechanism of resistance in APL and provide further insight to the role of TopoIIβ in gene regulation and differentiation. PMID:18212063

  1. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  2. CD49d Treg cells with high suppressive capacity are remarkably less efficient on activated CD45RA- than on naive CD45RA+ Teff cells.

    PubMed

    Kraczyk, Britta; Remus, Ralph; Hardt, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in common autoimmune diseases seems likely. However, the extent of Treg deficiency (number, function) or differential susceptibility of T effector cells (Teffs) to suppression is not completely understood. We hypothesize that even in healthy individuals both cell populations are heterogeneous and differ in their suppressive capability and their susceptibility to suppression. Lymphocytes were enriched by MACS for CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs or CD4(+)CD25(-) Teffs. After multicolour staining (anti-CD25, anti-CD127, anti-CD49d or anti-CD45RA) highly purified Treg and Teff subpopulations were collected by FACS. Functional capacity of Tregs or suppressive susceptibility of Teffs was analyzed in an in vitro assay. When CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-/low) CD49d(-) Tregs were tested on naive CD4(+)CD127(+)CD25(-)CD45RA(+) Teffs (93.8 %) suppression was almost complete, while the suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-/low) CD49d(+) Tregs was significantly less (71.8 %). Suppressive activity was low when CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-/low) CD49d(+) Tregs were analyzed on CD4(+)CD127(+)CD25(-)CD45RA(-) Teffs (48.7%). Although CD49d(+) Tregs are functional, the suppressive capacity is significantly lower compared to CD49d(-) Tregs. CD45RA(+) Teffs can be completely suppressed, while CD45RA(-) Teffs display relative resistance. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of Tregs as well as Teffs has to be considered when analyzing deficiencies in immune regulation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Retinoic acid suppresses interleukin 6 production in normal human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, N; Sammons, J; Khokher, M A; Hassan, H T

    2000-03-01

    Systemic long-term retinoid therapy for chronic skin diseases significantly reduced bone turnover markers within days and led to bone abnormalities. Retinoic acid (RA) plays a key role in the regulation of mouse bone cell proliferation, differentiation and functions. Meanwhile, there is little information of RA effect on human osteoblast and osteoclast cell development and function. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with profound effects on bone metabolism. Thus, the present study examined the RA effect on cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production as well as IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts. The number of large differentiated osteoblast cells decreased in RA-treated cultures P<0.05. The production of bone specific markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was also reduced in RA-treated cultures. Normal human osteoblasts produced 31.0+/-4.8 pg IL-6 per ml in control cultures. Within 24 h, RA at all four concentrations reduced Il-6 production from normal human osteoblasts. The pharmacological concentration of 10(-5) M RA suppressed 90% of IL-6 production. The present study shows for the first time that RA profoundly inhibits IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts within 24 h and in a dose-dependent manner. RA was shown previously to inhibit IL-6 production in several other normal and malignant human cell types. The associated decrease in osteoblast cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production could result from the rapid RA-inhibition of IL-6 production. Thus, RA inhibition of IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts may contribute to the bone abnormalities seen after systemic long-term retinoid therapy in some patients. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Transient retinoic acid signaling confers anterior-posterior polarity to the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Jinwoong; Raft, Steven; Kong, Kyoung-Ah; Koo, Soo Kyung; Dräger, Ursula C.; Wu, Doris K.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate hearing and balance are based in complex asymmetries of inner ear structure. Here, we identify retinoic acid (RA) as an extrinsic signal that acts directly on the ear rudiment to affect its compartmentalization along the anterior-posterior axis. A rostrocaudal wave of RA activity, generated by tissues surrounding the nascent ear, induces distinct responses from anterior and posterior halves of the inner ear rudiment. Prolonged response to RA by posterior otic tissue correlates with Tbx1 transcription and formation of mostly nonsensory inner ear structures. By contrast, anterior otic tissue displays only a brief response to RA and forms neuronal elements and most sensory structures of the inner ear. PMID:21173260

  5. First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-09-13

    Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. IL-1RA gene-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in APA microcapsules could alleviate rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianhua; Li, Hongjian; Chi, Guanhao; Yang, Zhao; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the encapsulation of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-RA) gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in alginate-poly-L-lysine (APA) microcapsules for the persistent delivery of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-RA) to treat Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We transfect mesenchymal stem cells with IL-RA gene, and quantify the IL-RA proteins released from the encapsulated cells followed by microencapsulation of recombinant mesenchymal stem cells, and thus observe the permeability of APA microcapsules and evaluate clinical effects after induction and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The concentration of IL-RA in the supernatant was determined by IL-RA ELISA kit by run in technical triplicates using samples from three separate mice. Encapsulated IL-RA gene-transfected cells were capable of constitutive delivery of IL-RA proteins for at least 30 days. Moreover, the APA microcapsules could inhibit the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjuncted immunoglobulin G. Also, it has been found that the APA microcapsules can significantly attenuate collagen induced arthritis after delivering of APA microcapsules to rats. Our results demonstrated that the nonautologous IL-RA gene-transfected stem cells are of potential utility for RA therapy.

  7. Migration area of the Tsushima Warm Current Branches within the Sea of Japan: Implications from transport of 228Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Shirotani, Y.; Furusawa, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Kofuji, H.; Yoshida, K.; Nagao, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hamajima, Y.; Honda, N.; Morimoto, A.; Takikawa, T.; Shiomoto, A.; Isoda, Y.; Minakawa, M.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated lateral profiles of 228Ra (half-life; 5.75 years) activity and 228Ra/226Ra (1600 years) activity ratio using 241 surface water samples collected in/around the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea (ECS) during June-October of 2009-2014. In the ECS, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio in the surface waters exhibited markedly wide variation (<0.05-3.5) in June, predominantly reflecting the mixing between the 228Ra-rich continental shelf water and the 228Ra-depleted Kuroshio Current water. In July, the surface waters of the central Sea of Japan (135-138°E) became separated into three currents: the Offshore Branch of the Tsushima Warm Current (OBTWC) (228Ra/226Ra =0.7-1.2) at 39-41°N, the Coastal Branch of the TWC (CBTWC) ( 0.7) on the southern side, and sub-Arctic Current ( 0.7) on the northern side. From the central to northeastern Sea of Japan, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio at the surface (0.8-1.0) was within a range between that of the CBTWC and OBTWC. The fraction of continental shelf water in the CBTWC, OBTWC, and in their combined current was estimated to be 11-16%, 8%, and 10-11%, respectively.

  8. U-Th-Ra variations in Himalayan river sediments (Gandak river, India): Weathering fractionation and/or grain-size sorting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, Clio; Chabaux, François; Pelt, Eric; France-Lanord, Christian; Morin, Guillaume; Lavé, Jérôme; Stille, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the origin of U-Th-Ra variations in the Ganga river sediments is a prerequisite for correctly using U-series nuclides to constrain the sediment transport times in Himalayan rivers. For this purpose, U, Th, and Ra concentrations, along with 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra radioactive disequilibria, were analyzed in bank, bedload and suspended sediments from the Gandak river, one of the main tributaries of the Ganga river. The data confirm that U and Th budgets of the Himalayan sediments are significantly influenced by minor resistant minerals, such as zircon, garnet and Ti-bearing minerals, the dissolution of which required the use of a high-pressure acid digestion process. Most importantly, the results indicate that the variations in (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) activity ratios and 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria in sediments along the river alluvial plain mainly reflect modifications in the mineralogical and grain-size compositions rather than the degree of weathering during transport. The (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) activity ratios in the bank and bed sediments are related to variations in the minor primary minerals strongly enriched in U and Th (i.e., zircon, REE-bearing minerals and Ti-bearing minerals), whereas the activity ratios in the suspended load are related to variations in the proportions of clay, Fe-oxyhydroxides and the silt-sand fraction, which contains U- and Th-bearing minor minerals. The data also indicate that 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria are strongly influenced by secondary mineral phases: the 230Th budget is likely mainly controlled by Fe-oxyhydroxides, and the 226Ra budget is likely mainly controlled by clay minerals. Therefore, the variations in the 238U-234U-230Th-232Th system in the sediments of the Gandak river cannot simply be interpreted as the result of fractionation due to chemical transformation of the bulk sediment during its transport within the alluvial plain and/or the result of radioactive decay. Consequently

  9. Reduced induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibody in RA patients after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masahiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kozuru, Hideko; Jiuchi, Yuka; Izumi, Yasumori; Asahara, Tomohiko; Kumagai, Kenji; Mawatari, Masaaki; Osaki, Makoto; Motokawa, Satoru; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-25

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is caused by antibodies (Abs) specific to platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. In this study, we evaluated the rates of seroconversion of anti-PF4/heparin Ab between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and with osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent total knee arthroplasty. The subjects of this randomized controlled trial were 124 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and received edoxaban with or without a foot pump as thromboprophylaxis. We measured anti-PF4/heparin Abs before and 10 days after surgery, as well as preoperative PF4, using commercially available ELISAs. We also used the database of J-PSVT, a hospital-based, prospective cohort study designed to document the effectiveness of thromboprophylactic agents during arthroplasty. The rates of seroconversion to anti-PF4/heparin Ab were lower in RA patients (4.0 %) than in OA patients (25.5 %). The anti-PF4/heparin IgG optical density (OD) values did not differ before and after surgery in RA patients. In contrast, there was a significant increase in anti-PF4/heparin IgG OD values in OA patients after TKA. In the J-PSVT data, the postoperative seroconversion rates of anti-PF4/heparin Ab were lower in RA patients (10.4 %) than in OA patients (21.8 %) who received fondaparinux. The titers of anti-CCP Ab were significantly lower in RA patients with postoperative ant-PF4/heparin Ab compared with those without postoperative ant-PF4/heparin Ab There was no significant difference in preoperative PF4 levels between RA patients and OA patients. The heparin-binding affinity of the circulating PF4 was similar between RA patients and OA patients; however, the IgG fractions isolated from the sera of RA patients contained PF4 more frequently (69.2 %) than those from OA patients (10.2 %). Our results showed a reduced likelihood of postoperative anti-PF/heparin Ab production in RA patients compared with OA patients. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying the

  10. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  11. SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dipty; Bhattacharya, Anusri; Rai, Ankit; Dhaked, Hemendra Pal Singh; Awasthi, Divya; Ojima, Iwao; Panda, Dulal

    2014-05-13

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials.

  12. Retinoic Acid Regulates the Expression of Photoreceptor Transcription Factor NRL*

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Hemant; Akimoto, Masayuki; Siffroi-Fernandez, Sandrine; Friedman, James S.; Hicks, David; Swaroop, Anand

    2006-01-01

    NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a key basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, which orchestrates rod photoreceptor differentiation by activating the expression of rod-specific genes. The deletion of Nrl in mice results in functional cones that are derived from rod precursors. However, signaling pathways modulating the expression or activity of NRL have not been elucidated. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA), a diffusible factor implicated in rod development, activates the expression of NRL in serum-deprived Y79 human retinoblastoma cells and in primary cultures of rat and porcine photoreceptors. The effect of RA is mimicked by TTNPB, a RA receptor agonist, and requires new protein synthesis. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using bovine retinal nuclear extract demonstrate that RA response elements (RAREs) identified within the Nrl promoter bind to RA receptors. Furthermore, in transiently transfected Y79 and HEK293 cells the activity of Nrl-promoter driving a luciferase reporter gene is induced by RA, and this activation is mediated by RAREs. Our data suggest that signaling by RA via RA receptors regulates the expression of NRL, providing a framework for delineating early steps in photoreceptor cell fate determination. PMID:16854989

  13. Retinoic acid induces blood-brain barrier development.

    PubMed

    Mizee, Mark R; Wooldrik, Desiree; Lakeman, Kim A M; van het Hof, Bert; Drexhage, Joost A R; Geerts, Dirk; Bugiani, Marianna; Aronica, Eleonora; Mebius, Reina E; Prat, Alexandre; de Vries, Helga E; Reijerkerk, Arie

    2013-01-23

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial in the maintenance of a controlled environment within the brain to safeguard optimal neuronal function. The endothelial cells (ECs) of the BBB possess specific properties that restrict the entry of cells and metabolites into the CNS. The specialized BBB endothelial phenotype is induced during neurovascular development by surrounding cells of the CNS. However, the molecular differentiation of the BBB endothelium remains poorly understood. Retinoic acid (RA) plays a crucial role in the brain during embryogenesis. Because radial glial cells supply the brain with RA during the developmental cascade and associate closely with the developing vasculature, we hypothesize that RA is important for the induction of BBB properties in brain ECs. Analysis of human postmortem fetal brain tissue shows that the enzyme mainly responsible for RA synthesis, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, is expressed by radial glial cells. In addition, the most important receptor for RA-driven signaling in the CNS, RA-receptor β (RARβ), is markedly expressed by the developing brain vasculature. Our findings have been further corroborated by in vitro experiments showing RA- and RARβ-dependent induction of different aspects of the brain EC barrier. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of RAR activation during the differentiation of the murine BBB resulted in the leakage of a fluorescent tracer as well as serum proteins into the developing brain and reduced the expression levels of important BBB determinants. Together, our results point to an important role for RA in the induction of the BBB during human and mouse development.

  14. Retinoic acid regulates the expression of photoreceptor transcription factor NRL.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Hemant; Akimoto, Masayuki; Siffroi-Fernandez, Sandrine; Friedman, James S; Hicks, David; Swaroop, Anand

    2006-09-15

    NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a key basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, which orchestrates rod photoreceptor differentiation by activating the expression of rod-specific genes. The deletion of Nrl in mice results in functional cones that are derived from rod precursors. However, signaling pathways modulating the expression or activity of NRL have not been elucidated. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA), a diffusible factor implicated in rod development, activates the expression of NRL in serum-deprived Y79 human retinoblastoma cells and in primary cultures of rat and porcine photoreceptors. The effect of RA is mimicked by TTNPB, a RA receptor agonist, and requires new protein synthesis. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using bovine retinal nuclear extract demonstrate that RA response elements (RAREs) identified within the Nrl promoter bind to RA receptors. Furthermore, in transiently transfected Y79 and HEK293 cells the activity of Nrl-promoter driving a luciferase reporter gene is induced by RA, and this activation is mediated by RAREs. Our data suggest that signaling by RA via RA receptors regulates the expression of NRL, providing a framework for delineating early steps in photoreceptor cell fate determination.

  15. Retinoic acid from retinal pigment epithelium induces T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Yuko; Sugita, Sunao; Keino, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yukiko; Imai, Ayano; Horie, Shintaro; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can convert T cells into T regulatory cells (Tregs) through inhibitory factor(s) including transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA) enhances induction of CD4(+) Tregs in the presence of TGFβ. We investigated whether RA produced by RPE cells can promote generation of Tregs. We found that in vitro, RA-treated T cells expressed high levels of Foxp3 in the presence of recombinant TGFβ. In GeneChip analysis, cultured RPE cells constitutively expressed RA-associated molecules such as RA-binding proteins, enzymes, and receptors. RPE from normal mice, but not vitamin A-deficient mice, contained significant levels of TGFβ. RPE-induced Tregs from vitamin A-deficient mice failed to suppress activation of target T cells. Only a few Foxp3(+) T cells were found in intraocular cells from vitamin A-deficient experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) mice, whereas expression was higher in cells from normal EAU mice. RA receptor antagonist-pretreated or RA-binding protein-siRNA-transfected RPE cells failed to convert CD4(+) T cells into Tregs. Our data support the hypothesis that RPE cells produce RA, thereby enabling bystander T cells to be converted into Tregs through TGFβ promotion, which can then participate in the establishment of immune tolerance in the eye.

  16. Retinoic acid induces Sertoli cell paracrine signals for spermatogonia differentiation but cell autonomously drives spermatocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Raverdeau, Mathilde; Gely-Pernot, Aurore; Féret, Betty; Dennefeld, Christine; Benoit, Gérard; Davidson, Irwin; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B

    2012-10-09

    Direct evidence for a role of endogenous retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A in the initial differentiation and meiotic entry of spermatogonia, and thus in the initiation of spermatogenesis is still lacking. RA is synthesized by dedicated enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH), and binds to and activates nuclear RA receptors (RARA, RARB, and RARG) either within the RA-synthesizing cells or in the neighboring cells. In the present study, we have used a combination of somatic genetic ablations and pharmacological approaches in vivo to show that during the first, prepubertal, spermatogenic cycle (i) RALDH-dependent synthesis of RA by Sertoli cells (SC), the supporting cells of the germ cell (GC) lineage, is indispensable to initiate differentiation of A aligned into A1 spermatogonia; (ii) RARA in SC mediates the effects of RA, possibly through activating Mafb expression, a gene whose Drosophila homolog is mandatory to GC differentiation; (iii) RA synthesized by premeiotic spermatocytes cell autonomously induces meiotic initiation through controlling the RAR-dependent expression of Stra8. Furthermore, we show that RA of SC origin is no longer necessary for the subsequent spermatogenic cycles but essential to spermiation. Altogether, our data establish that the effects of RA in vivo on spermatogonia differentiation are indirect, via SC, but direct on meiotic initiation in spermatocytes, supporting thereby the notion that, contrary to the situation in the female, RA is necessary to induce meiosis in the male.

  17. Reprogramming of the retinoic acid pathway in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Rie; Ikemoto, Yuko; Ochiai, Asako; Matsumoto, Akemi; Kumakiri, Jun; Kitade, Mari; Itakura, Atsuo; Muter, Joanne; Brosens, Jan J; Takeda, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Upon breaching of the endometrial surface epithelium, the implanting embryo embeds in the decidualizing stroma. Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is an important morphogen during embryonic and fetal development, although the role of the RA pathway in the surrounding decidual cells is not understood. Here we show that decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) results in profound reprogramming of the RA signaling and metabolism pathways. Differentiating HESCs downregulate the intracellular carrier proteins CRABP2 and FABP5, responsible for transfer and binding of RA to the nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of RAR, the receptor that mediates the pro-apoptotic effects of RA, was also inhibited. By contrast, PPARβ/δ, which transduces the differentiation responses of RA, was upregulated. Decidualization was also associated with increased expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and various enzymes involved in the metabolism of RA and its precursor, retinaldehyde (Rald), including CYP26A1, DHRS3, and RDH12. Exposure of differentiating HESCs to RA or Rald reversed the inhibition of the CRABP2-RAR pathway, perturbed the expression of decidual marker genes and triggered cell death. Taken together, the data demonstrate that decidualizing HESCs silence RA signaling by downregulating key cytoplasmic binding proteins and by increasing retinoid metabolism. However, excessive RA exposure is toxic for decidual cells and triggers a response that may lead to pregnancy failure. PMID:28253328

  18. Retinoic acid induces neurite outgrowth and growth cone turning in invertebrate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dmetrichuk, Jennifer M; Carlone, Robert L; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2006-06-01

    Identification of molecules involved in neurite outgrowth during development and/or regeneration is a major goal in the field of neuroscience. Retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically important metabolite of vitamin A that acts as a trophic factor and has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and regeneration in many vertebrate species. Although abundant in the CNS of many vertebrates, the precise role of RA in neural regeneration has yet to be determined. Moreover, very little information is available regarding the role of RA in invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that RA induces neurite outgrowth from invertebrate neurons. Using individually identified neurons isolated from the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis, we demonstrated that a significantly greater proportion of cells produced neurite outgrowth in RA. RA also extended the duration of time that cells remained electrically excitable in vitro, and we showed that exogenously applied RA acted as a chemoattractive factor and induced growth cone turning toward the source of RA. This is the first demonstration that RA can induce turning of an individual growth cone. These data strongly suggest that the actions of RA on neurite outgrowth and cell survival are highly conserved across species.

  19. Retinoic acid treatment of fibroblasts causes a rapid decrease in ( sup 3 H)inositol uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Creek, K.E.; Silverman-Jones, C.; de Luca, L.M. )

    1989-04-01

    NIH 3T3 fibroblasts treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) showed a dramatic decrease in the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol compared to solvent-treated controls. The onset of RA-induced inhibition of ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake was rapid with a 10-15% decrease occurring after 2-3 h of RA exposure and 60-70% reduction after 16 h of RA treatment. A progressive dose-dependent decrease in inositol uptake was found as the concentration of RA increased from 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}5} M and the effect was fully reversible within 48 h after RA removal. RA inhibition of inositol uptake was also observed in 3T3-Swiss and Balb/3T3 cells but not in two virally transformed 3T3 cell lines. Phlorizin, amiloride, and monensin inhibited inositol uptake by 66, 74, and 58%, respectively, and this inhibition was additive when the cells were treated with RA as well as these inhibitors. A decreased incorporation of ({sup 3}H)inositol into polyphosphoinositides was also observed in RA-treated cells but not to the same extent as for ({sup 3}H)inositol uptake. In conclusion, RA treatment of 3T3 fibroblasts decreases the uptake of ({sup 3}H)inositol by up to 70% within 8 to 10 h at near physiological concentrations in a reversible and specific manner.

  20. Retinoic Acid Can Exacerbate T Cell Intrinsic TLR2 Activation to Promote Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vivien; Pearson, Kandyce; Kim, Jee-Hyun; Kamdar, Karishma; DePaolo, R. William

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of vitamin A to immune health has been well established. However, recent evidence indicates that its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), has the ability to promote both tolerogenic and inflammatory responses. While the outcome of RA-mediated immunity is dependent upon the immunological status of the tissue, the contribution of specific innate signals influencing this response have yet to be delineated. Here, we found that treatment with RA can dampen inflammation during intestinal injury. Importantly, we report a novel and unexpected requirement for TLR2 in RA-mediated suppression. Our data demonstrate that RA treatment enhances TLR2-dependent IL-10 production from T cells and this, in turn, potentiates T regulatory cell (TREG) generation without the need for activation of antigen presenting cells. These data also suggest that combinatorial therapy using RA and TLR2 ligands may be advantageous in the design of therapies to treat autoimmune or inflammatory disease. PMID:25826367

  1. A novel, nongenomic mechanism underlies retinoic acid-induced growth cone turning.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Nathan R; Dmetrichuk, Jennifer M; Carlone, Robert L; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2009-11-11

    The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is well known for its roles in neural development and regeneration. We have previously shown that RA can induce positive growth cone turning in regenerating neurons in vitro. In this study, we address the subcellular mechanisms underlying this chemo-attractive response, using identified central neurons from the adult mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis. We show that the RA-induced positive growth cone turning was maintained in the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. We also physically transected the neurites from the cell body and showed that isolated growth cones retain the capacity to turn toward a gradient of RA. Moreover, this attractive turning is dependent on de novo local protein synthesis and Ca(2+) influx. Most of RA's actions during neurite outgrowth and regeneration require gene transcription, although these data show for the first time in any species, that the chemotropic action of RA in guiding neurite outgrowth, involves a novel, nongenomic mechanism.

  2. Uncoupling of retinoic acid signaling from tailbud development before termination of body axis extension.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas J; Zhao, Xianling; Duester, Gregg

    2011-10-01

    During the early stages of body axis extension, retinoic acid (RA) synthesized in somites by Raldh2 represses caudal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the tailbud progenitor zone. Excessive RA down-regulates Fgf8 and triggers premature termination of body axis extension, suggesting that endogenous RA may function in normal termination of body axis extension. Here, we demonstrate that Raldh2-/- mouse embryos undergo normal down-regulation of tailbud Fgf8 expression and termination of body axis extension in the absence of RA. Interestingly, Raldh2 expression in wild-type tail somites and tailbud from E10.5 onwards does not result in RA activity monitored by retinoic acid response element (RARE)-lacZ. Treatment of wild-type tailbuds with physiological levels of RA or retinaldehyde induces RARE-lacZ activity, validating the sensitivity of RARE-lacZ and demonstrating that deficient RA synthesis in wild-type tail somites and tailbud is due to a lack of retinaldehyde synthesis. These studies demonstrate an early uncoupling of RA signaling from mouse tailbud development and show that termination of body axis extension occurs in the absence of RA signaling.

  3. Long-term blood pressure variability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its impact on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in RA: a population-based comparative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Elena; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Green, Abigail B.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vs non-RA subjects and to assess its impact on cardiovascular events and mortality in RA. Methods Clinic BP measures were collected in a population-based incident cohort of RA patients (1987 ACR criteria met between 1/1/1995 and 1/1/2008) and non-RA subjects. BP variability was defined as within-subject standard deviation (SD) in systolic and diastolic BP. Results Study included 442 RA patients (mean age 55.5 years, 70% females) and 424 non-RA subjects (mean age 55.7 years, 69% females). RA patients had higher visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP (13.8±4.7 mm Hg), than non-RA subjects (13.0±5.2 mm Hg, p=0.004). Systolic BP variability declined after the index date in RA (p<0.001), but not in the non-RA cohort (p=0.73), adjusting for age, sex and calendar year of RA. During the mean follow-up of 7.1 years, 33 cardiovascular events and 57 deaths occurred in RA cohort. Visit-to-visit systolic BP variability was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 mm Hg increase in BP variability 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.25); diastolic BP variability was associated with all-cause mortality in RA (HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.03-1.27), adjusting for systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, use of antihypertensives. Conclusion Patients with RA had higher visit-to-visit systolic BP variability vs non-RA subjects. There was a significant decline in systolic BP variability after RA incidence. Higher visit-to-visit BP variability was associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in RA. PMID:24986852

  4. Mutations in the interleukin receptor IL11RA cause autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Keupp, Katharina; Li, Yun; Vargel, Ibrahim; Hoischen, Alexander; Richardson, Rebecca; Neveling, Kornelia; Alanay, Yasemin; Uz, Elif; Elcioğlu, Nursel; Rachwalski, Martin; Kamaci, Soner; Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Akin, Burcu; Grötzinger, Joachim; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Emin; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Collmann, Hartmut; Roscioli, Tony; Buckley, Michael F; Yigit, Gökhan; Gilissen, Christian; Kress, Wolfram; Veltman, Joris; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Akarsu, Nurten A; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized a novel autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis syndrome in a 12-affected member family from Antakya, Turkey, the presenting features of which include: multiple suture synostosis, midface hypoplasia, variable degree of exophthalmos, relative prognathism, a beaked nose, and conductive hearing loss. Homozygosity mapping followed by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a c.479+6T>G mutation in the interleukin 11 receptor alpha gene (IL11RA) on chromosome 9p21. This donor splice-site mutation leads to a high percentage of aberrant IL11RA mRNA transcripts in an affected individual and altered mRNA splicing determined by in vitro exon trapping. An extended IL11RA mutation screen was performed in a cohort of 79 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome, pansynostosis, or unclassified syndromic craniosynostosis. We identified mutations segregating with the disease in five families: a German patient of Turkish origin and a Turkish family with three affected sibs all of whom were homozygous for the previously identified IL11RA c.479+6T>G mutation; a family with pansynostosis with compound heterozygous missense mutations, p.Pro200Thr and p.Arg237Pro; and two further Turkish families with Crouzon-like syndrome carrying the homozygous nonsense mutations p.Tyr232* and p.Arg292*. Using transient coexpression in HEK293T and COS7 cells, we demonstrated dramatically reduced IL11-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation for all mutations. Immunofluorescence analysis of mouse Il11ra demonstrated specific protein expression in cranial mesenchyme which was localized around the coronal suture tips and in the lambdoidal suture. In situ hybridization analysis of adult zebrafish also detected zfil11ra expression in the coronal suture between the overlapping frontal and parietal plates. This study demonstrates that mutations in the IL11RA gene cause an autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis. PMID:24498618

  5. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  6. Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Individual Airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra Particles

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Herbert J.; Schafer, Millie P.; Pitesky, Maurice; Fergenson, David P.; Horn, Joanne; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E.

    2005-01-01

    Single-particle laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in the form of bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS), was evaluated as a rapid detector for individual airborne, micron-sized, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra particles, comprised of a single cell or a small number of clumped cells. The BAMS mass spectral signatures for aerosolized M. tuberculosis H37Ra particles were found to be distinct from M. smegmatis, Bacillus atrophaeus, and B. cereus particles, using a distinct biomarker. This is the first time a potentially unique biomarker was measured in M. tuberculosis H37Ra on a single-cell level. In addition, M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. smegmatis were aerosolized into a bioaerosol chamber and were sampled and analyzed using BAMS, an aerodynamic particle sizer, a viable Anderson six-stage sampler, and filter cassette samplers that permitted direct counts of cells. In a background-free environment, BAMS was able to sample and detect M. tuberculosis H37Ra at airborne concentrations of >1 M. tuberculosis H37Ra-containing particles/liter of air in 20 min as determined by direct counts of filter cassette-sampled particles, and concentrations of >40 M. tuberculosis H37Ra CFU/liter of air in 1 min as determined by using viable Andersen six-stage samplers. This is a first step toward the development of a rapid, stand-alone airborne M. tuberculosis particle detector for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis bioaerosols generated by an infectious patient. Additional instrumental development is currently under way to make BAMS useful in realistic environmental and respiratory particle backgrounds expected in tuberculosis diagnostic scenarios. PMID:16204525

  7. Mutations in the interleukin receptor IL11RA cause autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Keupp, Katharina; Li, Yun; Vargel, Ibrahim; Hoischen, Alexander; Richardson, Rebecca; Neveling, Kornelia; Alanay, Yasemin; Uz, Elif; Elcioğlu, Nursel; Rachwalski, Martin; Kamaci, Soner; Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Akin, Burcu; Grötzinger, Joachim; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Emin; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Collmann, Hartmut; Roscioli, Tony; Buckley, Michael F; Yigit, Gökhan; Gilissen, Christian; Kress, Wolfram; Veltman, Joris; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Akarsu, Nurten A; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    We have characterized a novel autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis syndrome in a 12-affected member family from Antakya, Turkey, the presenting features of which include: multiple suture synostosis, midface hypoplasia, variable degree of exophthalmos, relative prognathism, a beaked nose, and conductive hearing loss. Homozygosity mapping followed by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a c.479+6T>G mutation in the interleukin 11 receptor alpha gene (IL11RA) on chromosome 9p21. This donor splice-site mutation leads to a high percentage of aberrant IL11RA mRNA transcripts in an affected individual and altered mRNA splicing determined by in vitro exon trapping. An extended IL11RA mutation screen was performed in a cohort of 79 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome, pansynostosis, or unclassified syndromic craniosynostosis. We identified mutations segregating with the disease in five families: a German patient of Turkish origin and a Turkish family with three affected sibs all of whom were homozygous for the previously identified IL11RA c.479+6T>G mutation; a family with pansynostosis with compound heterozygous missense mutations, p.Pro200Thr and p.Arg237Pro; and two further Turkish families with Crouzon-like syndrome carrying the homozygous nonsense mutations p.Tyr232* and p.Arg292*. Using transient coexpression in HEK293T and COS7 cells, we demonstrated dramatically reduced IL11-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation for all mutations. Immunofluorescence analysis of mouse Il11ra demonstrated specific protein expression in cranial mesenchyme which was localized around the coronal suture tips and in the lambdoidal suture. In situ hybridization analysis of adult zebrafish also detected zfil11ra expression in the coronal suture between the overlapping frontal and parietal plates. This study demonstrates that mutations in the IL11RA gene cause an autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis.

  8. The effects of chronic, low doses of Ra-226 on cultured fish and human cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaopei; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2016-07-01

    To determine the chronic low-dose radiation effects caused by α-particle radiation from (226)Ra over multiple cell generations in CHSE/F fish cells and HaCaT human cells. CHSE/F cells and HaCaT cells were cultured in medium containing (226)Ra to deliver the chronic low-dose α-particle radiation. Clonogenic assay was used to test the clonogenic survival fractions of cells with or without being exposed to radiation from (226)Ra. The chronic low-dose radiation from (226)Ra does have effects on the clonogenic survival of CHSE/F cells and HaCaT cells. When CHSE/F cells were cultured in (226)Ra-medium over 9 passages for about 134 days, the clonogenic surviving fractions for cells irradiated at dose rates ranging from 0.00066 to 0.66mGy/d were significantly lower than that of cells sham irradiated. For HaCaT cells grown in medium containing the same range of (226)Ra activity, the clonogenic surviving fraction decreased at first and reached the lowest value at about 42 days (8 passages). After that, the clonogenic survival began to increase, and was significantly higher than that of control cells by the end of the experimental period. The chronic, low-dose high LET radiation from (226)Ra can influence the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells. CHSE/F cells were sensitized by the radiation, and HaCaT cells were initially sensitized but later appeared to be adapted. The results could have implications for determining risk from chronic versus acute exposures to radium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations on the activity concentrations of 238U, 226RA, 228RA, 210PB and 40K in Jordan phosphogypsum and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Ahmad, N; Shehadeh, H; Afaneh, F; Maghrabi, M; Gerstmann, U; Höllriegl, V; Oeh, U

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K) in Jordanian phosphate ore, fertilizer material and phosphogypsum piles were investigated. The results show the partitioning of radionuclides in fertilizer products and phosphogypsum piles. The outcome of this study will enrich the Jordanian radiological map database, and will be useful for an estimation of the radiological impact of this industrial complex on the immediate environment. The activity concentration of (210)Pb was found to vary from 95 +/- 8 to 129 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 111 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) in fertilizer samples, and from 364 +/- 8 to 428 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 391 +/- 30 Bq kg(-1) in phosphogypsum samples; while in phosphate wet rock samples, it was found to vary between 621 +/- 9 and 637 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 628 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1). The activity concentration of (226)Ra in fertilizer samples (between 31 +/- 4 and 42 +/- 5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 37 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much smaller than the activity concentration of (226)Ra in phosphogypsum samples (between 302 +/- 8 and 442 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 376 +/- 62 Bq kg(-1)). In contrast, the activity concentration of (238)U in fertilizer samples (between 1011 +/- 13 and 1061 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1033 +/- 22 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much higher than the activity concentration of (238)U in phosphogypsum samples (between 14 +/- 5 and 37 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 22 +/- 11 Bq kg(-1)). This indicates that (210)Pb and (226)Ra show similar behaviour, and are concentrated in phosphogypsum piles. In addition, both isotopes enhanced the activity concentration in phosphogypsum piles, while (238)U enhanced the activity concentration in the fertilizer. Due to the radioactivity released from the phosphate rock processing plants into the environment, the highest collective dose commitment for the lungs

  10. Analytical study of (226)Ra activity concentration in market consuming foodstuffs of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gooniband Shooshtari, M; Deevband, M R; Kardan, M R; Fathabadi, N; Salehi, A A; Naddafi, K; Yunesian, M; Nabizadeh Nodehi, R; Karimi, M; Hosseini, S S

    2017-01-01

    Ramsar, a city of Iran located on the coast of the Caspian Sea, has been considered to be enormously important due to its high natural radioactivity levels. People living in High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) have been exposed by several sources, one of which could be foodstuff. However, many studies have been carried out to measure the environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, but no survey has been conducted in all stapled consumed foods yet. This study was dedicated to determine (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diets of Ramsar residents as a probable exposure. Approximately 70 different market samples were collected during the four seasons based on the daily consumption patterns of residents which have the highest consumption and their availability in the seasons. All samples, after washing, drying and pretreatment, were analyzed for (226)Ra radionuclide determination by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra ranged between 7 ± 1 mBq Kg(-1) wet weight in meat, and 318 ± 118 mBq Kg(-1) for tea dry leaves. The (226)Ra activity concentrations in collected samples varied from below the minimum detectable activity up to 530 ± 30 mBq Kg(-1). To compare the results with United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reference values, the (226)Ra activity concentrations concluded from the results appear to be higher in milk, chicken and eggs and less in grain products, vegetables, fruits and fish products. These results indicate that no significant (226)Ra contamination is present in market foodstuffs and provide reference values for the foodstuffs in Ramsar. Of the total daily dietary (226)Ra exposure from market consuming foodstuffs for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from wheat. The residents consuming wheat and manufacturing wheat products such as bread, pasta, porridge, crackers, biscuits, pancakes, pies, pastries, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, breakfast

  11. Enhancement of the teratogenicity of all-trans-retinoic acid by maternal restraint stress in mice as a function of treatment timing.

    PubMed

    Rasco, J F; Hood, R D

    1995-02-01

    In CD-1 mice, maternal restraint stress was combined with all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) given during the restraint period (9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m.) to determine in what manner and to what degree teratogenesis might be affected by treatment timing within the stress period and to determine the optimum timing for stress-enhanced production of fetal defects. Eleven groups were treated on gestation day 9 (copulation plug = day 1): group 1, vehicle (corn oil) control (C); group 2, food/water deprived (FWD); group 3, restraint only (R); group 4, tRA plus food/water deprivation (tRA+FWD); groups 5 and 6, tRA at 0 or 4 hr after 9:00 a.m., i.e., tRA(0) and tRA(4), respectively; and groups 7-11, restraint plus tRA at 0, 2, 4, 8, or 12 hr after 9:00 a.m., (i.e., R+tRA(0), R+tRA(2), R+tRA(4), R+tRA(8), and R+tRA(12), respectively). The tRA dose was 20 mg/kg, PO; mice were restrained in the supine position. FWD mice were deprived for the same 12 hr as the restrained mice. All stated differences were significant (P < or = 0.05), based on litter incidences. The incidences of short tails (65%), fused ribs (62%), and fused vertebrae (37%) were elevated in the R+tRA(4) group in comparison with all others, and there appeared to be more exencephalies in R+tRA(2) litters than in any others. The incidence of supernumerary ribs was elevated in the R group in comparison with C and FWD; it was further elevated by tRA at all treatment times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Sorption of 226Ra from waste effluents using Syrian bentonite.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, L; Al Masri, M S; Budeir, Y; Al Chayah, O

    2010-12-14

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using a batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of a new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were evidenced by XRD characterizations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite showed the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were studied using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominant processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with the Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium coprecipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro components, likely present in waste streams, was investigated by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. Sodium was found to be the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This showed the influential effect ofpH compared with other parameters.

  13. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutier, N.R.; Clulow, F.V.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7163 +/- 1077 mBq per animal in spring; 1506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The /sup 226/Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of /sup 226/Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  14. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    PubMed Central

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-01-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt. PMID:28338093

  15. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  16. [The effect of the mutant genes Ta, Ra and Sd on early embryogenesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Sakharova, N Iu; Malashenko, A M; Mezhevikina, L M; Lepikhov, K A; Fialkovskaia, L A

    1996-01-01

    We studied early embryonic mortality of mice from mutant stocks Tabby (Ta, X-chromosome) and RaSd (RaSd/++, chromosome 2) maintained in the heterozygous state in F1 CBA x C57B1/6 hybrid. Tabby and RaSd mice were reciprocally crossed with F1 mice and examined for the morphological status of embryos washed from the oviduct on the third day of pregnancy, when the stage of eight blastomeres is normally attained. Mortality was evaluated from the number of embryos which did not reach the expected stage by this time. The results have shown that 2-4 cell embryos, which have received gene Ta with the X-chromosome of the female parent, differed from embryos with F1 genotype at the same stage of development by their increased mortality rate, whereas among embryos obtained from RaSd, the mortality was mainly observed before cleavage. Death of embryos receiving the mutant gene from hemizygous Ta males or heterozygous RaSd/++ males was not significantly different from the mortality of embryos without these mutations.

  17. Epithelial IL-22RA1-mediated fucosylation promotes intestinal colonization resistance to an opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M; Stares, Mark D; Browne, Hilary P; Keane, Jacqueline A; Page, Andrew J; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J; Gaffney, Daniel J; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-10-08

    Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1(-/-) mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1(-/-) mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens.

  18. (210)Pb-(226)Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-24

    We present new (238)U-(230)Th-(226)Ra-(210)Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant (238)U and (226)Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate (230)Th and (226)Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a (210)Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady (222)Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of (222)Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  19. SA1 and RA afferent responses to static and vibrating gratings.

    PubMed

    Bensmaïa, S J; Craig, J C; Yoshioka, T; Johnson, K O

    2006-03-01

    SA1 and RA afferent fibers differ both in their ability to convey information about the fine spatial structure of tactile stimuli and in their frequency sensitivity profiles. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which the spatial resolution of the signal conveyed by SA1 and RA fibers depends on the temporal properties of the stimulus. To that end, we recorded the responses evoked in SA1 and RA fibers of macaques by static and vibrating gratings that varied in spatial period, vibratory frequency, and amplitude. Gratings were oriented either parallel to the long axis of the finger (vertical) or perpendicular to it (horizontal). We examined the degree to which afferent responses were dependent on the spatial period, vibratory frequency, amplitude, and orientation of the gratings. We found that the spatial modulation of the afferent responses increased as the spatial period of the gratings increased; the spatial modulation was the same for static and vibrating gratings, despite large differences in evoked spike rates; the spatial modulation in SA1 responses was independent of stimulus amplitude over the range of amplitudes tested, whereas RA modulation decreased slightly as the stimulus amplitude increased; vertical gratings evoked stronger and more highly modulated responses than horizontal gratings; the modulation in SA1 responses was higher than that in RA responses at all frequencies and amplitudes. The behavioral consequences of these neurophysiological findings are examined in a companion paper.

  20. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  1. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, N R; Clulow, F V; Lim, T P; Davé, N K

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6,083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7,163 +/- 1,077 mBq per animal in spring; 1,506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The 226Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of 226Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  2. The IL-17A/IL-17RA axis in pulmonary defence and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Cigana, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17A/IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) axis is emerging as a key player in host defence. Several studies have demonstrated that IL-17A-mediated responses play a critical role in both acute and chronic inflammation induced by infectious agents, environmental stimuli and genetic diseases in the airways. In this regard, it is becoming evident that IL-17A/IL-17RA signalling may have a protective and beneficial impact on health, but that it can also result in detrimental outcomes. On one hand, the IL-17A/IL-17RA axis can contribute to the elimination of noxious stimuli and to the resolution of acute inflammatory processes; on the other hand, it can exacerbate immunopathological responses, contributing to the development and progression of chronic respiratory illnesses. In addition, cellular and molecular signatures underlying IL-17A/IL-17RA signalling have been increasingly identified, although further studies are needed to clarify such complex responses. Here, we discuss the latest discoveries on the role of the IL-17A/IL-17RA axis in driving host pulmonary defence and immunopathology.

  3. PADI4 haplotypes in association with RA Mexican patients, a new prospect for antigen modulation.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity.

  4. PADI4 Haplotypes in Association with RA Mexican Patients, a New Prospect for Antigen Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I.; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity. PMID:24454473

  5. Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1−/− mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1−/− mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  6. Role of retinoic acid metabolizing cytochrome P450s, CYP26, in inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevison, Faith; Jing, Jing; Tripathy, Sasmita; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), play critical roles in regulating the differentiation, growth and migration of immune cells. Similarly, as critical signaling molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle, retinoids are important in cancers. Concentrations of atRA are tightly regulated in tissues, predominantly by the availability of retinol, synthesis of atRA by ALDH1A enzymes and metabolism and clearance of atRA by CYP26 enzymes. The ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expressed in several cell types in the immune system and in cancer cells. In the immune system the ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes appear to modulate RA concentrations. Consequently, alterations in the activity of ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expected to change disease outcomes in inflammation. There is increasing evidence from various disease models of intestinal and skin inflammation that treatment with atRA has a positive effect on disease markers. However, whether aberrant atRA concentrations or atRA synthesis and metabolism play a role in inflammatory disease development and progression is not well understood. In cancers, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia and neuroblastoma, increasing intracellular concentrations of atRA appears to provide clinical benefit. Inhibition of the CYP26 enzymes to increase atRA concentrations and combat therapy resistance has been pursued as a drug target in these cancers. This chapter covers the current knowledge of how atRA and retinol regulate the immune system and inflammation, how retinol and atRA metabolism is altered in inflammation and cancer and what roles atRA metabolizing enzymes have in immune responses and cancers. PMID:26233912

  7. Plasticity of photoreceptor-generating retinal progenitors revealed by prolonged retinoic acid exposure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) is important for vertebrate eye morphogenesis and is a regulator of photoreceptor development in the retina. In the zebrafish, RA treatment of postmitotic photoreceptor precursors has been shown to promote the differentiation of rods and red-sensitive cones while inhibiting the differentiation of blue- and UV-sensitive cones. The roles played by RA and its receptors in modifying photoreceptor fate remain to be determined. Results Treatment of zebrafish embryos with RA, beginning at the time of retinal progenitor cell proliferation and prior to photoreceptor terminal mitosis, resulted in a significant alteration of rod and cone mosaic patterns, suggesting an increase in the production of rods at the expense of red cones. Quantitative pattern analyses documented increased density of rod photoreceptors and reduced local spacing between rod cells, suggesting rods were appearing in locations normally occupied by cone photoreceptors. Cone densities were correspondingly reduced and cone photoreceptor mosaics displayed expanded and less regular spacing. These results were consistent with replacement of approximately 25% of positions normally occupied by red-sensitive cones, with additional rods. Analysis of embryos from a RA-signaling reporter line determined that multiple retinal cell types, including mitotic cells and differentiating rods and cones, are capable of directly responding to RA. The RA receptors RXRγ and RARαb are expressed in patterns consistent with mediating the effects of RA on photoreceptors. Selective knockdown of RARαb expression resulted in a reduction in endogenous RA signaling in the retina. Knockdown of RARαb also caused a reduced production of rods that was not restored by simultaneous treatments with RA. Conclusions These data suggest that developing retinal cells have a dynamic sensitivity to RA during retinal neurogenesis. In zebrafish RA may influence the rod vs. cone cell fate decision. The RARαb receptor

  8. Retinoic Acid Regulates Calcium Signaling to Promote Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, Michael; Huang, Huiya; White, Carl; Kipp, Jingjing L

    2016-09-01

    Normal development of ovarian follicles is critical for female reproduction and endocrine function. We have identified retinoic acid (RA) and the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 as regulators of ovarian follicle development and showed that RA and a CYP26 inhibitor stimulated ovarian granulosa cell proliferation. The mechanism underpinning RA-dependent proliferation, however, is not known. The current study was designed to examine the role of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in mediating the effects of RA on primary mouse granulosa cell proliferation. In single-cell Ca(2+) imaging experiments, treatment of cultured granulosa cells with RA increased the steady-state Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. This correlated with increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and enhanced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-dependent Ca(2+) release. In proliferation assays, RA treatment or Cyp26b1 knockdown stimulated proliferation, whereas Cyp26b1 overexpression inhibited proliferation. When RA was given together with 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB), a blocker of IP3R-dependent ER Ca(2+) release and SOCE, with xestospongin C, a selective IP3R- receptor antagonist, or with 3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)pyrazole (BTP-2), a specific SOCE blocker, the stimulatory effect of RA on cell proliferation was abolished. Further investigation showed that treatment with 2-APB or BTP-2 inhibited RA induction of RA response element (RARE) activation in granulosa cells, confirming an important role for Ca(2+) signaling in mediating RA actions. Overall, these data support a model in which RA regulates ovarian follicle development by stimulating granulosa cell proliferation and that this stimulatory effect is at least in part driven by the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling.

  9. Constraining the temporal variations of Ra isotopes and Rn in the groundwater end-member: Implications for derived SGD estimates.

    PubMed

    Cerdà-Domènech, Marc; Rodellas, Valentí; Folch, Albert; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important supplier of chemical compounds to the ocean that may influence coastal geochemical cycles. Radium isotopes ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra,(228)Ra) and radon ((222)Rn) have been widely applied as tracers of SGD. Their application requires the appropriate characterization of both the concentrations of tracers in the discharging groundwater and their distribution in the coastal water column. This study evaluates the temporal evolution of Ra isotopes and (222)Rn concentrations in a dynamic subterranean estuary of a microtidal Mediterranean coastal aquifer that experiences large displacements of the fresh-saltwater interface as a necessary initial step in evaluating the influence of SGD in coastal waters. We show that changes in groundwater salinities due to the seaward displacement of the fresh-saltwater interface produced large variations in Ra activities in groundwater (by a factor of ~19, ~14, ~6, and ~11 for (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively), most importantly during rainfall events. In contrast, the (222)Rn activities in groundwater oscillated only by a factor of 3 during these rainy periods. The large temporal variability in Ra activities hampers the characterization of the SGD end-member when using Ra isotopes as tracers, and thus presents a challenge for obtaining accurate SGD estimates. This study emphasizes the need to understand the hydrodynamics of coastal aquifers to appropriately constrain the Ra isotopes and (222)Rn concentrations in groundwater and when applying both tracers in dynamic microtidal coastal systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Menopausal factors are associated with seronegative RA in large prospective cohorts: results from the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Camilla; Malspeis, Susan; Orellana, Cecilia; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2017-01-13

    To investigate whether menopausal factors are associated with development of serologic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotypes. Data were analyzed from Nurses' Health Studies (NHS, 1976-2010; NHSII 1989-2011). In NHS 120,700 female nurses aged 30-55 and in NHSII 116,430 female nurses aged 25-42 were followed via biennial questionnaires on lifestyle and disease outcomes. In total, 1,096 incident RA cases were confirmed by questionnaire and chart review. Seropositive RA was defined as +RF or ACPA+; seronegative RA as -RF and ACPA-. We used Cox proportional hazards models to obtain multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of seropositive/-negative RA associated with menopausal status, age at menopause, type of menopause, ovulatory years and postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH) use. Postmenopausal women had a two-fold increased risk of seronegative RA, compared with premenopausal women (NHS: HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0; NHSII: HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-3.9; pooled HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.0). Natural menopause at early age (≤ 44) was associated with an increased risk of seronegative RA (pooled HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0). None of the menopausal factors was significantly associated with seropositive RA. We observed no association between PMH use and the risk of seronegative or seropositive RA, except that PMH use of ≥8 years was associated with increased risk of seropositive RA (pooled HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Postmenopause and natural menopause at early age were strongly associated with seronegative RA, but only marginally with seropositive RA, suggesting potential differences in the etiology of RA subtypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. The cultivation and identification of tumor stem cells from neuroblastoma derived tumor spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Xia; Tang, Jing-Yan; Cai, Jiao-Yang; Yin, Min-Zhi; Li, Ben-Shang

    2010-12-01

    Since the proposal of the tumor stem cell hypothesis, considerable interest has been devoted to the isolation and purification of tumor stem cells. Tumor stem cell enrichment from primary tumor derived cell spheres has been demonstrated in specific, serum-free media. This goal of this study is to establish a method of cultivating floating tumor spheres from neuroblastoma cells and to confirm that neuroblastoma spheres are rich in tumor stem cells. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from pediatric patients diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma. Primary tumor cells were isolated and cultivated in serum-free, stem cell-selective medium. Single sphere-forming cells were cultivated under serum-free conditions; their cloning efficiency and monoclonal tumor sphere formation rates were calculated. The expression of stem cell marker genes Oct-4 and Bmi-1 was detected by RT-PCR in sphere-forming cells and parental neurolastoma cells. Sphere-forming cells were injected into the armpit of nude mice with subsequent assessment for tumor growth. Sphere-forming cells were cultivated in differentiation medium containing 5 μmol/L 13-cis retinoic acid; changes in cell morphology were observed. Neuroblastoma cells formed non-adherent neurospheres under serum-free, stem cell-selective conditions after a period of 4 to 6 days. A single cell dissociated from a neurosphere could reform a monoclonal sphere; cloning efficiency and monoclonal sphere formation rates were 55.3% and 26.3%, respectively. RT-PCR results revealed heightened tumor sphere expression of Oct-4 and Bmi-1 as compared with parental tumor cells. Fourteen days after injection of 10(4) sphere-forming cells into nude mice, a neuroblastoma xenograft formed. Treatment of sphere-forming cells with 13-cis retinoic acid induced a gradual differentiation to neuronal cell morphology. Neuroblastoma derived tumor spheres enrich tumor stem cells and the cultivation of primary neuroblastoma cells in serum-free, stem cell

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid isolated from Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.

    PubMed

    Boonyarikpunchai, Wanvisa; Sukrong, Suchada; Towiwat, Pasarapa

    2014-09-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) was isolated from an ethanolic extract of Thunbergia laurifolia leaves. The antinociceptive activity of RA was assessed in mice using hot-plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory effects of RA were determined in two mouse models of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation. Orally administered RA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot-plate test and this effect was reversed by naloxone. RA at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing by 52% (p<0.01) and 85% (p<0.001), respectively, and RA at 100mg/kg also caused significant inhibition of formalin-induced pain in the early and late phases (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). RA at 100mg/kg significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema at 3, 4, 5 and 6h after carrageenan injection (p<0.01, p<0.05 p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively) and showed significant activity against PGE2-induced paw edema. RA at 100mg/kg also inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that RA possesses both central and peripheral antinociceptive activities and has anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation. While further evaluation regarding the safety profile of RA is needed, these data may provide a basis for the rational use of RA and T. laurifolia for treatment of pain and inflammatory disorders.

  13. Retinoic acid-induced glandular differentiation of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Long; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Save, Vicki; De La Cueva Mendez, Guillermo; Laskey, Ron; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2007-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a powerful differentiation agent. Barrett's oesophagus occurs when duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux causes squamous epithelium (SE) tissue to become columnar epithelium tissue by an unknown mechanism. The bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) competes for the retinoid X receptor retinoid binding site. Hence, RA pathways may be implicated in Barrett's oesophagus. RA activity in tissues and cell lines treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with or without LCA was assessed using a reporter. Expression of p21 was determined by real-time PCR in Barrett's oesophagus cell lines with or without LCA. SE and Barrett's oesophagus biopsy specimens were exposed to 100 muM of ATRA or 20 mM of a RA inhibitor, citral, in organ culture for >72 h. Characteristics of treated specimens, compared with untreated controls, were analysed by immunohistochemical analysis (cytokeratins (CKs), vimentin) and RT-PCR (CKs). Confocal microscopy assessed temporal changes in co-localisation of CK8/18 and vimentin. Cell proliferation was assessed by bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation and immunohistochemical analysis for Ki67 and p21. RA biosynthesis was increased in Barrett's oesophagus compared with SE (p<0.001). LCA and ATRA caused a synergistic increase in RA signalling as shown by increased p21 (p<0.01). Morphological and molecular analysis of SE exposed to ATRA showed columnar differentiation independent of proliferation. Metaplasia could be induced from the stromal compartment alone and vimentin expression co-localised with CK8/18 at 24 h, which separated into CK8/18-positive glands and vimentin-positive stroma by 48 h. Citral-treated Barrett's oesophagus led to phenotypic and immunohistochemical characteristics of SE, which was independent of proliferation. RA activity is increased in Barrett's oesophagus and is induced by LCA. Under conditions of altered RA activity and an intact stroma, the oesophageal phenotype can be altered independent of proliferation.

  14. Mean residence time of the shelf water in the East China and the Yellow Seas determined by 228Ra/226Ra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Kasemsupaya, Vimonrut; Tsubota, Hiroyuki

    1989-11-01

    Increasing attention of oceanographers has recently been paied on East Asian marginal seas regarding their role on the global environment, yet geochemical investigations have been few to date. We here report new data on the distribution of 228Ra and 226Ra in the surface water of the East China and the Yellow seas in an effort to constrain the time necessary for the coastal and shelf waters to exchange with offshore waters. Such information is needed in evaluating the exchange of heat and water across the air-sea interface that affects the local climate and the fate of pollutants, nutrients and weathering products supplied from the continent. Based on the Ra isotope signals, we have estimated that the shelf water component contributes ˜ 20 % of the Tsushima Current water passing through the Tsushima Strait and the mean residence time for the shelf water to mix with the Kuroshio surface water is ˜ 2.3 years. As many of materials derived from the continent such as heavy metals and the nutrients have their mean residence times less than a few months in the nearshore and shelf waters, they must largely deposit on the shelf sediments prior to the transport from the shelf to the open sea by mixing.

  15. Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Miyuki; Ikeda, Taku; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2013-02-01

    The Hox1 gene in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-Hox1) is expressed in the nerve cord and epidermis. We identified a nerve cord enhancer in the second intron of Ci-Hox1, and demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in activating this enhancer. The enhancer contained a putative retinoic acid-response element (RARE). Mutation of the RARE in the Ci-Hox1 nerve cord enhancer only partially abolished the enhancer activity. Genes encoding RA synthase and the RA receptor were knocked down using specific antisense morpholino oligos (MOs), and injection of embryos with these MOs resulted in the complete disappearance of epidermal expression of Ci-Hox1 and reduction of neural expression. However, nerve cord expression was not completely repressed. These results suggest that the nerve cord enhancer is activated by two partially redundant pathways; one RA-dependent and one RA-independent.

  16. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed. PMID:27618064

  17. Ra-226 concentrations in otter, Lutra canadensis, trapped near uranium tailings at Elliot Lake, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.D.; Cloutier, N.R.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1987-02-01

    The Elliot Lake area of Ontario, is currently the major uranium producing region of Canada. It is estimated there are 120 million tons of uranium tailings spread over 600 ha in the vicinity of Elliot Lake. The transfer and fate of uranium-series radionuclides from tailing sites remain primary ecological concerns in these areas. It has been demonstrated that the levels of radionuclides, including Ra-226, are elevated in vegetation, small mammals and fish living on or near tailing disposal sites. However, the transfer potential of Ra-226 to predatory species has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to measure Ra-226 levels in otters (Lutra canadensis), captured near tailing sites, to provide further information on the fate of radionuclides in the environment.

  18. Concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in industrial kaolinized granite.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Mrđa, Dušan; Nikolov, Jovana; Kardos, Richárd; Krmar, Miodrag

    2017-03-01

    Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in 120 kaolinized granite samples imported in Serbia from the Motajica mine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, were measured. The (226)Ra concentration ranged from 61 to 319 Bq kg(-1), the (232)Th from 44 to 272 Bq kg(-1), and the (4)(0)K from 590 to 1470 Bq kg(-1). The frequency distribution of (4)(0)K concentrations was near-Gaussian, where those of (226)Ra and (232)Th were right-skewed. In 6 samples, the gamma index, I, was higher than 2, which exceeds the exemption dose criterion (0.3 mSv y(-1)). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective doses for workers in the ceramic industries in Serbia who worked with kaolinized granite were below levels of concern.

  19. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  20. Geology and Topography of Ra Patera, Io, in the Voyager era: Prelude to Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McEwen, Alfred; Davies, A. G.; Davenport, Trevor; Jones, Kevin; Fessler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Voyager era stereo images are used to map the geology and topography of Ra Patera (a major active volcanic center and possible site of sulfur eruptions on Io). The summit of Ra Patera reaches only approx.1 km above the surrounding plains. Pre-Voyager-era lava flows occur on slopes of 0.1-0.3 deg, comparable to the lunar mare. These flows were emplaced at either low viscosities, high eruption rates, or both. A 600- km-long ridged mountain unit (rising to approx. 8 km near Carancho Patera) forms a 60 by 90 km wide plateau approx. 0.5 km high 50 km east of Ra Patera. The new lava flows observed by Galileo flowed around the southern edge of this plateau.

  1. Simulating magnetospheres with numerical relativity: The GiRaFFE code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiuc-Hamilton, Maria; Etienne, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Numerical Relativity has shown success over the past several years, especially in the simulation of black holes and gravitational waves. In recent years, teams have tackled the problem of the interaction of gravitational and electromagnetic waves. But where there are plasmas, the simulations often have trouble reproducing nature. Neutron stars, black hole accretion disks, astrophysical jets—all of these represent extreme environments both gravitationally and electromagnetically. We are creating the first open-source, dynamical spacetime general relativity force-free electrodynamics code: GiRaFFE.We present here the performance of GiRaFFE in testing. With this code, we will simulate neutron star magnetospheres, collisions between neutron stars and black holes, and particular attention will be paid to the production of jets through the Blandford-Znajek mech