Science.gov

Sample records for 13-day 18-hour 48-minute

  1. Exercise Thermoregulation Following 13 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation examined two potential mechanisms, altered skin blood flow (SBF) and sweating rate (SR) responses, that may be responsible for an elevated core temperature during exercise after bed rest (BR) and space flight. Seven healthy men (29 +/- 5 yr, 179.6 +/- 7.1 cm, 77.2 +/- 17.0kg; mean +/- SD) underwent 13 days of 6 deg head-down BR. Pre- and post-BR, subjects completed supine submaximal cycle ergometry (20 min at 40% and 20 min at 65% of pre-BR supine VO2pk) in a thermoneutral room (23.4 +/- 0.5 C, 56 +/- 8 %RH) during, heat production (VO2 ; indirect calorimetry), intestinal temperature (T(sub in) ; ingestible pill), SBF (laser Doppler velocimetry), local SR (dew point hygrometry), and total sweat loss (TSL; Delta body weight) were measured. Pre- and post- BR plasma volume (PV) was measured using I-125 dilution. After BR, T(sub in) was elevated at rest (36.99 +/- 0.14 vs. 37.30 +/- 0.06 C; p<_0.05) and at the end of exercise (37.57 +/- 0.13 vs. 37.90 +/- 0.09 C; P less than or equal to 0.05). However, the increase in T(sub in) from rest to the end of exercise was not different after BR (0.59 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.07 C). There was no difference in VO2 pre- to post-BR during rest (0.28 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.03 1 multiplied by min(exp -1) ) or 40% VO2pk (0.95 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.05 1 multiplied by min(exp -1)), but VO2 was significantly less at the end of the 65% VO2pk stage (1.53 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.42 +/- 0.11 1 multiplies by min(exp - 1); p less than or equal to 0.05). The percent change in SBF from rest to end of exercise was less after BR (211 +/- 53 vs. 96 +/- 31%; p less than or equal to 0.05), the threshold for the onset of SBF was greater (37.17 +/- 0.18vs. 37.51 +/- 0.17 C; p less than or equal to 0.05), and the slope of the response tended to be reduced (536 +/- 184 vs. 201 +/- 46 %A PC; p=0.08). TSL was not different after BR (0.42+0.06 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.08 kg), but the T in threshold at the onset of sweating was delayed significantly (37

  2. Orthostatic intolerance during a 13-day bed rest does not result from increased leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melchior, Francois M.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased leg compliance (LC) has been proposed as a mechanism for orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight or bed rest. Using venous occlusion plethysmography with mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge, we evaluated LC before, during, and after a 13-day head-down bed rest in 10 men. LC was measured by the relationship between the increased calf areas at thigh cuff occlusions of 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg. Orthostatic tolerance was evaluated by a presyncopal-limited lower body negative pressure test before and after bed rest. The 10 subjects were divided into TOL (n= 5) and INT (n=5) groups for which the orthostatic tolerance was similar and lower after bed rest, respectively. For TOL (INT) before bed rest, calf area increases were 2.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) (1.3 +/- 0.4), 3.5 +/- 0.7 (2.3 +/- 0.5), 5.0 +/- 0.9 (3.5 +/- 0.6), 5.6 +/- 0.9 (4.4 +/- 0.6), and 6.4 +/- 1.1 (4.7 +/- 0.6) sq cm for thigh occlusion pressures of 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg, respectively. Neither for INT nor for TOL were these results significantly changed by bed rest. These results suggest that other mechanisms than increased LC have to be taken into account to explain the decreased orthostatic tolerance induced by this 13-day bed rest.

  3. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  4. Blood volume and orthostatic responses of men and women to a 13-day bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, S.; Driscoll, T.; Steinmann, L.; Alfrey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in blood volume during space flight are thought to contribute to decrements in postflight orthostatic function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender affects red cell mass and plasma volume during a short exposure to simulated microgravity, and whether gender differences in orthostatic tolerance ensure. Methods: Ten men (31.5 plus or minus 5.2 years, STD) and eleven normally menstruating women (33.3) plus or minus 6.0 STD) underwent 13 days of 6 degree head-down bedrest. Plasma volume (Iodine 125 labeled human serum albumin) and red cell mass (Carbon 51 labeled red blood cells) were measured before bedrest and on bedrest day 13. On the same days, orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined as the maximal pressure during a presyncopalimited lower body negative pressure test. Results: Plasma volume (PV) and red cell mass (RCM) decreased in both groups with a greater PV decrease (P less than 0.05) in men (6.3 plus or minus 0.7 ml/kg) than in women (4.1 plus or minus 0.6 ml/kg). Decreases in red cell mass were similar (1.7 plus or minus 0.2 ml/kg in men and 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 ml/kg in women). OT was similar for men and women before bedrest (minus 78 plus or minus 6 mmHg in men versus minus 70 plus or minus 4 mmHg in women) and decreased by a similar degree (by an average of 11 mmHg in both groups) after bedrest. The changes in OT did not correlate with changes in plasma volume during bedrest (r(exp 2) = 0.002). Conclusion: Thus, although female hormones may protect PV during bedrest, they do no appear to offer an advantage in terms of loss of orthostatic function.

  5. Periodicity of about 13 days in the cosmic-ray intensity in the solar cycles no. 18, 19 and 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filisetti, O.; Mussino, V.

    1982-12-01

    The quasi-periodical variations of the cosmic-ray intensity, with a period of about 13 days, have been studied in the data recorded through shielded ionization chambers at Huancayo and at Cheltenham-Fredericksburg during the solar cycles no. 18, 19 and 20 (1944-1974). The temporal variation of the annual average amplitudes of the oscillation of about 13 days for both stations is compared with the behavior of the Wolf number R of sunspot. For the cycles no. 18 and 19, these amplitudes present, like of 27-day oscillation, two maxima, while for the cycle no. 20 there is only one clear maximum. In this work is also presented the negative correlation between the annual mean cosmic-ray intensity and the amplitude of the 13-day oscillation.

  6. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a 13-Day-Old Neonate and Review of Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Jawad U.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Casella, James F.; Streiff, Michael B.; Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2008-07-15

    Complete inferior vena cava thrombosis (IVC) in neonates is uncommon, but may cause significant morbidity. A 13-day-old neonate suffered IVC thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III deficiency, possibly contributed to by a mutation in the methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, Alteplase) was used successfully to treat extensive venous thrombosis in this neonate without complications. We also review the literature on CDT for treatment of IVC thrombosis in critically ill neonates and infants.

  7. Improved 18-hour methyl red test.

    PubMed

    Barry, A L; Bernsohn, K L; Adams, A P; Thrupp, L D

    1970-12-01

    Standard methods for the methyl red (MR) test are not practical for routine use in clinical laboratories because of the necessarily prolonged incubation period. When read after overnight incubation, the usual MR test is often equivocal or falsely positive. The present study demonstrates the importance of standardizing the total volume of broth, the size of the vessel in which the cultures are incubated, and the density of the inoculum. In very small volumes of broth, cultures are better exposed to atmospheric oxygen, and thus MR-negative organisms tend to revert the initial acidic pH much more quickly than in deeper, large-volume broth cultures. In the proposed technique, a single colony was inoculated into a 0.5-ml amount of MR-Voges Proskauer (VP) broth (13- by 100-mm tube), and, after 18 to 24 hr at 37 C, one drop of MR was added. With this technique, the broth cultures produced either a definite red (positive) or yellow (negative) color, whereas various shades of orange were frequently observed when larger volumes of broth were tested after only 1 to 2 days of incubation. With 6.0-ml broth cultures, 18-hr MR tests were totally unreliable, but 18-hr tests in 0.5 ml of broth were comparable to the standard MR test performed after 5 days of incubation and superior to those performed after 48 hr in 6.0-ml broth cultures. With the proposed technique, the MR test can be incorporated readily into the routine scheme for identification of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:4923806

  8. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  9. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  10. [Lipid peroxidation and the system of antioxidant protection in rats following a 13-day space flight on the Kosmos-1887 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Markin, A A; Delenian, N V

    1992-01-01

    After a 13-day space mission, in the rats flown on Cosmos-1887 biosatellite the parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system--the contents of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases, tocopherol, total antioxidant activity (in blood plasma only), antioxidant enzyme activity (in tissues only)--superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathio peroxidase, glutathio reductase have been measured in the blood plasma, myocardium, skeletal muscles and liver. The liver level of diene conjugates, Schiff bases and tocopherol decreased, and an activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. In the skeletal muscles there was an elevation of diene conjugate contents followed by the decreases in malonic dialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. In rat myocardium, superoxide dismutase activity and tocopherol levels increased significantly. In the blood plasma the levels of tocopherol, malonic dialdehyde and total antioxidant activity were elevated. It is concluded that the observed changes in lipid peroxidation developed probably in response to an effect of the last dynamic stage of space flight and during re-adapting to the Earth environments. PMID:1299445

  11. Use of short-term (5-Minute) and long-term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff from historical mine-waste located adjacent to the headwaters of the Snake River, Deer Creek, Saints John Creek, Grizzly Gulch, Stevens Gulch, and Leavenworth Creek contributes to the degradation of water quality in these streams. Because historical mine-waste piles have had long-term exposure to the atmosphere, it is surmised that runoff from these piles, induced by meteorological events such as cloudbursts and snowmelt, may cause mobility of acid and metals into a watershed due to dissolution of soluble minerals. For this study, 13 mine-waste composite samples from various mine-wastes in these drainage basins were leached using both a short-term and a long-term leach test. Analytical results from this combination of leach tests are tools that allow the investigator to quantify (fingerprint) which geochemical components could be expected in runoff from these piles if they were leached by a cloudburst (5-minute leach test), as well as what the ?worst-case? geochemical profile would look like if the material were subject to extended leaching and breakdown of the mine-waste material (18-hour leach test). Also, this combination of leach tests allows the geoscientist the ability to see geochemical changes in the mine-waste leachate over time. That is, does the leachate become more or less acidic over time; does the specific conductance increase or decrease; and are there changes in the concentrations of major or trace elements? Further, use of a ranking scheme described herein will aid in prediction of which historical mine-waste piles have the greatest potential for impact on a watershed should runoff occur. Because of long-term weathering of these historical mine-waste piles, geochemical profiles, leachate time-trends, and relative ranking of the mine-wastes produced from analysis of the leachates are Hageman_SIR_2508.doc 1 7/21/2004 2:50 PM indicative of how the mine-waste piles can be expected to act in the environment and may help to

  12. Embolization of a Hemorrhoid Following 18 Hours of Life-Threatening Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Berczi, Viktor Gopalan, Deepa; Cleveland, Trevor J

    2008-01-15

    Hemorrhoids usually do not pose diagnostic difficulties and they rarely cause massive bleeding. We report a case of massive rectal bleeding over 18 h needing 22 U blood transfusion treated by superselective transcatheter coil embolization 12 h following operative treatment performed in a different hospital. Diagnostic angiography with a view to superselective embolization, following failure of sigmoidoscopy to localize and treat the cause of hemorrhage, might act as a life-saving treatment in massive rectal bleeding, obviating the need for repeated endoscopy or emergency surgery.

  13. STS-113 Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Seen through the lush Florida landscape, Space Shuttle Endeavour comes to a stop on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after completing the 13-day, 18-hour, 48-minute, 5.74-million mile STS-113 mission to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown was at 2:37:12 p.m. EST, nose gear touchdown was at 2:37:23 p.m., and wheel stop was at 2:38:25 p.m. Poor weather conditions thwarted landing opportunities until a fourth day, the first time in Shuttle program history that a landing has been waved off for three consecutive days. The vehicle carries the STS-113 crew, Commander James Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, as well as the returning Expedition Five crew, Commander Valeri Korzun, ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The installation of the P1 truss on the International Space Station was accomplished during the mission.

  14. A resolution designating February 13, 2014, as "$2.13 Day".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2014-02-12

    02/12/2014 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S957-958) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  16. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  17. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  18. Failure of an intramuscular injection of an analogue of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 11 to 13 days after insemination to increase pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jubb, T F; Abhayaratne, D; Malmo, J; Anderson, G A

    1990-10-01

    At 11 to 13 d after insemination, 1028 dairy cows on 19 farms were given an intramuscular injection of 10 micrograms of the GnRH analogue buserelin. Their reproductive performance was compared to 1022 control cows receiving a placebo. The GnRH analogue-treated cows had fewer short interoestrous intervals compared to the control cows, but there were no significant differences in pregnancy rates to either the insemination preceding or following treatment, in calving to conception interval, or to percent pregnant by the end of mating. There were no differences between treatments in herds of high, average or low pregnancy rate, in 2-year-old cows or cows greater than 2-years-old and in cows calved 40 d or less, or greater than 40 d. The use of 10 micrograms of the GnRH analogue, buserelin, 11 to 13 d after insemination, cannot be recommended as a method of improving reproductive performance in dairy herds. PMID:2126923

  19. Developmental Perceptions of Reality, Conventions, and Themes in Theatre: "This Is Not a Pipe Dream." Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jeanne M.

    A study explored a developmental theory of perceptual skills in theater, assessing developmental perception, reflection, and evaluation of theatrical reality, conventions, and themes. Subjects, 33 second graders, 33 fourth graders, 23 sixth graders, and 23 adults, viewed a 48-minute, nonrepresentational, metatheatrical play entitled "This Is Not a…

  20. Instructional Gaming as a Means to Achieve Skill in Selecting Ideas Relevant for Solving a Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; Ross, Joan

    Two pilot studies investigated the effects of using Instructional Math Play (IMP) Kits, pamphlets with which individuals may play the mathematical game EQUATIONS against a computer program. Twenty-nine junior high students in a high-ability mathematics class completed varying numbers of the kits in five 48-minute sessions during a two-week period;…

  1. 13. VIEW OF CONTROL CONSOLE CURRENTLY USED ON OCCASION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF CONTROL CONSOLE CURRENTLY USED ON OCCASION FOR AMATUER RADIO AND TO PERIODICALLY ACTIVE STATION KPS. NOTE CLOCK ON WALL. SHADED PORTIONS ON 24HR CLOCK (15-18 AND 45-48 MINUTES) INDICATED MINUTES EACH HOUR WHEN STATIONS WOULD NOT TRANSMIT AND LISTEN FOR WEAK DISTRESS SIGNALS. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  2. Practical tools for monitoring and assessment of DLDD for economic assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We will provide a series of brief introductions (4-8 minutes each) to a suite of practical tools that are being applied by land managers and policymakers throughout the world. The remainder of the side event will be devoted to hands-on demonstrations. The presentations will include both a descriptio...

  3. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the patterns with…

  4. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  5. 78 FR 6104 - Information Collection(s) Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office of Management and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... per Response: .25 hours. Frequency of Response: Recordkeeping requirement. Obligation to Respond...; 820 responses. Estimated Time per Response: 18 hours. Frequency of Response: On occasion reporting... all Americans have access to robust, affordable broadband and advanced mobile services....

  6. RELATIVE LEACHING AND AQUATIC TOXICITY OF PRESSURE-TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS USING BATCH LEACHING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of southern yellow pine dimensional lumber, each treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-hour batch leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), coppe...

  7. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Será, Bozena; Stranák, Vitezslav; Serý, Michal; Tichý, Milan; Spatenka, Petr

    2008-08-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  8. Long term changes in cosmic ray diurnal variations observed by ion chambers in Hong Kong and Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, L. S.; Kusunose, M.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Yearly average solar diurnal variations of cosmic ray ion chamber data are inspected from a view point of the eleven and the 22 year solar activity cycle modulations. Ion chamber data and neutron data from various stations are added. From an inspection of observed data, a simple approximation that the 11 year and the 22 year variations of the solar diurnal variation are along 18-hour and 12-hour axes, respectively is proposed. The 18-hour component of diurnal variation in the 11 year cycle increases toward the solar active years. The 12-hour component is enhanced when the solar general magnetic field is parallel to the rotation vector, and is almost zero for the other state. The transition occurs when the amplitude of the 18-hour component is greater owing to the transition of the field during the maximum phase of solar activity. The 22 year shift is consistent with the drift modulation model in heliosphere.

  9. Fire Hose, Nozzles and Applicances. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-8-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on fire hose, nozzles, and appliances is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 18-hour unit is to present accepted hose practices that meet federal standards and can…

  10. Training for Development and Use of Generic Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joan H.; Rettig, Julianne D.

    Five part-time adult basic education instructors were trained to develop tutorials for their students by using the SuperPILOT authoring language to insert their own questions, answers, and hints in already existing generic programs. The project involved 18 hours of training and ongoing supervision and review of products. A total of 66 tutorial…

  11. POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION. WORKING PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIRE, CARSON

    THREE AREAS WERE IDENTIFIED IN WHICH EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS COULD BE DEVELOPED BY THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS. WITHIN THE AREA OF "BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION," THE AUTHOR SUGGESTED BUILDING A SEQUENCE OF UP TO 18 HOURS OF STUDY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (PSYCHOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, AND…

  12. Paraeducator Entry-Level Training for Supporting Students with Disabilities. Field Test Version 2.0. Instructor's Manual [and] Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Backus, Linda; Giangreco, Michael F.; Sherman-Tucker, Priscilla

    These instructor and participant manuals provide a basic training program curriculum for paraeducators supporting students with disabilities in inclusive educational settings. The course requires approximately 18 hours of instruction and 12 hours of practicum, can be offered in a variety of formats (intensively or over a number of weeks), and does…

  13. Middle School Mathematics PD Study: Description of the PD Intervention. Paper #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirk; Garet, Michael; Leinwand, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the PD program that was delivered during the first year of the study. The main goal of the intervention was to increase teachers' capability to teach positive rational number topics effectively. The program included a 3-day summer institute (18 hours per teacher), five 1-day seminars held during the school year (30 hours per…

  14. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To... must be drop tested as follows: Three groups of twenty-five filled containers must be dropped from 1.8... for 18 hours at 55 °C (131 °F), prior to performing the drop test. The closure, or sealing...

  15. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To... must be drop tested as follows: Three groups of twenty-five filled containers must be dropped from 1.8... for 18 hours at 55 °C (131 °F), prior to performing the drop test. The closure, or sealing...

  16. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  17. Participation Patterns and Program Impacts of Hawaii's JOBS WORKS! Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jerome A.; Schexnayder, Deanna T.; O'Shea, Daniel P.

    A study of Hawaii's JOBS WORKS! waiver demonstration project determined its influence on participant self-sufficiency and receipt of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Hawaii received a waiver to lift the 8-week federal limitation on upfront job search, operate on less than a statewide basis, require 18 hours of work, and secure…

  18. Modeling of salt diffusion in raw hide: an optimization of the curing process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  19. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  20. Modeling of Salt Diffusion in Raw Hide: An Optimization of the Curing Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  1. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  2. Cotton pollen retention in boll weevils, a laboratory experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pollen is thought to exist in a boll weevil’s gut for at least 18 hours. In a controlled laboratory experiment examining non-cotton food sources, a cotton pollen grain was found in an individual boll weevil that had not fed on cotton for 120 hours. Because we believe that finding whole or ...

  3. Cassini CIRS Observations of Thermal Differences in Saturn's Main Rings with Increasing Phase Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, S.; Pearl, J.; Cuzzi, J.; Wallis, B.; Ferrari, C.; Brooks, S.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.; Showalter, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radial scans of main rings obtained at a variety of phase angles, local times and ring opening angles. Circular focal plane 1 slowly scanned across rings. Radial resolution approx. 2500 km. Temperatures decrease with increasing phase angle for all main rings. Rough estimate of particle spin period for B ring particle is P > 1.8 hours

  4. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep do you need? Newborns 16-18 hours Preschool-aged Children 11-12 hours School-aged Children ... Watch eCards YouTube About CDC Employment Newsroom Training/Education Funding CDC's Organization Mission and Vision Using this ...

  5. Chronic Inflammation and Neutrophil Activation as Possible Causes of Joint Diseases in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of a ballet class on the kinetic profiles of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, cytokines, complement component 3 (C3), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), IgA and IgM, in ballerinas. We also verified neutrophil death and ROS release. Blood samples were taken from 13 dancers before, immediately after, and 18 hours after a ballet class. The ballet class increased the plasma activities of CK-total (2.0-fold) immediately after class, while the activities of CK-cardiac muscle (1.0-fold) and LDH (3.0-fold) were observed to increase 18 hours after the class. Levels of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IgG, and IgA were not affected under the study conditions. The exercise was found to induce neutrophil apoptosis (6.0-fold) 18 hours after the ballet class. Additionally, immediately after the ballet class, the neutrophils from the ballerinas were found to be less responsive to PMA stimulus. Conclusion. Ballet class was found to result in inflammation in dancers. The inflammation caused by the ballet class remained for 18 hours after the exercise. These findings are important in preventing the development of chronic lesions that are commonly observed in dancers, such as those with arthritis and synovitis. PMID:24701035

  6. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into ewe's vagina 13 days before desired start of breeding. For intravaginal use in sheep only. Do not... sponges to minimize exposure to drug. Do not leave sponge in the vagina for more than 21 days. Ewes...

  7. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  8. [Concentration of species alien (bovine) IgG in the blood serum of foals after the intake of non-species specific colostrum preparation].

    PubMed

    Warko, G; Becht, H; Bostedt, H

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen vital foals with free access to maternal colostrum received a additional non-species-specific commercial colostrum additive within the first 18 hours of their life. The additive had been prepared from bovine colostrum. At birth no bovine IgG was detectable. The concentration of bovine IgG reached its maximum 18 hours post natum with XG = 74.6 mg/dl. 96 hours after birth IgG levels had dropped to XG = 20.9 mg/dl. The correlation of bovine IgG with GGT-activity was highly significant. Formation of antibodies against bovine IgG could not be demonstrated. It is not possible to increase igG in the circulation of newborn foals to satisfactory levels with IgG of bovine origin in the used commercial colostrum additive. PMID:8129698

  9. The rate of sulfur hexafluoride escape from a plastic syringe.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M S; Yeo, J H; Koski, W S; Michels, R G

    1989-06-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is widely used for internal tamponade during retinal reattachment surgery and is commonly injected into the eye from a 10-mL plastic syringe. The rate of diffusion of SF6 out of a plastic syringe has not bee studied. We measured the percentage of SF6 gas in a 10-mL plastic syringe by gas chromatography, confirmed by infrared spectrometry. Measurements were obtained immediately after aspiration, and at 30 s and 10, 15, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, and 18 hours. A marked decrease in SF6 concentration, from 97% at 30 s to 76% at 60 minutes and 2% at 18 hours, was noted. The results were highly reproducible. Sulfur hexafluoride gas should be injected into the patient's eye as soon as possible after aspiration from the tank to ensure accurate concentrations. PMID:2730405

  10. Low flux laboratory test of the Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) experiment intended for CRRES. [Combined Release and Rediation Effects Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, P. G.; Treadaway, M. J.; Robinson, P. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve planar printed circuit board samples and four cable samples were exposed to a distributed electron source of 150 keV to 2.5 MeV at 4.5 pA/sq cm and were monitored for electron-caused EMP. Discharges were recorded on 10 of the 16 samples during the first 18 hours of testing (total incident fluence equaled 1.8 x 10 to the 12th e/sq cm).

  11. Effect of In Vitro Maturation Technique and Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Oocyte Maturation Rate: Focus on Oxidative Status of Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zavareh, Saeed; Karimi, Isaac; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Rahnama, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic potential of in vitro maturation (IVM) in infertility is growing with great promise. Although significant progress is obtained in recent years, existing IVM protocols are far from favorable results. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether two step IVM manner change reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total anti- oxidant capacity (TAC) levels. The second aim was to find the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on oocyte maturation rate and on ROS/TAC levels during IVM. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes divided into cumulus denuded oocytes (DOs) and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) groups. GVs were matured in vitro in the presence or absence of ALA only for 18 hours (control) or with pre-culture of forskolin plus cilostamide for an additional 18 hours. Matured oocytes obtained following 18 and 36 hours based on experimental design. In parallel, the ROS and TAC levels were measured at different time (0, 18 and 36 hours) by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) probe and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Results Maturation rate of COCs was significantly higher than DOs in control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between COCs and DOs when were pre-cultured with forskolin plus cilostamide. ROS and TAC levels was increased and decreased respectively in DOs after 18 hours while in COCs did not change at 18 hours and showed a significant increase and decrease respectively at 36 hours (P<0.05). ROS and TAC levels in the presence of ALA were significantly decreased and increased respectively after 36 hours (P<0.05) whereas, maturation rates of COCs and DOs were similar to their corresponding control groups. Conclusion ALA decreased ROS and increased TAC but could not affect maturation rate of both COCs and DOs in one or two step IVM manner. PMID:26985332

  12. Copper-64-diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) Pharmacokinetics in FaDu Xenograft Tumors and Correlation With Microscopic Markers of Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Keisha C.; Humm, John L.; Bartlett, Rachel; Reese, Megan; Carlin, Sean

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The behavior of copper-64-diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 64}Cu-ATSM) in hypoxic tumors was examined through a combination of in vivo dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo autoradiographic and histologic evaluation using a xenograft model of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: {sup 64}Cu-ATSM was administered during dynamic PET imaging, and temporal changes in {sup 64}Cu-ATSM distribution within tumors were evaluated for at least 1 hour and up to 18 hours. Animals were sacrificed at either 1 hour (cohort A) or after 18 hours (cohort B) postinjection of radiotracer and autoradiography performed. Ex vivo analysis of microenvironment subregions was conducted by immunohistochemical staining for markers of hypoxia (pimonidazole hydrochloride) and blood flow (Hoechst-33342). Results: Kinetic analysis revealed rapid uptake of radiotracer by tumors. The net influx (K{sub i}) constant was 12-fold that of muscle, whereas the distribution volume (V{sub d}) was 5-fold. PET images showed large tumor-to-muscle ratios, which continually increased over the entire 18-hour course of imaging. However, no spatial changes in {sup 64}Cu-ATSM distribution occurred in PET imaging at 20 minutes postinjection. Microscopic intratumoral distribution of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole were not correlated at 1 hour or after 18 hours postinjection, nor was {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and Hoechst-33342. Conclusions: The oxygen partial pressures at which {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole are reduced and bound in cells are theorized to be distinct and separable. However, this study demonstrated that microscopic distributions of these tracers within tumors are independent. Researchers have shown {sup 64}Cu-ATSM uptake to be specific to malignant expression, and this work has also demonstrated clear tumor targeting by the radiotracer.

  13. Mold For Casting Radius-Inspection Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Thin replicas viewed on comparator without sectioning. New mold machined from piece of transparent poly(methyl methacrylate). Fits around base of post. Two slots machined into inner surface form channels for casting inspection sections. Bottom of mold fits flush against surface around bottom of post. When surface slanted, mold automatically aligns in proper orientation. Time required to inspect elliptical radii located at bottoms of series of small posts reduced from 18 hours to 3 hours.

  14. Complete anal membrane in a female: a rare malformation and indication for prone cross-table lateral radiograph.

    PubMed

    England, Richard J; Murthi, Govind V

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a 27 week gestation female fetus suggested an abnormal rectum. Subsequent examination of the term newborn confirmed an imperforate anus present in the normal position. No meconium was seen on the perineum by 18 hours. A prone cross-table lateral radiograph confirmed that rectal gas was present 3 mm beneath the membrane leading to the diagnosis of complete anal membrane, and an anoplasty rather than a colostomy was performed. PMID:23583151

  15. On the oblateness and rotation rate of Neptune's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of a stellar occultation by Neptune give an oblateness of 0.022 + or - 0.004 for Neptune's atmosphere at the 1-microbar pressure level. This results is consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium at a uniform atmospheric rotation period of 15 hours, although the error bars on quantities used in the calculation are such that an 18-hour period is not excluded. The oblateness of a planetary atmosphere is determined from stellar occultations by measuring the times at which a specified point on immersion or emersion occultation profiles is reached. Whether this standard procedure for deriving the shape of the atmosphere is consistent with what is known about vertical and horizontal temperature gradients in Neptune's atmosphere is evaluated. The nature of the constraint placed on the interior mass distribution by an oblateness determined in this manner is consided, as is the effects of possible differential rotation. A 15-hour Neptune internal mass distribution is approximately homologous to Uranus', but an 18-hour period is not. The implications for Neptune's interior structure if its body rotation period is actually 18 hours are discussed.

  16. Efficient method for near real-time diffuse optical tomography of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Culver, Joseph P.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have showed only regions with a sensitivity higher that 1% of the maximum value can affect the recovery result for diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Two methods of efficient sensitivity map generation based on Finite Element Models (FEM) are developed based on (1) reduced sensitivity matrix and (2) parallelisation process. Time and memory efficiency of these processes are evaluated and compared with conventional methods. It is shown that the computational time for a full head model containing 200k nodes is reduced from 3 hours to 48 minutes and the required memory is reduced from 5.5 GB to 0.5 GB. For a range of mesh densities up to 320k nodes, the required memory is improved by ~1000% and computational time by ~400% to allow near real-time image recovery.

  17. 1997 Leonid Shower From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Nugent, David; Murthy, Jayant; Tedesco, Ed; DeVincenzi, Donal L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In November 1997, the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite (MSX) was deployed to observe the Leonid shower from space. The shower lived up to expectations, with abundant bright fireballs. Twenty-nine meteors were detected by a wide-angle, visible wavelength, camera near the limb of the Earth in a 48-minute interval, and three meteors by the narrow field camera. This amounts to a meteoroid influx of 5.5 +/- 0.6 10(exp -5)/sq km hr for masses greater than 0.3 gram. The limiting magnitude for limb observations of Leonid meteors was measured at M(sub v) = -1.5 magn The Leonid shower magnitude population index was 1.6 +/- 0.2 down to M(sub v) = -7 magn., with no sign of an upper mass cut-off.

  18. 1997 Leonid Shower from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Nugent, David; Tedesco, Ed; Murthy, Jayant

    In November 1997, the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite (MSX) was deployed to observe the Leonid shower from space. The shower lived up to expectations, with abundant bright fireballs. Twenty-nine meteors were detected by a wide-angle, visible wavelength, camera near the limb of the Earth in a 48-minute interval, and three meteors by the narrow field camera. This amounts to a meteoroid influx of 5.5 +/- 0.6 10^-5 km^-2 hr^-1 for masses > 0.3 gram. The limiting magnitude for limb observations of Leonid meteors was measured at M_v = -1.5 magn. The Leonid shower magnitude population index was 1.6 +/- 0.2 down to M_v = -7 magn., with no sign of an upper mass cut-off.

  19. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block for Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Access Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeffrey; Heath, Jean; Bishop, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block using 1% and 2% lidocaine in 21 procedures is reported. Average procedure time was 5.1 minutes (± 1.2 min; range, 2-8 min). Average time of onset and duration were 4.8 minutes (± 3.7 min; range, 0-10 min) and 77.9 minutes (± 26.7 min; range, 44-133 min), respectively, for sensory block and 8.4 minutes (± 5.7 min; range, 3-23 min) and 99 minutes (± 40.5 min; range, 45-171 min), respectively, for motor block. The pain scale assessment averaged 0.4 (± 1.1; range, 0-4). There were no complications. PMID:27106648

  20. Coastal erosion and wetland change in Louisiana: selected USGS products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Reid, Jamey M.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Polloni, Christopher F.

    2003-01-01

    This Digital Data Series (DDS) report is primarily a selection of USGS science products that were previously published as paper atlases and maps but are no longer available in their original form. We have made an attempt to preserve the paper atlases by having them scanned in an efficient compressed digital format that provides a print-on-demand as well as a programmed viewing capability of the original material. We included additional materials bearing on aspects to enhance the scientific understanding of coastal erosion and wetland loss in Louisiana. In addition, this report contains multimedia-based publications including photographs, a 48-minute video, and map tools to allow the user to experience the many scientifically based research activities that are in progress along the coast of Louisiana.

  1. Postponement of incipient collapse due to work-induced heat stress by limited cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blockley, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Four subjects completed five treadmill training sessions under comfortable to cool conditions and were calibrated to find an optimum combination of speed and grade on the treadmill which would produce a metabolic rate of 2000 Btu-hr. Dressed in an Apollo liquid cooling garment, each man underwent a total of four experiments in which the rate of heat extraction from the liquid cooling garment was adjusted to an amount which would cause a storage within the body of 1000 Btu/hr. Physiological measurements included skin temperature at 9 locations, rectal and ear canal probes, and heart rate. The increases in tolerance time for the various subjects and the various methods of emergency cooling, ranged from a low of six minutes to a high of 48 minutes, or from 8 to 102% of the baseline tolerance times. The largest gains were achieved in a subject whose tolerance endpoint was atypical, and whose baseline heat tolerance was unsually low.

  2. [Studies of the morphology of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone levels in the blood of rats in experiments on "Kosmos-1667" and "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I; Kabitskiĭ, E N; Dmitrieva, N P; Amirkhanian, E A

    1990-01-01

    Using histological, electron microscopic, and biochemical (measurement of total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in plasma) method, thyroid glands of 17 male rats of the Wistar SPF strain flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 and for 13 days on Cosmos-1887 were investigated. It was found that a longer exposure to space flight effects (for 13 days) led to a thyroid activity decline (significant reduction of thyrocyte size and nuclear area, accumulation of colloid drops in the cytoplasm, decrease of iodinated thyroglobulins in the colloid, etc.) together with a substantial decrease of T4 and T3 in plasma. The above structural and functional changes in the thyroid gland and hormonal status are characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction and reflect variations of the early and intermediate stages of adaptation to microgravity during 7- and 13-day space flights. PMID:2214661

  3. [Contractile properties of skeletal muscles of rats after flight on "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Oganov, V S; Skuratova, S A; Murashko, L M

    1991-01-01

    Contractile properties of skeletal muscles of rats were investigated using glycerinated muscle preparations that were obtained from Cosmos-1887 animals flown for 13 days (plus 2 days on the ground) and from rats that remained hypokinetic for 13 days on the ground. In the flow rats, the absolute mass of postural muscles remained unchanged while their relative mass increased; this may be attributed to their enhanced hydration which developed during the first 2 days after landing. Strength losses of the postural muscles were less significant than after previous flights. Comparison of the Cosmos-1887 and hypokinesia control data has shown that even 2-day exposure to 1 G after 13-day flight can modify drastically flight-induced changes. PMID:1870316

  4. Glutathione S-transferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in cultured rat hepatocytes treated with tocotrienol and tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Ong, F B; Wan Ngah, W Z; Shamaan, N A; Md Top, A G; Marzuki, A; Khalid, A K

    1993-09-01

    1. The effect of tocotrienol and tocopherol on glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. 2. Tocotrienol and tocopherol significantly decreased GGT activities at 5 days in culture but tocotrienol also significantly decreased GGT activities at 1-2 days. 3. Tocotrienol and tocopherol treatment significantly decreased GST activities at 3 days compared to the control but tocotrienol also decreased GST activities at 1-3 days. 4. Tocotrienol showed a more pronounced effect at a dosage of greater than 50 microM tocotrienol at 1-3 days in culture compared to the control. PMID:7903615

  5. METABOLIC PROPERTIES OF ISOLATED RAT LIVER CELL PREPARATIONS ENRICHED IN EPITHELIAL CELLS OTHER THAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selected fraction of non-parenchymal cells was prepared from the liver of untreated rats, of rats 11-13 days after ligation of the common bile duct, and of rats fed for 4-5 weeks a choline devoid diet containing DL-ethionine. The cell fraction isolated from these livers consist...

  6. Humulus lupus Beta-acids Administered Through Water Reduce Clostridium perfringens Challenge Strains in the Chicken Intestinal Tract Midgut and Ceca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimicrobial activity activity of extracts of the hop plant Humulus lupus was studied in chickens fed diets without antibiotic growth promotants. Beta-acid resins of the hop plant were administered by water to 13 day old chickens subsequently challenged per so with necrotic enteritis-associate...

  7. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  8. Investigating effects of aging on radio-frequency dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of aging on dielectric properties of chicken meat were tracked through measurement of the dielectric properties with an open-ended coaxial probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. The chicken meat was stored in a refrigerator for 13 days at 4 oC. The changes in dielectric constant and loss...

  9. Growth at elevated CO2 delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C4 sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane was grown in sunlit greenhouses at 360 and 720 ppm CO2, and drought was imposed for 13 days on 4-month old plants. Leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activity of Rubisco were marginally affected by high CO2 but were reduced by drought, whereas activity of PEP carboxylase was reduced by high ...

  10. Effects of goats on Tamarix spp. and understory vegetation for riparian restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats were used to reduce Tamarix spp. along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Seventy 0.1-1.6 ha plots at two locations were either browsed by 400-630 goats for 1-3 days annually, or left unbrowsed. After two annual treatments, nearly every available Tamarix plant in mixed vegetation was browsed (100%)...

  11. Effects of a simulated agricultural runoff event on sediment toxicity in a managed backwater wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    permethrin (both cis and trans isomers), on 10-day sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a managed natural backwater wetland after a simulated agricultural runoff event. Sediment samples were collected at 10, 40, 100, 300, and 500 m from inflow 13 days prior to amendment and 1, 5, 12, 22, and 36 ...

  12. Preventive effect of CuCl₂ on behavioral alterations and mercury accumulation in central nervous system induced by HgCl2 in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Silva, L; Siqueira, L F; Oliveira, V A; Oliveira, C S; Ineu, R P; Pedroso, T F; Fonseca, M M; Pereira, M E

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the benefits of Cu preexposition on Hg effects on behavioral tests, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Hg, and essential metal contents in the cerebrum and cerebellum of neonate rats. Wistar rats received (subcutaneous) saline or CuCl2 ·2H2O (6.9 mg/kg/day) when they were 3 to 7 days old and saline or HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg/day) when they were 8 to 12 days old. Mercury exposure reduced the performance of rats in the negative geotaxis (3-13 days) and beaker test (17-20 days), inhibited cerebellum AChE activity (13 days), increased cerebrum and cerebellum Hg (13 days), cerebrum Cu (13 days), and cerebrum and cerebellum Zn levels (33 days). The performance of rats in the tail immersion and rotarod tests as well as Fe and Mg levels were not altered by treatments. Copper prevented all alterations induced by mercury. These results are important to open a new perspective of prevention and/or therapy for mercury exposure. PMID:24799335

  13. Options: A Career Development Curriculum for Rural High School Students. Unit IV, The Juggling Act: Lives and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Faith; And Others

    The fourth and final unit in a 9-12 week life planning and career development program designed for high school students in rural areas uses imaginary case studies of rural women to involve students in solving complex life problems through simulation. Individual lessons in the 13-day unit focus on job search techniques (resumes, interviews, skills…

  14. Bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral artery dissection following facial massage.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Andrea L; Zink, Walter; Zimmerman, Robert; Riina, Howard; Benitez, Ronald

    A 50-year-old woman underwent facial massage. After 13 days, she experienced left retro-orbital pain, ptosis, and miosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed stenotic dissection of bilateral cervical internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The intracranial vasculature was intact. She was treated conservatively with long-term oral anticoagulation and remains asymptomatic 18 months later. PMID:18388028

  15. Influence of a constant magnetic field on thrombocytes. [delay of blood coagulation time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    In an experiment on white mice it was found that a constant electromagnetic field with strength of 250-275 oersteds is biologically active at an exposure of 55 minutes. Qualitative and morphological changes in thrombocytes 1-3 days following exposure reduced their numbers, prolonged blood coagulation time and increased the number of leucocytes.

  16. Frequency of multiple serotype 1 Marek's disease virus strains in feather follicle epithelium and tumor cells following superinfection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine what effect multiple virulent Marek’s disease viruses have on each other during superinfection. Serotype 1 viruses able to be differentiated were administered either simultaneously or with a short (24 hours) or long (13 days) interval and virus frequency was mea...

  17. Classroom Teacher's Idea Notebook: Try Trivia for Openers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marran, James F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents three activities suitable for junior/senior high school social studies. The first demonstrates the use of trivia as a springboard into a lesson, the second shows how a scavenger hunt can be used to teach social studies content, and the third describes a 1-3 day procedure for teaching a jigsaw lesson on modernization in Meiji Japan. (GEA)

  18. A Description of Title IV-A Infant and Toddler Day Care, 1974-1975: Adult-Child Interactions and Care Room Activities. Report No. 7641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbermann, David

    This report is concerned with the development and use of the Infant/Toddler Interaction and Activity Profile in 13 day care centers in Philadelphia. The Profile and its development are described and methods of data collection and analysis are explained briefly. Findings are reported in four major areas: (1) basic data characteristics, offering a…

  19. BESNOITIA ORYCTOFELISI N. SP. (PROTOZOA: APICOMPLEXA) FROM DOMESTIC RABBITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species of Besnoitia from naturally infected rabbits from Argentina was propagated experimentally in mice, gerbils, rabbits, cats, and cell cultures. Cats fed tissue cysts from rabbits shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine to 13 days. Sporulated oocysts were infective to gerbils, rabbits,...

  20. Differential abundance of sarcoplasmic proteome explains animal effect on beef Longissimus lumborum color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sarcoplasmic proteome of beef Longissimus lumborum demonstrating animal-to-animal variation in color stability was examined to correlate proteome profile with color. Longissimus lumborum (36 h post-mortem) muscles were obtained from 73 beef carcasses, aged for 13 days, and fabricated to 2.5-cm s...

  1. ABR Audiometry in Cornelia De Lange Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denice P.

    Eight children (ages 13 days to 5 years) with a diagnosis of Cornelia de Lange syndrome received audiologic evaluation consisting of immittance audiometry and auditory brainstem response audiometry to air and bone conducted "click" stimuli, as behavioral testing was unreliable due to patient age and/or developmental delay. Developmental…

  2. Virus Competition for Shedding and Tumor Formation Over Time in Marek's Disease Virus Dual-infected Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine what effect multiple virulent Marek’s disease viruses have on each other over time during dual-infection. Serotype 1 viruses able to be differentiated were administered either simultaneously or with a short (24 hours) or long (13 days) interval. Virus frequency ...

  3. 20 CFR 617.21 - Reemployment services and allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... search. Self-directed job search programs shall be initiated to assist individuals in developing skills.... These include: (1) Job search workshop. A short (1-3 days) seminar designed to provide participants with... techniques, and finding job openings. (2) Job finding club. Encompasses all elements of the Job...

  4. 20 CFR 617.21 - Reemployment services and allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... search. Self-directed job search programs shall be initiated to assist individuals in developing skills.... These include: (1) Job search workshop. A short (1-3 days) seminar designed to provide participants with... techniques, and finding job openings. (2) Job finding club. Encompasses all elements of the Job...

  5. 20 CFR 617.21 - Reemployment services and allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... search. Self-directed job search programs shall be initiated to assist individuals in developing skills.... These include: (1) Job search workshop. A short (1-3 days) seminar designed to provide participants with... techniques, and finding job openings. (2) Job finding club. Encompasses all elements of the Job...

  6. 20 CFR 617.21 - Reemployment services and allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... search. Self-directed job search programs shall be initiated to assist individuals in developing skills.... These include: (1) Job search workshop. A short (1-3 days) seminar designed to provide participants with... techniques, and finding job openings. (2) Job finding club. Encompasses all elements of the Job...

  7. Protective Effect of Antiapoptosis Potency of Prolonged Preservation by Desiccation Using High-Pressure Carbon Monoxide on Isolated Rabbit Hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P Y; Zhang, Z; Guo, Y L; Xiao, Z Z; Zhu, P; Mai, M J; Zheng, S Y

    2015-11-01

    Heart transplantation has been widely accepted as a therapy for end-stage heart failure. Mitigation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting the apoptotic process plays an important role in organ transplantation. Desiccation using high-pressure carbon monoxide (CO) is a new method of preserving donor hearts; however, its mechanism of antiapoptosis remains unclear. This study was intended to elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of preservation by desiccation for 18 hours using high-pressure CO on myocardial apoptosis. Rabbit heterotopic abdominal cardiac transplantation models were established. New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups: naive group (n = 16), HTK group (n = 16), and desiccation using high-pressure CO group (n = 16). The donor hearts of the naive group were transplanted immediately after being extracted. In the HTK group, the donor hearts were extracted and steeped in 4°C HTK cardioplegic solution for 18 hours and then transplanted; in the desiccation using high-pressure CO group, the donor hearts were extracted and exposed to a gas mixture (Po2 = 3200 hPa, Pco = 800 hPa) in the chamber before being preserved in a refrigerator at 4°C for 18 hours and then transplanted. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes were detected using TUNEL technique and histopathology was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3 proteins was detected using the Western blot method. These findings suggest that compared with traditional HTK preservation, preservation by desiccation using high-pressure CO could alleviate rabbits' myocardial histopathology and apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury through adjusting the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression, thus resulting in the reduction of expression of caspase-3. PMID:26680086

  8. Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

  9. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  10. Synthesis of C-4 and C-7 Triazole Analogs of Zanamivir as Multivalent Sialic Acid Containing Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2007-01-01

    The relative reactivities of C-4 and C-7 azides derived from zanamivir were compared in cycloadition reactions with a panel of alkynes. All of the reactions proceeded efficiently with no observable differences between primary and secondary azides. Significant rate differences were observed between several members of the alkyne panel. Most notably, a trialkyne derived from a 1,3,5-triazine core underwent complete reaction within four hours whereas an analogous trialkyne with an all carbon aromatic core required 18 hours. These results suggest that the triazine core serves as an internal catalyst. PMID:17597592

  11. Radio pulsations not detected from AXP/SGR 1E1547.0-5408 following recent outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo, F.; Halpern, J. P.; Ransom, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our continuing radio monitoring of the radio and X-ray magnetar 1E1547.0-5408 at the Parkes telescope, we observed it on 09/01/22 at 18:30 UT for 2 hours, within 18 hours of the first reports of renewed X-ray (SGR) bursting activity from it (GCNs #8833, #8835, #8837, #8838, #8841, #8845, #8848, ATEL #1904). We detect no radio pulsations in these data. Frequent observations will continue as part of our long-term monitoring program.

  12. A Method for Monitoring Organic Chlorides, Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. E.; Menichelli, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    While not commonly presented in nonurban atmospheres, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid and chlorine are significant in industrial air pollution and industrial hygiene. Based on a microcoulometer, a much more sensitive method than has heretofore been available has been developed for monitoring these air impurities. The method has a response time (90%) of about twenty seconds, requires no calibration, is accurate to +/- 2.5%, and specific except for bromide and iodide interferences. The instrument is portable and has been operated unattended for 18 hours without difficulty.

  13. Solar gamma ray monitor for OSO-H (0.3-10 MeV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Gleske, I. U.; Forrest, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A gamma ray experiment to be flown aboard the OSO-7 spacecraft is described along with a history of the development of the experiment, a description of the gamma ray detector and its operation, and a short preliminary review of the scientific information obtained during the instruments' lifetime. The gamma ray detector operated an average of 18 hours a day for approximately 15 months. The majority of the data was collected in the solar and antisolar direction, but data at right angles to the spacecraft-sun line was also accumulated. In all, at least two full scans of the celestial sphere were completed.

  14. Plasma levels of clobazam after 10-, 20-, and 40-mg tablet doses in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vallner, J J; Kotzan, J A; Stewart, J T; Honigberg, I L; Needham, T E; Brown, W J

    1980-07-01

    It is evident that substantial intersubject and intrasubject varition in the bioavailability of clobazam exists following ingestion of 10, 20 and 40 mg doses in these 12 volunteers. Peak concentrations and area under the plasma level-time curve were directly proportional to the dose of clobazam and the mean plasma half-life of clobazam was about 18 hours regardless of dose administered. The t1/2 value was less than that previously reported, as the current results allow differentiation of parent drug from metabolites. This 18 hr t1/2 compares favorably with the half-life of other benzodiazepines. PMID:6107307

  15. Chromobacteriosis in a Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani).

    PubMed

    Dyer, N W; Krogh, D F; DeVold, R; Wilson, S L; White, D G

    2000-03-01

    An adult Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) transported by airplane from Florida to a North Dakota zoo died 1 week after arrival. Grossly, an interscapular abscess, subcutaneous inflammation, lymphadenitis, and pulmonary abscesses were observed. Microscopic findings included necrotizing inflammation in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum was cultured from the interscapular abscess, liver, lung, and spleen and was injected into Swiss Webster mice. These mice died 18 hours postinoculation, and C. violaceum was cultured from liver, lung, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum is a sporadically reported but highly virulent pathogenic bacterium of both animals and humans typically found as a soil and water inhabitant of tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:10730953

  16. Carotid-Sparing TomoHelical 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chae-Seon; Oh, Dongryul; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Yong Chan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jin Sung; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). Conclusion TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage. PMID:25761477

  17. Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning of Different Intraoperative Ischemic Times of Vascularized Bone Graft Rabbit Models

    PubMed Central

    Wan Ahmad Kamal, Wan Syazli Rodzaia; Noor, Norizal Mohd; Abdullah, Shafie

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemic preconditioning has been shown to improve the outcomes of hypoxic tolerance of the heart, brain, lung, liver, jejunum, skin, and muscle tissues. However, to date, no report of ischemic preconditioning on vascularized bone grafts has been published. Methods Sixteen rabbits were divided into four groups with ischemic times of 2, 6, 14, and 18 hours. Half of the rabbits in each group underwent ischemic preconditioning. The osteomyocutaneous flaps consisted of the tibia bone, from which the overlying muscle and skin were raised. The technique of ischemic preconditioning involved applying a vascular clamp to the pedicle for 3 cycles of 10 minutes each. The rabbits then underwent serial plain radiography and computed tomography imaging on the first, second, fourth, and sixth postoperative weeks. Following this, all of the rabbits were sacrificed and histological examinations were performed. Results The results showed that for clinical analysis of the skin flaps and bone grafts, the preconditioned groups showed better survivability. In the plain radiographs, except for two non-preconditioned rabbits with intraoperative ischemic times of 6 hours, all began to show early callus formation at the fourth week. The computed tomography findings showed more callus formation in the preconditioned groups for all of the ischemic times except for the 18-hour group. The histological findings correlated with the radiological findings. There was no statistical significance in the difference between the two groups. Conclusions In conclusion, ischemic preconditioning improved the survivability of skin flaps and increased callus formation during the healing process of vascularized bone grafts. PMID:24286040

  18. Comparison in vitro felodipine release rate from the original versus generic product with controlled release of the drug.

    PubMed

    Vetchy, David; Vetcha, Martina; Rabiskova, Miloslava; Gryczova, Eva; Bartosikova, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    After patent protection of original brand is over, there are a lot of generic products occurring on the pharmaceutical market. It may be the way to reduce the price, but on the other hand, one should expect the same quality and almost identity with original brand, because the development of generic drugs is based on pharmacological properties of the original brand. The aim of this study was to compare the similarity of two products with controlled release of felodipine--generic product Presid and original brand Plendil--which are commercially available in Czech Republic, based on in vitro dissolution testing. The dissolution test in three dissolution media of increasing pH (1.2, 4.5, and 6.5) for the simulation of physiological pH within the gastrointestinal tract confirmed controlled release of felodipine from the original product Plendil ER 5 mg and Plendil ER 10 mg during the period of 24 hours. The release of felodipine from generic products Presid 5 mg and Presid 10 mg was not controlled for 24 hours as it is indicated in the information leaflet. In the generic products, felodipine release was controlled just for 12 or 18 hours and in this respect did not show similarity with the original brand. Since patients take the drug just once a day in the morning, the controlled release of felodipine, which lasts only 12 to 18 hours, can cause insufficient blood pressure control especially in the most critical morning hours and higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:17485960

  19. Validation of Volcanic Ash Forecasting Performed by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, A.; Hanna, J.

    2009-12-01

    In support of NOAA’s mission to protect life and property, the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) uses satellite imagery to monitor volcanic eruptions and track volcanic ash. The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) was established in late 1997 through an agreement with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). A volcanic ash advisory (VAA) is issued every 6 hours while an eruption is occurring. Information about the current location and height of the volcanic ash as well as any pertinent meteorological information is contained within the VAA. In addition, when ash is detected in satellite imagery, 6-, 12- and 18-hour forecasts of ash height and location are provided. This information is garnered from many sources including Meteorological Watch Offices (MWOs), pilot reports (PIREPs), model forecast winds, radiosondes and volcano observatories. The Washington VAAC has performed a validation of their 6, 12 and 18 hour airborne volcanic ash forecasts issued since October, 2007. The volcanic ash forecasts are viewed dichotomously (yes/no) with the frequency of yes and no events placed into a contingency table. A large variety of categorical statistics useful in describing forecast performance are then computed from the resulting contingency table.

  20. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-05-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound /sup 125/I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development.

  1. [Comparative electron-microscopic study of 8 representatives of the genus Corynebacterium grown on solid nutrient medium during the stationary phase of development].

    PubMed

    Vysotskiĭ, V V; Mazurova, I K; Shmeleva, E A

    1976-09-01

    After 18 hours of growth on selective serum-agar medium C diphtheriae cultures with different toxicogenic activity, and also diphtheroid and Hoffmann's baccillus cultures were removed, washed of the remnants of the nutrient medium and fixed under cold conditions by two combined methods (with glutaric aldehyde-osmic acid--uranyl acetate, and potassium permeanganate--uranyl acetate). The preparations were studied in ultrathin sections. It appeared that corynebacteria had during the stationary phase of development a general structural plan characteristic of Gram positive microorganisms and for all the corynebacterium genus. Cells of diphtheria toxicognic strains had signs of the accelerated (in comparison with other strains) rate of development; the principal mass of toxicogenic cells after 18 hours of growth had morphological signs of the stage of rest. The majority of cells whose toxicogenicity was inconstant had an extensive microcapsule which was also a characteristic element of the diphtheroid and Hoffmann's bacillus ultrastructure. The total thickness of the walls in the cells of toxicogenic strains and of the strains whose toxicogenicity was inconstant constituted 190-200 A; in nontoxicogenic strains, diphtheroid and Hoffmann's bacillus it was from 230 to 320 A. Surface structures of corynebacteria were differentiated better in the cells with toxicogenic activity. In the majority of cells of nontoxicogenic strains and also diphtheroid and Hoffmann's bacillus individual wall layers were differentiated with difficulty. PMID:827882

  2. Immunofluorescence localization of dissociation supernatant and extracellular matrix components in Lytechinus pictus sectioned embryos. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garciaflack, Ana Leticia

    1988-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence was used to localize specific extracellular components in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Hyalin and S2 (a group of components found in the disaggregation supernatant from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus blastulae) were uniformly present at all stages (unfertilized up to 32 hr) except hyalin could not be detected at the 12 hour early blastula stage. Laminin was found in 16 cell, 32 cell, 6 hour, 18 hour, 24 hour, and 32 hour stages, with especially bright fluorescence at 18 hours. Collagen I was present at all stages (freshly fertilized up to 32 hour) except little was detected at 12 hours. Fibronectin was uniformly present in blastocoelar fibers stained with anto-collagen I and anti-fibronectin. These results were compared with those for S. purpuratus to produce an overview of the localization of specific extracellular matrix components during development of two species of sea urchins. The results set the stage for future studies that will examine the function of these components at the various developmental stages.

  3. The First Bachelor of Science Degree in Wind Energy in the US at Texas Tech University Authors: A. Ruiz Columbié, K. Rozsavolgyi, P. Hughes, D. Farris, A. Swift, R. Walker and M. Baker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Columbie, A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a new Bachelor of Science Degree in Wind Energy proposal at Texas Tech University (TTU) beginning the spring 2011. It is designed to prepare the students for admission into a graduate program in wind energy, and/or employment as a professional in wind energy. The program integrates the environmental, social, economic, ethical, technical, scientific principles and practical skills the graduates will need in order to success as professionals in their field of expertise. This degree will provide a multidisciplinary education in the wind energy field through the study of subjects as wind meteorology, wind power generation, wind resource assessment, sustainable energy systems, utility systems operations, and fiscal and operational oversight. Students will be prepared to contribute in areas that include planning, development, operations, analysis and supervision of wind energy systems and projects, as well as to continue in graduate studies. Following the Texas Tech Uniform Undergraduate Degree Requirement Act, the major in Wind Energy will include 47 hours of general education courses from the TTU academic core, 18 hours of junior/senior level electives, and 55 hours of coursework in wind energy topics. A minor of 18 hours is also provided at TTU for those students with a different major who might decide to get a higher education in wind energy.

  4. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease mortality and Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 production in a rat model of chronic sepsis.

    PubMed

    Barton, R G; Wells, C L; Carlson, A; Singh, R; Sullivan, J J; Cerra, F B

    1991-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that substitution of omega-3 fat for dietary omega-6 fat would reduce mortality and decrease Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in a rat model of chronic sepsis. Rats were fed via gastrostomy for 12 days with isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 15% of calories as either safflower oil (omega-6) or a 10:1 mixture of menhaden oil (omega-3) and safflower oil. After five days of feeding, animals received an intra-abdominal abscess of defined bacterial content. Survivors were killed on post-laparotomy day 6 in conjunction with liver perfusion and protease liver digestion for Kupffer cell isolation. Kupffer cell PGE2 production was measured by radioimmunoassay after 18 hours of cell culture and again after stimulation with 0 LPS, 10 ng/ml LPS, and 10 micrograms/LPS. Mortality was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals compared with safflower oil-fed animals (16% vs. 35%). Kupffer cell PGE2 production was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals at 18 hours (354 +/- 54 vs. 570 +/- 95 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.09) and after stimulation with 10 micrograms/ml LPS (140 +/- 41 vs. 288 +/- 45 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.03) compared with safflower oil-fed animals. PMID:2056540

  5. Controlled Rewarming after Hypothermia: Adding a New Principle to Renal Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Schopp, Ina; Reissberg, Elmo; Lüer, Bastian; Efferz, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early graft dysfunction due to preservation/reperfusion injury still represents a notable issue after kidney transplantation, affecting long term prognosis of graft viability. One trigger of postischemic cell dysfunction could be recognized in the abrupt temperature shift from hypo‐ to normothermia, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and proapoptotic signal transduction. Here we propose a technique to cope with this “rewarming injury” by interposing a period of gentle warming up by hypo‐ to subnormothermic machine perfusion of the isolated graft prior to warm reperfusion. Porcine kidneys were subjected either to 18 hours of hypothermic machine preservation (HMP) or 18 hours static cold storage + 3 hours of gentle, machine controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR). Functional integrity was evaluated in both groups by subsequent normothermic reperfusion in vitro. The functional benefit of COR was documented by an approximately twofold increase in renal clearances of creatinine as well as urea upon warm reperfusion, compared to controls. This was accompanied with a notable mitigation of postischemic mitochondrial dys‐homeostasis. COR significantly improved renal oxygen consumption and maintained total NAD tissue content upon reperfusion. Mitochondrial initiation of cellular apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of caspase 9 was also largely prevented after COR but not in controls. The concept of gentle regenerative graft rewarming could become a valuable adjunct in renal transplantation. PMID:26053383

  6. Evaluation of vascular effects after photodynamic and photothermal therapies using benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A on a rodent dorsal skinfold model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tia K.; Choi, Bernard; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Nelson, John S.; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2005-04-01

    Background and Objectives: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) irradiation is the standard clinical treatment for vascular lesions. However, PDL treatment of port wine stain birthmarks (PWS) is variable and unpredictable. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and yellow light may induce substantial vascular effects and potentially offer a more effective treatment. In this study, we utilize a rodent dorsal skinfold model to evaluate the vascular effects of BPD-PDT at 576 nm as compared to PDL. Study Design/Materials and Methods: A dorsal skinfold window was created on the backs of female Sprague-Dawley rats, allowing epidermal and subdermal irradiation and subdermal imaging. One mg/kg BPD was administered intravenously via a jugular venous catheter. Study groups were: control (no BPD, no light), PDL (585 nm, τp 1.5 ms, 10 J/cm2), and PDT (BPD + continuous wave irradiation (CW) at 576nm, τp 16 min, 96 J/cm2). Vessels were imaged and assessed for damage using laser speckle imaging (LSI) before, immediately after, and 18 hours post-intervention. Results: Epidermal irradiation was accomplished without blistering, scabbing or ulceration. PDL and PDT resulted in similar reductions in vascular perfusion 18 hours post-intervention (34.6% and 33.4%, respectively). Conclusions: BPD-PDT can achieve safe and selective vascular effects and may offer an alternative therapeutic option for treatment of hypervascular skin lesions including PWS birthmarks.

  7. Narrow band photometry of comet Kohoutek. [made at the Cassegrain focus of a 36-inch astronomical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Photometric observations of the coma of comet Kohoutek were made at the Cassegrain focus of a 36-inch telescope. The observations consisted of one wide (visual, 5454 A) and six narrow (CN, 3879 A; C3, 4057 A; C2, 4732 A, 5165 A, 5634 A; continuum, 5200 A) band interference filters. In addition each filter was used with six diaphragms. Good quality data were obtained on 13 days between November 1973 and February 1974. A small flare was observed on 1 December for all filters, a CN flare on 13 January, and a visual flare on 28 January. The data were reduced to absolute narrow band magnitudes of the comet for the 13 days. The radial dependence of the surface brightness was derived from the set of diaphragms and future work will be directed toward using these results for modeling density distributions for the coma.

  8. NIMBUS-7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) observations of solar UV spectral irradiance variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution for the period November 7, 1978 - November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Repoff, T. P.; Donnelly, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of temporal variations of the solar UV spectral irradiance over several days to a few weeks in the 160-400 nm wavelength range are presented. Larger 28-day variations and a second episode of 13-day variations occurred during the second year of measurements. The thirteen day periodicity is not a harmonic of the 28-day periodicity. The 13-day periodicity dominates certain episodes of solar activity while others are dominated by 28-day periods accompanied by a week 14-day harmonic. Techniques for removing noise and long-term trends are described. Time series analysis results are presented for the Si II lines near 182 nm, the Al I continuum in the 190 nm to 205 nm range, the Mg I continuum in the 210 nm to 250 nm range, the MgII H & K lines at 280 nm, the Mg I line at 285 nm, and the Ca II K & H lines at 393 and 397 nm.

  9. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  10. Eating and rumination behaviour of Scottish Highland cattle on pasture and in loose housing during the winter.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Storni, E; Hässig, M; Nuss, K

    2014-09-01

    This study examined eating and rumination behaviour in 13 Scottish Highland cattle for 13 days on a winter pasture and then for 13 days in a loose housing barn during winter. The cows were fed hay ad libitum and each was fitted with a pressure-sensitive transducer integrated into the noseband of the halter. The endpoints for each cow at both locations were calculated per day and included eating and rumination times, number of chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. Air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and precipitation were recorded. Pastured cows had significantly longer eating and rumination times, more chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, more regurgitated cuds and more chewing cycles per cud than housed cows. Meteorological conditions were very similar at both locations. PMID:25183674

  11. In vitro BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay of nonoxynol-9 and 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, C.W.; Moreland, F.M.; Lee, J.K.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    The spermicidal surfactant nonoxynol-9 (Igepal CO-630, GAF Corp.) and a potential impurity, 1,4-dioxane, were tested in the in vitro cell transformation assay using BALB/3T3 cells. Two treatment periods, 48 hr and 13 days, were used. Nonoxynol-9, tested at levels up to 10 /sup +/g/ml, did not induce transformation, whereas dioxane was very active in the induction type II foci in the cultured BALB/3T3 cells.

  12. Chronic morphine induces up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Boronat, M Assumpció; García-Fuster, M Julia; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of activation and blockade of the endogenous opioid system in the brain on two key proteins involved in the regulation of programmed cell death: the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. The acute treatment of rats with the μ-opioid receptor agonist morphine (3 – 30 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not modify the immunodensity of Fas or Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. Similarly, the acute treatment with low and high doses of the antagonist naloxone (1 and 100 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not alter Fas or Bcl-2 protein expression in brain cortex. These results discounted a tonic regulation through opioid receptors on Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in rat brain. Chronic morphine (10 – 100 mg kg−1, 5 days, and 10 mg kg−1, 13 days) induced marked increases (47 – 123%) in the immunodensity of Fas receptor in the cerebral cortex. In contrast, chronic morphine (5 and 13 days) decreased the immunodensity of Bcl-2 protein (15 – 30%) in brain cortex. Chronic naloxone (10 mg kg−1, 13 days) did not alter the immunodensities of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. The concurrent chronic treatment (13 days) of naloxone (10 mg kg−1) and morphine (10 mg kg−1) completely prevented the morphine-induced increase in Fas receptor and decrease in Bcl-2 protein immunoreactivities in the cerebral cortex. The results indicate that morphine, through the sustained activation of opioid receptors, can promote abnormal programmed cell death by enhancing the expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor protein and damping the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. PMID:11704646

  13. Late Intrahepatic Hematoma Complicating Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Terreni, Natalia; Vangeli, Marcello; Raimondo, Maria Luisa; Tibballs, Jonathan M.; Patch, David; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2007-09-15

    Late intrahepatic hematoma is a rare complication of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. We describe a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), who presented with a large inrahepatic hematoma 13 days after TIPS. Review of the literature reveals only two previous cases, both occurring in patients with BCS and presenting after a similar time interval. This potentially serious complication appears to be specific for TIPS in BCS.

  14. Uranium and lead isotopic stability in a metamict zircon under experimental hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pidgeon, R.T.; O'Neil, J.R.; Silver, L.T.

    1966-01-01

    Disturbance of the uranium-lead isotopic system in a metamict Ceylon zircon has been produced in a 2 molal NaCl solution at 500??C and 1000 bars fluid pressure. Loss of radiogenic lead to the extent of 61 percent in 13 days was the most significant effect. The experimental results support the episodic rather than continuous lead-loss interpretation of natural zircon systems utilized in geochronology.

  15. A novel method for endoscopic perforation management by using abdominal exploration and full-thickness sutured closure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perforation of the GI tract during endoscopy can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and immediate management of endoscopic perforation are essential to optimize outcome. Larger perforations, defects with complex geometry, and those complicated by leakage of luminal contents have traditionally required surgical management. Objective To assess the feasibility of a new method for managing complex perforations that incorporates abdominal exploration and endoscopic sutured closure. Design Case series. Setting Tertiary care center. Patients Two patients with large, complicated perforations and peritoneal contamination. Interventions Endoscopic exploration of abdomen with angiocatheter placement under direct visualization, management of leaked luminal contents, and full-thickness sutured defect closure. Results Endoscopic abdominal exploration through the perforation site allowed safe placement of an angiocatheter for management of pneumoperitoneum, inspection for injury that may warrant surgical management, and removal of leaked luminal contents. Endoscopic sutured closure allowed safe and robust perforation management. Repair of gastrojejunal anastomotic perforation required 2 sutures and 63 minutes. Repair of gastric perforation required 4 sutures and 48 minutes. Patients had successful endoscopic defect closure confirmed by an upper GI series and were discharged 1 day later. Limitations Report of a new method in 2 patients performed at tertiary care center. Conclusions We demonstrate successful management of complex perforations with peritoneal contamination by incorporating endoscopic exploration and sutured closure with standard treatment measures. Traditional practice would have directed these patients to surgical management, which introduces additional morbidity and cost. A means for safe and broad implementation of these techniques should be evaluated. PMID:24721517

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in silico biological activity of some 2-(N,N-dimethyl guanidinyl)-4,6-diaryl pyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Kumarachari, Rajasekhar Komarla; Peta, Sivakumar; Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Mekonnen, Yenus Tadesse

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: As pyrimidine is a basic nucleus in DNA and RNA, it has been found to be associated with diverse biological activities. Pyrimidine derivatives were reported to possess anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antihistaminic. Recently, our team reported the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial evaluation of some pyrimidines. Objective: To synthesize, predict and evaluate biological activity of some 2-(N,N-dimethyl guanidinyl)-4,6-diaryl pyrimidines. Experimental: seven new pyrimidines were synthesized by following the standard procedures using substituted aromatic aldehydes, methyl ketones and metformin. After the biological activity was predicted using PASS, Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer, their anthelmintic activity was evaluated using Pheretima posthuma. The structural assignment of the title compounds (P1-7) has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Mass spectral studies. Results: All the synthesized compounds were found to obey Lipinski's rule. All the synthesized compounds scored good bioactivity values as GPCR ligands and kinase inhibitors. Among the test compounds, P5 was found to be more potent anthelmintic inducing paralysis in 36-48 minutes and death in 40-51 minutes. Conclusion and Recommendation: The synthesized compound (P5) possessing methoxy group at position-4 of the benzene ring located at position-4 of pyrimidine exhibited good anthelmintic activity. The study revealed the necessity of synthesizing many more compounds with other substituents at position-4 of the benzene ring located at position-4 of pyrimidine. PMID:27413345

  17. GPS Attitude Determination Using Deployable-Mounted Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Michael L.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to develop a method to solve for spacecraft attitude in the presence of potential incomplete antenna deployment. Most research on the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in attitude determination has assumed that the antenna baselines are known to less than 5 centimeters, or one quarter of the GPS signal wavelength. However, if the GPS antennas are mounted on a deployable fixture such as a solar panel, the actual antenna positions will not necessarily be within 5 cm of nominal. Incomplete antenna deployment could cause the baselines to be grossly in error, perhaps by as much as a meter. Overcoming this large uncertainty in order to accurately determine attitude is the focus of this study. To this end, a two-step solution method is proposed. The first step uses a least-squares estimate of the baselines to geometrically calculate the deployment angle errors of the solar panels. For the spacecraft under investigation, the first step determines the baselines to 3-4 cm with 4-8 minutes of data. A Kalman filter is then used to complete the attitude determination process, resulting in typical attitude errors of 0.50.

  18. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Powder of Potato Peelings as a Low Cost Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Mutongo, Farai; Kuipa, Olga; Kuipa, Pardon K.

    2014-01-01

    Potato peels which are a low cost, renewable agroindustry by-product were used for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous effluents. Batch experiments were carried out with an artificial effluent comprising of potassium dichromate in deionised water. The effects of the initial hexavalent chromium concentration, dose of biosorbent, and removal kinetics were explored. An adsorbent dosage of 4 g/L was effective in complete removal of the metal ion, at pH 2.5, in 48 minutes. The kinetic process of Cr(VI) adsorption onto potato peel powder was tested by applying pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models as well as the Elovich kinetic equation to correlate the experimental data and to determine the kinetic parameters. The adsorption data were correlated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. A maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 3.28 mg/g was calculated using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, suggesting a functional group limited adsorption process. The results confirmed that potato peels are an effective biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium from effluent. PMID:25136289

  19. Sentinel Node Biopsy for the Head and Neck Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Combined with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence in Animal Models: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Dai; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Moro, Yorihisa; Kimura, Toru; Hamanoue, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takehiro; Yamauchi, Koichi; Saito, Koichiro; Sugasawa, Masashi; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sentinel node navigation surgery is gaining popularity in oral cancer. We assessed application of sentinel lymph node navigation surgery to pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers by evaluating the combination of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and indocyanine green fluorescence in animal models. Methods This was a prospective, nonrandomized, experimental study in rabbit and swine animal models. A mixture of indocyanine green and Sonazoid was used as the tracer. The tracer mixture was injected into the tongue, larynx, or pharynx. The sentinel lymph nodes were identified transcutaneously by infra-red camera and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Detection time and extraction time of the sentinel lymph nodes were measured. The safety of the tracer mixture in terms of mucosal reaction was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Results Sentinel lymph nodes were detected transcutaneously by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography alone. The number of sentinel lymph nodes detected was one or two. Despite observation of contrast enhancement of Sonazoid for at least 90 minutes, the number of sentinel lymph nodes detected did not change. The average extraction time of sentinel lymph nodes was 4.8 minutes. Indocyanine green fluorescence offered visual information during lymph node biopsy. The safety of the tracer was confirmed by absence of laryngeal edema both macro and microscopically. Conclusions The combination method of indocyanine green fluorescence and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes during surgery for head and neck cancer seems promising, especially for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Further clinical studies to confirm this are warranted. PMID:26161800

  20. A parametric study of dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.J.; Lee, K.J.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    A statistical design of parametric study of pressure filtration for fine coal dewatering is presented. The effects of five major process parameters of the dewatering, i.e. applied pressure, filtration time, cake thickness, solids concentration and slurry pH, on cake moisture reduction and air consumption were investigated. The study was conducted starting with two level factorial experiments to identify the most significant parameters in the filtration process, and concluding with response surface methodologies to establish an optimum operating condition for the dewatering of fine coal with these significant variables. An operating process condition for the dewatering that provided satisfactory performance was determined to be an applied pressure of 93 psi with a cake thickness of 2.5 cm and a filtration time of 4.8 minutes for this specific laboratory filtration system. At the optimum process condition the filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture by weight was obtained and the air was consumed by 4.1 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2} min.kg). 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Chronically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128

  2. Comparison of the Perioperative Outcomes of a Vessel Sealing Instrument-Assisted Technique with a Conventional Technique in Abdominal Myomectomy

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Mustafa; Firatligil, Fahri Burçin; Fidan, Ulas; Keskin, Ugur; Dede, Murat; Yenen, Müfit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In gynaecologic practice, LigaSure PreciseTM is generally used in endoscopic and open surgeries, such as hysterectomy, adnexectomy, and cancer surgery. However, there is no case report or main research article where LigaSure PreciseTM has been used for myomectomy. We want to compare a technique using a vessel sealing instrument with a conventional technique in abdominal myomectomy. Materials and Methods Fifty-five women who underwent abdominal myomectomy were divided two groups: (1) a vessel sealing instrument-assisted technique (24 patients); and (2) a conventional technique (31 patients) between January 2011 and December 2014 at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. The data for the operation times, the occurrence of perioperative complications, the hospitalization times, and changes in haemaglobin and haematocrit levels for the two techniques were collected and compared. Results The mean operation time was 48 minutes for the vessel sealing instrument-assisted technique and 54 minutes for the conventional technique. No statistically significant differences were determined for haemoglobin and haematocrit changes, hospital stay and perioperative complications. Conclusion We did not find any difference in the occurrence of complications, changes in haemoglobin or haematocrit levels, or hospital stay. The vessel sealing instrument-assisted technique is feasible and effective in reducing operation times. PMID:26894124

  3. Intra-corporeal robotic renal auto-transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Y.; Alzahrani, Tarek; Ordon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Renal auto-transplantation (RATx) is a suitable option for managing patients with long upper ureteric or pan-ureteric strictures. The current gold standard approach to RATx is a laparoscopic nephrectomy followed by open auto-transplantation. The advent of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery has allowed us to apply minimally-invasive techniques to ever-more complex surgical procedures. We present the case of a 38-year-old patient referred to our institution for management of a failed laparoscopic pyeloplasty resulting in a long upper ureteric stricture with complete ureteric obstruction. After complete evaluation, RATx was determined as a suitable management option. Completely intracorporeal right RATx was performed robotically with intraperitoneal cold perfusion. Total operative time was 6.5 hours, with total ischemia time of only 79 minutes (4 minutes warm ischemia, 48 minutes cold ischemia, 27 minutes re-warming time), comparable to the gold standard approach for RATx. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a completely intracorporeal robotic RATx in Canada. PMID:26664514

  4. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers. PMID:11048573

  5. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Powder of Potato Peelings as a Low Cost Sorbent.

    PubMed

    Mutongo, Farai; Kuipa, Olga; Kuipa, Pardon K

    2014-01-01

    Potato peels which are a low cost, renewable agroindustry by-product were used for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous effluents. Batch experiments were carried out with an artificial effluent comprising of potassium dichromate in deionised water. The effects of the initial hexavalent chromium concentration, dose of biosorbent, and removal kinetics were explored. An adsorbent dosage of 4 g/L was effective in complete removal of the metal ion, at pH 2.5, in 48 minutes. The kinetic process of Cr(VI) adsorption onto potato peel powder was tested by applying pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models as well as the Elovich kinetic equation to correlate the experimental data and to determine the kinetic parameters. The adsorption data were correlated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. A maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 3.28 mg/g was calculated using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, suggesting a functional group limited adsorption process. The results confirmed that potato peels are an effective biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium from effluent. PMID:25136289

  6. The combined positive impact of Lean methodology and Ventana Symphony autostainer on histology lab workflow

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Histologic samples all funnel through the H&E microtomy staining area. Here manual processes intersect with semi-automated processes creating a bottleneck. We compare alternate work processes in anatomic pathology primarily in the H&E staining work cell. Methods We established a baseline measure of H&E process impact on personnel, information management and sample flow from historical workload and production data and direct observation. We compared this to performance after implementing initial Lean process modifications, including workstation reorganization, equipment relocation and workflow levelling, and the Ventana Symphony stainer to assess the impact on productivity in the H&E staining work cell. Results Average time from gross station to assembled case decreased by 2.9 hours (12%). Total process turnaround time (TAT) exclusive of processor schedule changes decreased 48 minutes/case (4%). Mean quarterly productivity increased 8.5% with the new methods. Process redesign reduced the number of manual steps from 219 to 182, a 17% reduction. Specimen travel distance was reduced from 773 ft/case to 395 ft/case (49%) overall, and from 92 to 53 ft/case in the H&E cell (42% improvement). Conclusions Implementation of Lean methods in the H&E work cell of histology can result in improved productivity, improved through-put and case availability parameters including TAT. PMID:20181123

  7. Personal cooling in nuclear power stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, E.

    1983-03-01

    Two approaches to personal, non-restrictive cooling of workers exposed to high-temperature work environments in nuclear power plants were evaluated. Both approaches involved a cooling garment designed to be worn under the protective clothing donned in penetration into radiation areas. One garmet was developed to cool by direct body contact with small packets of frozen water enclosed in the pockets of a shirt. The other garmets cooled by circulating a cooled liquid through capillaries in a vest and head cap (System A) or a vest (System B). Testing was conducted in a laboratory simulation of high ambient temperature (55/sup 0/C) and moderate metabolic heat production (200 to 300 kcal/h). Exposure time without cooling (control) was 52 minutes (Group 1) for the workloads demanding 200 kcal/h (48 minutes for Group 2). A long garmet with 7.2 kg of frozen water (LFWG) increased mean exposure time over the control by 242% (163% for the same garmet with 6.2 kg of frozen water). A short-version garmet with 3.8 kg of frozen water (SFWG) increased the stay time by 115%. The circulating-liquid garmets increased mean exposure time 35% (System A) and 27% (System B) over the control. In field observation, the LFWG with 6.2 kg of frozen water improved stay time by 125%.

  8. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator. PMID:24297840

  9. Study of high-performance plasmas in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, A.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Recent results from LHD experiments are presented together with the progress of the related fusion technology supporting the experiment. An ultra-long pulse discharge with central electron and ion temperatures of 2 keV and electron density of 1.2 x 1019m-3 was successfully maintained for 48 minutes. Such a high performance plasma was heated and sustained by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) with newly developed gyrotrons and ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). Due to the continuous heating with the relatively high power of 1.2 MW, the total heating energy during the long pulse discharge reached 3.36 GJ, which is the world's record. The highest central ion temperature of 8.1 keV was also recorded in the last experimental campaign. In these experiments, it is essential to reduce the edge electron density, i.e., edge neutrals. Dedicated wall conditioning was performed to evacuate neutrals in the vessel wall before the main discharge with the high heating power. This process realizes the quite low recycling for particles, which results in the reduction of the edge plasma density.

  10. A 21st century perspective on postfire seeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Allen, C.D.; Betancourt, J.; Chong, G.W.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Safford, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Certain aspects of woodcock usage of summer fields were studied in Maine. Findings were as follows: ....1. On two study fields in 1968, numbers of woodcock first began spending nights in the fields during the second week of June. During 1968 and 1969, the number of birds flushed from the fields varied greatly between nights. Use of fields continued into the first week of November......2. Woodcock started flying into summer fields approximately 26 minutes after sunset. Unless disturbed, birds remained on fields throughout the night and started departing for diurnal covers about 48 minutes before sunrise. The duration of evening and morning flight periods averaged 13 to 15 minutes.....3. Woodcock did not necessarily use the same field throughout the summer. Five of the 36 birds taken as repeats were caught on fields other than where originally banded. However, it was believed that flights to and from fields were essentially local movements.....4. Vegetation appeared to have been a critical factor influencing the distribution of woodcock in fields. Areas of low ground cover interspersed with taller and denser cover were used most frequently.....5. Immatures, especially immature males, were the predominant age-sex class captured on Maine summer fields. The question of whether the age-sex composition of birds using summer fields is atypical of the total woodcock population requires additional study.

  11. Should We Place Ureteral Stents in Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy?: Consideration of Surgical Techniques and Complications

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is some debate over the necessity of ureteral stenting after laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. We evaluated the need for ureteral stenting after retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU). Materials and Methods Between January 2009 and January 2013, 41 patients underwent RLU to remove upper ureteral stones. The retroperitoneal approach was used in all patients by a single surgeon. A double J (D-J) stent was placed in the first 17 patients after the procedure but not in any of the next 24 patients. Results The mean patient age, serum creatinine levels, and stone size were not significantly different between the two groups. The stone-free rate was 100%. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the stentless group than in the stent group (59.48 minutes vs. 77.88 minutes, p<0.001). Parenteral analgesic use and anticholinergic medication use were observed in the stent group only. The blood loss, drain removal day, and hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups. No other significant complications occurred during or after the operation in any patients. Conclusions RLU is a safe and effective treatment modality for large impacted ureteral stones. In this study, D-J stent placement was not necessary after RLU. In the future, large-scale studies of RLU without D-J stenting, especially on the frequency of the development of complications according to the surgical technique, may be needed. PMID:25132944

  12. The Maya calendar: why 13, 20 and 260?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, O.

    Starting from August 13, 3114 BCE, a sort of a mathematical and astronomical measure of time for the Maya was the head of Draco, a constellation in the northern circumpolar sky, which (the head) passed the sky line in 13 days. The other part of the constellation, Draco's neck, passed with respect to the sky line 4 more times of 13 days each. Thus, in one ascension/descension, Draco's head and neck passed the sky line in 5×13 = 65 days. A descension was followed by an ascension, then a descension again and an ascension again -- to take on the whole 4×5×13 days until 30 April, i.e., 20×13 = 260 days. After that, in summer time, due to short nights, Draco was high above the sky line and was not considered relative to it, but the started count continued, to be repeated in another 260 days. Owing to the fact that the constellation is the closest to the Pole of the Ecliptic, its head and neck were always, in the same time of the year, observable for 4×5×13 = 260 days.

  13. Phase-specific cytotoxicity in vivo of hydroxyurea on murine fibrosarcoma pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Grdina, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects in vivo of hydroxyurea (HU) on murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary tumours were determined. Tumour cells from 13-day-old nodules were made into suspension and separated on the basis of cell size by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine the cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the degree of contamination by normal diploid cells in each of the tumour-cell populations. HU cytotoxicity was tested by administering both a single 1 mg/g i.p. dose into mice that had been injected i.v. 20 min earlier with known numbers of synchronized viable FSa cells, and i.p. doses of 1 mg/g each into mice bearing 13-day-old pulmonary nodules. In the latter experiments, animals were killed 1 h after the last dose, and the tumour nodules were excised and made into a single-cell suspension and elutriated. Known numbers of cells from each fraction were injected into recipient mice to determine survival. In both sets of experiments, cell killing by HU correlated with the percentage of S-phase cells. The treatment of 13-day-old pulmonary nodules with 3 doses of HU also depleted the (G2+M) phase tumour cells and increased the heterogeneity between tumour subpopulations, as determined by FMF analysis. PMID:7073937

  14. Explorer 45 (S 3-A) observations of the magnetosphere and magnetopause during the 4-5 August 1972, magnetic storm period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Anderson, R. R.; Maynard, N. C.; Smith, P. H.; Fritz, T. A.; Williams, D. J.; Konradi, A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Explorer 45 satellite performed extensive field and particle measurements in the heart of the magnetosphere during the double magnetic storm period of August 4-5, 1972. Both ground level magnetic records and the magnetic field deformations measured along the orbit by the satellite indicated the existence of only a moderate ring current. This was confirmed by the measurements of the total proton energy density less than those observed during the December 1971 and June 1972 magnetic storms. The plasmapause in the noon quadrant was eroded continuously from the onset of the first storm at the beginning of August 4 to an altitude below L = 2.07 at about 18 hours on August 5. During the orbit containing the second sudden commencement a large amount of low frequency electric and magnetic field noise was encountered throughout the entire orbit. A noteworthy observation during this orbit was the contraction of the magnetopause to distances inside the satellite at L = 5.2.

  15. Rigidity and pH dependent Morphology of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayetsky, Lisa; Armstead, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Beta-Lactoglobulin is a milk protein that will denature in acidic solution (less than 2.0 pH) and if heated for extended periods (greater than 18 hours) it will form radial structures called Spherulites. Spherulites, along with the amyloid fibrils that compose them, are of practical importance because they form in the human body and cause the amyloidosis diseases. Different amyloidosis are caused by different types of denatured proteins occurring in different parts of the body. Since it is believed that Spherulite formation is a generic protein characteristic, Beta-Lactoglobulin is a legitimate and easy to use protein to study these structures. In this study we are quantifying the shape of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites to determine if the pH of the protein solution has an impact on the morphology due to side chain interactions or other causes. We are also testing the rigidity of these structures to determine the relevance of small shape changes.

  16. Changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) following match-play and training among English premiership footballers.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Salim; Fitzgerald, Lynn; Shaw, Graham; Holt, David W

    2012-04-01

    Decreased salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a component of mucosal immunity, is associated with intensive physical activity: suggesting that sIgA may be used for the monitoring of mucosal immunity with footballers. We investigated changes in sIgA in elite footballers, in response to training and match-play. There was a decrease in sIgA following training, with a return to pre-training levels after 18 hours of rest. This return to resting levels was not observed following competitive match-play. Overnight rest was sufficient for mucosal IgA recovery following training but not following two successive matches, suggesting that sIgA may be used to monitor training in multi-sprint sports. PMID:22822634

  17. KSC-04PD-1866

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After his presentation in the Training Auditorium, astronaut Mike Foale greets employees and signs autographs. Foale shared his experiences aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  18. KSC-04PD-1867

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After his presentation in the Training Auditorium, astronaut Mike Foale greets employees and signs autographs. Foale shared his experiences aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  19. KSC-04PD-1864

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Training Auditorium, James Hattaway Jr., KSC associate director, presents a framed graphic to astronaut Mike Foale representing his stay aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. .Foale spoke to the audience of employees about his experiences aboard the Space Station. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  20. KSC-04PD-1863

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Training Auditorium, astronaut Mike Foale speaks to the audience about his experiences aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  1. KSC-04PD-1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Astronaut Mike Foale, left, joins Center Director Jim Kennedy, right, in the Training Auditorium. Foale spoke to the audience about his experiences aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  2. KSC-04PD-1862

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Training Auditorium, Center Director Jim Kennedy presents a framed photo to astronaut Mike Foale, who spoke to the audience about his experiences aboard the International Space Station as commander of the Expedition 8 crew. Foale and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri spent 194 days, 18 hours and 35 minutes in space, the second longest expedition to be completed aboard the Station. In February Foale and Kaleri conducted the first spacewalk ever performed from the complex by a two-person crew. Foale has accumulated more time in space than any U.S. astronaut, amassing a total of 374 days, 11 hours and 19 minutes in space from his Expedition 8 mission, a 1997 flight to the Russian Mir Space Station, and four Space Shuttle missions.

  3. Home nasoenteric feeding for malabsorption and weight loss refractory to conventional therapy.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Smith-Andrews, J L; Hersh, T

    1983-02-01

    Two patients with malabsorption syndrome and weight loss refractory to conventional pharmacologic and dietary therapy were evaluated on a metabolic ward. Baseline studies indicated moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition, and severe energy, fat, and nitrogen malabsorption. Metabolic balance studies on low-fat elemental formulas infused nasoenterally over 18-hour periods indicated improved retention of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and energy when compared with a solid food diet. Because this dietary modification appeared to correct their malabsorption, both patients learned to insert the nasoenteral tube themselves, and a low-calorie solid-food diet combined with nocturnal tube feedings was continued at home. During the next 9 to 12 months, both patients had increases in body weight, and in the mass of fat-free tissue, skeletal muscle, and fat. This therapeutic approach may correct life-threatening semistarvation in selected patients. PMID:6401956

  4. Plasma and Field Observations at the Day-Side, Equatorial Magnetopause, Boundary Layers and Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.; Coffey, V. N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Polar spacecraft's orbit has precessed in latitude to an orientation that places it at the dayside magnetopause every 18 hours. In this configuration the various regions near the magnetopause(LLBL, turbulent boundary layer, magnetosphere, and magnetosheath) are sampled with high temporal and spatial resolution. These observational periods-ranging from several minutes to more than two hours-provide an unprecedented look at plasma conditions in these regions. Initial analysis of the low-energy ion data from TIDE reveal plasmaspheric-like ions within the turbulent boundary layer. Within this layer, circularly polarized waves accelerate these ions to 30-40 kilometers per second perpendicular to the local magnetic field. These relatively high velocities allow the H(+) to be observed above the -2V spacecraft potential. They also put the low-density O(+) in the higher-energy, higher sensitivity channels such that densities of order 10e-2 can be observed.

  5. Changes in certain diurnal hormonal rhythms in developing male rats exposed to adiurnal environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Ooka-Souda, S

    1981-03-01

    It has traditionally been thought that diurnal rhythmicities cannot be entrained to follow adiurnal environmental cues that deviate greatly from a 24-hour periodicity. In this study, exposure of male rats pre- and postnatally to an adiurnal lighting schedule of 9 hours light: 9 hours dark resulted in the entertainment of certain hormonal rhythms (such as plasma corticosterone and plasma TSH) but not of others (such as pituitary TSH and plasma T3). Even though thyroid rhythms were influenced only partially by the shorter, 18-hour day, absolute levels of pituitary TSH and plasma T3 were significantly higher in experimental rats (9 hours light:9 hours dark) than controls (12 hours light:12 hours dark). Whole-body and kidney weights and tail length were also significantly increased in the 9 hours light:9 hours dark animals, suggesting a possible relationship of shorter day cycles to faster growth and higher thyroid hormone levels. PMID:7195965

  6. Feasibility demonstration for electroplating ultra-thin polyimide film. [fabricating film for space erectable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneier, R.; Braswell, T. V.; Vaughn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of electrodeposition variables on film thickness was investigated using a dilute polyimide solution as a bath into which aluminum (as foil or as a vapor deposited coating) was immersed. The electrodeposited film was dried for 2 hours at 93 C (primarily to remove solvent) and cured for 18 hours at 186 C. Infrared studies indicate that imide formation (curing) occurs at 149 C under vacuum. From a conceptual viewpoint, satisfactory film metallized on one side can be obtained by this method. The cured ultra thin polyimide film exhibits properties equivalent to those of commercial film, and the surface appearance of the strippable polyimide film compares favorably with that of a sample of commercial film of thicker gauge. The feasibility of manufacturing approximately one million sq m of ultra thin film capable of being joined to fabricate an 800 m by 9 800 m square from starting material 0.5 to 1 m wide for space erectable structures was demonstrated.

  7. High latitude stratospheric electrical measurements in fair and foul weather under various solar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric electric field and conductivity measurements are presented for sites of latitude greater than 50 deg N GG, during the months of either April or August, in a variety of weather and solar conditions. Vertical electric field data from balloon flights with an average duration of 18 hours at ceiling, in fair weather, are shown to be appropriately modeled by a simple, exponential, altitude-dependent equation. Data collected over electrified clouds and thunderstorms are presented, along with a discussion of the thunderstorm-related electric currents. Current surges in the atmosphere due to DC currents as well as the spheric are calculated, and it is found that in over 1000 hours of balloon data, no direct solar influence is identified except during major flares.

  8. Beam lifetime and beam brightness in ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.; Jackson, A.; Warwick, A.

    1995-04-01

    Beam lifetime in ALS is dominated by the Touschek scattering. Measurements of lifetime in single-bunch mode with estimates of bunch dimensions obtained from undulator radiation data are consistent with expectations (t=1.8 hours at 1.25 mA per bunch). However, the lifetime is significantly longer in multi-bunch mode (t=ll hours at 400 mA per 320 bunches). This discrepancy has been traced to an increase in the momentum spread and bunch length in the beam caused by longitudinal coupled-bunch motions driven by higher-order modes in the rf cavities. The increased momentum spread leads to a significant degradation in the undulator spectral performance. Feedback stabilization of the coupled-bunch motion improves the spectral characteristics of the undulator beam at the expense of beam lifetime. We observe an increase of {approximately}200% in beam lifetime by operating at the betatron coupling resonance.

  9. Effect of central neurotropic substances on the hypophysisadrenal cortex system during immobilization of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhenkov, V. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The immobilization of guinea pigs for 5, 12, 24 and 48 hours, by securing to a slab, results in a persistent rise of the blood plasma 17-oxycorticosteroid concentration. Repeated administration of phenobarbital (50 mg/kg) and of the sodium salt of gamma-oxybutyric acid (500 mg/kg), as well as the combined administration of central m- and n-cholinolytics with small doses of phenobarbital tends to inhibit activation of the adrenal cortex during 48 hour immobilization of the animals. Repeated administration of aminazine (20 mg/kg) tends to decrease activation of the adrenal cortex. The administration of reserpine (0.1-5 mg/kg) 12-18 hours before immobilization of guinea pigs increases the response of the hypophysis-adrenal cortex system.

  10. Multifrequency YAG:Nd laser for diagnosis of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalayan, Asatur A.; Aydinyan, Lusine; Harutyunyan, Ishkhan G.; Galstian, Hayro M.

    1999-01-01

    The spectral peculiarities of normal and tumor human tissues of different localization after sensitization by sodium fluorescein has been studied with help of multifrequency YAG:Nd laser. Fluorescence spectra of normal human tissue and breast, stomach, intestine, skin cancer at 355, 440 nm laser excitation were registered. The pharmacokinetic behavior of sodium fluorescein in normal and different tumor tissues has been investigated. The optimal time for diagnosis (12 - 18 hours after drug injection) was determined. The intensification of tumor tissue autofluorescence decreasing after sensitization of organisms by tumor seeking dye was observed. The electron excitation energy transfer from NAD(P)H to endogen chromophores or dyes localized in tumor has been discussed as possible reason of the observed phenomenon.

  11. STS-65 crewmembers pose in front of OV-102 after landing at KSC's SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana (right) and Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), signal mission success with a 'thumbs up' gesture as they stand in front of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The two crewmembers are all smiles after OV-102's landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The two, along with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist, had just broken a Shuttle duration record as they ran almost 18 hours over two weeks in space in support of the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission. Landing occurred at 6:38 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). Mission duration was 14 days, 17 hours and 56 minutes. In the background, KSC personnel conduct postflight servicing of the vehicle.

  12. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY VALIDATION OF A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR HIGH THROUGPUT RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Garty, Guy; Xu, Yanping; Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Turner, Helen C; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Simaan, Nabil; Yao, Y Lawrence; Brenner, D J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents design, hardware, software, and parameter optimization for a novel robotic automation system. RABiT is a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool for high throughput radiological triage. The design considerations guiding the hardware and software architecture are presented with focus on methods of communication, ease of implementation, and need for real-time control versus soft time control cycles. The design and parameter determination for a non-contact PVC capillary laser cutting system is presented. A novel approach for lymphocyte concentration estimation based on computer vision is reported. Experimental evaluations of the system components validate the success of our prototype system in achieving a throughput of 6,000 samples in a period of 18 hours. PMID:21258614

  13. Late proterozoic and paleozoic tides, retreat of the moon, and rotation of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonett, C.P.; Kvale, E.P.; Zakharian, A.; Chan, M.A.; Demko, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The tidal rhythmites in the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation (Utah, United States), the Neoproterozoic Elatina Formation of the Flinders Range (southern Australia), and the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation (Alabama, United States) and Mansfield Formation (Indiana, United States) indicate that the rate of retreat of the lunar orbit is d??/dt k2 sin(2??) (where ?? is the Earth-moon radius vector, k2 is the tidal Love number, and ?? is the tidal lag angle) and that this rate has been approximately constant since the late Precambrian. When the contribution to tidal friction from the sun is taken into account, these data imply that the length of the terrestrial day 900 million years ago was -18 hours.

  14. Gentamicin tissue concentration in various avian species following recommended dosage therapy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, M.; Locke, D.; Neal, L.A.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were compared in eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus) and pigeons (Columba livia) given gentamicin by IM administration at the dosage of 10 mg/kg, and in greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) and hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp) given the same antibiotic at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Quail and cranes had significantly higher liver concentrations of gentamicin at 6 hours after injection than did pigeons and ducks. Cranes had significantly higher plasma concentrations than did ducks at 6 hours after injection. Compared with plasma values, gentamicin concentrations were significantly higher in the liver of cranes at 12 hours after injection, and in the kidneys at 18 hours.

  15. Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of Cladocerans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, Herman O.; Cope, Oliver B.

    1966-01-01

    The organophosphate insecticides were generally more toxic than the chlorinated hydrocarbons to both species. DDVP was the most toxic compound investigated. DDT was the most toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon tested, and lindane the least. There was a wide range in the toxicity of hydrocarbons to D. pulex, with 48-hour EC50 values ranging from 0.36 to 460 ppb. DDT was 2.9 times more toxic at 50 F than at 80 F. Malathion was 8.8 times more toxic at 50 F than at 70 F to S. serrulatus. Endrin was 12 times more toxic than dieldrin to D. pulex. DDT was 2.6 times more toxic at 60 F to first-instar organisms up to 18 hours old than to 7-day-old organisms.

  16. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY VALIDATION OF A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR HIGH THROUGPUT RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Garty, Guy; Xu, Yanping; Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Turner, Helen C.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Simaan, Nabil; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents design, hardware, software, and parameter optimization for a novel robotic automation system. RABiT is a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool for high throughput radiological triage. The design considerations guiding the hardware and software architecture are presented with focus on methods of communication, ease of implementation, and need for real-time control versus soft time control cycles. The design and parameter determination for a non-contact PVC capillary laser cutting system is presented. A novel approach for lymphocyte concentration estimation based on computer vision is reported. Experimental evaluations of the system components validate the success of our prototype system in achieving a throughput of 6,000 samples in a period of 18 hours. PMID:21258614

  17. Prediction of M and X Solar flares by Using Machine Learning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raboonik, Abbas; Safari, Hossein; Dadashi, Neda; Alipour, Nasibeh

    2016-07-01

    The study and prediction of the solar flares are very important due to their thorough impact on the Earth's climate, space weather, and telecommunications. Flares are abrupt magnetic explosions in the atmosphere of the Sun. The exact mechanism(s) for the energy release and occurrence of the flares is(are) still unknown. The only way for prediction of the solar flares is based on the probabilistic methods. Observations strongly suggest that their occurrence is highly dependent on the magnetic structures of the solar atmospheric features. The occurrence probabilities for M and X class flares are calculated up to 18 hours before the ignition of them using solar magnetic field data recorded by HMI/SDO. To achieve this goal, Zernike moments and "Support Vector Machine algorithm" are applied to analyze the data. Our calculations guarantee almost 94 percent accuracy in the prediction of solar flares.

  18. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns.

  19. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION REPORT FOR TANKS 241-AW-103 & 241-AZ-102 & 241-AN-106 & 241-AN-107 & 241-AY-101 & 241-AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-08-22

    Corrosion rates using supernatant samples retrieved from near the top of the liquid layer were determined for the tanks. Corrosion rates using settled solids (saltcake) were determined. The supernatant samples were tested as received without argon sparging. The settled solid sample segments were extruded under anaerobic condition and kept under a sweep of humidified argon gas during 'the electrochemical corrosion testing. The class of steel used to construct the tank in question was used, and test coupons were allowed to equilibrate for a minimum of 18 hours before a Tafel scan was initiated. The coupons were scanned from -250 mV to +250 mV from the rest or open circuit potential. The corrosion rate is reported along with the corrosion current measurement, open circuit potential, and a chi-square statistic generated by the instrument controlling and analysis algorithm.

  1. PubMed Central

    Caron, C.; Montambault, P.; Nawar, T.; Plante, G. E.; Kandalaft, N.

    1977-01-01

    Three cases of compulsive polydipsia previously diagnosed as diabetes insipidus are presented. Abnormally dilated bladder and pyelocalyceal systems were accompanying features, as previously described for diabetes insipidus, particularly of renal orign. Results of the hypertonic saline (Hickey-Hare) test were positive in only one case. Results of restriction of liquids followed by intravenous injection of vasopressin (Miller test) favoured a diagnosis of complete diabetes insipidus. These two tests cannot, therefore, exclude compulsive polydipsia. The features suggesting a diagnosis of compulsive water drinking are low plasma osmolality, a decrease in 24-hour urine output following water restriction, and abnormal behaviour. The diagnosis is confirmed by an 18-hour dehydration test done after gradual fluid restriction, which favours partial restoration of the papillary osmotic gradient. Images FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:861897

  2. Electrophysiological dysfunction and cellular disruption of sensory neurones during incubation with Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Oakes, S G; Repesh, L A; Pozos, R S; Fitzgerald, T J

    1982-08-01

    Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain) was incubated with cultured nerve cells derived from dorsal root ganglia of rat embryos. The electrophysiological response of these neuronal cells was then investigated. Cells exposed to 2 X 10(8) treponemes/ml responded abnormally after 13 hours and failed to respond after 18 hours. In contrast, control preparations exposed to heat-inactivated treponemes or to culture medium responded normally after 72 hours. Extended incubation with viable treponemes resulted in various degrees of nerve cell disruption as shown by scanning electron microscopy. With some cells holes in the cytoplasmic membrane were detected; with others a coagulated matrix of apparent nuclear material and remnants of cytoskeletal elements indicated more severe destruction. These findings may explain the painless nature of many of the clinical manifestations of syphilis as well as the severe damage to central nervous system tissue in tertiary and congenital syphilis. PMID:7049316

  3. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  4. Lethal challenge of gnotobiotic weanling rats with bacterial isolates from cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Barson, A J; Drucker, D B; Morris, J A; Telford, D R

    1987-12-01

    An attempt was made to produce an animal model of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The experimental animals (germ free weanling rats) were exposed to nasopharyngeal isolates from cases of SIDS to test the hypothesis that common bacteria may have an aetiological role in the disease. Negative results were obtained when the strains were tested in isolation, but certain combinations of organisms (specifically some Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) killed the animals rapidly (less than 18 hours) without prolonged terminal illness. Post mortem histological findings were consistent with those of SIDS. The lethal toxigenic potential of nasopharyngeal bacteria, which are regarded as harmless in adults, should be reconsidered in respect of the aetiology of SIDS. PMID:3323245

  5. Induction of sporulation and the influence of time, temperature, and inoculum size on growth in two species of aquatic fungi (Saprolegniales)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, T.A.; Bradford, K.; Bland, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Because the infective stage of most mycoses of aquatic organisms is the zoospore, we attempted to establish optimum conditions under which zoospores could be produced for use in antifungal testing. Optimum sporulation time, incubation time, inoculum size, and growth temperature were determined for each oftwo saprolegniaceous fungi, Achlya flagellata Coker and Saprolegnia hypogyna (Pringsheim) de Bary. Both species produced the largest number of zoospores after 18 hours (51.7 spores/ml for A. jlagellata and 848.0 spores/ml for S. hypogyna), and yielded maximum growth after 48 hours at 22 'C. The recommended test inoculum size for S. hypogyna (5,600 spores/ml was nearly three times that for A. flagellata (2,000 spores/ml),

  6. Sleep disorders in Pregnancy: Glycaemic implications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V S Hari

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy. Sleep disorders lead to adverse cardio-metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Pregnancy poses an enormous burden on the homeostasis of the women with alteration in many physiological functions. The sleep disorders during pregnancy lead to adverse foeto-maternal outcomes with long term cardiovascular implications. In this article, I review the pathophysiology of sleep disorders during pregnancy and their glycaemic implications. PMID:27582156

  7. Activation of tyrosine aminotransferase expression in fetal liver by 5-azacytidine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, R.; Perry, S.T.; Isham, K.R.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    1983-06-15

    Rat fetuses of 20 days gestational age were treated in utero with the inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-azacytidine. The liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase, normally expressed at very low levels until several hours after birth, was increased by the drug in the fetal livers after a lag period of about 9 hours, reaching a level 70-fold above control levels 18 hours after treatment. The high levels attained after 5-azacytidine treatment are comparable to those of glucocorticoid-treated adult livers, and were not further increased by administration of hydrocortisone to dams carrying treated fetuses. Cytidine and two other analogs, cytosine arabinoside and 6-azacytidine, were essentially without effect. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. ISOTHERMAL (DELTA)/(ALPHA-PRIME) TRANSFORMATION AND TTT DIAGRAM IN A PLUTONIUM GALLIUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    Oudot, B P; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2005-11-11

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used as an alternative approach to determining the tine-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for the martensitic delta to alpha-prime transformation in a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy. Previous work suggests that the TTT diagram for a similar alloy exhibits an unusual double-C curve for isothermal holds of less than 100 minutes. Here, we extend this diagram to 18 hours, and confirm the double-C curve behavior. When the sample is cooled prior to the isothermal holds, the delta to alpha-prime transformation is observed as several overlapping exothermic peaks. These peaks are very reproducible, and they are believed to be the result of different kinds of delta to alpha-prime martensitic transformation. This may be due to the presence of different nucleation sites and/or different morphologies.

  9. LED-activated pheophorbide a induces cellular destruction of colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. S.; Leung, A. W. N.; Liu, L.; Xia, X. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pheophorbide a (Pa) from Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria Barbata and Silkworm Excreta shows an important promise in the photodynamic therapy on malignant tumor. The present study investigated that LED-activated Pa induced the cellular destruction of colon cancer HT-29 cells. The results showed that Pa resulted in a drug-dose dependent photocytotoxicity in the HT-29 cells, meaning the photocytotoxicity of Pa depends on the drug concentration (0 - 2 μM). We further investigated the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells 18 hours after photosensitization of Pa using a confocal laser scanning microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. These data demonstrated that LED-activated Pa could significantly induce the cellular destruction of the HT-29 cells.

  10. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  11. Fat embolism syndrome managed by non-invasive ventilation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Ashok, R; Kumar, R Vinoth; Saravanan, K; Kalaivani

    2012-02-01

    A 31-year-old male was struck by a motor cycle and diagnosed to have closed injury to the thigh involving right sided femur shaft fracture. Patient was operated on the next day by the orthopaedic surgeon. The patient did not have any signs of fat embolism syndrome before and after surgery. But the rare ECG change of S1Q3T3 (pulmonary embolism) was present before and after surgery. The presence of oedematous retina and cherry red spots in the macula was also present in the young patient. Patient developed all the classical signs of fat embolism syndrome 18 hours after surgery. The case had classic presentations of fat embolism syndrome managed by non-invasive ventilation. The role of steroids and albumin is also discussed as it was always a controversy in the management of fat embolism syndrome. PMID:23029849

  12. Time of travel and dispersion in a selected reach of Roberts Creek, Clayton County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Time of travel was determined by dye tracing, using rhodamine WT as the tracer. One dyeinjection site and three sampling sites were used to measure time of travel. Two dye-tracing tests were conducted at discharges having flow-duration values of 48 and 80 percent. The discharges at the time of the two dye-tracing tests approximated medium- and low-flow conditions. The average stream velocity in the study area was 0.23 foot per second during medium-flow conditions, March 20 to 22,1990, and 0.07 foot per second during low-flow conditions, April 30 to May 12, 1990. The injected dye dispersed in a plume that lasted about 18 hours during medium flow and about 64 hours during low flow at the downstream site.

  13. Prolonged and tunable residence time using reversible covalent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, J. Michael; McFarland, Jesse M.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Bisconte, Angelina; Tam, Danny; Phan, Vernon T.; Romanov, Sergei; Finkle, David; Shu, Jin; Patel, Vaishali; Ton, Tony; Li, Xiaoyan; Loughhead, David G.; Nunn, Philip A.; Karr, Dane E.; Gerritsen, Mary E.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Owens, Timothy D.; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A.; Hill, Ronald J.; Goldstein, David M.; Taunton, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Drugs with prolonged, on-target residence time often show superior efficacy, yet general strategies for optimizing drug-target residence time are lacking. Here, we demonstrate progress toward this elusive goal by targeting a noncatalytic cysteine in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with reversible covalent inhibitors. Utilizing an inverted orientation of the cysteine-reactive cyanoacrylamide electrophile, we identified potent and selective BTK inhibitors that demonstrate biochemical residence times spanning from minutes to 7 days. An inverted cyanoacrylamide with prolonged residence time in vivo remained bound to BTK more than 18 hours after clearance from the circulation. The inverted cyanoacrylamide strategy was further utilized to discover fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors with residence times of several days, demonstrating generalizability of the approach. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with inverted cyanoacrylamides may serve as a broadly applicable platform that facilitates “residence time by design”, the ability to modulate and improve the duration of target engagement in vivo. PMID:26006010

  14. Inhibition of reticuloendothelial function by gold and its relation to postinjection reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B D; Lockwood, C M; Pussell, B A

    1979-01-01

    A patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed severe exacerbation of symptoms 18 hours after an injection of gold thiomalate (sodium aurothiomalate). Immune complexes were present in his serum and synovial fluid; in the synovial fluid they were associated with intense complement activation. The effect of gold salts on splenic reticuloendothelial function was determined by measuring the clearance of heat-damaged erythrocytes from the circulation. Gold thiomalate (50 mg) substantially delayed clearance in the patient but had no effect in four other patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had not had a postinjection reaction. Severely impaired clearance also occurred in three out of four healthy people given 100 mg gold but they remained asymptomatic. The postinjection reaction may be an immune-complex disease that is triggered in certain patients because gold transiently inhibits reticuloendothelial function. PMID:157793

  15. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  16. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001–0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU’s efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α. Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  17. Effects of altered carbohydrate availability on whole-plant assimilation of sup 15 NO sub 3 sup minus 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rufty, T.W. Jr.; Volk, R.J. ); MacKown, C.T. )

    1989-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative changes in NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} assimilatory processes which occurred in response to decreasing carbohydrate availability. Young tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum (L.), cv NC 2326) growing in solution culture were exposed to 1.0 millimolar {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} for 6 hour intervals during a normal 12 hour light period and a subsequent period of darkness lasting 42 hours. Uptake of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} decreased to 71 to 83% of the uptake rate in the light during the initial 18 hours of darkness; uptake then decreased sharply over the next 12 hours of darkness to 11 to 17% of the light rate, coincident with depletion of tissue carbohydrate reserves and a marked decline in root respiration. Changes also occurred in endogenous {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} assimilation processes, which were distinctly different than those in {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} uptake. During the extended dark period, translocation of absorbed {sup 15}N out of the root to the shoot varied rhythmically. The adjustments were independent of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} uptake rate and carbohydrate status, but were reciprocally related to rhythmic adjustments in stomatal resistance and, presumably, water movement through the root system. Whole plant reduction of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} always was limited more than uptake. The assimilation of {sup 15}N into insoluble reduced-N in roots remained a constant proportion of uptake throughout, while assimilation in the shoot declined markedly in the first 18 hours of darkness before stabilizing at a low level. The plants clearly retained a capacity for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} reduction and synthesis of insoluble reduced-{sup 15}N even when {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} uptake was severely restricted and minimal carbohydrate reserves remained in the tissue.

  18. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  19. The first experience of using of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, A.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.; Sinilkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n=34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al203, and Group II patients (n=30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. Results. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. At 18 hours after 99mTc-Al203 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II patients, SLNs were detected in 27 patients. At 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. Conclusion. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc - Al203 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc - Al203 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  20. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU's efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  1. Design, fabrication, and structural evaluation of an advanced composite hydrofoil control flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, W. P.

    1982-11-01

    A hydrofoil control flap was designed and fabricated by the Boeing Company under contract to the Naval Sea System Command. It consisted of two graphite epoxy-titanium clad skins bolted and bonded to a titanium crank-spar assembly. It was tested statically at the Boeing Company to calibrate the response of electrical-resistance strain gages to strip loads; installed on the aft inboard foil of the hydrofoil PCH-1 (HIGH POINT) to demonstrate the ability of the composite to withstand the hydrofoil environment and to obtain service loads information; and tested in the laboratory at the David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center to demonstrate its compliance with a four times-design-life capability. After being instrumental with 52 strain gages and calibrated for gage response as a function of applied load, the flap was installed on PCH-1. The flap remained on the boat for 26 months, but only saw 18 hours of foilborne operations due to unrelated mechanical difficulty with PCH-1. The 18 hours were dedicated to calm-water trials. Although the flap performed satisfactorily, attempts to relate composite material strains to flap pressure loads proved unsuccessful due to the complex nature of the flap loading, the flap's structural geometry, and the loss of the majority of strain gages just prior to trails data collection. The flap was then prepared for cyclic testing in the Structural Evaluation Laboratory, but failed during the initial static test because of an overload caused by a malfunction of the control system.

  2. Bradykinin promotes migration and invasion of human immortalized trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Having demonstrated that the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) is expressed in cells that participate in trophoblast invasion in humans and guinea-pigs, we investigated the role of bradykinin (BK) on cell migration and invasion in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line using wound healing and invasion assays. First, we documented that HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed kallikrein, B2R, B1R, MMP-2 and MMP-9 using immunocytochemistry. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L) for 18 hours increased the migration index 3-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist HOE-140. BK (10.0 microMol/L) incubation yielded a similar number of proliferating and viable cells as controls, therefore the enhanced closure of the wound cannot be attributed to proliferating cells. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L) for 18 hours increased the invasion index 2-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the antagonist of the B2R. Neither the B1R ligand Lys-des-Arg9 BK, nor its antagonist Lys-(des-Arg9-Leu8), modified migration and invasion. Further support for the stimulatory effect of B2R activation on migration and invasion is provided by the 3-fold increase in the number of filopodia per cell versus controls or cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist. Bradykinin had no effect on the cellular protein content of the B2R, nor the MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinase activity in the culture media varied after incubation with BK. This study adds bradykinin-acting on the B2R-to the stimuli of trophoblast migration and invasion, an effect that should be integrated to other modifications of the kallikrein-kinin system in normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:21729302

  3. The approach to sample acquisition and its impact on the derived human fecal microbiome and VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Navarro, Karl; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Pat; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the importance of the microbiota in maintaining a healthy state, as well as promoting disease states. The intestinal microbiota exerts its effects primarily through its metabolites, and metabolomics investigations have begun to evaluate the diagnostic and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isolated from human feces, enabled by specialized sampling methods such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (hSPME). The approach to stool sample collection is an important consideration that could potentially introduce bias and affect the outcome of a fecal metagenomic and metabolomic investigation. To address this concern, a comparison of endoscopically collected (in vivo) and home collected (ex vivo) fecal samples was performed, revealing slight variability in the derived microbiomes. In contrast, the VOC metabolomes differ widely between the home collected and endoscopy collected samples. Additionally, as the VOC extraction profile is hyperbolic, with short extraction durations more vulnerable to variation than extractions continued to equilibrium, a second goal of our investigation was to ascertain if hSPME-based fecal metabolomics studies might be biased by the extraction duration employed. As anticipated, prolonged extraction (18 hours) results in the identification of considerably more metabolites than short (20 minute) extractions. A comparison of the metabolomes reveals several analytes deemed unique to a cohort with the 20 minute extraction, but found common to both cohorts when the VOC extraction was performed for 18 hours. Moreover, numerous analytes perceived to have significant fold change with a 20 minute extraction were found insignificant in fold change with the prolonged extraction, underscoring the potential for bias associated with a 20 minute hSPME. PMID:24260553

  4. Sodium Lidar-observed Strong Inertia-gravity Wave Activities in the Mesopause Region over Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2007-01-01

    In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.

  5. The Approach to Sample Acquisition and Its Impact on the Derived Human Fecal Microbiome and VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Navarro, Karl; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Pat; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the importance of the microbiota in maintaining a healthy state, as well as promoting disease states. The intestinal microbiota exerts its effects primarily through its metabolites, and metabolomics investigations have begun to evaluate the diagnostic and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isolated from human feces, enabled by specialized sampling methods such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (hSPME). The approach to stool sample collection is an important consideration that could potentially introduce bias and affect the outcome of a fecal metagenomic and metabolomic investigation. To address this concern, a comparison of endoscopically collected (in vivo) and home collected (ex vivo) fecal samples was performed, revealing slight variability in the derived microbiomes. In contrast, the VOC metabolomes differ widely between the home collected and endoscopy collected samples. Additionally, as the VOC extraction profile is hyperbolic, with short extraction durations more vulnerable to variation than extractions continued to equilibrium, a second goal of our investigation was to ascertain if hSPME-based fecal metabolomics studies might be biased by the extraction duration employed. As anticipated, prolonged extraction (18 hours) results in the identification of considerably more metabolites than short (20 minute) extractions. A comparison of the metabolomes reveals several analytes deemed unique to a cohort with the 20 minute extraction, but found common to both cohorts when the VOC extraction was performed for 18 hours. Moreover, numerous analytes perceived to have significant fold change with a 20 minute extraction were found insignificant in fold change with the prolonged extraction, underscoring the potential for bias associated with a 20 minute hSPME. PMID:24260553

  6. Extracellular Adenosine Protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Regulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N; Clark, Stacie; Roggensack, Sara E; McIver, Sally R; Alcaide, Pilar; Haydon, Philip G; Leong, John M

    2015-08-01

    An important determinant of disease following Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) lung infection is pulmonary inflammation mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We found that upon intratracheal challenge of mice, recruitment of PMNs into the lungs within the first 3 hours coincided with decreased pulmonary pneumococci, whereas large numbers of pulmonary PMNs beyond 12 hours correlated with a greater bacterial burden. Indeed, mice that survived infection largely resolved inflammation by 72 hours, and PMN depletion at peak infiltration, i.e. 18 hours post-infection, lowered bacterial numbers and enhanced survival. We investigated host signaling pathways that influence both pneumococcus clearance and pulmonary inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition and/or genetic ablation of enzymes that generate extracellular adenosine (EAD) (e.g. the ectoenzyme CD73) or degrade EAD (e.g. adenosine deaminase) revealed that EAD dramatically increases murine resistance to S. pneumoniae lung infection. Moreover, adenosine diminished PMN movement across endothelial monolayers in vitro, and although inhibition or deficiency of CD73 had no discernible impact on PMN recruitment within the first 6 hours after intratracheal inoculation of mice, these measures enhanced PMN numbers in the pulmonary interstitium after 18 hours of infection, culminating in dramatically elevated numbers of pulmonary PMNs at three days post-infection. When assessed at this time point, CD73-/- mice displayed increased levels of cellular factors that promote leukocyte migration, such as CXCL2 chemokine in the murine lung, as well as CXCR2 and β-2 integrin on the surface of pulmonary PMNs. The enhanced pneumococcal susceptibility of CD73-/- mice was significantly reversed by PMN depletion following infection, suggesting that EAD-mediated resistance is largely mediated by its effects on PMNs. Finally, CD73-inhibition diminished the ability of PMNs to kill pneumococci in vitro, suggesting that EAD alters

  7. Crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a flowing system: Influence of Cu2+ additives on induction time and crystalline phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmany, Y.; Putranto, W. A.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muryanto, S.

    2016-04-01

    Scaling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is commonly found in piping systems in oil, gas, desalination and other chemical processes. The scale may create technical problems, leading to the reduction of heat transfer, increase of energy consumption and unscheduled equipment shutdown. This paper presents crystallization scaling experiments and evaluation of the effect of Cu2+ additives on the induction time and calcium carbonate transformation. The crystals precursors were prepared using equimolar of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 resulted in concentrations of 3000 ppm Ca2+ in the solution. The Cu2+ in amounts of 0, 1 and 10 ppm was separately added in the solution. The flow rates (20, 35, and 60 mL/min) and elevated temperatures (27, 35 and 45°C) were selected in the study. The induction time for crystallization of CaCO3 was observed by measuring the solution conductivity over time, while the phase transformation of calcium carbonate was examined by XRD method and SEM/EDX. It was found that the conductivity remained steady for a certain period reflecting to the induction time of crystal formation, and then decreased sharply afterwards,. The induction time was increased from 34 and 48 minutes in the presence of Cu additives (1 and 10 ppm), depending on the flow rates and temperature observed. In all the experiments, the Cu2+ addition leads to the reduction of mass of crystals. Apparently, the presence of Cu2+ could inhibit the CaCO3 crystallization. In the absence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals obtained were a mixture of vaterite and calcite. In the presence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals formed were aragonite and calcite. Here, the presence of Cu2+ additives might have controlled the crystal transformation of CaCO3.

  8. Active Play Opportunities at Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) is important for children’s health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children’s PA. METHODS: An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. RESULTS: Children’s activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was <1%. Children were more active and less sedentary outdoors versus indoors and during the child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. PMID:25986016

  9. Helical Tomotherapy Versus Single-Arc Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy: A Collaborative Dosimetric Comparison Between Two Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi; Tang, Grace; Welsh, James S.; Mohiuddin, Majid M.; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Yu, Cedric X.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Both helical tomotherapy (HT) and single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) deliver radiation using rotational beams with multileaf collimators. We report a dual-institution study comparing dosimetric aspects of these two modalities. Methods and Materials: Eight patients each were selected from the University of Maryland (UMM) and the University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Riverview (UWR), for a total of 16 cases. Four cancer sites including brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate were selected. Single-arc IMAT plans were generated at UMM using Varian RapidArc (RA), and HT plans were generated at UWR using Hi-Art II TomoTherapy. All 16 cases were planned based on the identical anatomic contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. All plans were swapped for analysis at the same time after final approval. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared based on dose-volume histograms, the beam-on time, monitor units, and estimated leakage dose. After the disclosure of comparison results, replanning was done for both techniques to minimize diversity in optimization focus from different operators. Results: For the 16 cases compared, the average beam-on time was 1.4 minutes for RA and 4.8 minutes for HT plans. HT provided better target dose homogeneity (7.6% for RA and 4.2% for HT) with a lower maximum dose (110% for RA and 105% for HT). Dose conformation numbers were comparable, with RA being superior to HT (0.67 vs. 0.60). The doses to normal tissues using these two techniques were comparable, with HT showing lower doses for more critical structures. After planning comparison results were exchanged, both techniques demonstrated improvements in dose distributions or treatment delivery times. Conclusions: Both techniques created highly conformal plans that met or exceeded the planning goals. The delivery time and total monitor units were lower in RA than in HT plans, whereas HT provided higher target dose uniformity.

  10. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  11. Late Neogene Paleosols and Paleoclimate, Mweiga Area, Mount Kenya, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Villeneuve, M.; Dostal, J.; Hamilton, T.; Milner, M. W.; Kapran, B.

    2009-05-01

    A sequence of lavas, principally trachyandesites and tephrites of Pliocene age, forming the underpinning of the Mt. Kenya Volcanic Series and long considered to have a Pliocene/Miocene age, were recently dated by Ar/Ar, and from oldest to youngest, gave ages of 5.48, 5.38 and 5.19 Ma. All dated lavas are reversely magnetized. Outcrops of two flows, both with interbedded paleosols, and overlain with loess occur near the Amboni River north of Mweiga, Kenya, along the Nyeri/Thompson Falls Road at 0 degrees 18 minutes S; 37 degrees 48 minutes E. Mineralogy of lavas was determined using microprobe and whole rock chemistry, while sediments and paleosols were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry. Sediments and paleosols were studied for lithologic uniformity, weathering characteristics, and clay mineralogy. Ages of lavas and sediments were determined by Ar/Ar dating and paleomagnetism. The compound paleosols of Late Neogene age depict a long and complex weathering history of rock alteration, leading in part to the formation of claystone and later saw the addition of loessic sediments. The paleosols appear to have been episodically deflated, initially in phase with outpourings of lavas, and later with periods of climatic deterioration when wind systems intensified. Such disjunct weathering histories within multi- component paleosol profiles are similar to those documented on nearby Mount Kenya, where well-weathered lower paleosol horizons developed on Matuyama-age till are overlain by much younger, less weathered paleosols developed on Brunhes-age loess. These first-reported Ar/Ar ages, and paleomagnetism of lavas within the very Late Miocene/Early Pliocene, provide maximum ages for initial weathering rates in a xeric tropical highland climate. Clay mineral analyses of both the weathered bedrock and surface loessic sediments indicate an initial prolonged dry climate during the Lower Pliocene, followed by more humid conditions during the Upper

  12. Single-port laparoscopic surgery in children: A new alternative in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Ben Dhaou; Rahma, Chtourou; Mohamed, Jallouli; Riadh, Mhiri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a technique in laparoscopic surgery, which is based on the idea that all the laparoscopic trocars are inserted through a single umbilical incision. This paper documents a single-centre experience, which performed the single-port surgery in children using an improvised trans-umbilical glove-port with conventional rigid instruments. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied the outcomes of SILS procedures between January 2013 and June 2014. Materials required making our homemade trans-umbilical port consisted on: A flexible ring, a rigid larger ring, one powder-free surgical glove, a wire-to-skin and standard standards laparoscopic trocars. Results: A total of 90 consecutive procedures had been done in our institution: 15 girls and 75 boys (mean age: 7.5 years). We used SILS on 59 appendectomies with an average operative time of 48 minutes. We needed conversion to conventional surgery in three cases (two with perforated appendicitis and one for difficulty to mobilize the appendix). SIL cholecystectomy was performed for four patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis; mean operative time was 60 min. All patients were discharged on postoperative day 2. Eighteen boys with non-palpable testis were explored and treated. Other procedures included: Varicocelectomy (n = 2), intra-abdominal lymph node biopsies (n = 2), ovarian cystectomy (n = 1), ovarian transposition (n = 1), aspiration of renal hydatid cyst (n = 1), explorative laparoscopy in research to Meckel's diverticulum (n = 1) and intestinal intussusceptions (n = 1). No post-operative complications were seen in all cases. Conclusions: SILS in the paediatric population using conventional rigid instruments is feasible, safe and effective. It may be an alternative to the costly commercially available single-port systems especially in a developing country like Tunisia. PMID:26168750

  13. Extra tactile stimulation of the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Chamorro, I; Green, D; Knudtson, F

    1975-01-01

    To ascertain whether touch, in the form of extra tactile stimulation, would result in more rapid physical and social development and a greater degree of social development of the premature infant, 48 minutes of extra tactile stimulation, defines as a gentle, nonrhythmic stroking of the greatest possible area of skin surface of the infant's body by the nurse's hand, was given to eight experimental group premature infants daily for a minimum of two weeks while they were confined to an isolette. Six infants formed a control group. Regain of birth weight was used to assess physical development. Scores on the applicable portions of the Gesell Development Schedule and Bayley Scales of Infant Development and plasma cortisol levels were used to measure rate and degree of social development. Data were analyzed in terms of the total group and for pairs of infants matched for gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. No significant difference was found between control and experimental groups in rate of physical development as measured by regain of birth weight. Analysis of the relationship between weight gain and gestational age, sex, and Apgar scores indicated that none was a substantial indicator of the rate at which infants gained weight while in the hospital. There was no significant difference in the degree of social development between experimental and control infants, but, as hypothesized, there was significant difference in rate of social development. Plasma cortisol levels as an indication of the infant's adrenocorticol development as evidenced by his ability to respond to stressful situations, and hence indirectly his social development, revealed no significant difference between the two groups. PMID:1041616

  14. Randomized comparative study of left versus right radial approach in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Hu, Hongyu; Wang, Dezhao; Chen, Wei; Tan, Zhixu; Li, Qun; Chen, Buxing

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that the left radial approach (LRA) is related to decreased coronary procedure duration and fewer cerebrovascular complications as compared to the right radial approach (RRA) in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the feasibility of LRA in primary PCI has yet to be studied further. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of LRA compared with RRA for primary PCI in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods A total of 200 consecutive patients with STEMI who received primary PCI were randomized to LRA (number [n]=100) or RRA (n=100). The study endpoint was needle-to-balloon time, defined as the time from local anesthesia infiltration to the first balloon inflation. Radiation dose by measuring cumulative air kerma (CAK) and CAK dose area product, as well as fluoroscopy time and contrast volume were also investigated. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. The coronary procedural success rate was similar between both radial approaches (98% for left versus 94% for right; P=0.28). Compared with RRA, LRA had significantly shorter needle-to-balloon time (16.0±4.8 minutes versus 18.0±6.5 minutes, respectively; P=0.02). Additionally, fluoroscopy time (7.4±3.4 minutes versus 8.8±3.5 minutes, respectively; P=0.01) and CAK dose area product (51.9±30.4 Gy cm2 versus 65.3±49.1 Gy cm2, respectively; P=0.04) were significantly lower with LRA than with RRA. Conclusion Primary PCI can be performed via LRA with earlier blood flow restoration in the infarct-related artery and lower radiation exposure when compared with RRA; therefore, the LRA may become a feasible and attractive alternative to perform primary PCI for STEMI patients. PMID:26150704

  15. Enhancement of host resistance against Listeria infection by Lactobacillus casei: Role of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.

    1984-05-01

    Among the 10 species of the genus Lactobacillus, L. casei showed the strongest protective action against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. The activity of L. casei differed with regard to the dose of administration. The anti-L. monocytogenes resistance in mice intravenously administered 5.5 X 10(7), 2.8 X 10(8), or 1.1 X 10(9) L. casei cells was most manifest at ca. 2, 2 and 13, and 3 to 21 days after its administration, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in the liver of mice injected with L. casei (10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) cells) 48 h after infection was suppressed, particularly when 10(8) or 10(9) L. casei cells were given 2 or 13 days before the induced infection, respectively. This suppression of L. monocytogenes growth was overcome by carrageenan treatment or X-ray irradiation. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into the liver DNA increased 13 days after administration of L. casei, and augmentation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation during 6 to 48 h after infection was dependent on the dose of L. casei. Peritoneal macrophage accumulation observed 1 to 5 days after intraperitoneal injection of UV-killed L. monocytogenes was markedly enhanced when the mice were treated with L. casei cells 13 days before macrophage elicitation. Therefore, the enhanced host resistance by L. casei to L. monocytogenes infection may be mediated by macrophages migrating from the blood stream to the reticuloendothelial system in response to L. casei injection before or after L. monocytogenes infection.

  16. Okadaic acid induced neurotoxicity leads to central cholinergic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Tota, Santoshkumar; Rai, Shivika; Shukla, Rakesh; Ali, Shakir; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Nath, Chandishwar

    2012-09-01

    Central cholinergic system is involved in regulation of memory and disturbances in these results in memory loss. Previously, we examined the effect of okadaic acid, OKA (200ng, i.c.v.) on memory impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. In the present study, we investigated effect of OKA (i.c.v) on cholinergic function by observing acetylcholine level (ACh), acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity, and mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR) as a cholinergic markers in brain areas (cerebellum, striatum cortex and hippocampus). In present work OKA, caused a significant decrease in acetylcholine level, acetylcholinestrase activity and mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor in rat but these changes were mainly observed in cortex and hippocampus. Further, histopathological study by cresyl violet staining showed neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus after OKA administration indicating neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with anti-dementic drugs donepezil (AChE inhibitor; 5mg/kg, p.o) and memantine (NMDA receptor antagonist; 10mg/kg, p.o) daily for 13 day prevented cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus of OKA treated rat. Daily per se treatment for 13 day with donepezil decreased acetylcholinestrase activity and increased mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor. Whereas, per se treatment with memantine daily for 13 day did not affect acetylcholinestrase activity, mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor. Findings of this work shows that OKA (i.c.v.), apart from memory impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction, as our previous study showed, also induced cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal loss, which can be addressed by antidementic drugs like donepezil and memantine. PMID:22749976

  17. Delay in hospital admission of patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Lopes, M G; Rosas, M J; Fontes, J

    2005-01-01

    Factors influencing early hospital admission have been described for several stroke types but not for cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT). CVT is more difficult to diagnose than arterial stroke; delay in hospital admission may postpone CVT treatment. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the delay between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission of patients with CVT, and (2) to identify the variables that influence that delay. We registered the interval (days) between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission in 91 consecutive patients admitted to 20 Portuguese hospitals between June 1995 and June 1998. We also studied the impact of admission delay on treatments (prescription of anticoagulants and the number of days elapsed between the onset of symptoms and start of anticoagulation and admission). Median admission delay was 4 days. Twenty-two (25%) patients were admitted within 24 h. Two thirds of the patients were admitted within 7 days and 75% within 13 days. In multiple logistic regression analysis, admission within 24 h was positively associated with mental status disorder (delirium or abulia; OR = 4.59; 95% CI = 1.41-14.89) and negatively associated with headache (OR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.00-0.32). Presentation as isolated intracranial hypertension was associated with admission delay of more than 4 days (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 0.97-7.14). Papilloedema was associated with an admission delay of more than 13 days (OR = 4.69; 95% CI = 1.61-13.61). There was no association between admission delay and the proportion of anticoagulated patients. The interval between onset of symptoms and start of anticoagulation was shorter in patients admitted earlier (p = 0.0001, for either admission within 24 h, 4 or 13 days). There is a considerable delay until the clinical picture associated with CVT is recognised as justifying hospital admission, especially when patients present with symptoms identical to isolated intracranial hypertension syndrome. PMID

  18. [Successful preclinical thoracotomy in a 17-year-old man].

    PubMed

    Puchwein, P; Prenner, G; Fell, B; Sereinigg, M; Gumpert, R

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old man who sustained multiple stab wounds after a knife attack. After arrival of the emergency medical team the patient suffered a cardiac arrest caused by cardiac tamponade. After emergency thoracotomy and open heart massage the patient developed ROSC and could be discharged 13 days later without neurological deficits. Prehospital thoracotomy is rarely performed in Austria but is the only realistic chance for survival in cases of hematopericardium and tamponade. Better training of emergency physicians in Austria concerning surgical resuscitation could increase survival rates especially after penetrating thoracic trauma. PMID:23884562

  19. Severe burn on 81% of body surface after sun tanning.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Marcos; Andjelkov, Katarina; Zaccheddu, Renato

    2013-07-01

    We report herein the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented to the Burns Unit with 81% of her body surface severely burned following sun bathing, after applying fig leaf tea as a tanning agent. The patient was hospitalized for 13 days in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and was discharged for an ambulatory follow-up. The treatment of such burns does not differ from any conventional treatment for heat- induced second-degree burns. The physiopathology of the phytophotodermatitis induced by such homemade tanning solutions rich in psoralen is discussed in detail. PMID:23884685

  20. Direct evidence for solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometer-wavelength radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Barrow, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind close to Jupiter by the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1978 and 1979 are compared with the hectometer-wavelength radio emission from the planet. A significant positive correlation is found between variations in the solar wind plasma density at Jupiter and the level of Jovian radio emission output. During the 173-day interval studied for the Voyager 2 data the radio emission displayed a long-term periodicity of about 13 days, identical to that shown by the solar wind density at Jupiter and consistent with the magnetic sector structure association already proposed for ground-based observations of the decameter-wavelength emission.

  1. Direct evidence for solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometer-wavelength radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Barrow, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind close to Jupiter, by the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1978 and 1979, are compared with the hectometer wavelength radio emission from the planet. A significant positive correlation is found between variations in the solar wind plasma density at Jupiter and the level of Jovian radio emission output. During the 173-day interval studied for the Voyager 2 data, the radio emission displayed a long term periodicity of about 13 days, identical to that shown by the solar wind density at Jupiter and consistent with the magnetic sector structure association already proposed for groundbased observations of the decameter wavelength emission.

  2. Successful 2,000-Kilometer International Transfer of an Infant Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kilian; Dunne, Ben; Festa, Marino; La Hei, Erik; Karpelowsky, Jonathan; Dando, Hayden; Orr, Yishay

    2016-08-01

    There is minimal reported experience with long-range retrieval of pediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. We report the case of a 10-month old boy with necrotizing staphylococcal pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula, who was successfully retrieved and transported while receiving ECMO to our unit in Sydney, Australia, from a referring hospital 2,000 kilometers away in the Pacific Islands. He was successfully weaned from ECMO to receive single-lung ventilation after 13 days, and he underwent surgical repair of his bronchopleural fistula through a thoracotomy 3 days after decannulation. He has made a full recovery. PMID:27449448

  3. [Study of the growth and development of Chlorella on "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Livanskaia, O G

    1989-01-01

    The growth, development and population characteristics of Chlorella cells flown for 13 days in space were investigated during their postflight cultivation. The growth rate of flown algae did not differ from that of ground-based controls in terms of increases in the cell number and biomass. All basic parameters of the specimens (generation time, number of developing autospores, time ratio of developmental phases) were ontogentically normal. Exposure of the algae to space flight as a component of the algobacterial cenosis--fish autotrophic-heterotrophic system produced no significant effect of the population or individual specimens during their postflight cultivation. PMID:2593605

  4. COSMOS 2044: Lung morphology study, experiment K-7-28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers examined the effect of microgravity during spaceflight on lung tissue. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wister rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hour Cosmos 2044 mission was examined and compared to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail suspension. Pulmonary hemorrage and alveolar adema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared with the vivarium controls. The cause of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  5. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  6. Long-term X-ray studies of Sco X-1. [emission spectra of constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    No modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity of Sco X-1 at a level of excess of 1% was observed at the optical period of .787313d. Evidence is found for shot-noise character in a large fraction of the X-ray emission. Almost all of the Sco X-1 emission can be synthesized in terms of approximately 200 shots per day, each with a duration of approximately 1/3 day. A pinhole camera was used to obtain data and the data were statistically analyzed.

  7. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-U.S. Public Health Service Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program - Summary of results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbeck, D. C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Schacter, J.; Haskell, W. L.; Payne, G. H.; Moxley, R. T., III; Nemiroff, M.; Limoncelli, D. D.; Arnoldi, L. B.; Fox, S. M., III

    1972-01-01

    An exercise program was initiated in a federal agency to assess the feasibility of such a program, and to identify the factors that influenced joining, adherence to, and effectiveness of the program. The program was utilized by 237 of the 998 eligible federal employees; mean attendance rate was 1.3 days/week. Those who volunteered perceived a need for increased physical activity, believed they had sufficient time to participate and derived subjective as well as objective benefits. Significant improvements were found in heart rate response to the standard exercise test, body weight, skinfold measurements and triglyceride levels.

  8. Fate of Uranium in Wetlands: Impact of Drought Followed by Re-flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, E.; Huang, S.; Koster van Groos, P. G.; Scheckel, K.; Peacock, A. D.; Kaplan, D. I.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Uranium contamination in groundwater can be mitigated in anoxic zones by iron-reducing bacteria that reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) and by uranium immobilization through complexation and sorption. Wetlands often link ground and surface-waters, making them strategic systems for potentially limiting migration of uranium contamination. Little is known about how drought periods that result in the drying of wetland soils, and consequent redox changes, affect uranium fate and transport in wetlands. In order to better understand the fate and stability of immobilized uranium in wetland soils, and how dry periods affect the uranium stability, we dosed saturated wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus acutus with low levels of uranyl-acetate for 5 months before imposing a 9-day drying period followed by a 13-day rewetting period. Concentrations of uranium in mesocosm effluent increased after rewetting, but the cumulative amount of uranium released in the 13 days following the drying constituted less than 1% of the uranium immobilized in the soil during the 5 months prior to the drought. This low level of remobilization suggests that the uranium immobilized in these soils was not primarily bioreduced U(IV), which could have been oxidized to soluble U(VI) during the drought and released in the effluent during the subsequent flood. XANES analyses confirm that most of the uranium immobilized in the mesocosms was U(VI) sorbed to iron oxides. Compared to mesocosms that did not experience drying or rewetting, mesocosms that were sacrificed immediately after drying and after 13 days of rewetting had less uranium in soil near roots and more uranium on root surfaces. Metal-reducing bacteria only dominated the bacterial community after 13 days of rewetting and not immediately after drying, indicating that these bacteria are not responsible for this redistribution of uranium after the drying and rewetting. Results show that short periods of drought conditions in a wetland may

  9. [Treatment of pilonidal disease using an LLL-plasty technic. Apropos of 27 cases].

    PubMed

    Sabiani, P; Le Treut, Y P; Bouloudnine, G; Maillet, B; Bricot, R

    1985-01-01

    The authors report 42 cases of pilonidal cyst on which 27 have been operated with the L-shaped skin graft "LLL-plasty". This technic has been applied to large pilonidal lesions, half of which were failures of other methods. Though the excision was large, the suture was easily practised with this technic. The healing time is around 13 days. The rate of relapse is small, but could be improved with more rigor in the indication and with constant medical supervision of the patients, imposing strict hygienic rules. PMID:4083815

  10. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    PubMed

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy. PMID:26260828

  11. A granuloma annulare-like eruption associated with the use of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C; Hart, Kim; Murrell, Dédée

    2002-02-01

    A granuloma annulare-like drug reaction is a rarely encountered clinical entity. A 64-year-old Caucasian female developed a granuloma annulare-like reaction 13 days after starting amlodipine and cleared within 3 months after drug cessation. The eruption consisted of multiple erythematous pruritic papules, distributed symmetrically over the lateral aspects of the legs and thighs, as well as on both palms. Histology showed focal collagen degeneration and significant interstitial histiocytic dermal infiltrate suggestive of granuloma annulare. We review previously reported cases of granuloma annulare-like drug reactions, in the context of a recently proposed classification for drug-induced interstitial granulomatous reactions. PMID:11869204

  12. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  13. Changes in the cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva

    2014-04-25

    In this work, the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was determined in different cell subpopulations in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-month-old chickens by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed positive ER-α immunostaining in both ovaries during development, but the percentage, staining intensity, and cellular distribution of ER-α immunostaining changes according to whether it is the left or right ovary and with the animal's age. In the left ovary, the ER-α was localized in the nuclei of the germinal epithelium and in germ cells of the ovarian cortex, as well as in the interstitial cells, undifferentiated cells, and epithelial cells of the lacunar channels of the ovarian medulla in all ages. In contrast, in the right ovary from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-week-old chickens, only the epithelial cells of lacunar channels were ER-α immunoreactive, but in the right ovary of one-month-old chickens both the epithelial cells of lacunar channels and the interstitial cells presented ER-α. These results demonstrate differential expression of ER-α in both chicken ovaries during development in a cell type-specific distribution, suggesting that these differences may be regarded as an important cause in the process of asymmetric ovarian development in the chicken. PMID:24704443

  14. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cynthia J; Wade, Timothy J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0-6 days, 7-13 days, 14-20 days, and 21-27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19-64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7-13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01-10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. PMID:26090609

  15. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. PMID:26090609

  16. Ponseti casting for club foot - above- or below-knee?: A prospective randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Maripuri, S N; Gallacher, P D; Bridgens, J; Kuiper, J H; Kiely, N T

    2013-11-01

    We undertook a randomised clinical trial to compare treatment times and failure rates between above- and below-knee Ponseti casting groups. Eligible children with idiopathic clubfoot, treated using the Ponseti method, were randomised to either below- or above-knee plaster of Paris casting. Outcome measures were total treatment time and the occurrence of failure, defined as two slippages or a treatment time above eight weeks. A total of 26 children (33 feet) were entered into the trial. The above-knee group comprised 17 feet in 13 children (ten boys and three girls, median age 13 days (1 to 40)) and the below-knee group comprised 16 feet in 13 children (ten boys and three girls, median age 13 days (5 to 20)). Because of six failures (37.5%) in the below-knee group, the trial was stopped early for ethical reasons. The rate of failure was significantly higher in the below-knee group (p = 0.039). The median treatment times of six weeks in the below-knee and four weeks in the above-knee group differed significantly (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that the use of a below-knee plaster of Paris cast in conjunction with the Ponseti technique leads to unacceptably high failure rates and significantly longer treatment times. Therefore, this technique is not recommended. PMID:24151281

  17. Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The extent of Chromium (Cr) pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae) was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. During 13 days of the experiment the fern was grown in the aqueous medium containing Cr3+ and CrO4(2-) ions, each in a concentration 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1). The presence of these ions caused a + 3.1 to -37.5% inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth in comparison to the control. After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution was decreased up to 70% (CrO4(2-) 3.0 mg L(-1) treatment) to 88% (CrO4(2-) 0.5 mg L(-1) treatment). In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from 415 to 1095 mg kg(-1) dry mass (dm); the highest level being found for Cr (III) containing solution. PMID:20734631

  18. Origins of aging mass loss in recombinant N-terminus and C-terminus deletion mutants of the heme-PAS biosensor domain BjFixLH(140-270).

    PubMed

    Satterlee, James D

    2011-05-01

    Nine recombinant FixL heme domains from Bradyrhizobium japonicum previously were shown to exhibit mass instability independent of many environmental factors (J.D. Satterlee, C. Suquet, A. Bidwai, J. Erman, L. Schwall, R. Jimenez, Biochemistry 47 (2008) 1540-1553). Two of those recombinant proteins were produced in remote laboratories. Mass losses begin appearing at completion of isolation and comprise a substantial proportion of samples within 1-3 days of storage and handling. Thus, degradation occurs during the time frame of experiments and crystallization. Detailed understanding of this instability is desired in order to formulate stable heme-PAS sensor domains for experimentation and for a mechanistic interpretation. However, mass spectra of the full length heme-PAS domain, BjFixLH(140-270), are complex by 1-3 days following isolation due to broad features and a high density of overlapping peaks, so that individual peak assignments are at present ambiguous. This stymies direct, quantitative interpretation of the source of the observed mass losses. To solve this dilemma amino-terminal primary sequencing and MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight) mass spectrometry monitoring of three terminal variants of BjFixLH(140-270) have been achieved. The working hypothesis, that the experimentally observed mass losses originate in the PAS protein sequence termini, has been substantiated. This establishes a basis for interpreting the more complex results from aging full length BjFixLH(140-270). PMID:21443850

  19. Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements from the SBUV/2-Series and the SSBUV Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, Richard P.; DeLand, Matthew T.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    The NOAA-9 SBEV/2 instrument has made the first regular measurements ot solar UV activity over a complete solar cycle, beginning in March 1985 and continuing as of this writing. The NOAA-9 solar irradiance data set includes the minimum between Cycles 21-22 and the current minimum at the end of Cycle 22. Although overall solar activity is low during these periods, 27-day rotational modulation is frequently present. The episode of 13-day periodicity observed during September 1994 - March 1995 shows that phenomena previously associated with high levels of solar activity can occur at any point in the solar cycle. The 205 nm irradiance and Mg II index measured by NOAA-9 showed very similar behavior during the Cycle 21-22 minimum in 1985-1986, when 27-day periodicity dominated short-term solar variations, but behaved differently in 1994-1995 during the episode of 13-day periodicity. We plan further investigations into the physical causes of this result, since it affects the extent to which the Mg II index is an accurate proxy for 205 nm irradiance variations during such episodes. The NOAA-9 Mg II data are available.

  20. Heterotrophic n(2) fixation and distribution of newly fixed nitrogen in a rice-flooded soil system.

    PubMed

    Eskew, D L; Eaglesham, A R; App, A A

    1981-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants growing in pots of flooded soil were exposed to a (15)N(2)-enriched atmosphere for 3 to 13 days in a gas-tight chamber. The floodwater and soil surface were shaded with a black cloth to reduce the activity of phototrophic N(2)-fixing micro-organisms. The highest (15)N enrichments were consistently observed in the roots, although the total quantity of (15)N incorporated into the soil was much greater. The rate of (15)N incorporation into roots was much higher at the heading than at the tillering stage of growth. Definite enrichments were also found in the basal node and in the lower outer leaf sheath fractions after 3 days of exposure at the heading stage. Thirteen days was the shortest time period in which definite (15)N enrichment was observed in the leaves and panicle. When plants were exposed to (15)N(2) for 13 days just before heading and then allowed to mature in a normal atmosphere, 11.3% of the total (15)N in the system was found in the panicles, 2.3% in the roots, and 80.7% in the subsurface soil. These results provide direct evidence of heterotrophic N(2) fixation associated with rice roots and the flooded soil and demonstrate that part of the newly fixed N is available to the plant. PMID:16661887

  1. The impact of short-term feeding of magnesium supplements on the quality of pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Provincial, Laura; Gil, Mario; Guillén, Elena; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on pork quality during 13 days of storage at 4±1°C under modified atmosphere. The experiment was conducted with 40 gilts (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed one of four diets five days prior to slaughter: 1) control diet; 2) Mg oxide; 3) Mg sulphate; or 4) Mg chelate. Dietary Mg supplementation did not affect 24-h pH, colour, and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Pork from pigs fed the Mg chelate-supplemented diet had the lowest (P≤0.05) drip, exudative, and cooking losses. Furthermore, pork from pig supplemented with Mg oxide had the lowest TBARS values. Visual assessment of pork from pigs supplemented with Mg chelate received higher colour and lower exudative scores, as well as overall acceptability scores, throughout display. Thus, Mg chelated supplementation could be effective in improving pork quality during 13 days of storage under modified atmosphere conditions. PMID:21696893

  2. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  3. Combination of automatic HPLC-RIA method for determination of estrone and estradiol in serum.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Yamada, M; Kinoshita, H; Uemura, H; Yoneda, N; Irahara, M; Aono, T; Sunahara, S; Mito, Y; Kurimoto, F; Hata, K

    1999-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive assay for estrone and 17 beta-estradiol in serum. Estrone and 17 beta-estradiol, obtained by solid-phase extraction using a Sep pak tC18 cartridge, were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantitation of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol were carried out by radioimmunoassay. Not insignificantly, this automatic system of extraction and HPLC succeeded in analyzing 80 samples a week. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for estrone and 17 beta-estradiol ranged from 19.5 to 28.7%, and from 8.5 to 13.7%, respectively. The minimum detectable dose for estrone and 17 beta-estradiol were 1.04 pg/ml and 0.64 pg/ml, respectively. The serum levels of 17 beta-estradiol using our method strongly correlated with those by Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The serum levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol in 154 peri- and postmenopausal women were estimated to be between 15 and 27 pg/ml and between 3.5 and 24.0 pg/ml, respectively, while the serum level of 17 beta-estradiol in postmenopausal women, in particular, was estimated to be from 3.5 to 6.3 pg/ml. For postmenopausal women who suffered from vasomotor symptoms, the mean levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol at 12 to 18 hours after treatment with daily 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) were 135.0 and 21.3 pg/ml at 12 months, respectively. On the other hand, levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol at 12 to 18 hours after treatment with CEE and MPA every other day, were 73.4 and 15.3 pg/ml, respectively. These highly sensitive assays for estrone and 17 beta-estradiol are useful in measuring low levels of estrogen in postmenopausal women, and monitoring estrogen levels in women receiving CEE as hormone replacement therapy. PMID:10633293

  4. EFFECT OF DEATH-TO-PRESERVATION TIME ON DONOR CORNEAL EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Woodford S; Katz, Douglas G; White, Harrison; Gayheart, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Surface disease is one of multiple variables affecting the quality of the postkeratoplasty donor cornea. Trauma to Bowman’s layer before and during harvesting can denude the donor epithelium and result in epithelial defects in the donor following penetrating keratoplasty. Eye banks use death-to-preservation (DP) time intervals as long as 18 hours. This study evaluates the effects of higher DP time on the donor epithelium in storage medium and immediately following keratoplasty. Methods Eighty-one consecutive corneas were procured by the University of Kentucky Eye Bank, rated by one technician (H.W.), and used by one surgeon (W.S.V.) for elective penetrating keratoplasty. Donor records were retrospectively reviewed for age, DP time, and epithelial condition. All corneas were harvested and evaluated according to Eye Bank Association of America standards. Donor charts were reviewed for DP time and for condition of the epithelium in storage. Recipient charts were reviewed for epithelial defects following keratoplasty. Results Average DP time of all 81 donor corneas was 6:18 hours (ie, 6 hours, 18 minutes). Average DP time of 13 corneas with epithelial sloughing was 7:02 (range, 2:01 to 12:25) hours, and nine (69%) had DP time longer than 6 hours. Average DP time of 68 corneas with no sloughing was 6:09 (range, 1:59 to 11:03) hours (P < .32). Average DP of 28 recipients with epithelial defect on day 1 was 8:01 (range, 3:41 to 12:49), and average DP in 53 patients with an intact epithelium on day 1 was 5:23 (range, 1:59 to 9:46) (P < .001). The percentage of postoperative patients with epithelial defects in the graft on day 1 rose from 14% when DP was less than 4 hours to 100% when DP was greater than 10 hours. Average DP in 13 donors under age 30 was 8.3 hours. Conclusion DP time longer than 6 hours was more likely to result in sloughing of the donor epithelium. Care of donor epithelium prior to harvesting becomes increasingly important with DP times longer

  5. [Analgesic and opioid-sparing effects of intravenous paracetamol in the early period after aortocoronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Kuslieva, E V

    2008-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the analgesic and opioid-sparing effect of intravenous paracetamol injections in cardiosurgical patients in the early postoperative period. Adequate analgesia within the first 12-18 hours of the early postoperative period is very important for a good prognosis of the further course of pain syndrome and for the reduction of a risk for its progression to its chronic form. In early studies, propacetamol lowered morphine use after orthopedic and gynecological operations. The efficacy of paracetamol used in cardiac surgery has been little studied and the results of the studies are conflicting. The randomized, blind, placebo-controlled study included patients after aortocoronary bypass surgery, of them 22 patients received paracetamol and 23 had placebo. The test drug (perfalgan 100 ml or placebo) was intravenously injected 30 min before extubation and then every 6 hours within succeeding 18 hours. The intensity of the pain syndrome was rated by a 5-score verbal scale every 2 hours. With pain score of 2 or more, promedol was intramuscularly administered in a dose of 10 mg. Inspiratory volume was recorded before extubation and the first administration of a drug just after extubation and then every 2 hours. The baseline indices did not differ in both groups. Throughout the observation, the inspiratory volume was lower in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012) in the reduction in the manifestations of the pain syndrome (by 81%) only just after tracheal extubation. During this period, inspiratory volume values were higher in the paracetamol group; however, a statistically significant (39%) difference between the groups in the mean values was obtained only during and 2 hours after extubation. In the perfalgan group, the mean total use of promedol was 36% less than in the placebo-group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.019). The early postoperative use of

  6. Study of Quasi-Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections from Super Active Regions in Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Ye, P.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections are most severe eruptive phenomenon in the solar atmosphere and are believed as the major energy source of the Near-Earth Space Environment. The study of CMEs is very important for the Space Weather forecast. The active regions , especially super-active regions, containing lots of magnetic free energy, are considered as the most important source regions of CMEs. Knowing why and how may some active regions (ARs) frequently produce CMEs is one of the key questions to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and processes of energy accumulation and sudden release in ARs as well as improving our capability of space weather prediction. Based on above, we have done two parts of work: the first one is selecting all 37 SARs in the entire 23 solar cycle, using data provided by SOHO/LASCO C2|EIT|MDI, manually determining 285 CMEs produced by those SARs; second, we use the term 'quasi-homologous'to refer to successive CMEs originating from the same ARs within a short interval, analyze the rules of quasi-homologous CMEs' generation. Finally, we got two conclusions. 1. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours. The first component is a Gaussian-like distribution with a peak at about 7 hours, which indicates a tight physical connection between these quasi-homologous CMEs. The likelihood of occurrences of two or more CMEs faster than 1200 km /s from the same AR within 18 hours is about 20%. 2. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times, CME speeds and CME occurrence rates reveals that these quantities are independent to each other, suggesting that the perturbation by preceding CMEs rather than free energy input be the direct cause of quasi-homologous CMEs. The peak waiting time of 7 hours probably characterize the time scale of the growth of instabilities triggered by preceding CMEs. This study uncovers more clues from a statistical perspective for us to understand quasi

  7. Eotaxin and Capping Protein in Experimental Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianmin; Akyürek, Levent M.; Fellström, Bengt; Häyry, Pekka; Paul, Leendert C.

    1998-01-01

    Ischemia-induced tissue activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of graft vasculopathy, but the mediators implicated have only partially been characterized. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms involved, syngeneic rat aortic transplants with cold-storage-induced vasculopathy were studied for differentially expressed mRNA transcripts. Vessel segments were exposed to either 1 or 18 hours of cold ischemia, followed by transplantation into syngeneic recipients. After 3 days or 4 weeks, the grafts were removed and total mRNA was isolated and used for differential display to identify modulation of transcript expression related to prolonged storage. Using 15 sets of random primers, 17 polymerase chain reaction products were up-regulated and 2 were down-regulated in grafts exposed to 18 hours of ischemia. Sequencing of these amplicons showed that 6 had a high degree of homology to known sequences whereas 13 had no homology to any of the genes in the database. Two of the differentially displayed amplicons (capping protein and eotaxin) were cloned, re-amplified, and used as probes for Northern blot analysis to confirm their differential expression. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against capping protein-α and eotaxin confirmed that both proteins are expressed in the media of normal aortas and that there was an increased expression in vessels exposed to prolonged ischemia albeit that the increase at the protein level seemed less compared with changes in transcript expression. Northern blots with RNA from aortic allografts exposed to prolonged ischemic storage also showed increased levels of capping protein and eotaxin mRNA whereas there was a decrease in the relative amount of these transcripts in vessels exposed to balloon denudation, suggesting that the increase after prolonged ischemic exposure is not the result of a nonspecific response to injury. Based on the biological characteristics of capping protein and eotaxin it is

  8. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  9. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups of dimethyl sulfoxide (46.3 ± 3.3%) and 1,2 propanediol (44.3 ± 2.9%) when compared with control. Conventional freezing combined with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol best preserved sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing

  10. Effects of Fluid Resuscitation With 0.9% Saline Versus a Balanced Electrolyte Solution on Acute Kidney Injury in a Rat Model of Sepsis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feihu; Peng, Zhi-Yong; Bishop, Jeffery V.; Cove, Matthew E.; Singbartl, Kai; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute effects of 0.9% saline versus a balanced electrolyte solution on acute kidney injury in a rat model of sepsis. Design Controlled laboratory experiment. Setting University laboratory. Subjects Sixty adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions We induced sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture and randomized animals to receive fluid resuscitation with either 0.9% saline or Plasma-Lyte solution for 4 hours after 18 hours of cecal ligation and puncture (10 mL/kg in the first hour and 5 mL/kg in the next 3 hr). Blood and urine specimens were obtained from baseline, 18 hours after cecal ligation and puncture, immediately after 4 hours fluid resuscitation, and 24 hours later. We measured blood gas, plasma electrolytes, creatinine, interleukin-6, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations. We also analyzed urine for cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. We used Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage criteria for creatinine to assess severity of acute kidney injury. We observed all animals for survival up to 1 day after resuscitation. Surviving animals were killed for kidney histology. Finally, we carried out an identical study in 12 healthy animals. Measurements and Main Results Compared with Plasma-Lyte, 0.9% saline resuscitation resulted in significantly greater blood chloride concentrations (p < 0.05) and significantly decreased pH and base excess. Acute kidney injury severity measured by RIFLE criteria was increased with 0.9% saline compared with Plasma-Lyte resuscitation (p < 0.05), and these results were consistent with kidney histology and biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Twenty-four-hour survival favored Plasma-Lyte resuscitation (76.6% vs 53.3%; p = 0.03). Finally, in healthy animals, we found no differences between fluids and no evidence of acute kidney injury. Conclusion Volume resuscitation with Plasma-Lyte resulted in less acidosis and less kidney injury and improved short

  11. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  12. Prehospital system delay in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Pek, Pin Pin; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Wong, Aaron Sung Lung; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely reperfusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improves outcomes. System delay is that between first medical contact and reperfusion therapy, comprising prehospital and hospital components. This study aimed to characterize prehospital system delay in Singapore. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for 462 consecutive STEMI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital from December 2006 to April 2008. Patients with cardiac arrest secondarily presented were excluded. For those who received emergency medical services (EMS), ambulance records were reviewed. Time intervals in the hospital were collected prospectively. The patients were divided into two equal groups of high/low prehospital system delay using visual binning technique. RESULTS: Of 462 patients, 76 received EMS and 52 of the 76 patients were analyzed. The median system delay was 125.5 minutes and the median prehospital system delay was 33.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]=27.0, 42.0). Delay between call-received-by-ambulance and ambulance-dispatched was 2.48 minutes (IQR=1.47, 16.55); between ambulance-dispatch and arrival-at-patient-location was 8.07 minutes (IQR=1.30, 22.13); between arrival-at- and departure-from-patient-location was 13.12 minutes (IQR=3.12, 32.2); and between leaving-patient-location to ED-registration was 9.90 minutes (IQR=1.62, 32.92). Comparing patients with prehospital system delay of less than 35.5 minutes versus more showed that the median delay between ambulance-dispatch and arrival-at-patient-location was shorter (5.75 vs. 9.37 minutes, P<0.01). The median delay between arrival-at-patient-location and leaving-patient-location was also shorter (10.78 vs. 14.37 minutes, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Prehospital system delay in our patients was suboptimal. This is the first attempt at characterizing prehospital system delay in Singapore and forms the basis for improving efficiency of STEMI care. PMID:26693262

  13. A global MHD simulation study of the vortices at the magnetosphere boundary under the southward IMF condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D.; Walker, R. J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    One of the significant problems in magnetospheric physics concerns the nature and properties of the processes which occur at the magnetopause boundary; in particular how energy, momentum, and plasma the magnetosphere receives from the solar wind. Basic processes are magnetic reconnection [Dungey, 1961] and viscouslike interaction, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability [Dungey 1955, Miura, 1984] and pressure-pulse driven [Sibeck et al. 1989]. In generally, magnetic reconnection occurs efficiently when the IMF is southward and the rate is largest where the magnetosheath magnetic field is antiparallel to the geomagnetic field. [Sonnerup, 1974; Crooker, 1979; Luhmann et al., 1984; Park et al., 2006, 2009]. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven by the velocity shear at the boundary, which occur frequently when the IMF is northward. Also variation of the magnetic field and the plasma properties is reported to be quasi-periodic with 2-3min [Otto and Fairfield, 2000] and period of vortex train with 3 to 4 minutes by global MHD simulation [Ogino, 2011]. The pressure-pulse is driven by the solar wind. And the observations of the magnetospheric magnetic field response show quasi-periodic with a period of 8 minutes [Sibeck et al., 1989; Kivelson and Chen, 1995]. There have been few studies of the vortices in the magnetospheric boundary under southward IMF condition. However it is not easy to find the generation mechanism and characteristic for vortices in complicated 3-dimensional space. Thus we have performed global MHD simulation for the steady solar wind and southward IMF conditions. From the simulation results, we find that the vortex occurs at R= 11.7Re (IMF Bz = -2 nT) and R= 10.2Re (IMF Bz = -10 nT) in the dayside magnetopause boundary. Also the vortex rotates counterclockwise in duskside magnetopause (clockwise in dawnside) and propagates tailward. Across the vortex, magnetic field and plasma properties clearly show quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of 8~10 minutes under the weak southward IMF and 4~8 minutes for strong southward IMF conditions. Magnetic reconnection favorably occurs in anti-parallel field region with slower shear velocity in the magnetosheath. The magnetic field lines are highly bent by parallel vorticity (Omega||) in the flanks of the magnetopause boundary. Also, similar vortices are formed in a grid spacing of 0.3Re and 0.2Re. A small structure vortices are generated in higher resolution (0.1Re) and two vortices are mixed after 1m30s We suggest that the reconnection is a mechanism of generating vortex with a periodicity in the dayside during the southward IMF.

  14. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong being inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Hono

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  15. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  16. Closeup of research pilot Neil Armstrong operating the Iron Cross Attitude Simulator reaction contro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  17. Intramuscular versus Intravenous Therapy for Prehospital Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Silbergleit, Robert; Durkalski, Valerie; Lowenstein, Daniel; Conwit, Robin; Pancioli, Arthur; Palesch, Yuko; Barsan, William

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early termination of prolonged seizures with intravenous administration of benzodiazepines improves outcomes. For faster and more reliable administration, paramedics increasingly use an intramuscular route. METHODS This double-blind, randomized, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy of intramuscular midazolam with that of intravenous lorazepam for children and adults in status epilepticus treated by paramedics. Subjects whose convulsions had persisted for more than 5 minutes and who were still convulsing after paramedics arrived were given the study medication by either intramuscular autoinjector or intravenous infusion. The primary outcome was absence of seizures at the time of arrival in the emergency department without the need for rescue therapy. Secondary outcomes included endotracheal intubation, recurrent seizures, and timing of treatment relative to the cessation of convulsive seizures. This trial tested the hypothesis that intramuscular midazolam was noninferior to intravenous lorazepam by a margin of 10 percentage points. RESULTS At the time of arrival in the emergency department, seizures were absent without rescue therapy in 329 of 448 subjects (73.4%) in the intramuscular-midazolam group and in 282 of 445 (63.4%) in the intravenous-lorazepam group (absolute difference, 10 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 16.1; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority). The two treatment groups were similar with respect to need for endotracheal intubation (14.1% of subjects with intramuscular midazolam and 14.4% with intravenous lorazepam) and recurrence of seizures (11.4% and 10.6%, respectively). Among subjects whose seizures ceased before arrival in the emergency department, the median times to active treatment were 1.2 minutes in the intramuscular-midazolam group and 4.8 minutes in the intravenous-lorazepam group, with corresponding median times from active treatment to cessation of convulsions of 3.3 minutes and 1.6 minutes. Adverse-event rates were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS For subjects in status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam is at least as safe and effective as intravenous lorazepam for prehospital seizure cessation. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00809146.) PMID:22335736

  18. A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Safety, Procedure Time, and Cost of the PrePex™ Device to Forceps Guided Surgical Circumcision in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Tshimanga, Mufuta; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Mugurungi, Owen; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Murwira, Munyaradzi; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E.; Nyamukapa, Daisy; Tambashe, Basile; Chatikobo, Pesanai; Gundidza, Patricia; Gwinji, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS promote MC (male circumcision) as a key HIV prevention strategy where HIV prevalence and incidence are high and MC prevalence is low. In Zimbabwe, to achieve the 1.26 million circumcisions needed to be performed by 2015 to achieve optimal MC coverage, a new approach was needed. The primary objective of the current trial was to assess the performance (safety, procedure time, and cost) of the PrePex device compared to forceps-guided surgical circumcision. Methods and Findings This Phase II, randomized, open-label trial in Zimbabwe involved healthy, non-circumcised adult male volunteers who were randomly assigned to the PrePex device (n = 160) or surgical arm (n = 80). Three doctors and 4 nurses, all certified on both circumcision methods, performed the procedures. The PrePex device procedure involves a plastic ring with a rubber O-ring that necrotizes the foreskin to facilitate easy and minimally invasive removal. Total procedure time was the primary endpoint. Adverse event (AE) data were also gathered for 90 days post-procedure. All 80 participants in the surgical arm and 158 participants in the PrePex arm achieved complete circumcision. The total procedure time for the PrePex device was approximately one-third of the total surgical procedure (4.8 minutes, Standard Deviation [SD]: 1.2 versus 14.6 minutes; SD: 4.2; p<0.00001). There were 2 AEs for 2 participants (rate of 1.3%, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.0025–4.53%), which were resolved with simple intervention. The AEs were device related, including 1 case of pain leading to device removal and 1 case of removal of the device. Conclusions The trial supports previous studies’ conclusions that the PrePex procedure is safe, quick, easy to apply, and effective in terms of procedure time as an alternative to traditional surgical circumcision. The PrePex device has great potential for use in overburdened health systems and in resource-limited settings and is recommended for use in rapid scale-up of adult MC in Zimbabwe. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956370 PMID:27227679

  19. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Materials & Methods Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. Results We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter’s darkness-phase. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an

  20. Need for Prophylactic Application of Verapamil in Transradial Coronary Procedures: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hizoh, Istvan; Majoros, Zsuzsanna; Major, Laszlo; Gulyas, Zalan; Szabo, Gabor; Kerecsen, Gabor; Korda, Andras; Molnar, Ferenc; Kiss, Robert Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Background Verapamil is traditionally applied prophylactically in transradial procedures to prevent radial artery spasm. However, verapamil may have side effects and is contraindicated in some clinical settings. Methods and Results During an investigator‐initiated, randomized, double‐blind trial, we evaluated the need for preventive verapamil administration. After vascular access was established, patients received either 5 mg verapamil (n=297) or placebo (n=294). We compared the rate of access site conversions as primary end point using a superiority margin of 5%. Occurrence of code breaks (composite of conversions and unplanned use of verapamil), overall verapamil use, procedural and fluoroscopic times, contrast volume, and subjective pain were investigated as secondary end points. The rate of access site conversions was not different in the 2 arms (placebo 1.7% versus verapamil 0.7%, P=0.28, difference 1.0%, 95% CI for the difference −1.1% to 3.3%). Proportion of code breaks was similar in the 2 groups (3.4% versus 1.3%, P=0.11), whereas overall verapamil use was markedly lower in the placebo arm (2.0% versus 100%, P<0.0001). Procedural time (median [IQR] 16.0 minutes [9.0 to 30.0 minutes] versus 17.0 minutes [10.0 to 31.0 minutes], P=0.37), fluoroscopic time (4.4 minutes [2.1 to 9.6 minutes] versus 4.8 minutes [2.4 to 10.7 minutes], P=0.28), contrast volume (72.5 mL [48.0 to 146.0 mL] versus 75.5 mL [47.0 to 156.5 mL], P=0.74), and pain score (P for trend=0.12) were comparable in the 2 groups. Conclusions The preventive use of verapamil may be unnecessary for transradial procedures. The omission of prophylactic verapamil may not only reduce the rate of potential complications related to the drug but also allow the safe extension of the transradial method to those with contraindications to verapamil. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01402427. PMID:24732918

  1. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-G-CSF) may accelerate hematopoietic recovery after HLA-identical sibling allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Ustün, C; Akçağlayan, E; Akan, H; Arslan, O; Ilhan, O; Beksaç, M; Gürman, G; Demirer, T; Arat, M; Celebi, H; Konuk, N; Uysal, A; Koç, H

    2001-03-01

    We studied the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on hematopoietic recovery and clinical outcome in patients undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Fifty-six patients with hematological malignancies who underwent allogeneic PBSC transplantation between 1995 and 1998 were entered into this study. Twenty-eight patients who received daily G-CSF from day +1 after allogeneic PBSC transplantation until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) reached >0.5 x 10(9)/l for 3 consecutive days were compared with 28 patients (control group) who did not receive G-CSF in a non-randomized manner. The study group and the control group were comparable with respect to baseline patient and transplantation characteristics. Median times to ANC of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and 1 x 10(9)/l with or without G-CSF were 12 days (range 8-21), 13 days (10-32) (P = 0.04) and 13 days (9-21), 15 days (11-44) (P = 0.02), respectively. Median times to reach a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l with and without G-CSF were 11 days (0-20) and 13 days (9-26), respectively (P = 0.03). The incidence of febrile episodes was significantly lower with G-CSF, 75% vs 100% (P = 0.008). Patients receiving G-CSF had less grade III-IV mucositis than those who did not receive G-CSF (P = 0.01). There was also no increase in the incidence and severity of acute GVHD in patients using G-CSF (P = 0.22). Although the number of relapsing patients was greater in the G-CSF group (seven vs three patients), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Disease-free and overall survival rates did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.58 and 0.53, respectively). The administration of G-CSF after allogeneic PBSC transplantation provided faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment associated with less severe mucositis and less febrile episodes. PMID:11313683

  2. A new method of using gas exchange measurements for the noninvasive determination of cardiac output: clinical experiences in adults following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Osterlund, B; Gedeon, A; Krill, P; Johansson, G; Reiz, S

    1995-08-01

    New mathematical algorithms have been applied to a computer controlled closed breathing circuit system for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output (COniv). This system has been described in an animal study. Forty patients were studied 5 and 18 hours after cardiac surgery using the thermodilution technique as the reference (COtd). The variables entered into the algorithms for COniv were oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide elimination, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure, tidal volume and arterial oxygen saturation. Mixed venous carbon dioxide partial pressure was obtained from an automatically implemented short rebreathing manoeuvre. Pulmonary perfusion was calculated by a modified Fick equation for carbon dioxide and the shunt flow added to obtain COniv. During mechanical ventilation, there was a good agreement between COtd and COniv (r = 0.8). The bias was -0.14 l/min and the precision was 0.77 l/min. The reproducibility of COniv was 0.03 l/min and for COtd -0.03 l/min with a standard deviation of the difference being 0.35 l/min for COniv and 0.31 l/min for COtd. In awake, but sedated extubated patients, the method proved unsatisfactory on account for uneven tidal volumes and difficulties with leakage around the mouth piece. We conclude that this new technique provides reliable and reproducible measures of cardiac output in sedated, ventilated patients. PMID:7484024

  3. Flight Test Comparison of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Trey; Parrish, Russell V.; Barry, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Limited visibility is the single most critical factor affecting the safety and capacity of worldwide aviation operations. Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technology can solve this visibility problem with a visibility solution. These displays employ computer-generated terrain imagery to present 3D, perspective out-the-window scenes with sufficient information and realism to enable operations equivalent to those of a bright, clear day, regardless of weather conditions. To introduce SVS display technology into as many existing aircraft as possible, a retrofit approach was defined that employs existing HDD display capabilities for glass cockpits and HUD capabilities for the other aircraft. This retrofit approach was evaluated for typical nighttime airline operations at a major international airport. Overall, 6 evaluation pilots performed 75 research approaches, accumulating 18 hours flight time evaluating SVS display concepts that used the NASA LaRC's Boeing B-757-200 aircraft at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Results from this flight test establish the SVS retrofit concept, regardless of display size, as viable for tested conditions. Future assessments need to extend evaluation of the approach to operations in an appropriate, terrain-challenged environment with daytime test conditions.

  4. Antiviral response dictated by choreographed cascade of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Elena; Hershberg, Uri; Seto, Jeremy; Pham, Alissa M.; Marquez, Susanna; Duke, Jamie L.; Wetmur, James G.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) is a master regulator of immune responses. Pathogenic viruses subvert normal immune function in DCs through the expression of immune antagonists. Understanding how these antagonists interact with the host immune system requires knowledge of the underlying genetic regulatory network that operates during an uninhibited antiviral response. In order to isolate and identify this network, we studied DCs infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which is able to stimulate innate immunity and DC maturation through activation of RIG-I signaling, but lacks the ability to evade the human interferon response. To analyze this experimental model, we developed a new approach integrating genome-wide expression kinetics and time-dependent promoter analysis. We found that the genetic program underlying the antiviral cell-state transition during the first 18-hours post-infection could be explained by a single convergent regulatory network. Gene expression changes were driven by a step-wise multi-factor cascading control mechanism, where the specific transcription factors controlling expression changed over time. Within this network, most individual genes are regulated by multiple factors, indicating robustness against virus-encoded immune evasion genes. In addition to effectively recapitulating current biological knowledge, we predicted, and validated experimentally, antiviral roles for several novel transcription factors. More generally, our results show how a genetic program can be temporally controlled through a single regulatory network to achieve the large-scale genetic reprogramming characteristic of cell state transitions. PMID:20164420

  5. Production of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis NRC 33a and enzymic synthesis of levan and Fructo-Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed F; Mahmoud, Doaa A R; Esawy, Mona A T

    2005-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis NRC 33a was able to produce both inducible and constitutive extracellular levansucrase, respectively, using sucrose and glucose as carbon source. The optimal production of the levansucrase was at 30 degrees C. The effect of different nitrogen sources showed that baker's yeast with 2% concentration gave the highest levansucrase activity. Addition of 0.15 g/L MgSO(4) was the most favorable for levansucrase production. The enzymic synthesis of levan was studied using 60% acetone fraction. The results indicated that high enzyme concentrations produced increasing amounts of levan, and hence conversion of fructose to levan reached 84% using 1,000 microg/ml enzyme protein. Sucrose concentration was the most effective factor controlling the molecular weight of the synthesized levan. The conversion of fructose to levan was maximal at 30 degrees C. The time of reaction clearly affected the conversion of fructose to levan, which reached its maximum productivity at 18 hours (92%). Identification of levan indicated that fructose was the building unit of levan. PMID:16328628

  6. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm). PMID:23990718

  7. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm(2)/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm). PMID:23990718

  8. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  9. Home hemodialysis in Australia: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter G; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; McDonald, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    Home hemodialysis (HD) in Australia represents 11% of the dialysis population. This percentage has declined over the last 20 years but the absolute number of home HD patients has increased since 2001. The major reason for this resurgence has been the institution of nocturnal HD at home. Predominantly, this has been as a strictly alternate day exercise, although 5-6 times per week dialysis is also practised. Short-daily HD is uncommon in Australia. Nocturnal HD now comprises 30% or more of all home HD. Most home HD in Australia is practiced without remote monitoring, using simple machines with separate reverse osmosis units. Patients tend to self-needle and not all have a "partner." The enthusiasm for nocturnal HD in particular has been fuelled by ANZDATA Registry data demonstrating a survival advantage for patients dialyzing alternate days compared with 3 times per week; and for patients dialyzing for >18 hours per week compared with 12 or 15 hours per week. PMID:18638244

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of toluene by platinized titanium dioxide photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Young, C; Lim, T M; Chiang, K; Amal, R

    2004-01-01

    A photoreactor has been set up to study the photodegradation of volatile organic compound (VOC) in situ. In the reactor, TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts were immobilized on to UV-transparent quartz support. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements revealed that the quartz fiber support was mostly coated with catalyst with a total surface area of 4.0 +/- 0.3 m2/g. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated for the photodegradation of 160 ppm toluene-laden air. It was found that 50-70% of toluene was degraded within the first 5 min of UV illumination. Both TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts suffered from deactivation after 18 hours of continuous operation, and the photocatalysts' activity was significantly reduced. However, platinization doubled the photocatalyst life and delayed the onset of de-activation. The presence of moisture was found to shift the onset of catalyst de-activation to an earlier time. It is concluded that the de-activation of the photocatalyst was due to the accumulation of intermediates on the photocatalysts surface preventing the toluene being adsorbed on the photocatalyst surface for degradation. PMID:15484768

  11. Post-Cleanup Communication and Records Plan for Project Chariot, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The Project Chariot Site resides in a remote and isolated area in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska (Figure 1-1). The Project Chariot Site was a proposed test location for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Plowshare Program in 1958. In 1962, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted environmental studies using less than 30 mCi of short-lived mixed fission products. The location of the studies was about 0.75 mile (1.2 km) north of the Project Chariot Site base camp. Radioactive material was spread over the 12 test plots: 10 were used for overland transport tracer tests, one for a sediment transport experiment, and one for an 18-hour percolation test. The 11 test plots constituted an area less than 0.9 percent of an acre. At the conclusion of the August 1962 tracer test, USGS scraped the ground surface of the test plots and the percolation test location. The scraped soil and vegetation were mixed with native soil, deposited in a mound on two of the plots, and covered with 4 ft (1.22 m) of uncontaminated soil (DOE 1993).

  12. The Multiple Forms of alpha-Amylase Enzyme of the Araucaria Species of South America: A. araucana (Mol.) Koch and A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kutz : A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Salas, E; Cardemil, L

    1986-08-01

    alpha-Amylase is one of the major enzymes present in the seeds of both Araucaria species of South America and it initiates starch hydrolysis during germination and early seedling growth. The pattern of the multiple forms of alpha-amylase of the two Araucaria species was investigated by electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing of the native enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme forms were compared in the embryo and megagametophyte of quiescent seeds and of seeds imbibed for 18, 48, and 90 hours. Specific alpha-amylase enzyme forms appear and disappear during these imbibition periods showing both similarities and differences between tissues and species. Before imbibition, there are five alpha-amylase forms identical in both tissues, but different between species. After 18 hours of imbibition, there are two enzyme forms in both tissues of Araucaria araucana seeds, only one form in the embryo of Araucaria angustifolia but two forms in the megagametophyte of this specie. After 48 hours of seed imbibition, most of the enzyme forms present in quiescent seeds reappear. At 90 hours of imbibition different enzyme forms are detected in the embryo with respect to the gametophyte. The changes in form patterns of alpha-amylase are discussed according to a possible regulation of gene expression by endogenous gibberellins. PMID:16664944

  13. Starch Degradation Metabolism towards Sucrose Synthesis in Germinating Araucaria araucana Seeds.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, L; Varner, J E

    1984-12-01

    As starch is the main seed reserve material in both species of Araucaria of South America, A. araucana and A. angustifolia, it is important to understand starch breakdown in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues of Araucaria seeds. Sugar analysis by thin layer chromatography indicates that sucrose is the main sugar produced in both tissues. Enzyme reactions coupled to benzidine oxidation indicate that sucrose is the main sugar moved from the megagametophyte to the growing regions of the embryo via the cotyledons.Phosphorylase was detected in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues by the formation of [(32)P]glucose-1-P and by formation of [(14)C] amylopectin from [(14)C]glucose-1-P. The enzyme activity increases 5-fold in both embryo and gametophyte to a peak 18 hours after the start of imbibition. Debranching enzyme, alpha-glucosidase, and hexokinase are also present in both embryonic and megagametophytic tissues.Branched glucan oligosaccharides accumulate during this time, reaching a maximum 40 hours after imbibition starts, and decline after germination occurs.The pattern of activity of the enzymes studied in this work suggests that starch degradation is initiated by alpha-amylase and phosphorylase in the embryo and by phosphorylase mainly in the megagametophyte. Sucrose-P synthase seems to be the enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis in both tissues. PMID:16663947

  14. Magnetometric evaluation for the effect of chrysotile on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Keira, T; Okada, M; Katagiri, H; Aizawa, Y; Okayasu, I; Kotani, M

    1998-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages are thought to play an important role in fibrogenesis due to asbestos exposure. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect mainly by unique magnetometry and also by conventional methods such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity measurement and morphological observations. Alveolar macrophages obtained from Syrian golden hamsters by bronchoalveolar lavages were exposed 18 hours in vitro to Fe3O4 as an indicator for magnetometry and chrysotile for experiments. A rapid decrease of the remanent magnetic field, so called "relaxation", was observed after the cessation of an external magnetic field in macrophages phagocytizing Fe3O4 alone, while relaxation was delayed in those concurrently exposed to chrysotile. Since relaxation is thought due to the cytoskeleton-driven random rotation of phagosomes containing iron oxide particles, chrysotile is considered to interfere with the cytoskeletal function of macrophages. Release of LDH from chrysotile-exposed macrophages into the medium was recognized, but it was not significantly higher than the controls. Apoptosis was negligible in macrophages exposed to chrysotile by the DNA ladder detection, the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling method and morphological observations. Electron microscopical examinations revealed early necrotic changes in macrophages exposed to chrysotile. These findings indicate that cell magnetometry detects impaired cytoskeletal function due to in vitro exposure to chrysotile. PMID:10223613

  15. Anisotropy and the knee of the energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clay, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The measured cosmic ray energy spectrum exhibits clear structure (the knee) at approx 3 x 10 to the 15th power eV (sea level shower size approx 3 x 10 to the 5th power particles). Additionally, at energies in this general region, there occur apparent changes in shower development such that the observed characteristics of showers at this energy appear different to those characteristics observed at somewhat higher energies. At energies just below this region, the cosmic ray anisotropy amplitude apparently begins a progressive increase with energy. The latter effect does not clearly fit with the first two since there appears to be no significant change exactly at the knee. However, the phase of the first harmonic of the anisotropy appears to show a substantial change just where the energy spectrum shows structure and in the middle of the shower development changes. The first harmonic phase appears to change from approx. 18 hours R.A. to approx. 5 hours R.A. as the energy of observation moves through the knee. In this paper the latter change is examined in some detail by taking into account information contained in the second harmonic of the anisotropy.

  16. Kinetics of staurosporine-arrest of human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.P.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Habbersett, R.C.; Crissman, H.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the general protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (Stsp), has a differential effect on the progression of normal and transformed cells. Low levels of Stsp (1.0 ng/ml) reversibly arrested normal diploid cells in early G1 phase, whereas concentrations of Stsp as high as 50-75 ng/ml had no effect on G1 progression in transformed cells. High concentrations of Stsp arrested normal cells in G1 and G2 phases but blocked transformed cells only in G2 phase of the cell cycle. To follow the accumulation of cells in G1 and/or G2 phases, asynchronous cultures of human diploid fibroblasts were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 or 50 ng/ml staurosporine for 18 hours in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine. The kinetics of labeling with BrdU were determined with a two-laser flow cytometric technique that monitored emission of fluorescence from DNA-species stains that differed in the degree of BrdU-induced quenching of their fluorescence signals. Bivariate plots of Hoechst/mithramycin fluorescence signal ratio vs. Hoechst fluorescence identified the arrested cells as cohorts of cells in different positions across cell cycle at the time of Stsp addition.

  17. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Benoit, Audrey; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Bherer, Louis; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (r s = -0.48; p < 0.05) and visual memory (r s = -0.46; p < 0.05). The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients. PMID:27516906

  18. RGS4 inhibits angiotensin II signaling and macrophage localization during renal reperfusion injury independent of vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Paul; Jin, Xiaohua; Proctor, Brandon M.; Farley, Michelle; Roy, Nilay; Chin, Matthew S.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Vollmann, Elisabeth; Perro, Mario; Hoffman, Ryan J.; Chung, Joseph; Chauhan, Nikita; Mistri, Murti; Muslin, Anthony J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Siedlecki, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major contributor to the severity of acute kidney injury. In the context of vasospasm-independent reperfusion injury we studied the potential anti-inflammatory role of the Gα-related RGS protein, RGS4. Transgenic RGS4 mice were resistant to 25 minute injury, although post-ischemic renal arteriolar diameter was equal to the wild type early after injury. A 10 minute unilateral injury was performed to study reperfusion without vasospasm. Eighteen hours after injury blood flow was decreased in the inner cortex of wild type mice with preservation of tubular architecture. Angiotensin II levels in the kidneys of wild type and transgenic mice were elevated in a sub-vasoconstrictive range 12 and 18 hours after injury. Angiotensin II stimulated pre-glomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to secrete the macrophage chemoattractant, RANTES; a process decreased by angiotensin II R2 (AT2) inhibition. However, RANTES increased when RGS4 expression was suppressed implicating Gα protein activation in an AT2-RGS4-dependent pathway. RGS4 function, specific to VSMC, was tested in a conditional VSMC-specific RGS4 knockout showing high macrophage density by T2 MRI compared to transgenic and non-transgenic mice after the 10 minute injury. Arteriolar diameter of this knockout was unchanged at successive time points after injury. Thus, RGS4 expression, specific to renal VSMC, inhibits angiotensin II-mediated cytokine signaling and macrophage recruitment during reperfusion, distinct from vasomotor regulation. PMID:25469849

  19. [The development of the IgG concentration in the blood serum of newborn foals].

    PubMed

    Warko, G; Bostedt, H

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of the IgG concentration in blood serum of neonatal foals. A comparison of blood serum IgG concentration of the mares showed IgG values of 3356 +/- 671 mg/dl up to a maximum of 3579 +/- 766 mg/dl (means +/- s). In accordance with Eisenhauer (1981) and in contrast to Jeffcott (1974) no significant change of the IgG level in the blood serum of the mares could be observed during the test period. However, the IgG concentration in the colostrum of meanG = 11776 mg/dl during birth decreased considerably 96 hours later with meanG = 135 mg/dl. At birth in all samples, small amounts of IgG could be detected. The IgG level of the foals' blood increased rapidly after the ingestion of colostrum; 6 of 16 foals showed more than 800 mg/dl six hours post natum, reaching maximum levels 18 hours after birth with meanG = 1343 mg/dl. At 96 hours post natum, the IgG concentration dropped to meanG = 1170 mg/dl. The correlation of IgG concentration in colostrum and serum was significant. PMID:8122240

  20. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  1. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal.

  2. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

  3. Texture development in SiC-seeded AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Sandlin, M.S.; Bowman, K.J.; Root, J.

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline AlN specimens containing 15 volume percent SiC seed particles were slip-cast then hot-pressed at 1,800 C. These processing steps resulted in oriented SiC platelets in a nearly random AlN matrix. Samples were then annealed for up to 18 hours at 2,150 C under nitrogen. Quantitative texture measurements of the AlN and SiC basal poles, and powder diffraction measurements were performed using neutron and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that SiC platelets effectively seed AlN-SiC alloy textures by a coalescence and growth mechanism during annealing. Texture intensification does not occur in AlN specimens without SiC platelet additions, or in specimens containing non-oriented SiC powder. The most effective seeing was observed in specimens containing 15 volume percent SiC platelets. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy were used in conjunction with texture analysis to elucidate texture development mechanisms.

  4. Cryotop vitrification of porcine parthenogenetic embryos at the early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Quan; Quan, Guo-Bo; Shao, Qing-Yong; Lv, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Yan-Ting; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early developmental stages at which Cryotop vitrification is performed on subsequent survival and in vitro development of porcine parthenogenetic activation embryos. The zygotes that were cultured for 4, 8, and 18 hours post electric activation (h.p.a.) and two- and four-cell embryos were vitrified, warmed, and continuously cultured for the remaining period. The zygotes vitrified at 4, 8, and 18 h.p.a. showed similar percentages of survival, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. No difference in viability was observed after vitrification of two- and four-cell embryos, but the embryos vitrified at the two-cell stage exhibited significantly higher blastocyst formation rate than those vitrified at the four-cell stage. However, vitrifying embryos resulted in significantly decreased survival and development rates, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos. In addition, the final developmental stage, diameter, apoptotic index, and the number of inner cell mass, trophectoderm, and total cells of blastocysts derived from embryos vitrified at any stage of the early culture were similar to those of fresh blastocysts. In conclusion, our data indicate that the early-stage porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos including the zygote, two cells, and four cells have a high ability to survive cryopreservation; these viable embryos after vitrification can produce respectable development rates and good-quality blastocysts. PMID:26462660

  5. Simultaneous measurement of flow over and transmigration through a cultured endothelial cell layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Lori; Pipinos, Iraklis; Baxter, Timothy; MacTaggart, Jason; Moormeier, Derek; Bayles, Kenneth; Wei, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    The measurement and analysis of fluid forces on endothelial cells at the cellular and subcellular levels is an essential component of understanding mechanotransduction and atherogenesis. The ultimate goal of this study is to examine and model the transport and transmigration of low-density lipoproteins across a confluent endothelial layer as a function of fluid loading and time. In this study, steady flow over a cultured endothelial cell layer at shear rates up to 20 dynes/cm2 in a 350 μm × 70 μm cross section mircrochannel was measured using μPTV measurements. By using multiple measurement planes parallel to the channel wall, wall shear stress and wall pressure were computed as well as the endothelial cell topography. The study was performed over a period of 18 hours in which the transport and transmigration of fluorescently tagged low-density lipoproteins through a cultured endothelial cell layer were examined as a function of fluid forces, cell topography, and time. The help of Dr. Richard Leighton is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nagina, G.; Asima, A.; Nemat, U.; Shamim, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  7. Cutaneous thermal injury alters macromolecular permeability of rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Carter, E A; Tompkins, R G; Schiffrin, E; Burke, J F

    1990-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium normally provides a barrier function that prevents absorption of potentially harmful materials from the intestinal lumen. It has been postulated but never demonstrated that a cutaneous thermal injury will result in increased small-intestinal permeability. In a standardized 20% body surface area full-thickness scald injury, with polyethylene glycol 3350 and horseradish peroxidase used as permeability probes, small-intestinal permeability was examined regionally in an everted intestinal sac model. In the normal animals, the upper (proximal) and lower (distal) small intestine were less permeable to these probes than the middle segment. Within 6 hours after the injury, an increase in the mucosal uptake and transmural permeability was seen in all three small-intestinal segments; the most dramatic increase in permeability occurred in the ileum, p less than 0.01. The maximum increase in permeability was seen at 18 hours, and permeability was normal by 72 hours after the injury. This increase in intestinal permeability may represent a transient failure of the intestinal barrier function and may allow absorption of potentially toxic macromolecules from the intestinal lumen into the portal circulation early after thermal injury. Absorption of these macromolecules, such as endotoxin, may be potentially harmful by direct toxic actions or potentially helpful by activation of the immune system. PMID:2309150

  8. Beneficial effects of intracoronary thrombolysis up to eighteen hours after onset of pain in evolving myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Smalling, R.W.; Fuentes, F.; Freund, G.C.; Reduto, L.A.; Wanta-Matthews, M.; Gaeta, J.M.; Walker, W.; Sterling, R.; Gould, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    Coronary arteriography and intracoronary streptokinase (STK) infusion were performed on 89 patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ventricular function was followed in these patients during their hospitalization by gated radionuclide ventriculography. In 35 of these patients thallium imaging was performed on admission and 4 hours after reperfusion. An additional 30 patients with AMI who either met exclusion criteria for the STK protocol or refused study served as a control group. In patients admitted 0 to 6, 6 to 12, or 12 to 18 hours after onset of pain, there was no difference in change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from admission to discharge, in percent of patients with total occlusion demonstrating reperfusion, or in percent of patients demonstrating a significant increase in LVEF. The average increase in LVEF from admission to discharge in patients reperfused ws 8% (40% +/- 14% to 48% +/- 13%, p less than 0.001). No change in LVEF was demonstrated in the control population or in patients in whom coronary reperfusion was unsuccessful. Reperfusion produced an increase in thallium uptake in the infarct-related myocardium that was accompanied by an improvement in regional function. Failure of reperfusion produced no change in either thallium uptake or regional function.

  9. Quantification of the interaction between bottlenose dolphins and the Atlantic blue crab fishery in Charleston, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquette, Ashley

    Entanglement in commercial fishery equipment is the number one anthropogenic cause of marine mammal death worldwide. The Atlantic blue crab fishery is the number one cause of fishery related incidents for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in South Carolina. It is hypothesized that the dolphins are attracted to the pots either by the bait or possibly the other marine life drawn to the pots. Hydrophones deployed in baited and unbaited crab pots recorded dolphin vocalizations which were used as proxy for dolphin presence. Recorded data were used to quantify the interaction between dolphins and crab pots as well as elucidate the effects of tide, bait presences, and time of day on the interactions. Sonar imaging was deployed to determine if prey species aggregated around the crab pots and whether bait presence affects the fish activity. The hydrophones recorded 1,103 hours of audio data, and 18 hours of visual data were recorded by the dual-frequency identification sonar. The results found that dolphin interactions with the crab pots were not significantly impacted by the presence of bait. Time of day and tidal stage did affect the frequency and duration of interactions. Prey species were observed aggregating around the crab pots and no impact of bait presence on fish activity was observed. Results from this study will aid in the understanding of when and why bottlenose dolphins interact with the Atlantic blue crab fishery. Such information can then be used in the formulation of preventative measures against entanglement.

  10. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Nau, Amy C.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. Methods An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid dexamethasone through the silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a spectrophotometer over a period of 18 hours and quantified using a standard curve. This assay was performed with control and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm-coated contact lenses composed of lotrafilcon A and methafilcon. Biofilms were formed in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with D-glucose. Results The presented data validate a simple in vitro model that can be used to measure penetration of a topical therapeutic through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Using this model we measured a reduction of dexamethasone diffusion by up to 88% through S. epidermidis biofilm-coated silicon hydrogel lenses compared to control lenses. Conclusions The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that bacterial biofilms impede dexamethasone diffusion through silicon hydrogel contact lenses, and warrant future studies regarding the clinical benefit of using ocular therapeutics in the setting of bandage contact lens use for corneal epithelial defects. PMID:25090165

  11. Natural killer (NK) activity of pit cells perfused from livers of rats treated with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Albornoz, L.; Jones, J.M.; Crutchfield, C.; Veech, R.L. Univ. of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock )

    1991-03-11

    The liver is the major site of ethanol (ETOH) metabolism. Liver sinusoids contain lymphocytes with NK activity. The authors treated LEW rats for 2 weeks with i.p. injection of 1.25 ml 25% ETOH/kg 3 times/week and 5% ETOH in drinking water. Livers were perfused at 5-fold physiological pressure and cells obtained were banded on 1.077 density Ficoll. Their cytotoxicity was tested against {sup 51}Cr-labeled YAC-1 or U937 and compared to spleen and blood lymphocytes. In untreated rats, pit cell NK activity was 2-fold that of splenic lymphocytes and 4-fold that of blood lymphocytes. Compared to controls, ETOH-treated rats exhibited a 30 to 90% rise in pit cell NK activity detected with YAC-1 or U937 targets. The pit cell enhanced NK activity in ETOH-treated rats was further increased if polyinosinicpolycytidilic acid was injection i.p. 18 hours before the assay. Blood and spleen lymphocyte NK activity of ETOH-treated rats was also greater than in controls. There was no evidence that ETOH merely redistributed lymphocytes among the tissues. Although ETOH acutely inhibits NK activity in vitro, chronic ETOH increases in vivo.

  12. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.; Martin, L.L.

    1994-05-01

    Experiments on flotation of 60--200 mesh treated Illinois No. 6 coal (PSOC-1539) and Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) were performed. The coals were treated with 20-ppM alcohol aqueous solutions (soln) for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate at 225C. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with 1-propanol aqueous solution, increases with treatment durations for the first 10 hours and then decreases. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with isopropanol soln increases with treatment durations for the first 18 hours and then levels off. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with butanol soln, increases with treatment durations. Flotation of 1-butanol-treated Illinois No. 6 coal is higher than that of t-butanol-treated Illinois No. 6 coal. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with 20-ppM-isobutanol 20-ppM-HCl soln, increases with treatment durations for the first 10 hours treatment period, and then decreases sharply with treatment durations. Flotation of Wyodak coal, treated with water only, increases with treatment durations. Effects of water treatment on flotation of Wyodak coal are significantly pronounced compared to Illinois No. 6 coal.

  13. Spaceflight Validation of Hzetrn Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    HZETRN is being developed as a fast deterministic radiation transport code applicable to neutrons, protons, and multiply charged ions in the space environment. It was recently applied to 50 hours of IMP8 data measured during the August 4, 1972 solar event to map the hourly exposures within the human body under several shield configurations. This calculation required only 18 hours on a VAX 4000 machine. A similar calculation using the Monte Carlo method would have required two years of dedicated computer time. The code has been benchmarked against well documented and tested Monte Carlo proton transport codes with good success. The code will allow important trade studies to be made with relative ease due to the computational speed and will be useful in assessing design alternatives in an integrated system software environment. Since there are no well tested Monte Carlo codes for HZE particles, we have been engaged in flight validation of the HZETRN results. To date we have made comparison with TEPC, CR-39, charge particle telescopes, and Bonner spheres. This broad range of detectors allows us to test a number of functions related to differing physical processes which add to the complicated radiation fields within a spacecraft or the human body, which functions can be calculated by the HZETRN code system. In the present report we will review these results.

  14. The first experience of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (T1aNxMx-T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. In the 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the 99mTc-Al2O3 in peritumoral injected, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3 (the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac (14%), obturator (14%), presacral and retrosacral regions (14%), and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  15. Protective Effects of Fluoxetine on Decompression Sickness in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Barre, Sandrine; Pascual, Aurelie; Castagna, Olivier; Abraini, Jacques H.; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallee, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS) that can result in central nervous system disorders or even death. Bubbles alter the vascular endothelium and activate blood cells and inflammatory pathways, leading to a systemic pathophysiological process that promotes ischemic damage. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory properties at the systemic level, as well as in the setting of cerebral ischemia. We report a beneficial clinical effect associated with fluoxetine in experimental DCS. 91 mice were subjected to a simulated dive at 90 msw for 45 min before rapid decompression. The experimental group received 50 mg/kg of fluoxetine 18 hours before hyperbaric exposure (n = 46) while controls were not treated (n = 45). Clinical assessment took place over a period of 30 min after surfacing. At the end, blood samples were collected for blood cells counts and cytokine IL-6 detection. There were significantly fewer manifestations of DCS in the fluoxetine group than in the controls (43.5% versus 75.5%, respectively; p = 0.004). Survivors showed a better and significant neurological recovery with fluoxetine. Platelets and red cells were significantly decreased after decompression in controls but not in the treated mice. Fluoxetine reduced circulating IL-6, a relevant marker of systemic inflammation in DCS. We concluded that fluoxetine decreased the incidence of DCS and improved motor recovery, by limiting inflammation processes. PMID:23145072

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen pre-breathe modifies the outcome of decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Butler, B D; Little, T; Cogan, V; Powell, M

    2006-01-01

    Deep sea divers, aviators and astronauts are at risk of decompression sickness when the ambient pressure reductions exceed a critical threshold. Venous bubbles associated with decompression sickness have the potential to react with the vascular membrane and adjacent blood products, eliciting an inflammatory cascade. Preventive measures usually involve careful decompression procedures to avoid or reduce bubble formation. De-nitrogenation with 100% oxygen pre-breathing as a preventive measure has been well established at least in altitude decompression exposures. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological and biochemical effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Pre-breathe (HBOP) upon decompression from a hyperbaric exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. Two experimental groups received HBOP at 1 and 18 hours prior to decompression, as compared with ground level oxygen or non-treated groups that still experienced decompression stress, and the associated non-decompressed controls. The results showed decreased extravascular lung water (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural protein and arterial, broncho-alveolar lavage, and urine leukotriene E4 (LKE4) levels in both the 1Hr and 18Hr HBOP decompressed rats compared to non-oxygenated decompressed rats, as well as a decreased overall expression of signs of decompression sickness. This study indicates that HBOP-treated rats exhibit fewer signs and complications of decompression sickness compared with non-treated or ground level oxygen treated rats. PMID:17274310

  17. Diuretic and natriuretic activity of two mistletoe species in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Namita; Patil, C. R.; Chaudhari, K. B.; Wagh, J. P.; Surana, S. J.; Jadhav, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    In different cultural groups, the hemiparasitic plants of the families Loranthaceae and Viscaceae (mistletoes) are frequently used in the treatment of hypertension and/or as diuretic agents. However, it remains unclear as to what commonality makes them diuretic agents or a remedy for hypertension. In this article, the diuretic activity of methanol extracts of Viscum articulatum (VA) Burm. f. and Helicanthus elastica (HE) (Ders.) Dans. in rats is reported. The extracts were administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg to rats that had been fasted and deprived of water for 18 hours. Investigations were carried out for diuretic, saluretic and natriuretic effects. The polyphenolic and triterpenoid contents were determined quantitatively using chemical assays and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, respectively. The extracts of VA and HE demonstrated significant and dose-dependent diuretic activity in rats. It was found that while VA mimics the furosemide pattern, HE demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in diuresis, along with an increase in potassium-sparing effects. Phytochemical analysis revealed that polyphenolics and triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid and lupeol, are the major phytochemicals involved. It was also found that in different combinations, these phytochemicals differed in the way they influenced the electrolyte excretion. A higher content of polyphenolics in association with lower triterpenoid content was found to favor potassium-sparing effects. PMID:21808540

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of adult cardiomyocyte apoptosis during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kang, P M; Haunstetter, A; Aoki, H; Usheva, A; Izumo, S

    2000-07-21

    Apoptosis has been implicated in ischemic heart disease, but its mechanism in cardiomyocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation in adult cardiomyocytes and the molecular mechanism involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Morphologically, reoxygenation induced rounding up of the cells, appearance of membrane blebs that were filled with marginated mitochondria, and ultrastructural findings characteristic of apoptosis. Reoxygenation (18 hours of reoxygenation after 6 hours of hypoxia) and prolonged hypoxia (24 hours of hypoxia) resulted in a 59% and 51% decrease in cellular viability, respectively. During reoxygenation, cell death occurred predominantly via apoptosis associated with appearance of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and -9. However, nonapoptotic cell death predominated during prolonged hypoxia. Both caspase inhibition and Bcl-2 overexpression during reoxygenation significantly improved cellular viability through inhibition of apoptosis but had minimal effect on hypoxia-induced cell death. Bcl-2 overexpression blocked reoxygenation-induced cytochrome c release and activation of caspase -3 and -9, but caspase inhibition alone did not block cytochrome c release. These results suggest that apoptosis predominates in cardiomyocytes after reoxygenation through a mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway, and Bcl-2 prevents reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and prevents activation of caspase-3 and -9. PMID:10903995

  19. An overdose of extended-release guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Fein, Daniel M; Hafeez, Zoabe F; Cavagnaro, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Extended-release guanfacine is a centrally acting α2-adrenergic agonist that was recently approved for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The following is a case discussion of a 12-year-old boy with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome, who presented 18 hours after ingestion of 3 times his usual dose of extended-release guanfacine. On presentation, he was lethargic, bradycardic, and hypertensive with an otherwise nonfocal neurological examination. He remained hypertensive until administration of an intravenous antihypertensive agent (nicardipine) 24 hours after ingestion. After cessation of the calcium-channel blocker, he continued to have intermittent episodes of symptomatic hypotension for the next 2½ days. This extremely protracted course of hypertension followed by prolonged symptomatic hypotension is rare with ingestions of centrally acting α2-adrenergic agonists. As this drug is increasingly prescribed for treatment of a disease with increasing prevalence, it is imperative that emergency physicians become familiar with the varying presentations of its toxicity. PMID:23925253

  20. Improvements to the wash oil final cooler process at Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect

    Zendzian, T.N.

    1996-12-31

    Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor coke plant consists of two 82 oven batteries with associated coal handling, coal chemical, and coke handling facilities. Each battery is currently operating at a coking time of 18 hours with a maximum of 109 ovens pushed per battery per day. Each day approximately 7200 tons of coal are charged into the batteries which produces 83 million cubic feet of gas. The coal chemical plant consists of primary coolers, exhausters, electrostatic tar precipitators, ammonia absorbers, and wash oil final coolers. No light oil removal from the coke oven gas is done at Burns Harbor. Several improvements have been made to the wash oil final cooler process to comply with the benzene NESHAP regulations, eliminate the disposal of hazardous wastes, and to reduce oil consumption. Process changes include a continuous versus batchwise removal of contaminants, an additional decanter, and the use of a demulsifier. These changes resulted in compliance with all NESHAP regulations, reduced operating expenses due to less oil consumption, and the recycling rather than disposal of waste oil. Oil consumption has been reduced by over 65% in the past five years.

  1. Investigation of geomagnetic disturbances (F=1-5 Hz) before strong EQs in Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytenko, Y.; Ismaguilov, V.; Schekotov, A.; Molchanov, O.; Hayakawa, M.

    2007-05-01

    Regular observations of ULF electromagnetic disturbances at st. Karymshino in seismic active zone of Kamchatka peninsula were carried out by induction three-component high-sensitive magnetometer during 2001- 2003 years. Five seismic active periods with strong earthquakes (M>5) were displayed during this period. These EQs occurred at the Pacific at 20-60 km depth at 100-140 km distances to the East from the st. Karymshino. Analysis of normalized dynamic power spectra of data of high-sensitive (0.2 pT/sqrt(Hz)) three- component induction magnetometer achieved a significant disorder of daily variation and increasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities (from 0.2 to ~ 1 pT) in the whole investigated frequency range (1 - 5 Hz). The anomaly intensity increasing was observed during the 12-18 hours before main seismic shocks. Maximum of the increasing occurred during 4-6 hours before the EQs. A sharp decreasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities was observed 2-4 hours before the EQs. We suppose that physical processes in a hearth of forthcoming EQ lead to an irreversible avalanche-like formation of cracks and stimulation of the ULF electromagnetic disturbances.

  2. Peculiarities of ULF electromagnetic disturbances before strong earthquakes in seismic active zone of Kamchatka peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytenko, Y. A.; Ismagilov, V. S.; Schekotov, A.; Molchanov, O.; Chebrov, V.; Raspopov, O. M.

    2006-12-01

    Regular observations of ULF electromagnetic disturbances and acoustic emissions at st. Karymshino in seismic active zone of Kamchatka peninsula were carried out during 2001-2003 years. Five seismic active periods with strong earthquakes (M>5) were displayed during this period. These EQs occurred at the Pacific at 20-60 km depth at 100-140 km distances to the East from the st. Karymshino. Analysis of normalized dynamic power spectra of data of high-sensitive (0.2 pT/sqrt(Hz)) three-component induction magnetometer achieved a significant disorder of daily variation and increasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities (from 0.2 to ~1 pT) in the whole investigated frequency range (0.2-5 Hz). The anomaly intensity increasing was observed during the 12-18 hours before main seismic shocks. Maximum of the increasing occurred during 4-6 hours before the EQs. An increasing of acoustic emissions (F=30 Hz) was observed during the same period. A sharp decreasing of the magnetic disturbance intensities was observed 2-4 hours before the EQs. We suppose that physical processes in a hearth of forthcoming EQ lead to an irreversible avalanche-like formation of cracks and stimulation of the acoustic and ULF electromagnetic disturbances.

  3. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7–10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0–25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0–24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0–16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kui; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D

    2009-09-15

    Quinic acid (QA) esters found in hot water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (a.k.a. cat's claw) exert anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms involving inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Herein, we describe the synthesis and biological testing of novel QA derivatives. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was assessed using A549 (Type II alveolar epithelial-like) cells that stably express a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter driven by an NF-kappaB response element. A549-NF-kappaB cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of QA derivative for 18 hours followed by measurement of SEAP activity. Amide substitution at the carboxylic acid position yielded potent inhibitors of NF-kappaB. A variety of modifications to the amide substitution were tolerated with the N-propyl amide derivative being the most potent. Further examination of the SAR demonstrated that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups reduced NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. QA amide derivatives lacked anti-oxidant activity and were found to be neither anti-proliferative nor cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 microM. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel series of non-toxic QA amides that potently inhibit NF-kappaB, despite their lack of anti-oxidant activity. Mechanistic studies and pre-clinical efficacy studies in various inflammatory animal models are on-going. PMID:19674895

  5. A regional GSI-based EnKF system for the Rapid Refresh configuration: Tests for Satellite Radiance Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kefeng; Xue, Ming

    2015-04-01

    A regional ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation (EnKF) system based on the NCEP operational Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system has been established for the target Rapid Refresh (RAP) applications. The EnKF system borrows the data processing and observation operators from the GSI system, and pre-calculates observation priors using the GSI. The filter is based on the serial ensemble square-root Kalman filter (EnSRF) and updates both the state vector and observation priors and its distributed memory parallelization is carried out at the state vector level. In this study, the impact of satellite radiance including AMSU, AIRS, MHS and HIRS within the established EnKF-RAP framework was examined. Testing is performed at the ~40 km grid spacing, and its performance is compared to the GSI system which uses three dimensional variation method. The performance is evaluated in terms of short-range (up to 18 hours) forecast errors verified again soundings. The assimilation of AMSU-A data improved the forecast accuracy for all the verified variables especially for the wind components; the assimilation of AIRS data greatly improved the forecast accuracy of relative humidity; when all the radiance data were assimilated, the forecast is the best. The forecast started from EnKF analysis is consistently better than from GSI analysis though the relative improvement is smaller than GSI. In additional, the configurations like bias correction and thinning for radiance assimilation within ENKF-RAP will be presented and discussed.

  6. Heparin inhibits mesangial cell proliferation in habu-venom-induced glomerular injury.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, A. K.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of anticoagulant heparin and nonanticoagulant heparin to inhibit mesangial-cell proliferation after the administration of habu (Trimeresurus flavorivids) snake venom to rats. Rats given injected habu venom exhibited glomerular capillary cystic lesions 6 to 24 hours later, and marked mesangial proliferation was noted within the cyst after 3 days. At 7 days 87% of these lesions (nodules) contained primarily mesangial cells embedded in a dense matrix and fibrin. A decrease in the frequency of nodules and the persistence of cysts indicate effective antiproliferative treatment. When anticoagulant heparin treatment extended from 18 hours after venom administration until sacrifice at 7 days, the percentage of nodules was reduced to 40%. Nonanticoagulant heparins resulted in some, but inconsistent, inhibition of mesangial-cell proliferation. The mechanism of the antiproliferative action of heparin on mesangial cells is not known but may be similar to that for vascular smooth muscle growth regulation. The authors suggest that endogenous heparin in the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix may exert an antiproliferative effect under normal conditions. Loss of this inhibition due to glomerular damage might be reversed by the addition of exogenous heparin. Images Figure 1 PMID:3875292

  7. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of /sup 51/Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of /sup 51/Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers.

  8. Susceptibility of Monkeypox virus aerosol suspensions in a rotating chamber

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Killeen, Stephanie Z.; Redmann, Rachel K.; Roy, Chad. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Viral aerosols can have a major impact on public health and on the dynamics of infection. Once aerosolized, viruses are subjected to various stress factors and their integrity and potential of infectivity can be altered. Empirical characterization is needed in order to predict more accurately the fate of these bioaerosols both for short term and long term suspension in the air. Here the susceptibility to aerosolization of the monkeypox virus (MPXV), associated with emerging zoonotic diseases, was studied using a 10.7 liter rotating chamber. This chamber was built to fit inside a Class three biological safety cabinet, specifically for studying airborne biosafety level three (BSL3) microorganisms. Airborne viruses were detected by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after up to 90 hours of aging. Viral concentrations detected dropped by two logs for culture analysis and by one log for qPCR analysis within the first 18 hours of aging; viral concentrations were stable between 18 and 90 hours, suggesting a potential for the MPXV to retain infectivity in aerosols for more than 90 hours. The rotating chamber used in this study maintained viral particles airborne successfully for prolonged periods and could be used to study the susceptibility of other BSL3 microorganisms. PMID:23142251

  9. Use of an oxygen concentrator in a Nigerian neonatal unit: economic implications and reliability.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Ajayi, Oluade A

    2002-09-01

    A 3-year experience of using an oxygen concentrator in a Nigerian newborn unit and economic appraisal of its effectiveness is reported. The oxygen concentrator is a device that absorbs nitrogen from ambient air, with a resultant oxygen concentration of 85 to 95% at different flow rates. The oxygen concentrator met our oxygen needs which averaged 18 hours a day, and had a huge cost advantage over the oxygen cylinders. The cost of oxygen via cylinder for just one patient for a year exceeds the initial capital outlay for a concentrator. The Puritan-Bennett oxygen concentrator has a lifespan of at least 7 years and is virtually maintenance-free for the 1st 26,400 hours of use, after which some major components might need replacement. We conclude that in developing countries oxygen concentrators are a more cost-effective, reliable and convenient means of oxygen supply than oxygen cylinders, and recommend their use where there is a high demand for oxygen. PMID:12369483

  10. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

  11. Continuous emergency department monitoring of arterial saturation in adult patients with respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Heiselman, D; Cannon, L; Gradisek, R

    1988-05-01

    Continuous measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) using pulse oximetry has become a common monitoring and management technique in critically ill hospitalized patients. To determine the impact of SaO2 monitoring on emergency patient management, we conducted a prospective uncontrolled clinical trial on 40 adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute respiratory illness, such as emphysema, asthma, or pulmonary edema. Recorded data included hemograms, arterial blood gases, subsequent therapy, and response to treatment. Additionally, the "early warning" capability of SaO2 monitoring was analyzed by recording the severity and outcome of hypoxemic events during treatment. Mean duration of usage for the 40 oximeters in the ED was 1.8 hours; all probes functioned reliably over a wide range of systolic pressures (80 to 206 mm Hg), heart rates (40 to 180 beats per minute), and hematocrits (20% to 58%). There was good correlation between simultaneous pulse oximeter values and both directly measured SaO2 (r = 0.95) and saturations derived from measured arterial PaO2 (r = 0.94). The device detected several otherwise unrecognized drops in arterial saturation that were confirmed by laboratory analysis. Other clinical situations in which the pulse oximeter was found useful in the ED are reviewed. We conclude that continuous measurement of SaO2 can improve the monitoring of ED patients, increase the precision of therapy, detect hypoxemia during intubation, suctioning, and other treatments, and detect clinically unsuspected changes in arterial oxygenation. PMID:3364826

  12. Dopamine Treatment and Cognitive Functioning in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: The “Cognitive Flexibility” Hypothesis Seems to Work

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Mazzù, Ilenia; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous data suggest that (i) dopamine modulates the ability to implement nonroutine schemata and update operations (flexibility processes) and that (ii) dopamine-related improvement may be related to baseline dopamine levels in target pathways (inverted U-shaped hypothesis). Objective. To investigate above hypotheses in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty PD patients were administered tasks varying as to flexibility load in two treatment conditions: (i) “off” condition, about 18 hours after dopamine dose and (ii) “on” condition, after dopamine administration. PD patients were separated into two groups: low performers (i.e., performance on Digit Span Backward below the sample mean) and high performers (i.e., performance above the mean). Twenty healthy individuals performed the tasks in two sessions without taking drugs. Results. Passing from the “off” to the “on” state, only low performer PD patients significantly improved their performance on high-flexibility measures (interference condition of the Stroop test; P < 0.05); no significant effect was found on low-flexibility tasks. Conclusions. These findings document that high-flexibility processes are sensitive to dopamine neuromodulation in the early phases of PD. This is in line with the hypothesis that striatal dopamine pathways, affected early by PD, are precociously implicated in the expression of cognitive disorders in these individuals. PMID:24825952

  13. Effect of UV irradiation, toluidine blue, and environment on maternal haploid frequencies from the cross between Nicotiana tabacum and N. africana

    SciTech Connect

    Chimoyo, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Treating Nicotiana africana Merxm. pollen with three levels UV radiation prior to pollinating four cultivars of flue-cured tobacco (Coker 176, NC95, McN944 and PD4), Nicotiana tabacum produced 1,953 viable seedlings from an estimated total of 170,248 seeds, of which 1,667 were haploid and 286 were hybrids. Drenching N. tabacum flowers with toluidine blue 18 hours after pollination with normal N. africana pollen, yielded 511 viable seedlings from 70,613 seeds, of which 346 were haploid and 165 hybrids. Untreated pollen gave 548 viable seedlings from 56,291 seeds, comprising 341 haploids and 208 hybrids. Contrary to results from a previous histological study, in vivo pollen tube growth rate appears to be similar irrespective of pollen source or treatment, and fertilization seems to occur at about the same time as in the selfed control. From an estimated total of 803,854 seeds sown, 3,014 viable seedlings were obtained. Coker 176 gave significantly higher yields of haploids than the other three cultivars. Field grown plants produced more haploids than greenhouse grown plants. Further evidence was obtained to support selective chromosomal elimination as the mechanism governing the development of maternal haploids from this interspecific cross.

  14. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  15. Chronic cocaine administration induces long-term impairment in the drive to obtain natural reinforcers in high- but not low-demanding tasks.

    PubMed

    Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Gal, Ram; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Repeated drug exposure induces short- and long-term neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitries that are normally involved in the regulation of motivation. Hence, repeated drug exposure has been suggested to also affect the drive to acquire natural reinforcers. Here, we tested how chronic exposure of rats to cocaine, as well as a subsequent withdrawal period, affects acquisition of natural reinforcers in high- and low-demanding tasks (HD and LD tasks, respectively). We chronically administered cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg once daily, or saline in control) for 30 days, followed by a 30-day withdrawal period. We tested the effect of this treatment on the acquisition of two natural appetitive reinforcers, namely self-administering a 10% sucrose solution and mounting a receptive female, under LD and HD conditions. During the cocaine exposure period, behavioral testing took place 18 hours after cocaine injection, namely after the acute pharmacologic effect of the drug dissipated. We show that chronic i.p. cocaine exposure decreased procurement of both reinforcers in HD but not in LD tasks. The effect was observed throughout the administration period with partial recovery after withdrawal. Taken together, we present empirical evidence that chronic exposure to a constant dose of cocaine is sufficient to reduce natural reinforcement, and that this decrease can outlast drug exposure. Importantly, such effects are observed only when high demands are opposing the consumption of the natural reinforcer. PMID:25393705

  16. Extended-Interval Aminoglycoside Use in Cystic Fibrosis Exacerbation in Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Khalid H.; Damiani, Justina M.; Sturza, Julie; Nasr, Samya Z.

    2016-01-01

    This is a prospective quality improvement project for patients with cystic fibrosis who are 5 years of age and older who were admitted for intravenous antibiotic administration as part of treatment of cystic fibrosis exacerbation. The goal of this project was to compare the pharmacokinetics of once-daily versus thrice-daily aminoglycoside use when treating cystic fibrosis exacerbation in different age groups. Of the total of 119 patient encounters, 82.4% were started on once-daily dosing, and the remainder were started on thrice-daily dosing. Patients with pharmacokinetics allowing the continuation of once-daily dosing differed from patients who required a switch to thrice-daily dosing in terms of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of vital capacity, age, and body mass index (BMI) but were similar in BMI percentiles. The once-daily dosing group had higher mean 18-hour level, higher mean half-life, higher mean area under the curve, and lower mean elimination constant. This study showed that aminoglycoside clearance is higher in younger children. PMID:27336007

  17. How well do truck drivers sleep in cabin sleeper berths?

    PubMed

    Darwent, David; Roach, Greg; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep obtained by livestock transport truck drivers while resting in truck sleeper berths during long-haul commercial operations. Operations were carried out in the very remote regions of Australia. The sample comprised of 32 drivers who wore wrist activity monitors and reported bed-times for a two-week period. Drivers had a mean (±standard deviation) age of 35.41 (± 9.78) years and had worked as truck drivers for 13.83 (± 9.11) years. On average, they obtained 6.07 (± 1.18) hours of sleep/24-h period. The majority of sleep occurred at night, but drivers occasionally supplemented their main sleep with a daytime nap. Consistent with operational demands, drivers were most likely to sleep in cabin sleeper berths (n = 394, 77%). Only a small proportion of sleeps were sampled at home (n = 63, 12%) or at truck depots (n = 56, 11%). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that while earlier bed-times at home yielded more sleep, there were only marginal differences in sleep quality across location. No intrinsic safety concerns associated with the use of sleeper berths were identified across consecutive days of long-haul transport operations. PMID:21820102

  18. Effects of cold-treatment and strain-rate on mechanical properties of NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mingzhi; Wang, Xingzhe; Zhou, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    During design and winding of superconducting magnets at room temperature, a pre-tension under different rate is always applied to improve the mechanical stability of the magnets. However, an inconsistency rises for superconductors usually being sensitive to strain and oversized pre-stress which results in degradation of the superconducting composites' critical performance at low temperature. The present study focused on the effects of the cold-treatment and strain-rate of tension deformation on mechanical properties of NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires. The samples were immersed in a liquid nitrogen (LN2) cryostat for the adiabatic cold-treatment, respectively with 18-hour, 20-hour, 22-hour and 24-hour. A universal testing machine was utilized for tension tests of the NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires at room temperature; a small-scale extensometer was used to measure strain of samples with variable strain-rate. The strength, elongation at fracture and yield strength of pre-cold-treatment NbTi/Cu composite wires were drawn. It was shown that, the mechanical properties of the superconducting wires are linearly dependent on the holding time of cold-treatment at lower tensile strain-rate, while they exhibit notable nonlinear features at higher strain-rate. The cold-treatment in advance and the strain-rate of pre-tension demonstrate remarkable influences on the mechanical property of the superconducting composite wires. PMID:25713767

  19. An Accurate NH Map of the North Ecliptic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Lockman, F. J.; Fassnacht, C.

    1999-02-01

    The Galactic HI column density was measured at 21arcmin angular resolution over an 8 by 9 degree region centered on the North Ecliptic Pole, with the NRAO 140ft telescope and a technique to remove stray radiation (Lockman, Jahoda & McCammon 1986, ApJ, 302, 432). Over the region NH varies smoothly between 3e20 atoms/cm2 and 8e20 atoms/cm2. The map is given here. A spin temperature of 250K is assumed. Units are 10^18 atoms/cm2. The center is the NEP at 18 hours +66 degrees. The paper discusses the structure seen over most of the map on an 0.5 to 1 degree scale. There are other possible sources of interstellar opacity in this direction which may add an equivalent 1e20 atoms/cm2 of HI. We evaluate the effect of uncertainties in the HI column density on inferred X-ray fluxes of extragalactic objects.

  20. Dissimilar properties within a carbonate-reservoir's small fault zone, and their impact on the pressurization and leakage associated with CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Guglielmi, Yves; Cappa, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on a small fault zone (too small to be detected by geophysical imaging) affecting a carbonate reservoir composed of porous and low-porosity layers. In a gallery located at 250 m depth, the hydraulic properties of a 20 m thick section of the reservoir affected by the studied fault are characterized by structural measurements and hydraulic injection into boreholes. We conducted electrical tomographies before and after an 18 hour-long injection, to image the fluid flow through the fault zone. Our main finding is that the damage zone displays contrasting permeability values (up to two orders of magnitude) inherited from the differential alteration of the intact rock layers. To characterize the impact of these hydraulic-property variations on the fluid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of water and supercritical CO2 injections, using the TOUGH2 code. Two damage-zone models were compared, with heterogeneous (Model 1) and homogeneous (Model 2) hydraulic properties. In Model 1, injected fluids cannot escape through the fault zone; they generate a high fluid overpressure, located in the damage-zone layers having the highest permeability and storativity. In Model 2, fluids can easily migrate; the overpressure is lower and located in the host rock along the fault zone.

  1. Patchiness in a microhabitat chip affects evolutionary dynamics of bacterial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Tekwa, Edward W; Nguyen, Dao; Juncker, David; Loreau, Michel; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Localized interactions are predicted to favour the evolution of cooperation amongst individuals within a population. One important factor that can localize interactions is habitat patchiness. We hypothesize that habitats with greater patchiness (greater edge-to-area ratio) can facilitate the maintenance of cooperation. This outcome is believed to be particularly relevant in pathogenic microbes that can inhabit patchy habitats such as the human respiratory tract. To test this hypothesis in a simple but spatially controlled setting, we designed a transparent microhabitat chip (MHC) with multiple patchiness treatments at the 100 micron scale. The MHC is a closed system that sustains bacterial replication and survival for up to 18 hours, and allows spatial patterns and eco-evolutionary dynamics to be observed undisturbed. Using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we tracked the growth of wild-type cooperators, which produce the public good pyoverdin, in competition with mutant defectors or cheaters that use, but do not produce, pyoverdin. We found that while defectors on average outperformed cooperators in all habitats, habitat patchiness significantly alleviated the ecological pressure against cooperation due to defection, leading to coexistence. Our results confirmed that habitat-level spatial heterogeneity can be important for cooperation. The MHC enables novel experiments, allows multiple parameters to be precisely varied and studied simultaneously, and will help uncover dynamical features of spatial ecology and the evolution of pathogens. PMID:26224163

  2. Hartwell brings gas-fired independent power to Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This exempt wholesale generator is the first major independent power producer in the state, and its power purchase agreement is one of the first signed with a Rural Electrification Administration utility. Fuel access made siting here a natural. In its first 22 months of operation, the Hartwell Energy Project, Hart County, Ga, has already put its advanced, high-temperature gas turbines through a vigorous workout: the strenuous dispatch regimen calls for multiple starts per day, and for on-line time that varies anywhere from 20 minutes to 18 hours at a stretch. And once on the grid, the turbines haven`t sauntered along at low power levels--97% of the operating time has been at full load. In spite of the demanding dispatch schedule, Hartwell has achieved a 98% availability factor since commercial startup. Being located at the interaction of major gas and oil pipelines, the 300-MW peaking facility`s fuel picture is one of inherent flexibility. Its two simple-cycle 7FA gas turbine/generators, supplied by General Electric Co (GE), Schenectady, NY, are dual-fuel capable, although to date, fuel oil has been burned only for testing purposes.

  3. Urinary hexane diamine to assess respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate aerosol: a human inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youcheng; Berode, Michele; Stowe, Meredith H; Holm, Carole T; Walsh, Frank X; Slade, Martin D; Boeniger, Mark F; Redlich, Carrie A

    2004-01-01

    The use of urinary hexane diamine (HDA) as a biomarker to assess human respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol was evaluated. Twenty-three auto body shop workers were exposed to HDI biuret aerosol for two hours using a closed exposure apparatus. HDI exposures were quantified using both a direct-reading instrument and a treated-filter method. Urine samples collected at baseline, immediately post exposure, and every four to five hours for up to 20 hours were analyzed for HDA using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean urinary HDA (microg/g creatinine) sharply increased from the baseline value of 0.7 to 18.1 immediately post exposure and decreased rapidly to 4.7, 1.9 and 1.1, respectively, at 4, 9, and 18 hours post exposure. Considerable individual variability was found. Urinary HDA can assess acute respiratory exposure to HDI aerosol, but may have limited use as a biomarker of exposure in the workplace. PMID:15473079

  4. Production of Prednisolone by Pseudomonas oleovorans Cells Incorporated Into PVP/PEO Radiation Crosslinked Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Abeer; Abd El-Rehim, Hassan A

    2004-01-01

    In order to rise the yield of prednisolone from hydrocortisone, the Pseudomonas oleovorans cells were entrapped into radiation crosslinked poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PVP/PEO) hydrogel of different gel contents. The factors affecting the gel content and swelling behavior of the polymeric gel, such as polymer composition, polymer blend concentration, and irradiation doses, were investigated. The formation of gels having a good strength with the ability to retain a desirable amount of water in their three-dimensional network can be achieved by using PVP/PEO copolymer of composition $(90:10)$ and concentration of 15% prepared at 20 kGy irradiation dose. At these conditions the prepared hydrogel is considered the most favorable one that gave the highest hydrocortisone bioconversion and prednisolone yield, 81% and 62.8%, respectively. The improvement of prednisolone yield was also achieved by increasing substrate concentration. Maximum hydrocortisone bioconversion (86.44) was obtained at 18 hours by using substrate concentration of 30 mg. Reusability of immobilized Pseudomonas oleovorans entrapped into PVP/PEO copolymer hydrogel was studied. The results indicated that the transformation capacity of hydrocortisone to prednisolone highly increased by the repeated use of copolymer for 4 times. This was accompanied by an increase in prednisolone yield to 89% and the bioconversion of hydrocortisone was 98.8%. PMID:15467162

  5. Grinding machine: friend or foe.

    PubMed

    Adigun, I A; Kuranga, S A; Abdulrahman, L O

    2002-01-01

    Few cases of traumatic loses of the external genitalia have been reported in this part of the world. In a developing country like ours, grinding machines are commonly being used by the people for domestic purposes. Children in their mid fifteens are usually employed to man and operate the machine without proper training and apprenticeship. Many of them have fallen victims of various genito-urinary injuries from grinding machine. Treating a child for complete traumatic loss of penis is rare and challenging any where in the world. A 12 years old boy presented to the emergency unit of our hospital with penile amputation 18 hours after the injury was sustained. A penile reconstruction of corporal cavernosa phalloplasty was used. This method of reconstruction may be used by clinician in our sub-region where other treatment modalities such as replantation by microvascular surgery, use of free radial fore-arm flap or sex reassignment to the female gender may not be feasible or acceptable. PMID:12665282

  6. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection in the Extended Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Sabrina; West, Matthew; Seaton, Daniel B.; Kobelski, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Observational signatures of reconnection have been studied extensively in the lower corona for decades, successfully providing insight into energy release mechanisms in the region above post-flare arcade loops and below 1.5 solar radii. During large eruptive events, however, energy release continues to occur well beyond the presence of reconnection signatures at these low heights. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and downflowing loops (SADLs) are particularly useful measures of continual reconnection in the corona as they may indicate the presence and path of retracting post-reconnection loops. SADs and SADLs have been faintly observed up to 18 hours beyond the passage of corona mass ejections through the SOHO/LASCO field of view, but a recent event from 2014 October 14 associated with giant arches provides very clear observations of these downflows for days after the initial eruption. We report on this unique event and compare these findings with observational signatures of magnetic reconnection in the extended corona for more typical eruptions.

  7. Using an established pre adipose cell line (ATCC CL 173) for studying chromium metabolism and biopotency

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, D.G.; Azuka, C. ); Johnson, B. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies concerning the mechanism by which chromium enhances insulin action and identification of chromium compounds which have high glucose tolerance factor activity have been limited by biological testing methods. The isolated rat adipose tissue assay has been commonly used. The pre-adipose cell line (ATCC CL 173) has many advantages over the isolated rat adipose tissue method including: uniformity of cells; increased viability of the cell cultures; can readily be grown in a low chromium media with a cell doubling time of about 18 hours; studies can be made on rapidly multiplying cells or on mature adipose cells and using rate of cell number increase, percent attachment of cells or cultures in an Omni Spec instrument avoid the use of radio labeled compounds. The ATCC CL 173 pre adipose cell line has been used to evaluate various chromium compounds for insulin like and insulin enhancing activity using physiological and pharmacological chromium levels. Rapidly dividing cells and mature adipose cells do not always react similarly with the same chromium compound. Cell response to a chromium compound and/or insulin also differs based on the growth media in which the cells have been maintained. Duration of metabolic studies as well as metabolite chosen also influence cellular response to chromium and insulin. Using this method for biological testing several chromium compounds have shown insulin like activity and a few show actual insulin potentiation.

  8. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  9. Characterization of a 5-azacytidine-induced developmental Aspergillus fumigatus variant

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Varga, John; Lewis, Russell E; May, Gregory S; Nierman, William C

    2010-01-01

    The hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5AC) is widely used in patients at risk of invasive mycoses. We sought to determine whether 5AC affects the developmental competence and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. Incubation of A. fumigatus strain 293 with 5AC induced high-frequency conversion to a fluffy-variant (Af293FL). The conidiation defect was bypassed by exposing Af293FL to light during the initial 18 hours of growth on solid media. Transcriptional profiling revealed differential expression of multiple genes involved in G-protein signaling, including a putative G-protein coupled photoreceptor (opsin), suggesting that impaired signaling through a light-responsive pathway upstream of brlA is responsible for this phenotype. Af293FL was fully virulent in fruit fly and murine models of invasive aspergillosis. Moreover, Af293FL overexpressed aspergillopepsin F, had increased elastase activity and was more angioinvasive than the parental wild-type strain. The 5AC-induced A. fumigatus fluffy variant illustrates the potential effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the developmental and pathobiologic characteristics of opportunistic fungi. PMID:21178435

  10. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-Al2O3- based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (TlaNxMx- T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. At 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the 99mTc-Al2O3 were injected peritumorally, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3(the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac, obturator, presacral and retrosacral regions (they amounted to 14%, respectively),and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  11. Anterior ST depression with acute transmural inferior infarction due to posterior infarction. A vectorcardiographic and scintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Mukharji, J.; Murray, S.; Lewis, S.E.; Croft, C.H.; Corbett, J.R.; Willerson, J.T.; Rude, R.E.

    1984-07-01

    The hypothesis that anterior ST segment depression represents concomitant posterior infarction was tested in 49 patients admitted with a first transmural inferior myocardial infarction. Anterior ST depression was defined as 0.1 mV or more ST depression in leads V1, V2 or V3 on an electrocardiogram recorded within 18 hours of infarction. Serial vectorcardiograms and technetium pyrophosphate scans were obtained. Eighty percent of the patients (39 of 49) had anterior ST depression. Of these 39 patients, 34% fulfilled vectorcardiographic criteria for posterior infarction, and 60% had pyrophosphate scanning evidence of posterior infarction. Early anterior ST depression was neither highly sensitive (84%) nor specific (20%) for the detection of posterior infarction as defined by pyrophosphate imaging. Of patients with persistent anterior ST depression (greater than 72 hours), 87% had posterior infarction detected by pyrophosphate scan. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction, vectorcardiographic evidence of posterior infarction correlated poorly with pyrophosphate imaging data. Right ventricular infarction was present on pyrophosphate imaging in 40% of patients with pyrophosphate changes of posterior infarction but without vectorcardiographic evidence of posterior infarction. It is concluded that: 1) the majority of patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction have anterior ST segment depression; 2) early anterior ST segment depression in such patients is not a specific marker for posterior infarction; and 3) standard vectorcardiographic criteria for transmural posterior infarction may be inaccurate in patients with concomitant transmural inferior myocardial infarction or right ventricular infarction, or both.

  12. Effect of novel phosphoramidate on growth and respiratory metabolism of Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Houneida, Benbouzid; Berrebah, H; Berredjem, M; Djebar, M R

    2012-01-01

    The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. This paper describes the quick toxic evaluation of a novel synthetic compound: Phosphoramidate derivative B at different concentrations (2, 4 and 8 μM) for 72 h on Paramecium aurelia. We showed that B concentrations affect the growth of Paramecium in concentration- dependent manner; also it decreases the growth rate and increases response percentage in concentration- dependent manner. The value of LC50 obtained for these protozoa was estimated at 4.9693 μM after 24 hours of exposure. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations after 18 hours of exposure. The results indicate that the Paramecium toxicity assay could be used as a complementary system to rapidly elucidate the cytotoxic potential of insecticides. The major advantages associated with these tests are: inexpensive, simple, rapid and seem to be attractive alternatives to conventional bioassays. PMID:22690051

  13. Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in Valley quail (Callipepla californica)

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Renata A.; Pena, Hilda F.J.; Cabral, Aline D.; Rolim, Veronica M.; de Oliveira, Luiz G.S.; Boabaid, Fabiana M.; Wouters, Angelica T.B.; Wouters, Flademir; Cruz, Cláudio E.F.; Driemeier, David

    2015-01-01

    An adult, captive raised male Valley quail (Callipepla californica) acquired by a southern Brazilian aviary suddenly showed severe apathy, dyspnea and diarrhea, and died 18 hours after the onset of illness. At necropsy, pale muscles and whitish areas in the heart, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and consolidated red lungs were observed. Histological findings were mainly mononuclear inflammation with necrosis of liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow and lung. There were large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesorganisms in the liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, trachea, kidneys, adrenal glands, testes, intestines, and pancreas. These organisms were seen free in the organs' stroma or within macrophages and stained positively with polyclonal antiserum to T. gondii. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and PCR was used to target the B1 gene of T. gondii. The genotypic characterization by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 and alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3) revealed the ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #87 genotype, the same as previously identified in a backyard chicken (TgCkBr156) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26101744

  14. Memory-enhancing treatments reverse the impairment of inhibitory avoidance retention in sepsis-surviving rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuon, Lisiane; Comim, Clarissa M; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Barichello, Tatiana; Izquierdo, Ivan; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Survivors from sepsis have presented with long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and global loss of cognitive function. Thus, we evaluated the effects of memory enhancers in sepsis-surviving rats. Methods The rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (sepsis group) with 'basic support' (saline at 50 mL/kg immediately and 12 hours after CLP plus ceftriaxone at 30 mg/kg and clindamycin at 25 mg/kg 6, 12, and 18 hours after CLP) or sham-operated (control group). After 10 or 30 days, rats were submitted to an inhibitory avoidance task. After task training, animals received injections of saline, epinephrine, naloxone, dexamethasone, or glucose. Twenty-four hours afterwards, animals were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance test. Results We demonstrated that memory enhancers reversed impairment in the sepsis group 10 and 30 days after sepsis induction. This effect was of lower magnitude when compared with sham animals 10 days, but not 30 days, after sepsis. Conclusions Using different pharmacologic approaches, we conclude that the adrenergic memory formation pathways are responsive in sepsis-surviving animals. PMID:18957125

  15. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ≤32 μg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

  16. Mode of action and safety of lactosporin, a novel antimicrobial protein produced by Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Shadi; Dover, Sara E.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the mechanism of action of antimicrobial protein, lactosporin, against Gardnerella vaginalis and to evaluate its safety in-vitro. Methods and Results Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 was grown at 37 °C for 18 hours. The cell free supernatant was concentrated 10-fold and screened for antimicrobial activity against indicator strain Micrococcus luteus. The mode of action of lactosporin was determined by measuring the potassium release and monitoring the changes in transmembrane potential (Δψ) and transmembrane pH (ΔpH) of the sensitive cells. Lactosporin caused efflux of potassium ions from M. luteus cells and dissipation of ΔpH in G. vaginalis while it had no effect on the Δψ. The safety of lactosporin was evaluated by using EpiVaginal™ ectocervical (VEC-100) tissue model. Over 80% of the cells in the vaginal tissue remained viable after exposure to lactosporin for 24 hours. Conclusions Lactosporin potentially exerts its antimicrobial activity by selective dissipation of ΔpH and/or by causing leakage of ions from the sensitive cells. Safety studies suggest that lactosporin is a non-cytotoxix antimicrobial for vaginal application. Significance and Impact of the Study This study revealed that lactosporin is an effective and safe antimicrobial preparation with potential application for control of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:22737982

  17. Unilateral Optic Neuropathy and Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma following Snake Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Cadirci, Kenan; Durur Karakaya, Afak; Bayramlar, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to describe a unique case in which a patient developed unilateral optic neuritis and angle-closure glaucoma as a result of snake envenomation. Case Report. Approximately 18 hours after envenomation, a 67-year-old female patient described visual impairment and severe pain in her left eye (LE). The patient's best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the RE and hand motion in the LE. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of neuropathy in the left optic nerve. In the LE, corneal haziness, closure of the iridocorneal angle, and mild mydriasis were observed and pupillary light reflex was absent. Intraocular pressure was 25 mmHg and 57 mmHg in the RE and LE, respectively. The patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma in the LE. Optic neuropathy was treated with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone. Left intraocular pressure was within normal range starting on the fourth day. One month after the incident, there was no sign of optic neuropathy; relative afferent pupillary defect and optic nerve swelling disappeared. Conclusions. Patients with severe headache and visual loss after snake envenomation must be carefully examined for possible optic neuropathy and angle-closure glaucoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of these cases are necessary to prevent permanent damage to optic nerves. PMID:25705536

  18. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. PMID:26798544

  19. Novel Therapies for Myocardial Irritability following Extreme Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Paul B.; Missirlis, Perseus I.; Brar, Harry; Dhingra, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) overdose is rare and potentially deadly when consumed in large doses. Management of severe HCQ toxicity is limited and infrequently reported. This report presents the case of a massive ingestion of HCQ. Case Report. A 23-year-old female presents following an intentional ingestion of approximately 40 g of HCQ. Within six hours after ingestion, she developed severe hemodynamic instability resulting from myocardial irritability with frequent ventricular ectopic activity leading to runs of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) requiring multiple defibrillations. Additional treatments included intravenous diazepam, epinephrine, norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulfate. Despite the ongoing hemodynamic instability, the patient was also treated with Intralipid (ILE) and received hemodialysis. Improvements in her hemodynamics were observed after 18 hours. She survived her massive overdose of HCQ. Conclusion. HCQ poisoning is rare but serious because of its rapid progression to life-threatening symptoms. Hemodynamic support, gastric decontamination, electrolyte monitoring and replacement, and management of arrhythmias are the mainstays of treatment. The combined role of dialysis and ILE in the setting of massive HCQ overdose may improve outcomes. PMID:26351590

  20. Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhenyu; Su Ying; Yang Shanmin; Yin Liangjie; Wang Wei; Yi Yanghua; Fenton, Bruce M.; Zhang Lurong; Okunieff, Paul . E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-{beta}1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-{beta}1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1{alpha} ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue.

  1. Effects of Topically Applied Vitamin D during Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Reins, Rose Y.; Hanlon, Samuel D.; Magadi, Sri; McDermott, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important regulator of immune function and largely acts to dampen chronic inflammatory events in a variety of tissues. There is also accumulating evidence that vitamin D acts to enhance initial inflammation, beneficial during both infection and wound healing, and then promotes resolution and prevention of chronic, damaging inflammation. The current study examines the effect of topical vitamin D in a mouse of model of corneal epithelial wound healing, where acute inflammation is necessary for efficient wound closure. At 12 and 18 hours post-wounding, vitamin D treatment significantly delayed wound closure by ~17% and increased infiltration of neutrophils into the central cornea. Basal epithelial cell division, corneal nerve density, and levels of VEGF, TGFβ, IL-1β, and TNFα were unchanged. However, vitamin D increased the production of the anti-microbial peptide CRAMP 12 hours after wounding. These data suggest a possible role for vitamin D in modulating corneal wound healing and have important implications for therapeutic use of vitamin D at the ocular surface. PMID:27035345

  2. Release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the lung cancer cell line CALU-1 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Filipiak, Wojciech; Sponring, Andreas; Mikoviny, Tomas; Ager, Clemens; Schubert, Jochen; Miekisch, Wolfram; Amann, Anton; Troppmair, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) specifically released or consumed by lung cancer cells. Methods 50 million cells of the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line CALU-1 were incubated in a sealed fermenter for 4 h or over night (18 hours). Then air samples from the headspace of the culture vessel were collected and preconcentrated by adsorption on solid sorbents with subsequent thermodesorption and analysis by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Identification of altogether 60 compounds in GCMS measurement was done not only by spectral library match, but also by determination of retention times established with calibration mixtures of the respective pure compounds. Results The results showed a significant increase in the concentrations of 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, 2,3,5-trimethylhexane, 2,4-dimethylheptane and 4-methyloctane in the headspace of CALU-1 cell culture as compared to medium controls after 18 h. Decreased concentrations after 18 h of incubation were found for acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, butyl acetate, acetonitrile, acrolein, methacrolein, 2-methylpropanal, 2-butanone, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane, and hexanal. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that certain volatile compounds can be cancer-cell derived and thus indicative of the presence of a tumor, whereas other compounds are not released but seem to be consumed by CALU-1 cells. PMID:19025629

  3. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gotler, M.; Bar-Gil, B.; Ashkenazi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP) subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT) in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (n = 274) who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp.) than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp.) or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.). No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth. PMID:22505897

  4. Subsurface Observations in a Wind-Driven Flow in Littoral Waters off the East Coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernys, M.; Dhanak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Observations of distribution of currents, temperature, salinity and density over a 1km by 0.5km spatial region in littoral waters (~20m deep) off the east coast of Florida during a passage of a low-pressure atmospheric front will be described. Meteorological and ocean surface current radar (OSCR) observations clearly show the passage of a low pressure front, during April 8-9, 2000, involving a period of warm onshore winds (~10m/s) followed by one of cold offshore winds (~14m/s) over a period of around 40 hours. Subsurface current observations from a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) over an 18-hour period show almost co-incident shift in current direction with the corresponding shift in the wind direction, suggesting that the currents were dominantly wind driven. Dominant currents were approximately 30 degrees to the right of the wind direction, consistent with Ekman flow. The associated magnitude of the depth of the Ekman layer and supporting temperature, salinity and water density observations from the AUV and ship-based casts will be presented. Acknowledgements: The work is part of an on-going effort, supported by ONR (Program Manager: Dr Thomas Curtin), involving AUV-based subsurface observations during adverse atmospheric conditions. Other observation elements (OSCR, bottom-mounted ADCP, moored buoys) are supported by University of Miami, NSWC, Nova Southeastern University, University of South Florida and other partners of the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center.

  5. A Review of Solar-Powered Aircraft Flight Activity at the Pacific Missile Range Test Facility, Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Donohue, Casey; Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A series of solar-powered aircraft have been designed and operated by AeroVironment, Inc. (Monrovia, CA) as a part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) objectives to develop energy-efficient high-altitude long-endurance platforms for earth observations and communications applications. Flight operations have been conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards CA and at the U.S. Navy Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands, Kauai, HI. These aircraft flown at PMRF are named Pathfinder , Pathfinder Plus and Helios . Sizes of these three aircraft range from 560 lb with a 99-ft wingspan to 2300 lb with a 247-ft wingspan. Available payload capacity reaches approximately 200 lb. Pathfinder uses six engines and propellers: Pathfinder Plus 8; and Helios 14. The 2003 Helios fuel cell configurations used 10 engines and propellers. The PMRF was selected as a base of operations because if offers optimal summertime solar exposure, low prevailing wind-speeds on the runway, modest upper-air wind-speeds and the availability of suitable airspace. Between 1997 and 2001, successive altitude records of 71,530 ft, 80,200 ft, and 96,863 ft were established. Flight durations extended to 18 hours.

  6. Effect of antimicrobial peptides on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Kristof, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Szabó, Dóra

    2015-12-01

    In this study susceptibility to different antimicrobial peptides was investigated on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant identical pulsotype strains of KPC-2 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 as well as colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant Enterobacter asburiae strains isolated from clinical samples. In our test, bacteria were exposed to 50 mg/ml lactoferrin, lysozyme and protamine - cationic antimicrobial peptides belonging to innate immune system and having structural similarity to polymyxins - in separate reactions. After 18 hours incubation of colonies were counted. 40% of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains and 97% of colistin-susceptible counterpart strains were lysed by protamine whereas 87% and 100% colony forming unit decrease by lysozyme was seen, respectively. In the case of colistin-resistant E. asburiae strains 1 log10 cell count increase were observed after treatment with lysozyme and 1.56 log10 after lactoferrin exposure compared to the initial number whereas the colistin-susceptible showed no relevant cell count increase. Our findings suggest that acquired colistin-resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is associated with tolerance against antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26689883

  7. A strategy to eradicate well-developed Krebs-2 ascites in mice

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Ekaterina A.; Dolgova, Evgenia V.; Proskurina, Anastasia S.; Minkevich, Alexandra M.; Efremov, Yaroslav R.; Taranov, Oleg S.; Omigov, Vladimir V.; Nikolin, Valeriy P.; Popova, Nelly A.; Bayborodin, Sergey I.; Ostanin, Alexander A.; Chernykh, Elena R.; Kolchanov, Nikolay A.; Shurdov, Mikhail A.; Bogachev, Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the strategy, which allows curing experimental mice engrafted with Krebs-2 ascites. The strategy is based on the facts that i) Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells (TISCs) are naturally capable of internalizing fragments of extracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); ii) upon delivery into TISCs, these dsDNA fragments interfere with the on-going DNA repair process so that TISCs either die or lose their tumorigenic potential. The following 3-step regimen of therapeutic procedures leading to eradication of Krebs-2 ascites is considered. Firstly, three timed injections of cyclophosphamide (CP) exactly matching the interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair phases that lead to synchronization of ascites cells in late S/G2/M. Secondly, additional treatment of ascites 18 hours post each CP injection (at NER/HR transition timepoint) with a composite dsDNA-based preparation interfering with the NER and HR repair pathways, so that tumorigenic properties of ascites cells are compromised. Thirdly, final treatment of mice with a combination of CP and dsDNA injections as ascites cells undergo apoptotic destruction, and the surviving TAMRA+ TISCs arrested in late S/G2/M phases massively enter into G1/S, when they regain sensitivity to CP+dsDNA treatment. Thus, this regimen assures that no viable cells, particularly Krebs-2 TISCs, remain. PMID:26872383

  8. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine Versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Thai, Le Hong; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Dong, Le Thanh; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-04-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan-Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0-37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours,P= 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours,P< 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours,P< 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  9. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine versus Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Hong Thai, Le; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Thanh Dong, Le; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-01-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan–Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0–37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours, P = 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours, P < 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours, P < 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  10. The superdense plasma sheet: Plasmaspheric origin, solar wind origin, or ionospheric origin?

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.

    1997-10-01

    A few times per month, the density of the plasma sheet is several times higher than its usual density. Such superdense plasma sheet intervals are observed both in the midtail region and at geosynchronous orbit. Typically at geosynchronous orbit, a superdense plasma sheet occurs on the first day of a geomagnetic storm and lasts about 12{endash}18 hours. The occurrences of superdense plasma sheets are found to be related to a distinct pattern of Kp: Kp rising after it has been low for an extended period. The occurrences are also associated with high-density solar wind. Three sources for the material of the superdense plasma sheet are explored: (1) the outer plasmasphere, which is stripped away and drawn into the dayside neutral line when Kp increases, wherein it joins the lobe and eventually joins the plasma sheet; (2) high-density solar-wind, which may have its entry into the plasma sheet controlled by the solar-wind magnetic field; and (3) ionospheric outflow, which is known to be Kp dependent. The occurrence of a superdense plasma sheet has several consequences: it adds to the intensity of the ring current, it may alter the dynamics of the magnetotail and the nature of substorms, and it may provide an enhanced source population for storm-time energetic particles. {copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  11. Human U251MG glioma cells expressing the membrane form of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) are killed by human monocytes in vitro and are rejected within immunodeficient mice via paraptosis that is associated with increased expression of three different heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Jadus, Martin R; Chen, Yijun; Boldaji, Mehrdokht Tarbiyat; Delgado, Christina; Sanchez, Ramon; Douglass, Thomas; Al-Atar, Usama; Schulz, William; Lloyd, Cheri; Wepsic, H Terry

    2003-05-01

    Human U251MG glioma cells retrovirally transduced with the human gene for the membrane form of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) were investigated. The clones, MG-2F11 and MG-2C4, that expressed the most mM-CSF, but not the viral vector or the parental U251MG cells, were killed by both murine and human monocyte/macrophages in cytotoxicity assays. MG-2F11 cells failed to form subcutaneous tumors in either nude or NIH-bg-nu-xidBR mice, while mice inoculated with the U251MG viral vector (MG-VV) cells developed tumors. Electron microscopy studies showed that 4 hours after subcutaneous injection, the mM-CSF-transduced cells began dying of a process that resembled paraptosis. The dying tumor cells were swollen and had extensive vacuolization of their mitochondria and endoplasm reticulum. This killing process was complete within 24 hours. Macrophage-like cells were immediately adjacent to the killed MG-2F11 cells. Immunohistological staining for the heat shock proteins HSP60, HSP70 and GRP94 (gp96) showed that 18 hours after inoculation into nude mice, the MG-2F11 injection site was two to four times more intensely stained than the MG-VV cells. This study shows that human gliomas transduced with mM-CSF have the potential to be used as a safe live tumor cell vaccine. PMID:12719711

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 are important transcriptional effectors in primary macrophages experiencing hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Yu; Hughes, Russell; Murdoch, Craig; Coffelt, Seth B; Biswas, Subhra K; Harris, Adrian L; Johnson, Randall S; Imityaz, Hongxia Z; Simon, M Celeste; Fredlund, Erik; Greten, Florian R; Rius, Jordi; Lewis, Claire E

    2009-07-23

    Ischemia exists in many diseased tissues, including arthritic joints, atherosclerotic plaques, and malignant tumors. Macrophages accumulate in these sites and up-regulate hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 in response to the hypoxia present. Here we show that the gene expression profile in primary human and murine macrophages changes markedly when they are exposed to hypoxia for 18 hours. For example, they were seen to up-regulate the cell surface receptors, CXCR4 and GLUT1, and the potent, tumor-promoting cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor A, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-8, adrenomedullin, CXCR4, and angiopoietin-2. Hypoxia also stimulated their expression and/or phosphorylation of various proteins in the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. We then used both genetic and pharmacologic methods to manipulate the levels of HIFs-1alpha and 2alpha or NF-kappaB in primary macrophages to elucidate their role in the hypoxic induction of many of these key genes. These studies showed that both HIF-1 and -2, but not NF-kappaB, are important transcriptional effectors regulating the responses of macrophages to such a period of hypoxia. Further studies using experimental mouse models are now warranted to investigate the role of such macrophage responses in the progression of various diseased tissues, such as malignant tumors. PMID:19454749

  13. The combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine teeth surface microhardness.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine tooth surface microhardness. Thirty caries-free bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded in self-cured acrylic resin and the buccal enamel surfaces were ground flat. Each tooth was then placed in demineralization solution for 40 hours. After demineralization, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 equal groups: group 1 was the control group (no treatment); group 2 was treated with fluoride varnish (Duraphat); group 3 was treated with a xylitol and fluoride varnish (Flor-Opal). All the specimens were then subjected to pH-cycling for 7 days, consisting of demineralization for 6 hours and remineralization for 18 hours repeated daily for five days followed by remineralization for 2 days. Surface microhardness was checked in each tooth at baseline, after demineralization and after pH-cycling. The results were recorded and the data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean surface microhardness values of the teeth treated with the fluoride varnish and the fluoride with xylitol varnish were not significantly different from each other and showed significantly better remineralization than control group. The fluoride and xylitol varnish combination was beneficial for preventing enamel demineralization but no better than in fluoride varnish alone in vitro. Adding xylitol to fluoride tooth varnish does not appear to give any significant benefit in vitro. PMID:24968693

  14. Nucleotide composition analysis of tRNA from leukemia patient cell samples and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Agris, P F

    1975-01-01

    A technique developed for analysis of less than microgram quantities of tRNA has been applied to the study of human leukemia. Leucocytes from peripheal blood and bone marrow samples of six, untreated leukemia patients and cells of five different established human cell lines were maintained for 18 hours in media containing (32P)-phosphate. Incorporation of radioactive phosphate into the cells from the patient samples was slightly less than that of the cell lines. Likewise, incorporation of (32P)-phosphate into the tRNA of the patient samples (approximately 5 x 106 DPM/mug tRNA) was also less then that incorporated into the tRNA of the cell lines. The major and minor nucleotide compositions of the unfractionated tRNA preparations from each patient sample and each cell line were determined and compared. Similarities and differences in the major and minor nucleotide compositions of the tRNA preparations are discussed with reference to types of leukemia and the importance of patient sample analysis versus analysis of cultured human cells. PMID:1057159

  15. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Damages the Oral Epithelium of Gingival Explants

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, M.; Haris, M.; Volgina, A.; Korostoff, J.; DiRienzo, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), expressed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, inhibits the proliferation of cultured epithelial cells by arresting the cell cycle. The gingival epithelium is an early line of defense against microbial assault. When damaged, bacteria collectively gain entry into underlying connective tissue where microbial products can affect infiltrating inflammatory cells, leading to the destruction of the attachment apparatus. Histological evaluation of rat and healthy human gingival tissue exposed ex vivo to the Cdt for 36 and 18 hours, respectively, revealed extensive detachment of the keratinized outer layer and distention of spinous and basal cells in the oral epithelium. Treated human tissue also exhibited disruption of rete pegs and dissolution of cell junctions. Cells in the connective tissue appeared unaffected. Primary gingival epithelial cells, but not gingival fibroblasts, isolated from the same healthy human tissue were cell-cycle-arrested when treated with the toxin. These findings provide new evidence that the Cdt severely damages the oral epithelium, ex vivo, by specifically targeting epithelial cells, in situ. The Cdt shows preferential targeting of the epithelium as opposed to connective tissue in animal and human gingival explant models. Abbreviations: cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), connective tissue (CT), 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), human gingival explants (HGX), human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), junctional epithelium (JE), oral epithelium (OE), rete pegs (RP), sulcular epithelium (SE) PMID:21471326

  16. Designing caption production rules based on face, text, and motion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapdelaine, C.; Beaulieu, M.; Gagnon, L.

    2008-02-01

    Producing off-line captions for the deaf and hearing impaired people is a labor-intensive task that can require up to 18 hours of production per hour of film. Captions are placed manually close to the region of interest but it must avoid masking human faces, texts or any moving objects that might be relevant to the story flow. Our goal is to use image processing techniques to reduce the off-line caption production process by automatically placing the captions on the proper consecutive frames. We implemented a computer-assisted captioning software tool which integrates detection of faces, texts and visual motion regions. The near frontal faces are detected using a cascade of weak classifier and tracked through a particle filter. Then, frames are scanned to perform text spotting and build a region map suitable for text recognition. Finally, motion mapping is based on the Lukas-Kanade optical flow algorithm and provides MPEG-7 motion descriptors. The combined detected items are then fed to a rule-based algorithm to determine the best captions localization for the related sequences of frames. This paper focuses on the defined rules to assist the human captioners and the results of a user evaluation for this approach.

  17. Functional impairment of natural killer cells in active ulcerative colitis: reversion of the defective natural killer activity by interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, L; Alvarez-Mon, M; Abreu, L; Antonio Vargas, J; de la Morena, E; Corugedo, F; Duràntez, A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the functional characteristics and clinical importance of the natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with ulcerative colitis. Normal NK activity was observed in PBMNC from patients with inactive disease, but a pronounced decrease was found in those with active disease. Clinical change from active to inactive disease was associated with enhancement of the depressed NK activity. The impairment of NK cytotoxicity found in patients with active disese could not be ascribed to a deficient number of NK cells as the amounts of HNK-1+, CD16+ (Leu 11), and CD11b (OKM1) cells in PBMNC were within normal ranges. This defective cytotoxic PBMNC activity was normalised by short term (18 hour) incubation with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2). Moreover, long term (5 day) incubation of these effector cells with rIL-2 induced strong cytotoxic activity against NK resistant and NK sensitive target cells in patients with active and inactive disease. We also found that both precursors and effectors of cytotoxic activity promoted by short term and long term incubation with rIL-2 of PBMNC from the patients showed the phenotype of NK cells (CD16+, CD3-). Taken together, these results show that active ulcerative colitis is associated with a defective function of NK cells that is found to be normal in the inactive stage of the disease. The possible pathogenic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1541421

  18. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs = −0.48; p < 0.05) and visual memory (rs = −0.46; p < 0.05). The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients. PMID:27516906

  19. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W.

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  20. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna.

    PubMed

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms. PMID:26540301

  1. Effect of total hepatectomy and administration of branched-chain amino acids on regional norepinephrine, dopamine, and amino acids in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Herlin, P M; James, J H; Nachbauer, C A; Fischer, J E

    1983-01-01

    In rats after total hepatectomy, the effect of infusing glucose alone or combined with branched-chain amino acids on amino acid concentrations in plasma and cerebral cortex and on catecholamine levels in eight different regions of the brain was studied. Infusion of branched-chain amino acids reduced the accumulation of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine in plasma, while in cerebral cortex, the concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine were normalized and that of tryptophan was reduced greatly. In rats with hepatectomy and glucose infusion alone, norepinephrine levels were decreased in seven of eight brain regions with the exception of striatum, while dopamine was reduced significantly in striatum only. Infusion of branched-chain amino acids resulted in higher norepinephrine in cortex, mesencephalon, and hypothalamus and higher striatal dopamine 18 hours after hepatectomy. Thus, infusing branched-chain amino acids and reducing the accumulation of various neutral amino acids in brain may partially prevent the loss of norepinephrine from brain after total hepatectomy. PMID:6870374

  2. NASA Lewis Research Center combustion MHD experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The MHD power generation experiments were conducted in a high field strength cryomagnet which was adapted from an existing facility. In its original construction, it consisted of 12 high purity aluminum coils pool cooled in a bath of liquid neon. In this configuration, a peak field of 15 tesla was produced. For the present experiments, the center four coils were removed and a 23 cm diameter transverse warm bore tube was inserted to allow the placement of the MHD experiment between the remaining eight coils. In this configuration, a peak field of 6 tesla should be obtainable. The time duration of the experiment is limited by the neon supply which allows on the order of 1 minute of total operating time followed by an 18-hour reliquefaction period. As a result, the experiments are run in a pulsed mode. The run duration for the data presented here was 5 sec. The magnetic field profile along the MHD duct is shown. Since the working fluid is in essence superheated steam, it is easily water quenched at the exit of the diffuser and the components are designed vacuum tight so that the exhaust pipe and demister an be pumped down to simulate the vacuum of outer space.

  3. Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction: Concepts and controversies from inception to acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rentrop, Klaus Peter; Feit, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    More than 20 years of misconceptions derailed acceptance of reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiologists abandoned reperfusion for AMI using fibrinolytic therapy, explored in 1958, because they no longer attributed myocardial infarction to coronary thrombosis. Emergent aortocoronary bypass surgery, pioneered in 1968, remained controversial because of the misconception that hemorrhage into reperfused myocardium would result in infarct extension. Attempts to limit infarct size by pharmacotherapy without reperfusion dominated research in the 1970s. Myocardial necrosis was assumed to progress slowly, in a lateral direction. At least 18 hours was believed to be available for myocardial salvage. Afterload reduction and improvement of the microcirculation, but not reperfusion, were thought to provide the benefit of streptokinase therapy. Finally, coronary vasospasm was hypothesized to be the central mechanism in the pathogenesis of AMI. These misconceptions unraveled in the late 1970s. Myocardial necrosis was shown to progress in a transmural direction, as a "wave front," beginning with the subendocardium. Reperfusion within 6 hours salvaged a subepicardial ischemic zone in experimental animals. Acute angiography provided in vivo evidence of the high incidence of total coronary occlusion in the first hours of AMI. In 1978, early reperfusion by transluminal recanalization was shown to be feasible. The pathogenetic role of coronary thrombosis was definitively established in 1979 by demonstrating that intracoronary streptokinase rapidly restored flow in occluded infarct-related arteries, in contrast to intracoronary nitroglycerine which rarely did. The modern reperfusion era had dawned. PMID:26542507

  4. Peganum harmala intoxication, a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Etemad, Leila; Javidi, Soheila; Alizadeh, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Peganum harmala (P. harmala), “Espand” in Persian, has small seeds and has been used in traditional medicine as emmenagogue and an abortifacient. It has various pharmacological effects such as antifungal, antibacterial, hypothermic, anticancer, antinociceptive, and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibition. Case details: This case was a 45 years old woman who ingested about 50 grams seed of P. harmala for hypermenorrhae. She suffered nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tremor, ataxia, and confusion. On physical examination, she had hypotension (BP=90/60 mmHg) with normal heart rate (60 beat/min) and impaired knee to heel test. Her consciousness was reduced without any hallucination. Her laboratory test was normal. She was discharged at good condition 18 hours later. Conclusion: In conclusion, physicians working in Iran and other regions that P. harmala is prescribed or used illegally, should know signs and symptoms of its toxicity in order to be able to deal with the emergencies, however, prognosis of these toxicity is not bad. PMID:25050285

  5. The contribution of research results to dramatic improvements in post-abortion care: Centre Hospitalier de Libreville, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Assoumou, Pamphile; Olé, Boniface Sima; Ntamack, Jacques Bang; Meyé, Jean François; Souza, Maria Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, we published an article in RHM showing a large delay in provision of emergency obstetric care to women who died from unsafe abortion complications at the Centre Hospitalier de Libreville. The paper raised awareness among hospital and government authorities of a serious delay in timely treatment, and they supported the recommendation of the hospital's Maternal Mortality Committee to greatly reduce the delay and also improve the care of women with abortion complications. Training in manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for uterine evacuation was introduced, for use by midwives as well as obstetrician-gynaecologists, with local anaesthesia. The mean delay in providing care to women with abortion complications in the 2008 findings was compared to data from the five months from 1 November 2011 through 31 March 2012. In 2008, all incomplete abortions were treated by physicians with dilatation & evacuation (D&C) or electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) with general anaesthesia. In 2011-12, two-thirds of women were treated with manual vacuum aspiration with local anaesthesia instead, one half of them by midwives. The mean delay between presentation and treatment was 18.0 hours in 2008 and 1.8 hours in 2011-12. The mean delay did not differ between women treated with MVA or D&C/EVA, nor if treated by midwives or physicians. PMID:23245404

  6. Rapid Large Scale Reprocessing of the ODI Archive using the QuickReduce Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopu, A.; Kotulla, R.; Young, M. D.; Hayashi, S.; Harbeck, D.; Liu, W.; Henschel, R.

    2015-09-01

    The traditional model of astronomers collecting their observations as raw instrument data is being increasingly replaced by astronomical observatories serving standard calibrated data products to observers and to the public at large once proprietary restrictions are lifted. For this model to be effective, observatories need the ability to periodically re-calibrate archival data products as improved master calibration products or pipeline improvements become available, and also to allow users to rapidly calibrate their data on-the-fly. Traditional astronomy pipelines are heavily I/O dependent and do not scale with increasing data volumes. In this paper, we present the One Degree Imager - Portal, Pipeline and Archive (ODI-PPA) calibration pipeline framework which integrates the efficient and parallelized QuickReduce pipeline to enable a large number of simultaneous, parallel data reduction jobs - initiated by operators AND/OR users - while also ensuring rapid processing times and full data provenance. Our integrated pipeline system allows re-processing of the entire ODI archive (˜15,000 raw science frames, ˜3.0 TB compressed) within ˜18 hours using twelve 32-core compute nodes on the Big Red II supercomputer. Our flexible, fast, easy to operate, and highly scalable framework improves access to ODI data, in particular when data rates double with an upgraded focal plane (scheduled for 2015), and also serve as a template for future data processing infrastructure across the astronomical community and beyond.

  7. Measurement of the Vertical Gradient of the Semidiurnal Tidal Wind Phase in Winter at the 95 Km Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-01-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  8. Measurement of the vertical gradient of the semidiurnal tidal wind phase in winter at the 95 km level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-05-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  9. Effect of cleaning and storage on quartz substrate adhesion and surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Dave; John, Arun

    2014-04-01

    The force of adhesion of 50 nm diameter diamond-like carbon sphere probes to three quartz substrates was measured using an atomic force microscope. The force of adhesion was measured prior to cleaning, within 10 minutes after cleaning, after storage in an N2-purged cabinet, and after storage in an N2-purged vacuum oven. The evaluated cleaning recipes were SC1-like, SPM-like, and HF-based, each followed by ultra-pure deionized water (UPW) rinse and spin drying. The measurements were conducted in a Class 100 clean room at approximately 50% relative humidity. In addition, contact angle measurements were made on three additional quartz substrates using UPW before cleaning, after cleaning, and throughout N2 storage. The adhesion force increased after cleaning as compared to the pre-cleaned state, continued to increase until reaching a maximum after 5 days of N2 storage, and then decreased after 26 days for all three substrates. One substrate was then stored in a vacuum oven for 3 days, and the adhesion force decreased to 46% of the pre-cleaned state. The contact angle was reduced from over 30° before cleaning to 0° immediately after cleaning. During subsequent N2 storage, the contact angle increased to 5° or greater after 18 hours for the substrate cleaned with the HF-based recipe and after 15 days for the substrates cleaned by the SC1-like and SPM-like recipes.

  10. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  11. [Regulatory effect of thymosin α1 on expression of tlr9/ido mRNA in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from children with aplastic anemia].

    PubMed

    Hou, Fang; Huang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ge

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the regulatory effect of thymosin α1 (Tα1) on expression of TOLL-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/indoleamine2, 3-dioxygenase (ido) mRNA in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from children with aplastic anemia (AA). Culture system of bone marrow MSC from AA children and normal children in vitro was established, and the effects of Tα1 on expressions of tlr9 mRNA and ido mRNA of MSC from AA children and normal children were determined by RT-PCR. The results showed that the bone marrow MSC from normal children did not express tlr9 and ido mRNA. Bone marrow MSC from children with AA obviously expressed tlr9 mRNA , but did not express ido mRNA; AA children's MSC treated with Tα1 for 18 hours markedly down-regulated tlr9 mRNA expression, but up-regulated ido mRNA expression in the concentration- and time-dependent ways. It is concluded that Tα1 can up-regulate the expression of ido mRNA in bone marrow MSC from children with AA. PMID:21176371

  12. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOC under carefully controlled conditions. In the study 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOC (25 mg/cu m total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Since irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors have used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOC. The authors report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a four hour exposure to VOC, as well as 18 hours later.

  13. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  14. Formation of a Vitamin C Conjugate of Acrolein and its Paraoxonase-mediated Conversion into 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroxy-4-oxooctanal

    PubMed Central

    Kesinger, Nicholas G.; Langsdorf, Brandi L.; Yokochi, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has been reported to participate in Michael addition reactions in vitro to form vitamin C conjugates with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein. This study shows evidence for the formation and metabolism of the vitamin C conjugate of acrolein (AscACR) in cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to acrolein diacetate. By using 18O and 13C labeling in combination with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, AscACR was shown to undergo hydrolytic conversion of the ascorbyl lactone into an intermediate carboxylic acid. Subsequent decarboxylation of the carboxylic acid yielded 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4-oxooctanal (THO). When THP-1 cells were pretreated with ascorbic acid (1 mM, 18 hours) and then exposed to acrolein diacetate, THO was detected as its pentafluorobenzyl oxime derivative in the cell lysates and medium. Treatment of THP-1 cells with both ascorbic acid and acrolein diacetate was required for THO formation. The formation of THO from AscACR was facilitated by the lactonase enzymes, human recombinant paraoxonases 1 and 2. THP-1 cells exhibited PON activity which explains the catalytic conversion of AscACR into THO in these cells. THO was formed in addition to metabolites of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein, indicating that THO formation contributes to the elimination of acrolein in a cellular environment. PMID:20353174

  15. Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in Valley quail (Callipepla californica).

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Renata A; Pena, Hilda F J; Cabral, Aline D; Rolim, Veronica M; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angelica T B; Wouters, Flademir; Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2015-08-01

    An adult, captive raised male Valley quail (Callipepla californica) acquired by a southern Brazilian aviary suddenly showed severe apathy, dyspnea and diarrhea, and died 18 hours after the onset of illness. At necropsy, pale muscles and whitish areas in the heart, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and consolidated red lungs were observed. Histological findings were mainly mononuclear inflammation with necrosis of liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow and lung. There were large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesorganisms in the liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, trachea, kidneys, adrenal glands, testes, intestines, and pancreas. These organisms were seen free in the organs' stroma or within macrophages and stained positively with polyclonal antiserum to T. gondii. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and PCR was used to target the B1 gene of T. gondii. The genotypic characterization by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 and alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3) revealed the ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #87 genotype, the same as previously identified in a backyard chicken (TgCkBr156) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26101744

  16. Effect of gastrin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, T N; Jørgensen, P E; Almdal, T; Poulsen, S S; Olsen, P S

    1990-01-01

    Gastrin has been shown to be an important trophic hormone for the mucosa of the stomach and the proximal intestine. In the present study the effect of gastrin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats was investigated. After partial hepatectomy a significant rise in the concentration of gastrin in portal venous blood was found six, 12, and 18 hours after 70% hepatectomy. The effect of changes in the endogenous gastrin concentration on the liver regeneration was investigated in rats subjected to antrectomy or to fundectomy. Partial hepatectomy was done three weeks after the primary surgery. We found antrectomy to decrease liver regeneration, whereas fundectomy had no effect. Administration of pentagastrin 300 micrograms/kg sc three times daily for two and four days after partial hepatectomy significantly increased the rate of liver regeneration compared with controls. This study suggests that gastrin has a hepatotrophic effect. Whether this effect is caused by a direct action of gastrin on the hepatocytes or it is an indirect effect mediated by for instance insulin, glucagon or epidermal growth factor has to be further investigated. PMID:2318436

  17. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, the pace of this process was never intended to be continued indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5-day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  18. Mission Operations of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Deborah; Lauback, Sharon; Mishkin, Andrew; Limonadi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a system of processes involved in planning, commanding, and monitoring operations of the rovers Spirit and Opportunity of the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The system is designed to minimize command turnaround time, given that inherent uncertainties in terrain conditions and in successful completion of planned landed spacecraft motions preclude planning of some spacecraft activities until the results of prior activities are known by the ground-based operations team. The processes are partitioned into those (designated as tactical) that must be tied to the Martian clock and those (designated strategic) that can, without loss, be completed in a more leisurely fashion. The tactical processes include assessment of downlinked data, refinement and validation of activity plans, sequencing of commands, and integration and validation of sequences. Strategic processes include communications planning and generation of long-term activity plans. The primary benefit of this partition is to enable the tactical portion of the team to focus solely on tasks that contribute directly to meeting the deadlines for commanding the rover s each sol (1 sol = 1 Martian day) - achieving a turnaround time of 18 hours or less, while facilitating strategic team interactions with other organizations that do not work on a Mars time schedule.

  19. [Case report: fat embolism syndrome--grave handicap after traumatic long-bones fractures].

    PubMed

    Blazek, M; Havel, E; Cerman, J; Bĕlobrádková, E; Dĕdek, T; Pocepcov, I

    2009-11-01

    Embolism of fat and bone marrow tissue is quite often due to bone fractures but it is seldom with signs of systemic involvement as a fat embolism syndrome. The main forming factor is late stabilization of fractures and hypovolemia too. Clinical image of fat embolism syndrome results from lung and systemic microembolism which leads to activation of inflammatory and thrombogenic cascades. We present a case report of a 24-year-old male after bike accident in low speed suffering from isolated thighbone fracture--osteosynthesis was applied in 6 hours after injury. The very first day the organ failure and coma with negative CT occurred, then ARDS, petechiae into the skin of chest and conjunctiva, also embolic closure of a. centralis retinae. Treatment interventions included anticoagulation, steroids, artificial ventilation for 17 days. After 3 weeks from injury he was still unconscious (with GCS 10) so that we tried a hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient regained consciousness after 3 months after injury. One year later he is able to walk alone, he has no visual failure, but he is still quadruspastic although able to manipulate with a mobile phone. We discuss diagnostic criteria and treatment. We also point out need of volumetherapy in prevention of fat embolism syndrome--this was underrated here because of primary missed out diagnose of co-existing tibia fracture at the same time (this was stabilised 18 hours after injury). PMID:20662446

  20. Inadvertent intracoronary stent extraction 10 months after implantation complicating cutting balloon angioplasty for in-stent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Billhardt, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of an unusual complication for Cutting Balloon Angioplasty (CBA) during treatment for instent restenosis (ISR), which resulted in inadvertent intracoronary stent extraction 10 months after implantation. In this case report, CBA was utilized to treat an ISR lesion in the distal right coronary artery (RCA). Due to difficulty in withdrawing the cutting balloon into the guide after treatment of the lesion, the entire system (guide, cutting balloon, and guidewire) was removed as a unit from the body. Upon examination of the system, the previously placed stent in the distal RCA was attached to the microtomes of the cutting balloon. Although the precise mechanisms for stent extraction in this case remain speculative, the initial stent used in the distal RCA may have been undersized, and this may have played a major role in this complication. Although there is limited data regarding the optimal strategy to treat the site of the inadvertent stent extraction, we opted to re-stent the area with a properly-sized coronary stent. Following the intervention, there was no residual stenosis with TIMI 3 flow through the vessel. The patient remained asymptomatic and a serum troponin drawn 18 hours after the procedure was normal, and he was discharged the next day. The interventionist must be vigilant about this rare but serious complication when applying CBA in the treatment of ISR, particularly when an undersized or underdeployed stent is suspected.

  1. Effect of additional heat treatment of 2024-T3 on the growth of fatigue crack in air and in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louwaard, E. P.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of ductility on the fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum alloys, fatigue tests were carried out on central notched specimens of 2024-T3 and 2024-T8 sheet material. The 2024-T8 material was obtained by an additional heat treatment applied on 2024-T3 (18 hours at 192 C), which increased the static yield strength from 43.6 to 48.9 kgf/sq mm. A change in the ultimate strength was not observed. Fatigue tests were carried out on both materials in humid air and in high vacuum. According to a new crack propagation model, crack extension is supported to be caused by a slip-related process and debonding triggered by the environment. This model predicts an effect of the ductility on the crack growth rate which should be smaller in vacuum than in humid air; however, this was not confirmed. In humid air the crack-growth rate in 2024-T8 was about 2 times faster than in 2024-T3, while in vacuum the ratio was about 2.5. Crack closure measurements gave no indications that crack closure played a significant role in both materials. Some speculative explanations are briefly discussed.

  2. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    PubMed

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent. PMID:27110500

  3. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  4. Failure analysis and modeling of a VAXcluster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Dong; Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Subramani, Sujatha S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a measurement-based analysis of real error data collected from a DEC VAXcluster multicomputer system. In addition to evaluating basic system dependability characteristics such as error and failure distributions and hazard rates for both individual machines and for the VAXcluster, reward models were developed to analyze the impact of failures on the system as a whole. The results show that more than 46 percent of all failures were due to errors in shared resources. This is despite the fact that these errors have a recovery probability greater than 0.99. The hazard rate calculations show that not only errors, but also failures occur in bursts. Approximately 40 percent of all failures occur in bursts and involved multiple machines. This result indicates that correlated failures are significant. Analysis of rewards shows that software errors have the lowest reward (0.05 vs 0.74 for disk errors). The expected reward rate (reliability measure) of the VAXcluster drops to 0.5 in 18 hours for the 7-out-of-7 model and in 80 days for the 3-out-of-7 model.

  5. Heparin regulates smooth muscle S phase entry in the injured rat carotid artery

    SciTech Connect

    Majesky, M.W.; Schwartz, S.M.; Clowes, M.M.; Clowes, A.W.

    1987-08-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in injured arteries is inhibited by heparin, but the mechanism of inhibition is unknown. In particular, it is not clear whether heparin prevents exit of quiescent SMC from the resting state, inhibits progression through the prereplicative (G1) sequence, or acts during DNA synthesis itself. In this study, induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was used as a marker of SMC entry into the cell cycle in an attempt to localize the site of heparin action during the initial hours after rat carotid injury. Rapid and transient induction of ODC activity was observed that reached a maximum (twenty-three-fold) 6 hours after wounding. Heparin failed to prevent ODC induction but greatly reduced frequencies of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labelled SMC nuclei 33 hours after injury. Moreover, heparin infusion could be delayed for up to 18 hours after the injury event with no significant loss of antiproliferative effect. Further delays resulted in marked loss of growth inhibition. The results of these studies show that SMC rapidly and synchronously leave the resting state after injury and suggest that heparin acts late in the prereplicative (G1) sequence or early in S phase to inhibit SMC proliferation in damaged arteries.

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, J R; Lui, P D; Lau, B H

    1991-08-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958

  7. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Wen, Tao; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7-10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0-25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0-24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0-16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  8. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J.; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P.; Weyl, Olaf L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms. PMID:26540301

  9. Crystal-induced endogenous pyrogen production. A further look at gouty inflammation.

    PubMed

    Malawista, S E; Duff, G W; Atkins, E; Cheung, H S; McCarty, D J

    1985-09-01

    We found previously that crystals of sodium urate and silicon dioxide (silica) can stimulate the production of endogenous pyrogen (EP), now called interleukin-1 (IL-1), the polypeptide mediator of fever and other aspects of inflammation. We have confirmed and extended the work with urate crystals and have examined 2 other crystals associated with joint problems, hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The crystals were added to suspensions of human blood leukocytes (2.5 X 10(6) monocytes/dose, with 10% fresh autologous plasma); after 18 hours of incubation, the EP content of the supernatants was assayed in the rabbit pyrogen test. HA and CPPD crystals neither induced EP production nor reduced the amount of staphylococci-induced EP. Presized (10 - 40 micron) urate crystals were pyrogenic, but less so than the unsized and aggregated urate crystals investigated previously and reexamined here. On ultrasonication, the aggregated urate crystals became first more pyrogenic and then less so as the crystals were dispersed and broken down. Ultrasound did not impart pyrogenicity to HA or CPPD crystals: their failure to stimulate EP/IL-1 production from leukocytes in vitro indicates a difference in their phlogistic properties, compared with crystals of urate or silica. The results with urate crystals have pathogenetic implications in a number of areas of gouty inflammation: initiation of the acute attack, other aspects of the acute-phase response, polyarticular involvement, and the inflammatory consequences of chronic stimulation by tophaceous material. PMID:2994686

  10. Acute Decrease in HDL Cholesterol Associated With Exposure to Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mary Berlik; Cavallari, Jenn; Fang, Shona; Christiani, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate acute changes in circulating lipids after exposure to relatively high levels of particulate matter through welding. Methods Using a repeated measures panel study, lipid levels before and after welding and personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in 36 male welders over 63 exposure and/or control days. Results There was a trend toward decrease in HDL (−2.3 mg/dL, P = 0.08) 18 hours after welding. This effect became significant (−2.6 mg/dL, P = 0.05) after adjustment for possible confounders. The effect was strongest (−4.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) among welders who did not weld the day before the study. There were no significant changes in other lipids associated with welding or PM2.5 exposure. Conclusion Welding exposure was associated with an acute decrease in circulating HDL, which may relate to the inflammatory and proatherosclerotic effects of fine particle exposure. PMID:21187793

  11. Studies on polyamine and ornithine metabolism in rat colon: effects of two synergistically. Acting inducers of ornithine decarboxylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in rat colon mucosa was determined by the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from radiolabeled ornithine in the presence (total enzyme) or absence (holoenzyme) of added pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). Total leucine incorporation into acid-precipitable protein over 30 minute was calculated by dividing the /sup 3/H-leucine in protein by the specific activity of the intracellular leucine. Amino acids, polyamines, and PLP-semicarbazide were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography. Ornithine aminotransaminase activity (OAT) was measured as the quantity of pyrolline (5-carboxy) produced from alpha-ketoglutarate and ornithine. After 10 weeks on a high or no vitamin B/sub 6/ diet, no change in basal ODC activity was seen; however, sodium deoxycholate instillation in vitamin B/sub 6/ deficient rats led to a large increase in total but not holo-ODC activity. In rats fed normal chow diet, no increases in mucosal PLP levels were seen after either treatment. Increases in general protein synthesis rate could not account for the peaks in ODC activity after either stimulus. Putrescine increases were proportional to peaks of ODC activity after either stimulus, while spermine levels remained depressed for 18 hours after starvation/refeeding. Ornithine levels were increased after either stimulus, and this increase was linked to decreases in OAT activity, indicating short-term coordination of overall ornithine metabolism to favor polyamine biosynthesis.

  12. Activation of photodynamic therapy in vitro with Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R.

    2016-03-01

    Translation of photodynamic therapy to the clinical setting has primarily been limited to easily accessible and/or superficial diseases where traditional light delivery can be performed noninvasively. Cerenkov luminescence, as generated from medically relevant radionuclides, has been suggested as a means to deliver light to deeper tissues noninvasively in order to overcome this depth limitation. We report on the use of Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 as a means to active the photodynamic therapy process in monolayer tumor cell cultures. The current study investigates the utility of Cerenkov luminescence for activating both the clinically relevant aminolevulinic acid at 1.0 mM and also the more efficient photosensitizer TPPS2a at 1.2 µM. Cells were incubated with aminolevulinic acid for 6 hours prior to radionuclide addition, as well as additional daily treatments for three days. TPPS2a was delivered as a single treatment with an 18 hour incubation time before radionuclide addition. Experiments were completed for both C6 glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Although aminolevulinic acid proved ineffective for generating a therapeutic effect at any activity for either cell line, TPPS2a produced at least a 20% therapeutic effect at activities ranging from 6 to 60 µCi/well for the C6 cell line. Current results demonstrate that it may be possible to generate a therapeutic effect in vivo using Cerenkov luminescence to activate the photodynamic therapy process with clinically relevant photosensitizers.

  13. The Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase of Paenibacillus pabuli US132 Strain: Molecular Characterization and Overproduction of the Recombinant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Jemli, Sonia; Ben Messaoud, Ezzedine; Ben Mabrouk, Sameh; Bejar, Samir

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) of Paenibacillus pabuli US132, previously described as efficient antistaling agent and good candidate for cyclodextrins production, was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis showed that the mature enzyme (684 amino acids) was preceded by a signal peptide of 34 residues. The enzyme exhibited the highest identity (94%) to the β-CGTase of Bacillus circulans no. 8. The production of the recombinant CGTase, as active form, was very low (about 1 U/mL) in shake flasks at 37°C. This production reached 22 U/mL after 22 hours of induction by mainly shifting the postinduction temperature from 37 to 19°C and using 2TY instead of LB medium. High enzyme production (35 U/mL) was attained after 18 hours of induction in fermentor using the same culture conditions as in shake flask. The recombinant enzyme showed Vmax and Km values of 253 ± 36 μmol of β-cyclodextrin/mg/min and 0.36 ± 0.18 g/L, respectively. PMID:18704190

  14. Pyrroloquinoline quinone increases the expression and activity of Sirt1 and -3 genes in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Meruvu, Sunitha; Bedi, Yudhishtar Singh; Chau, Jason; Arguelles, Andrix; Rucker, Robert; Choudhury, Mahua

    2015-09-01

    Sirtuin (Sirt) 1 and Sirt 3 are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ((+))-dependent protein deacetylases that are important to a number of mitochondrial-related functions; thus, identification of sirtuin activators is important. Herein, we hypothesize that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) can act as a Sirt1/Sirt3 activator. In HepG2 cell cultures, PQQ increased the expression of Sirt1 and Sirt3 gene, protein, and activity levels (P < .05). We also observed a significant increase in nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression (as early as 18 hours) and increased NAD(+) activity at 24 hours. In addition, targets of Sirt1 and Sirt3 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and 2, and mitochondrial transcription factor A) were increased at 48 hours. This is the first report that demonstrates PQQ as an activator of Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression and activity, making it an attractive therapeutic agent for the treatment of metabolic diseases and for healthy aging. Based on our study and the available data in vivo, PQQ has the potential to serve as a therapeutic nutraceutical, when enhancing mitochondrial function. PMID:26275361

  15. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection in the Extended Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; West, Matthew J.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Kobelski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Observational signatures of reconnection have been studied extensively in the lower corona for decades, successfully providing insight into energy release mechanisms in the region above post-flare arcade loops and below 1.5 solar radii. During large eruptive events, however, energy release continues to occur well beyond the presence of reconnection signatures at these low heights. Supra-Arcade Downflows (SADs) and Supra-Arcade Downflowing Loops (SADLs) are particularly useful measures of continual reconnection in the corona as they may indicate the presence and path of retracting post-reconnection loops. SADs and SADLs have been faintly observed up to 18 hours beyond the passage of coronas mass ejections through the SOHO/LASCO field of view, but a recent event from 2014 October 14 associated with giant arches provides very clear observations of these downflows for days after the initial eruption. We report on this unique event and compare these findings with observational signatures of magnetic reconnection in the extended corona for more typical eruptions.

  16. A strategy to eradicate well-developed Krebs-2 ascites in mice.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Proskurina, Anastasia S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    We describe the strategy, which allows curing experimental mice engrafted with Krebs-2 ascites. The strategy is based on the facts that i) Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells (TISCs) are naturally capable of internalizing fragments of extracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); ii) upon delivery into TISCs, these dsDNA fragments interfere with the on-going DNA repair process so that TISCs either die or lose their tumorigenic potential. The following 3-step regimen of therapeutic procedures leading to eradication of Krebs-2 ascites is considered. Firstly, three timed injections of cyclophosphamide (CP) exactly matching the interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair phases that lead to synchronization of ascites cells in late S/G2/M. Secondly, additional treatment of ascites 18 hours post each CP injection (at NER/HR transition timepoint) with a composite dsDNA-based preparation interfering with the NER and HR repair pathways, so that tumorigenic properties of ascites cells are compromised. Thirdly, final treatment of mice with a combination of CP and dsDNA injections as ascites cells undergo apoptotic destruction, and the surviving TAMRA+ TISCs arrested in late S/G2/M phases massively enter into G1/S, when they regain sensitivity to CP+dsDNA treatment. Thus, this regimen assures that no viable cells, particularly Krebs-2 TISCs, remain. PMID:26872383

  17. Isolation and characterization of an H/sub 2/-oxidizing thermophilic methanogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.J.; Mah, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A thermophilic methanogen was isolated from enrichment cultures originally inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic kelp digester (55 degrees C). This isolate exhibited a temperature optimum of 55 to 60 degrees C and a maximum near 70 degrees C. Growth occurred throughout the pH range of 5.5 to 9.0, with optimal growth near pH 7.2. Altough 4% salt was present in the isolation medium, salt was not required for optimal growth. The thermophile utilized formate or H/sub 2/CO/sub 2/ but not acetate, methanol, or methylamines for growth and methanogenesis. Growth in complex medium was very rapid, and a minimum doubling time of 1.8 hours was recorded in media supplemented with rumen fluid. Growth in defined media required the addition of acetate and an unknown factor(s) from digester supernatant, rumen fluid, or Trypticase. Cells in liquid culture were oval to coccoid, 0.7 to 1.8 ..mu.. meters in diameter, often occurring in pairs. The cells were easily lysed upon exposure to oxygen or 0.08 mg of sodium dodecyl sulfate per ml. The isolate was sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol but not penicillin G or cycloserine. The DNA base composition was 59.69 mol% guanine plus cytosine. (Refs. 34).

  18. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4

    PubMed Central

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent. PMID:27110500

  19. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagina, G; Asima, A; Nemat, U; Shamim, A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  20. Suppression of the phagocytic capabilities of coelomocytes from Lumbricus terrestris following an in-vitro exposure to heavy metals and evaluation of their metabolic activities by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brousseau, P.; Fugere, N.; Coderre, D.; Flipo, D.; Foumier, M.

    1995-12-31

    Immunotoxic effects of environmental exposure to chemical contaminants can be evaluated by monitoring cellular and functional parameters of the immune system of sentinel species. In this scope, the earthworm may represent a relevant sentinel species to determine the level of toxicity linked to soil contaminants or to test the efficacy of remediation protocols. In this work, coelomocytes were incubated in vitro for 18 hours with mercury, cadmium, zinc or lead at concentrations ranging from 10{sup {minus}9} to 10{sup {minus}4}M. The analysis of phagocytosis by flow cytometry revealed that this natural response was impaired at non cytotoxic concentrations of mercury, cadmium and zinc. Moreover, the analysis of cells obtained from coelomic fluid, based on the combination of low angle forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC) allowed to discriminate between two distinct populations of coelomocytes. With the use of fluorescent probes, such as carboxyfluorescin diacetate (CFDA), dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) and chloromethyl fluorescin diacetate (CFDA), to study the esterase activity and Fluo-3 to measure free cytoplasmic calcium, the results showed that the first discrimination between the two populations of cells based on size and complexity could be further accentuated on the basis of their metabolic activities. In summary, the data make very attractive the use of flow cytometry to study cellular and functional parameters of the earthworm.

  1. Septic Shock Induced by Bacterial Prostatitis with Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a Posttransplantation Patient.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Chen, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Morganella morganii is ubiquitous Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, which may cause many kinds of opportunistic infection. Herein we report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with frequent urination, urgency, and mild pain that comes and goes low in the abdomen and around the anus. The patient had a medical history of chronic prostatitis for 4 years. He received HLA-matched sibling allo-HSCT because of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma 29 months ago. The routine examination of prostatic fluid showed increased leukocytes and the culture of prostatic fluid showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient developed chills and fever 18 hours after examination. Both urine culture and blood culture showed Morganella morganii subsp. morganii. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and septic shock management. Taken together, Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop prostatitis. Also, prostatic massage could be a possible trigger of septic shock induced by Morganella morganii subsp. morganii in a posttransplantation patient. PMID:26798544

  2. Peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Patzkowski, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an inherited disorder of collagen production that results in multiorgan dysfunction. Patients with hypermobility type display skin hyperextensibility and joint laxity, which can result in chronic joint instability, dislocation, peripheral neuropathy, and severe musculoskeletal pain. A bleeding diathesis can be found in all subtypes of varying severity despite a normal coagulation profile. There have also been reports of resistance to local anesthetics in these patients. Several sources advise against the use of regional anesthesia in these patients citing the 2 previous features. There have been reports of successful neuraxial anesthesia, but few concerning peripheral nerve blocks, none of which describe nerves of the lower extremity. This report describes 2 cases of successful peripheral regional anesthesia in the lower extremity. In case 1, a 16-year-old adolescent girl with hypermobility type presented for osteochondral grafting of tibiotalar joint lesions. She underwent a popliteal sciatic (with continuous catheter) and femoral nerve block under ultrasound guidance. She proceeded to surgery and tolerated the procedure under regional block and intravenous sedation. She did not require any analgesics for the following 15 hours. In case 2, an 18-year-old woman with hypermobility type presented for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for chronic patella instability. She underwent a saphenous nerve block above the knee with analgesia in the distribution of the saphenous nerve lasting for approximately 18 hours. There were no complications in either case. Prohibitions against peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, appear unwarranted. PMID:26897449

  3. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, there was never an intention of maintaining the pace of this process indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5- day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  4. Time-course diffusion of hydrogen peroxide through human dentin: clinical significance for young tooth internal bleaching.

    PubMed

    Camps, Jean; de Franceschi, Hélène; Idir, Fatiha; Roland, Christelle; About, Imad

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to record the time-course diffusion of hydrogen peroxide through human dentin from a peroxide carbamide gel designed for the walking bleach technique in order to determine its optimal renewal time. It was considered that the optimal renewal rate corresponded to the time necessary to achieve 80% of the maximal diffusion because a much longer time does not involve further significant diffusion. Thirty-six freshly extracted human premolars were used for this study. Eighteen were extracted for orthodontic reasons on patients under 20 years old (young-teeth group). Eighteen were extracted for periodontal reasons on patients between 40 and 60 years old (old-teeth group). The teeth were endodontically treated, and a flat defect was created at the enamel-cementum junction. The teeth were suspended in vials containing water, and the access cavities were filled with 20 microL of 20% hydrogen peroxide gel. The amount of diffusing hydrogen peroxide was assessed at 1 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 120 hours. The diffusive flux and the maximal diffusion were calculated as well as the optimal renewal time. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion through young teeth lasted 352 hours but lasted 291 hours through old teeth. Diffusive flux and maximal diffusion were higher through young teeth than through old teeth. The optimal renewal time for young teeth was 33 hours and for old teeth was 18 hours. PMID:17368338

  5. Combined Negative- and Positive-Pressure Ventilation for the Treatment of ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Raymondos, Konstantinos; Ahrens, Jörg; Molitoris, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tracheal intubation and positive-pressure ventilation as the current standard of care for the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) seem to have reached their limit in terms of a further relevant reduction of the still very high mortality. Case Presentation. A 75-year-old male patient developed ARDS after abscess drainage with deteriorating oxygenation, despite positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) values above 15 cm H2O. We applied external negative-pressure ventilation with a chamber respirator using −33 cm H2O at inspiration and −15 cm H2O at expiration, combined with conventional pressure support using a PEEP of about 8 cm H2O and a pressure support of 4–12 cm H2O. Alveolar infiltrates disappeared rapidly and PaO2/FiO2 values surpassed 300 mmHg after the first application and 500 mmHg after the second. Negative-pressure ventilation was used for 6–18 hours/day over five days. Now, 13 years later, the patient is still alive and has a good quality of life. Conclusion. Using this or similar concepts, not only in intubated patients but also as a noninvasive approach in patients with ARDS, offers new options that may genuinely differ from the present therapeutic approaches and may, therefore, have the potential to decrease the present high mortality from ARDS. PMID:26290758

  6. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  7. Optimized Condition for Enhanced Soluble-Expression of Recombinant Mutant Anabaena Variabilis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Zarei Jaliani, Hossein; Farajnia, Safar; Safdari, Yaghoub; Mohammadi, Seyyed Abolghasem; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Talebi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recently discovered Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (AvPAL) proved to be a good candidate for enzyme replacement therapy of phenylketonuria. Outstanding stability properties of a mutant version of this enzyme, produced already in our laboratory, have led us to the idea of culture conditions optimization for soluble expression of this therapeutically valuable enzyme in E. coli. Methods: In the present study, the gene encoding mutant version of AvPAL was cloned into the pET28a expression vector. Different concentrations of IPTG, induction period, growth temperature, shaking speed, as well as different types of culture media were examined with respect to the amount of recombinant protein produced and specific activity of the enzyme. Results: Based upon our findings, maximum amount of active mutant enzyme was attained by addition of 0.5 mM IPTG at 150 rpm to the TB culture media. The yield of active enzyme at cluture tempreature of 25 °C and induction period of 18 hour was the highest. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the yield of mutant AvPAL production in E. coli can be affected mainly by culture temperature and inducer concentration. PMID:24754010

  8. Spacial Distribution of Salinity and the Mechanism of Saltwater Intrusion in the Modaomen Water Channel of Pear River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. B.; Bao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    Modaomen channel is an important fresh water resource in Pearl River Delta. It has been impacted by saltwater intrusion frequently in the last decade. This has drawn more and more attention from scientists and engineers. The hydrodynamic mechanism of saltwater intrusion is still impercipient. In the present paper, hydrographs of velocity and salinity in the channel are analyzed based on field observations of velocity and salinity of upper, middle, and lower water layers at several stations along the Modaomen channel. It is found that the transport of salinity in Modaomen channel is obviously different from other estuaries. As the tidal range increases from neap to spring tide, the salinity in each water layer decreases unexpectedly. This peculiar phenomenon is attributed to the extraordinary flow process in the channel. When salinity value in each layer and vertical salinity gradient are lower during spring tide, no matter on rising or ebbing tide, the flow velocity monotonously decreases from water surface to the bottom, which is suggested by common sense. However, when salinity values and vertical salinity gradient are higher during neap tide, the flow velocity unexpectedly increases from water surface to the bottom during flood period, and flood duration of the bottom current is surprisingly as long as 15-18 hours. In addition, an inflexional velocity profile may remain amazingly for about 9 hours. This could be driven by the baroclinic pressure under the condition of tides, topography and upstream runoff discharge of this channel.

  9. Direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc-acetate halts tumor growth in a xenograft model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Maulik R; Kriedt, Christopher L; Lents, Nathan H; Hoyer, Mary K; Jamaluddin, Nimah; Klein, Claudette; Baldassare, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular levels of zinc have shown a strong inverse correlation to growth and malignancy of prostate cancer. To date, studies of zinc supplementation in prostate cancer have been equivocal and have not accounted for bioavailability of zinc. Therefore, we hypothesized that direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc could impact prostate cancer growth. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic properties of the pH neutral salt zinc acetate on the prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP. Zinc acetate killed prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, independent of androgen sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner in a range between 200 and 600 microM. Cell death occurred rapidly with 50% cell death by six hours and maximal cell death by 18 hours. We next established a xenograft model of prostate cancer and tested an experimental treatment protocol of direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc acetate. We found that zinc treatments halted the growth of the prostate cancer tumors and substantially extended the survival of the animals, whilst causing no detectable cytoxicity to other tissues. Thus, our studies form a solid proof-of-concept that direct intra-tumoral injection of zinc acetate could be a safe and effective treatment strategy for prostate cancer. PMID:19534805

  10. Antifibrinolytic Mechanisms in Acute Airway Injury after Sulfur Mustard Analog Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aftab; Veress, Livia A.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury in response to mustard gas (sulfur mustard [SM]) inhalation results in formation of fibrin casts, which obstruct the airway. The objective of this study was to identify fibrinolytic pathways that could be contributing to the persistence of airway casts after SM exposure. Rats were exposed to the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, via nose-only aerosol inhalation. At 4 and 18 hours after exposure, animals were killed and airway–capillary leak estimated by measuring bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein and IgM content. The fibrin clot–degrading and plasminogen-activating capabilities of BALF were also assessed by activity assays, whereas Western blotting was used to determine the presence and activities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolytic inhibitor and α2-antiplasmin. Measurement of tissue-specific steady-state mRNA levels was also conducted for each fibrinolytic inhibitor to assess whether its synthesis occurs in lung or at extrapulmonary sites. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrin-degrading and plasminogen-activating capabilities of the airways become impaired during the onset of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–induced vascular leak. Findings of functionally active reservoirs of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and α2-antiplasmin in BALF indicate that airway fibrinolysis is inhibited at multiple levels in response to SM. PMID:24796565

  11. Dancing Loops in Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is one of the clearest and most engaging clips of solar plasma shimmying and arcing above the edge of the Sun that we have ever been able to view (May 9-10, 2007). With STEREO's high frame rate (an image every few minutes) and high resolution, we can zoom in on areas of interest yet maintain image clarity. This large sunspot was just rotating to the edge of the Sun when we zoomed in on its action for about 18 hours. The active region, a hot bed of intense magnetic forces, is the source of almost all of the activity we see. It spurts out plasma about six or seven times in arcing bursts, all of which is controlled by powerful magnetic forces that sweep the material back into the Sun. It should be noted that the rate at which the images were captured changed roughly half way through the clip, so that the pacing seems to slow down. These were taken in of extreme ultraviolet light at 304 Angstroms from the Behind spacecraft.

  12. Thiol-ene crosslinking polyamidoamine dendrimer-hyaluronic acid hydrogel system for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangdong; Liang, Aiye; Tan, Yu; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Higginbothem, Ashley; Gado, Togor; Gramling, Abigail; Bahn, Hanna; Wang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    A series of alkene functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were synthesized to prepare in situ forming hydrogels with varied gelation time and mechanical properties through crosslinking with thiolated hyaluronic acid (HS-HA). By varying the alkenyl groups on the dendrimers, the gelation time displayed a large range from 8 seconds to 18 hours, and the modulus of the hydrogels ranged from 36 to 183 Pa under experimental conditions. Investigation by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the gelation time and the stiffness of the hydrogels were governed by the degree of electron deficiency of alkenyl groups on the dendrimers. This research provided a systematic study on the relationship between chemical structures versus gelation time and mechanical properties of hydrogels, which could guide the way to synthesize in situ forming hydrogels with designated gelation time and stiffness for biomedical applications. Further, a RGD peptide was attached to the PAMAM dendrimers to enhance cell attachment and proliferation. Viability assays of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) in the synthesized hydrogels demonstrated the biocompatibility of the hydrogels after 48 hours of culturing, and the RGD peptide improved the viability of HUVEC cells in hydrogels. We believe the PAMAM/HA hydrogel system is a tuneable and biocompatible system for diverse biomedical applications. PMID:26923639

  13. Multifrequency Nd:YAG laser application for tumor fluorescence diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yova, Dido M.; Halkiotis, Konstantinos N.; Manolopoulos, Athanassios; Ouzounoglou, Nikolaos K.; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Avanessian, Lia A.

    1999-12-01

    A computerized fiber-optic spectrofluorometer based on a multifrequency Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 355, 440, 532 and 660 nm, f equals 25 Hz, E equals 1 - 10 mJ, (tau) equals 12 ns) for tissue fluorescence registration in vivo and ex vivo has been developed. The less intensive fluorescence from a tumor of Sarcoma-45 bearing animal model in comparison with the surrounding normal tissue was observed at the spectral region around 450 nm. The influence of reabsorption, energy transfer and other physical factors on tumor fluorescence, sensitized by Photohem (hematoporphyrin derivative), disodium salt of fluorescein (FL) and chlorin e6 (Chl) was investigated. The pharmacokinetic behavior of Chl in different organs and tumors of the animal models has been estimated. The most intensive Chl fluorescence of tumor tissue was observed at 18 hours after photosensitizer injection. The maximum of the tumor-to-healthy tissue ratio of fluorescence was reached 10 at 27 hours after pigment injection. The fluorescence spectra from different types of human tumors after i/v injection with FL or topical application of ALA were studied. A simple model of Nd:YAG laser system for tumor fluorescence diagnosis has been elaborated. Advantages of the laser fluorescence diagnosis of malignant tumors by solid state multifrequency Nd:YAG laser and the increase in accuracy and specificity of this method is discussed.

  14. Preliminary investigation of intrinsic UV fluorescence spectroscopic changes associated with proteolytic digestion of bovine articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, William; Padilla-Martinez, Juan-Pablo; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Franco, Walfre

    2016-03-01

    Degradation and destruction of articular cartilage is the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA), an entity second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of disability in the United States. Joint mechanics and cartilage biochemistry are believed to play a role in OA; an optical tool to detect structural and chemical changes in articular cartilage might offer benefit for its early detection and treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the spectral changes in intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence of cartilage that occur after proteolytic digestion of cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in varying concentrations of collagenase ranging from 10ug/mL up to 5mg/mL for 18 hours at 37°C, a model of OA. Pre- and post-incubation measurements were taken of the UV excitation-emission spectrum of each cartilage sample. Mechanical tests were performed to determine the pre- and post-digestion force/displacement ratio associated with indentation of each sample. Spectral changes in intrinsic cartilage fluorescence and stiffness of the cartilage were associated with proteolytic digestion. In particular, changes in the relative intensity of fluorescence peaks associated with pentosidine crosslinks (330 nm excitation, 390 nm emission) and tryptophan (290 nm excitation, 340 nm emission) were found to correlate with different degrees of cartilage digestion and cartilage stiffness. In principle, it may be possible to use UV fluorescence spectral data for early detection of damage to articular cartilage, and as a surrogate measure for cartilage stiffness.

  15. Global Auroral Energy Deposition Derived from Polar UVI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Elsen, R.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of the transfer of energy and momentum to the ionosphere from the solar wind is one of the main objectives of the ISTP program. Global measurement of auroral energy deposition derived from observations of the longer wavelength LBH band emissions made by the Ultraviolet Imager on the Polar spacecraft is one of the key elements in this satellite and ground-based instrument campaign. These "measurements" are inferred by combining information from consecutive images using different filters and have a time resolution on the average of three minutes and are made continuously over a 5 to 8 hour period during each 18 hour orbit of the Polar spacecraft. The energy deposition in the ionosphere from auroral electron precipitation augments are due to Joule heating associated with field aligned currents. Assuming conjugacy of energy deposition between the two hemispheres the total energy input to the ionosphere through electron precipitation can be determined at high time resolution. Previously, precipitating particle measurements along the tracks of low altitude satellites provided only local measurements and the global energy precipitation could be inferred through models but not directly measured. We use the UVI images for the entire month of January 1997 to estimate the global energy deposition at high time resolution. We also sort the energy deposition into sectors to find possible trends, for example, on the dayside and nightside, or the dawn and dusk sides.

  16. Kinetics of Nutrient Removal by Nano Zero-Valent Iron under Different Biochemical Environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengnan; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI; an average size of 55 nm at a concentration of 200 mg Fe/L) in nutrient removal was determined under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Compared to the rate of reduction of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) to ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) by NZVI alone, the presence of activated sludge increased the rate of complete reduction by 300%. About 31% of NO3--N was converted to NH4+-N through NZVI-facilitated dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, while 56% of NO3--N was removed by heterotrophic denitrification. The presence of sludge reduced the rates of phosphorus removal by NZVI, with the first-order reaction rate constants of 0.06/hour, 0.42/hour, and 0.18/hour under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions, respectively. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency (95%) by NZVI was observed under anoxic abiotic conditions, whereas the efficiency dropped to 31% under anaerobic biotic conditions, which was attributed to significant sludge-facilitated NZVI agglomeration. PMID:26459816

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Four Endodontic Biomaterials against Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Nirupama, Duddi Narendra; Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Muralidharan, Sethumadhavan; Usha, Hulimangala Hosakote Lingareddy; Sharma, Roshni

    2014-01-01

    Root canal sealers that possess good antimicrobial property can prevent residual and recurrent infection and contribute to successful endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of four endodontic sealers, AH Plus, Tubliseal EWT, EndoRez, and iRoot SP, against three different microorganisms, E. faecalis, C. albicans, and S. aureus, by direct contact test. 10 μL microbial suspensions were allowed to directly contact the four endodontic sealers for 1 hr at 37°C. Subsequently microbial growth was measured spectrophotometrically every 30 min for 18 hours. The microbial suspensions were simultaneously tested to determine the antimicrobial effect of components which are capable of diffusing into the medium. The results revealed that AH Plus and iRootSP had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. AH Plus and Tubliseal EWT showed significantly higher antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and S. aureus compared to iRoot SP and EndoRez. EndoRez showed the least antimicrobial activity against all the three microorganisms. Inhibition of microbial growth is related to the direct contact of microorganisms with the sealers. In conclusion AH Plus had significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, C. albicans, and S. aureus. PMID:25371678

  18. Ischiorectal Block with Bupivacaine for Post Hemorrhoidectomy Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mehdi; Jalalvand, Faranak; Afshar, Mohammad; Moosavi, Golamabbas; Behdad, Samin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhoid is one of the most common surgical diseases occurring in the anorectal region. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ischiorectal fossa block on alleviating post hemorrhoidectomy pain. Methods In this study, 90 patients suffering from hemorrhoids were evaluated. They were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group had no block, the second group an ischiorectal block with placebo (normal saline), and the third group a preemptive ischiorectal block with bupivacaine. Postoperative variables such as pain intensity, pethidine consumption, nausea, and vomiting were compared between the groups. Results The postoperative pain score in group 1 was 8.5 ± 1.3 and 8.1 ± 0.9 (P = NS) in group 2. The post operative analgesic demand was 3.1 ± 1.5 and 3.3 ± 1.8 hours in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = NS). The post operative pain score and analgesic demand were 4.2 ± 2.1 and 9.3 ± 2.7 hours, respectively, in group 3 (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Preemptive ischiorectal block reduces the posthemorrhoidectomy pain and opioid demand. PMID:22514775

  19. Life-threatening macroglossia after posterior fossa surgery: a surgical positioning problem?

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, G; Menovsky, T; De Ridder, D; De Bodt, M; Saldien, V; Van de Heyning, P

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was operated in the lateral park bench position with significant neck flexion and oral packing. Macroglossia was noticed immediately postoperatively after endotracheal extubation. The patient was reintubated for 13 days and subsequently required a tracheostoma. After the placement of the tracheostoma and the removal of the endotracheal tube, the congestion of the tongue decreased markedly within 24 hours. Macroglossia is a rare complication following posterior fossa procedures with few cases reported so far. It can cause airway obstruction, which could be a life-threatening complication, and it therefore requires prompt treatment. The aetiology of postoperative macroglossia remains uncertain and has been attributed to arterial, venous and lymphatic compression, mechanical compression, or neurogenic causes. This article describes new insights into aetiology and also describes preventive measures and possible treatment. PMID:25654956

  20. Development of the otolith organs and semicircular canals in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Yamashita, M.; Larsen, K. A.; Batten, J. S.; Koike, H.; Asashima, M.

    1995-01-01

    The sequence in which the otoliths and semicircular canals and their associated sensory epithelia appear and develop in the newt are described. Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections through the otic vesicle of newt embryos from stages 31 through 58 demonstrate the first appearance, relative position and growth of the otoliths. A single otolith is first seen in stage 33 embryos (approximately 9 days old); this splits into separate utricular and saccular otoliths at stage 40 (13 days). The lateral semicircular canal is the first to appear, at stage 41 (14 days). The anterior and posterior canals appear approximately one week later and the vestibular apparatus is essentially fully formed at stage 58 (approximately 5 weeks). The data reported here will serve as ground-based controls for fertilized newt eggs flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 Space Shuttle flight, to investigate the influence of microgravity on the development of the gravity-sensing organs.

  1. Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo using laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Stiukhina, E. S.; Sdobnov, A. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Postnov, D. E.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results on in ovo application of developed Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-13 days chicken embryos was used as a biological model that allows an easy access to both arterial and venous vessels of different size. The key point of our study was to find out how the periodic and aperiodic pulsations of blood flow (which are inevitable in living organism) will affect the LDA functions and measuring capability. Specifically, we (i) developed the technique to extract and refine the pulse rhythm from the signal received from a vessel, and (ii) analyzed the changes in power spectra of LDA signal that are caused by heart beating and considerably complicate the reliable measurement of Doppler shift. Our main conclusion is that the algorithm of LDA data processing need to be improved, and this possibly can be done by counting the information on current phase of cardiac cycle.

  2. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Hilburn, Carla F; Rios, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 10(3)/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  3. STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 12:12:23:0534 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). In this distant view, a cactus (prickly pear), foliage, and a waterway are seen in the foreground as OV-102, in the distance, rockets toward the beginning of its scheduled record 13-day mission in Earth orbit. An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad area with only the sound supression water system tank visible (at right). OV-102, atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), has cleared the launch tower and is moments away from its roll maneuver. OV-102 is NASA's first extended duration orbiter (EDO). The diamond shock effect is visible at OV-102's three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs).

  4. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  5. Whole earth telescope observations of the white dwarf G29-38 - Phase variations of the 615 second period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Clemens, J. C.; Provencal, J.; Kleinman, S. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Wood, M. A.; Claver, C. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Hine, B. P.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive set of high-speed photometric observations obtained with the Whole Earth Telescope network is used to show that the complex light curve of the ZZ Zeti (DAV) star G29-38 is dominated by a single, constant amplitude period of 615 s during the time span of these observations. The pulse arrival times for this period exhibit a systematic variation in phase readily explained by light-travel time effects produced by reflex orbital motion about an unseen companion. The best-fit model to the observations indicates a highly eccentric orbit, a period of 109 + or - 13 days and a minimum mass of 0.5 solar mass for the companion.

  6. Whole earth telescope observations of the white dwarf G29-38 - Phase variations of the 615 second period

    SciTech Connect

    Winget, D.E.; Nather, R.E.; Clemens, J.C.; Provencal, J.; Kleinman, S.J.; Bradley, P.A.; Wood, M.A.; Claver, C.F.; Robinson, E.L.; Hine, B.P. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1990-07-01

    An extensive set of high-speed photometric observations obtained with the Whole Earth Telescope network is used to show that the complex light curve of the ZZ Zeti (DAV) star G29-38 is dominated by a single, constant amplitude period of 615 s during the time span of these observations. The pulse arrival times for this period exhibit a systematic variation in phase readily explained by light-travel time effects produced by reflex orbital motion about an unseen companion. The best-fit model to the observations indicates a highly eccentric orbit, a period of 109 + or - 13 days and a minimum mass of 0.5 solar mass for the companion. 23 refs.

  7. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    PubMed

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S

    1991-09-10

    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner. PMID:1948856

  8. Optimising retention through multiple study opportunities over days: The benefit of an expanding schedule of repetitions.

    PubMed

    Gerbier, Emilie; Toppino, Thomas C; Koenig, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how scheduling repeated studies of the same material over several days influences its subsequent retention. The study-phase retrieval hypothesis predicts that, under these circumstances, expanding intervals between repetitions will promote the greatest likelihood that the participant will be reminded of previous occurrences of the item, thus leading to a benefit for subsequent recall. In the present article, participants studied vocabulary pairs that were repeated according to one of three schedules. In the expanding schedule, pairs were presented on days 1, 2 and 13; in the uniform schedule, on days 1, 7 and 13; and in the contracting schedule, on days 1, 12 and 13. Cued-recall was assessed after a retention interval (RI) of 2, 6 or 13 days. Consistent with predictions, the expanding schedule generally led to better performance than the other schedules. However, further analyses suggested that the benefit of an expanding schedule may be greater when the RI is longer. PMID:25116727

  9. [Introduction and prospect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells circulating in peripheral blood increases remarkably during the recovery of marrow function after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, these stem cells are collected and cryopreserved, and then used to restore marrow function after myelodisruptive (high-dose) anticancer therapy, Marrow recovery is faster with this procedure than with autologous bone marrow transplantation. Recently, this procedure has been used after high-dose chemotherapy for chemosensitive solid tumors such as breast cancer. We used high-dose chemotherapy with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, to treat 5 patients with intrathoracic malignant tumors, including small cell lung cancer Neutrophils recovered (> 500 microliters) with 9 to 11 days and platelets recovered (> 5,000 microliters) within 8 to 13 days after the transplantation. No other serious complication was seen. Current topics regarding this procedure, problems to be solved, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:8752478

  10. Free amino acid pool of a sea anemone: exposure and recovery after an oil spill. [Sea Anemones

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Howard, C.L.

    1984-07-01

    A number of laboratory studies on marine invertebrates have shown changes in free amino acid (FAA) pools in response to various pollutants. During a nineteen-month field study to determine the effects of natural environmental parameters on the FAA pools to the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, an oil tanker collision occurred about 8 miles off Galveston Island. The initial spill from the tanker Burma Agate occurred on November 1, 1979 with large leakages continuing for several weeks. There was no visible sign of oil on the first collection date 13 days after the spill, but 11 days later the anemones were covered with an oil sheen. As a result of this natural exposure to the oil, the authors decided to monitor the sea anemones for changes in the FAA pool during the oil exposure and recovery period.

  11. [Value of hematopoietic stem cell autotransplantation in the treatment of multiple myeloma: initial experience at the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi, A; Ladeb, S; Ben Othman, T; Torjman, L; Jeddi, R; Ben Abdeladhim, A

    2000-10-01

    Alkylating agents administered with predisone have been the standard therapy for myeloma over the lost three decades. Intensive treatment with autologous hematopoietic support has become the treatment of choice for multiple myeloma patients up to 60 years of age. From march 1999 to january 2000, seven patients with multiple myeloma (stage III) with a median age of 43 years (34-56) received an autologous stem cell transplantation. The myeloablative treatment regimen consisted of high-dose melphalan. All patients had sustained engraftment. The median duration of neutropenia (< 500/mm3) was 12 days (11-140) and the median duration of thrombocytopenia (< 20,000/mm3) was 13 days (11-110). One patient had a complete remission, one a very good partial remission, and 5 patients had a partial remission. With a median follow-up of 8 months (2-12), all patients are alive, without relapse. PMID:11190737

  12. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg). PMID:25571768

  13. Half-life determination of the ground state decay of ¹¹¹Ag.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Harms, A V; Regan, P H

    2016-02-01

    The radioactive decay half-life of the β(-)-emitter (111)Ag has been measured using decay transitions identified using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer. The time series of measurements of the net peak areas of the 96.8 keV, 245.4 keV and 342.1 keV γ-ray emissions following the β(-) decay of (111)Ag were made over approximately 23 days, i.e. ~3 half-life periods. The measured half-life of the ground state decay of (111)Ag was determined as 7.423 (13) days which is consistent with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) recommended half-life of 7.45 (1) days at k=2. Utilising all available experimental half-life values, a revised recommended half-life of 7.452 (12) days has been determined. PMID:26720263

  14. Stochastic electrotransport selectively enhances the transport of highly electromobile molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Yon; Cho, Jae Hun; Murray, Evan; Bakh, Naveed; Choi, Heejin; Ohn, Kimberly; Ruelas, Luzdary; Hubbert, Austin; McCue, Meg; Vassallo, Sara L; Keller, Philipp J; Chung, Kwanghun

    2015-11-17

    Nondestructive chemical processing of porous samples such as fixed biological tissues typically relies on molecular diffusion. Diffusion into a porous structure is a slow process that significantly delays completion of chemical processing. Here, we present a novel electrokinetic method termed stochastic electrotransport for rapid nondestructive processing of porous samples. This method uses a rotational electric field to selectively disperse highly electromobile molecules throughout a porous sample without displacing the low-electromobility molecules that constitute the sample. Using computational models, we show that stochastic electrotransport can rapidly disperse electromobile molecules in a porous medium. We apply this method to completely clear mouse organs within 1-3 days and to stain them with nuclear dyes, proteins, and antibodies within 1 day. Our results demonstrate the potential of stochastic electrotransport to process large and dense tissue samples that were previously infeasible in time when relying on diffusion. PMID:26578787

  15. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  16. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Sikiric, Predrag

    2004-09-24

    The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419), which was promising in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) trials, protects against both acute and chronic alcohol-induced lesions in stomach and liver, but also, given peripherally, affects various centrally mediated disturbances. Now, in male NMRI mice BPC 157 (10 pg intraperitoneally, 10 ng and 10 microg, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) (i) strongly opposed acute alcohol (4 g/kg intraperitoneally) intoxication (i.e., quickly produced and sustained anesthesia, hypothermia, increased ethanol blood values, 25% fatality, 90-min assessment period) given before or after ethanol, and (ii) when given after abrupt cessation of ethanol (at 0 or 3 or 7 h withdrawal time), attenuated withdrawal (assessed through 24 hours) after 20%-alcohol drinking (7.6 g/kg) through 13 days, with provocation on the 14th day. PMID:15381050

  17. STS-65 crewmembers don LES equipment for MAIL Bldg 9NE egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in partial pressure launch and entry suits (LESs), two mission specialists and a payload specialist for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission, prepare to rehearse emergency escape procedures and other flight tasks. Technicians help crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, and Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai don LES equipment. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). In addition to the emergency egress training, the seven crewmembers also simulated their duties for launch and entry phases of the scheduled 13-day flight aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The training session was held in Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  18. The effect of access time on online quiz performance in large biology lecture courses.

    PubMed

    Metz, Anneke M

    2008-05-01

    To better understand the dynamics of online student test taking, including the likelihood of cheating by large numbers of students, we examined test-taking patterns and outcomes of weekly online quizzes in two large undergraduate biology lecture courses. Students taking a quiz late in a 1-3-day quiz access period performed 10-15% worse on quizzes than the students who completed the quiz early. Quiz access time was also negatively correlated with performance in other course components and course grades. These patterns suggest that academic dishonesty was not a determinant in unsupervised online quiz performance. Students generally completed quizzes in late afternoon or evening hours, but students who completed quizzes between midnight and 8 a.m. had significantly lower quiz grades than their peers. In addition, upper-division students were more likely to characterize weekly online quizzes as more helpful for their learning than the lower-division students. PMID:21591191

  19. Noninvasive estimation of fluid shifts between body compartments by measurement of bioelectric characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has established that bioelectrical characteristics of the human body reflect fluid status to some extent. It has been previously assumed that changes in electrical resistance (R) and reactance (X) are associated with changes in total body water (TBW). The purpose of the present pilot investigation was to assess the correspondence between body R and X and changes in estimated TBW and plasma volume during a period of bedrest (simulated weightlessness). R and X were measured pre-, during, and post- a 13 day bedrest status. Although a clear relationship was not elucidated, evidence was found suggesting that R and X reflect plasma volume rather than TBW. Indirect evidence provided by previous studies which investigated other aspects of the electrical/fluid relationship, also suggests the independence of TBW and electrical properties. With further research, a bioelectrical technique for noninvasively tracking fluid changes consequent to space flight may be developed.

  20. [Impulse galvanization in postoperative urination disorders].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, H; Riss, P

    1988-03-01

    In this study we examined the therapeutic effect of impulse-galvanization in patients with voiding difficulties after anterior vaginal repair. Patients (n = 56/79) revealing residual urine until the sixth postoperative day were studied. Considering the onset of the first spontaneous micturition and the lack of residual urine no significant difference was found in the group undergoing impulse-galvanization (n = 19) compared to a group without therapy (n = 37). By adjuvant treatment with alpha-sympathicolytics, spasmolytics or tranquilizers patients with impulse-galvanization and the comparative group were found to be without residual urine 11.2 and 13 days after surgery, respectively (p less than 0.001). PMID:3259522

  1. [Morphohistochemical study of skeletal muscles in rats after experimental flight on "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    1990-01-01

    Morphometric and histochemical methods were used to examine the soleus, gastrocnemius (medial portion), quadriceps femoris (central portion) and biceps brachii muscles of Wistar SPF rats two days after the 13-day flight on Cosmos-1887. It was found that significant atrophy developed only in the soleus muscle. The space flight did not change the percentage content of slow (type I) and fast (type II) fibers in fast twitch muscles. During two days at 1 g the slow soleus muscle developed substantial circulation disorders, which led to interstitial edema and necrotic changes. The gastrocnemius muscle showed small foci containing necrotic myofibers. Two days after recovery no glycogen aggregates were seen in myofibers, which were previously observed in other rats examined 4--8 hours after flight. An initial stage of muscle readaptation to 1 g occurred, when NAD.H2-dehydrogenase activity was decreased. PMID:2145470

  2. Strike-slip faulting during the 2014 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Woods, Jennifer; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Winder, Tom; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.; Steinthórsson, Sveinbjörn; Soosalu, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Over a 13 day period magma propagated laterally from the subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano in the northern rift zone, Iceland. It created > 30,000 earthquakes at 5-7 km depth along a 48 km path before erupting on 29 August 2014. The seismicity, which tracked the dike propagation, advanced in short bursts at 0.3-4.7 km/h separated by pauses of up to 81 h. During each surge forward, seismicity behind the dike tip dropped. Moment tensor solutions from the leading edge show exclusively left-lateral strike-slip faulting subparallel to the advancing dike tip, releasing accumulated strain deficit in the brittle layer of the rift zone. Behind the leading edge, both left- and right-lateral strike-slip earthquakes are observed. The lack of non-double-couple earthquakes implies that the dike opening was aseismic.

  3. Simultaneous observations of sea surface temperature in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean by bulk, radiative and satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, P. A.; Bradley, E. F.; Barton, I. J.; Godfrey, J. S.

    The increasing reliance on satellite observations for mapping and following changes in sea surface temperature (SST) has renewed interest in the measurement of the skin temperature of the ocean surface. In this experiment, skin surface temperature was measured with a narrow-band radiometer over a 13-day period in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean and compared with bulk sea temperatures and satellite-derived estimates. A cool skin was found to be a quasi-permanent feature in this region; its temperature averaged 0.3°C less than the bulk sea temperature. Conventional models for the cool skin were found to give a reasonable fit down to wind speeds of 1 m s-1. Satellite measurements showed some deviations from the true SST values, a result not unexpected, considering the substantial corrections required as a result of the high atmospheric water vapor content in these latitudes.

  4. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J. C.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Saccular lung cannulation in a ball python (Python regius) to treat a tracheal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Myers, Debbie A; Wellehan, James F X; Isaza, Ramiro

    2009-03-01

    An adult male ball python (Python regius) presented in a state of severe dyspnea characterized by open-mouth breathing and vertical positioning of the head and neck. The animal had copious discharge in the tracheal lumen acting as an obstruction. A tube was placed through the body wall into the caudal saccular aspect of the lung to allow the animal to breathe while treatment was initiated. The ball python's dyspnea immediately improved. Diagnostics confirmed a bacterial respiratory infection with predominantly Providencia rettgeri. The saccular lung (air sac) tube was removed after 13 days. Pulmonary endoscopy before closure showed minimal damage with a small amount of hemorrhage in the surrounding muscle tissue. Respiratory disease is a common occurrence in captive snakes and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Saccular lung cannulation is a relatively simple procedure that can alleviate tracheal narrowing or obstruction, similar to air sac cannulation in birds. PMID:19368267

  7. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  8. Development of bioprocess for the production of laccase by Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 1802 using evolutionary optimization technique.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Jayanti; Negi, Sangeeta

    2014-11-01

    For cost effective production of laccase enzyme (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase) from P. ostreatus MTCC 1802 through solid sate fermentation, physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (20-35 degrees C), incubation period (9-17 days) and substrate (Neem bark and wheat bran, in various ratios, w/w) were optimized first by one parameter at time approach and then obtained optimum conditions were considered as zero level in evolutionary optimization factorial design technique. At statistically optimized conditions yield of laccase was found 303.59 + 16.8) U/gds after 13 days of incubation at 25 degrees C taking wheat bran and neem bark as substrate at a ratio of 3:2 (w/w). The results obtained could be a base line for industrial scale production of laccase. PMID:25434106

  9. The significance of diagnostic laparotomy in girls with disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Welte, W A; Tietze, H U; Schwanitz, G

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomal analyses were performed in 5 patients from 13 days to 16 years of age to clarify intersexual genitalia, disorders of secondary sexual development and growth retardation. Laparotomies were felt to be indicated because of discrepancies in the results of chromosoma analyses, clinical picture and endocrinologic findings. Among others, pure gonadal dysgenesis was found in a patient with karyotype 46 XX, functional ovaries in a chromosomal Turner's syndrome and a Müllerian anlage with two dysgenetic testes in a 45 X/46 XY mosaic. Since gonads with one cell line containing Y-chromosomes carry a high danger of malignant change, they should be removed as early as possible. It is known that disorders of sexual development can be caused by many and various anomalies of the sex chromosomes. Cooperation among endocrinologists, human geneticists and pediatric surgeons is essential for clarification of the diagnosis. PMID:6878725

  10. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  11. Differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ethuin, Pierrette; Marlard, Sylvain; Delosière, Mylène; Carapito, Christine; Delalande, François; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Dehaut, Alexandre; Lencel, Valérie; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify a protein marker that can differentiate between fresh skinless and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. Distinct gel patterns, due to proteins with low molecular weight and low isoelectric points, distinguished fresh fillets from frozen-thawed ones. Frozen-thawed fillets showed two specific protein spots as early as the first day of the study. However, these spots were not observed in fresh fillets until at least 13days of storage between 0 and 4°C, fillets were judged, beyond this period, fish were unfit for human consumption as revealed by complementary studies on fish spoilage indicators namely total volatile basic nitrogen and biogenic amines. Mass spectrometry identified the specific proteins as parvalbumin isoforms. Parvalbumins may thus be useful markers of differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass fillets. PMID:25624236

  12. Wernher von Braun Takes a Close Look at Apollo 15 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    During the Apollo 15 launch activities in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, takes a closer look at the launch pad through binoculars. The fifth manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  13. Platelet deposition in rat heart allografts and the effect of a thromboxane receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Foegh, M.L.; Khirabadi, B.S.; Ramwell, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of a thromboxane antagonist, L640,035 on platelet deposition in heart allografts was studied. Twenty Lewis rats received heterotopic allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway F1 hybrid. All recipients received azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day). The rats were divided into three groups. Groups II and III were also treated daily with either the vehicle for L640,035 or L640,035 respectively. Syngeneic indium-111-labeled platelet deposition was determined in the allograft and the native heart at 6, 9, and 13 days after transplantation; group III was studied on the sixth and ninth day only. A rapidly increasing platelet deposition was seen in allografts from rats given azathioprine; whereas the thromboxane antagonist prevented the increase in platelet deposition on the ninth day.

  14. [Survived stab to the heart in a schizophrenic man].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina; Kunz, Sebastian N

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide. According to recent research, 10-15 % of all schizophrenic patients die by suicide. It is not uncommon that the victims show sharp force injuries, so that the forensic pathologist first has to differentiate between self-infliction and involvement of another person. The authors' case report presents a 68-year-old schizophrenic patient who committed suicide by jumping out of a window of his apartment located on the second floor after inflicting multiple stab wounds to his thoracic region. At autopsy, an older stab wound to the apex of the heart was detected. In the criminal investigation, a suicide attempt made 13 days before could be ascertained. As the patient did not want to be taken to a hospital at that time, the injury had never been examined or documented. Since there was no evidence suggesting homicide, the older stab to the heart was interpreted as a tentative injury. PMID:22039699

  15. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  16. [Removal of a Foreign Body in the Urinary Bladder in a Patient Four Times in the Past Thirty Years].

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Sohei; Tsutahara, Koichi; Yamamichi, Gaku; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of recurring foreign bodies in the urinary bladder. A 67-year-old male inserted a foreign body into the urinary bladder during masturbation. Eight months later, he experienced a fever and went to a hospital where ultrasonography revealed a foreign body in his urinary bladder. Then, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. The patient's surgical record indicated that he had undergone the same operation 3 times in the past thirty years. The inserted foreign body was successfully removed by suprapubic cystotomy, and he was discharged 13 days after the operation. He was also evaluated by psychiatrists, but they diagnosed that he had no mental disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the removal of a foreign body in the urinary bladder four times in the same patient. PMID:27133888

  17. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Grissel

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 103/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  18. STS-92 - Landing at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With its drag parachute deployed to help slow it down, the Space Shuttle Discovery rolls down the runway after landing at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California at the conclusion of mission STS-92 on October 24, 2000. STS-92 was the 100th mission since the fleet of four Space Shuttles began flying in 1981. (Due to schedule changes, missions are not always launched in the order that was originally planned.) The almost 13-day mission, the 46th Shuttle mission to land at Edwards, was the last construction mission for the International Space Station prior to the first scientists taking up residency in the orbiting space laboratory the following month. The seven-member crew on STS-92 included mission specialists Koichi Wakata, Michael Lopez-Alegria, Jeff Wisoff, Bill McArthur and Leroy Chiao, pilot Pam Melroy and mission commander Brian Duffy.

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum detected in Japanese black and Holstein calves in Iwate Prefecture and Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    AITA, Junya; ICHIKAWA-SEKI, Madoka; KINAMI, Aiko; YAITA, Seiko; KUMAGAI, Yoshihiro; NISHIKAWA, Yoshifumi; ITAGAKI, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 43 out of 77 calves from two farms in Iwate Prefecture and nine farms on Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The DNA fragments of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene were amplified by a nested PCR from 43 oocyst-positive as well as one oocyst-negative samples. All of them were precisely identified as C. parvum by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene. C. parvum oocyst-positive calves ranged in age from 6 to 13 days old and significantly have watery diarrhea (P<0.05). Sequences of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) in 43 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive samples were identical to that of the zoonotic IIaA15G2R1 subtype. We therefore suggest that calves could be potential sources of C. parvum infections in humans. PMID:25819544

  20. Study of dependency of propagation paths in precursory effects of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmal, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Suman; Sanki, Dipak

    We present outcomes of simultaneous analysis of VLF signal for three different transmitting frequencies (VTX, 18.2 kHz, NWC, 19.8 kHz and JJI, 22.2 kHz) received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC), Midnapore for the year 2011. We compute correlations between anomalies in (i) terminator times and (ii) D-layer preparation and disappearance times in signal amplitude with the magnitude of the earthquake occurred in the Indian sub-continent region and its surroundings. We clearly show precursory effects in the signal. We observe that the anomalies are typically 1-3 days ahead of the earthquakes. We present a comparison of cross correlations between three propagation paths for different earthquakes to check maximum sensitive propagation path with respect to these earthquakes. We also present effects of propagation paths for case wise studies.

  1. Reduction of spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed lamb by psychrotolerant clostridia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Katharine H; Flint, Steve H; Brightwell, Gale

    2013-02-01

    Methods for the reduction of spoilage, of lamb, by psychrotolerant clostridia were investigated including exposure to air, hot and cold water spray washing and tyndallisation. Initially vegetative cells of psychrotolerant clostridia associated with spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed meat were exposed to aerobic cooked meat medium at room temperature (21 °C) to determine how long they remained viable. Survival of strains varied from 2h to 3 days. Vegetative cells of Clostridium estertheticum subsp. estertheticum survived 7 days at 10 °C with little reduction in viable numbers. This ruled out exposure to air as a practical method for reducing spoilage. Trials were also carried out on chilled vacuum-packed lamb inoculated with spores of Cl. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum. The time until inoculated packs reached the loss of vacuum stage varied from 38 to 53 days. Hot and cold water washing extended the shelf life by 12 to 13 days in comparison to untreated packs. PMID:23040518

  2. The effects of familiarity and group size on mating preferences in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Mariette, M M; Zajitschek, S R K; Garcia, C M; Brooks, R C

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that frequency dependence in the attractiveness of a particular phenotype to mates can contribute to the maintenance of polymorphism. However, these preferences for rare and unfamiliar male phenotypes have only been demonstrated in small, controlled experiments. Here, we tested the preference for unfamiliar mates in groups of six to 96 individuals over 13 days, in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We observed individual behaviour in situ to test whether fish discriminate two unfamiliar individuals among many familiar ones. We found that unfamiliar males and females were preferred over the familiar fishes in all groups and that this effect decayed over time. Increasing group sizes and levels of sexual activity did not hamper the preference for unfamiliar mates, providing further support for the role of frequency dependent mate choice in the maintenance of trait polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:20626544

  3. Tetrachloroethene transformation to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene by sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, D.M.; Gossett, J.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Tetrachloroethene, also known as perchloroethylene, was reductively dechlorinated to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene by laboratory sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures. The causative organism or group was not identified. However, tetrachloroethene was dechlorinated to trichloroethene in 50 mM bromoethane-sulfonate-inhibited enrichments and to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene in 3 mM fluoroacetate-inhibited enrichments. Overall transformation varied from 92% tetrachloroethene removal in 13 days to 22% removal in 65 days, depending on conditions of the inoculum, inhibitor used, and auxilliary substrate used. Neither lactate, acetate, methanol, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, succinic acid, nor hydrogen appeared directly to support tetrachloroethene dechlorination, although lactate-fed inocula demonstrated longer-term dechlorinating capability.

  4. Application of Asymetrical and Hoke Designs for Optimization of Laccase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Fomes fomentarius in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Mohamed; Kamoun, Amel; Jaouani, Atef; Ellouze-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimization of different cultural parameters for the production of laccase by the white rot fungus Fomes fomentarius MUCL 35117 in wheat bran-based solid medium. first, screening of production parameters was performed using an asymmetrical design 2533//16, and the variables with statistically significant effects on laccase production were identified. Second, inoculum size, CaCl2 concentration, CuSO4 concentration, and incubation time were selected for further optimization studies using a Hoke design. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (CaCl2, 5.5 mg/gs, CuSO4, 2.5 mg/gs, inoculum size, 3 fungal discs (6 mm Ø), and 13 days of static cultivation). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to a laccase production yield of 150 U/g dry substrate. PMID:23008760

  5. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

  6. Sudden Intensity Increases and Radial Gradient Changes of Cosmic Ray Mev Electrons and Protons Observed at Voyager 1 Beyond 111 AU in the Heliosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Voyager 1 has entered regions of different propagation conditions for energetic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheathat a distance of about 111 AU from the Sun. The low energy 614 MeV galactic electron intensity increased by 20over a time period 10 days and the electron radial intensity gradient abruptly decreased from 19AU to 8AU at2009.7 at a radial distance of 111.2 AU. At about 2011.2 at a distance of 116.6 AU a second abrupt intensity increase of25 was observed for electrons. After the second sudden electron increase the radial intensity gradient increased to18AU. This large positive gradient and the 13 day periodic variations of 200 MeV particles observed near theend of 2011 indicate that V1 is still within the overall heliospheric modulating region. The implications of these resultsregarding the proximity of the heliopause are discussed.

  7. [Fat embolism still exists. A retrospective study of 17 cases in a surgical intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, E; Simon, P; Pottecher, T

    1995-01-01

    Fat embolism is a severe complication in patients with femoral fractures. This retrospective study records 17 cases of post traumatic fat embolism diagnosed between 1979 and 1993 among 430 patients admitted for femoral fractures (incidence: 2.7%). These cases underline the high frequency of early hypovolaemia (10/17), of respiratory and cerebral disorders (15/17), all occurring during the first post trauma week. Three cases were observed in the postoperative period. Severity of fat embolism is proved by three deaths and a mean mechanical ventilation period of 13 days. With early osteosynthesis, incidence of fat embolism could be lowered to 0.2%. Prevention is based on osteosynthesis, avoidance of hypovolemia and of hypoalbuminemia. PMID:7671054

  8. Selenopeptides and elemental selenium in Thunbergia alata after exposure to selenite: quantification method for elemental selenium.

    PubMed

    Aborode, Fatai Adigun; Raab, Andrea; Foster, Simon; Lombi, Enzo; Maher, William; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    Three month old Thunbergia alata were exposed for 13 days to 10 μM selenite to determine the biotransformation of selenite in their roots. Selenium in formic acid extracts (80 ± 3%) was present as selenopeptides with Se-S bonds and selenium-PC complexes (selenocysteinyl-2-3-dihydroxypropionyl-glutathione, seleno-phytochelatin2, seleno-di-glutathione). An analytical method using HPLC-ICPMS to detect and quantify elemental selenium in roots of T. alata plants using sodium sulfite to quantitatively transform elemental selenium to selenosulfate was also developed. Elemental selenium was determined as 18 ± 4% of the total selenium in the roots which was equivalent to the selenium not extracted using formic acid extraction. The results are in an agreement with the XAS measurements of the exposed roots which showed no occurrence of selenite or selenate but a mixture of selenocysteine and elemental selenium. PMID:25747595

  9. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals. PMID:26788527

  10. Changes in immunological characteristics of white blood cells after administration of standardized mistletoe extract.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Niemer, W; Werner, M; Beuth, J

    2001-01-01

    After administering standardized mistletoe extract, Viscum album L, (Iscador injections of 0.1 mg twice and 1.0 mg in defined intervals) the functional characteristics of microcirculation and immunological behavior of the white blood cells in different target tissues (derma, intestine) were investigated in healthy volunteers by vital microscopic investigation over 13 days of observation. The investigations showed a temporarily improved function of the microcirculation and an increased adhesion and transmigration of white blood cells in the target tissue areas. This observation was evaluated as a biologically relevant immunomodulation. Further investigations under pathophysiological conditions with regard to complementary administration of the test substance (e.g. to cancer patients) appear promising. PMID:11887328

  11. Ionospheric variations in the period range of days to tens of days deduced from HF Doppler observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Okuzawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshio

    Ionospheric variations in the period range of a few days to tens of days observed by the HF Doppler (HFD) method for the entire year of 1986 have been investigated by a spectrum analysis. The crystal oscillator employed has a stability of up 5 x 10 to the -9th/day at the primary stage of 5 MHz. The present method was shown to be capable of detecting ionospheric variations in the period range of both 3 to about 13 days and 16 to about 21 days. It is suggested that a 27-day period was not observed in both the HFD and the foF2 spectra due to minimum solar activity.

  12. Generation of Megakaryocytes and Platelets from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pick, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to produce any tissue type in the body and thus represent a source of cells for regenerative medicine. Here we have shown that human platelets can be produced from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells in a defined culture system. We describe a serum- and feeder-free culture system that enabled the generation of megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors and functional platelets from hPSCs. After 13 days the differentiated population included precursor cells that formed colonies containing differentiated Mks, and after 20 days these Mks were able to fragment into platelet-like particles that were functional. This protocol represents an important step towards the generation of human platelets for therapeutic use. PMID:24297316

  13. Ex vivo evaluation of the percutaneous penetration of proanthocyanidin extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia using photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, J C B; Pedrochi, F; Hernandes, L; de Mello, J C P; Baesso, M L

    2007-03-21

    In this work photoacoustic spectroscopy has been applied to determine ex vivo the percutaneous penetration of proanthocyanidins present in extracts obtained from Guazuma ulmifolia, in rats. Lotion formulations containing 0.0663 mg of procyanidin B2 day(-1)animal(-1) were topically applied during 7, 10 and 13 days in each group of the animals. After the end of treatment the animals were killed, the skin dissected to remove the basal content, and the measurements were carried out as a function of the period of time of treatment. The results showed that despite the very low concentration of the active principle (procyanidin B2) in the lotion, the photoacoustic method was able to show the presence of optical absorption bands from this substance in the dermis region, evidencing once again that this method may be useful for studies of topically applied formulations of interest in the pharmacokinetic area. PMID:17386764

  14. STS-65 payload specialists Favier and Mukai on CCT middeck during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Attired in launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs) and seated on the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) middeck, payload specialists Jean-Jacques Favier and Chiaki Mukai rehearse launch and entry procedures. Favier of the French space agency, Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), is backup for Mukai, the payload specialist representing the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Favier will communicate with the International Microgravity Laboratory 2's (IML-2's) crew from the ground during the scheduled 13-day flight. The two joined six NASA astronauts at Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE for the training session. The STS-65 IML-2 mission will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, next year.

  15. [Hip Fracture--Epidemiology, Management and Liaison Service. Multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, Takeshi; Shigemoto, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for proximal femoral fracture was organized in the hospital. Inter and intra division obstacles were discussed. After general consensus of the team was obtained, manuals and guidelines of the each division were prepared. In addition to this, the electrical chart specific for the proximal femoral fracture was made which enables to eliminate in-hospital reference letters. As the results, all patients were examined by internal medicine doctors at the time of admission. Average interval from the time of admission to surgery became 1.3 days. Closer relationship with psychiatrist made early detection and treatment of delirium possible. After changing the system to check the antiosteoporosis medication at the time of discharge by the ward pharmacist dramatically increased the prescription rate form 39 percent to 95 percent. PMID:25814013

  16. [What is the role of elective surgery in diverticular sigmoiditis?].

    PubMed

    Le Néel, J C; Guiberteau, B; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C

    1992-01-01

    From 1981 to 1991 inclusive, 188 operations were carried out for diverticular sigmoiditis. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were operated in emergency for acute complications (123) or fistulae (16), and another 49 had surgery scheduled outside acute crisis periods. Mortality and morbidity respectively are 16.5 and 31% in the first group, against 0 and 12% in the second one. Similarly, the stay in hospital varies from 13 days for scheduled surgery to 23 days for emergent surgery, the latter also requiring to account for risks and for the duration of a second operation that is far from exceptional (40%). Considering the severity of some evolutive complications, the authors advocate early radical surgery for symptomatic diverticular sigmoiditis, after the second crisis or as soon as the first one if it has been severe, and in young subjects and patients at risks. PMID:1343989

  17. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-07-10

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  18. Neopterin and interferon gamma serum levels in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Steger, H; Howanietz, H; Wladika, W; Hamilton, G; Woloszczuk, W

    In the follow-up of children receiving renal allografts the early differential diagnosis of infections and rejection episodes is the main problem. Serum levels of neopterin (N), a pteridine released from stimulated macrophages, was determined by radioimmunoassay. Also interferon-gamma (IF) serum levels, a marker of T lymphocyte activity, were determined with an immunoradiometric assay in 19 kidney-transplanted children. Both, infections and rejection episodes, are accompanied by distinct increases in N. The IF are elevated 1-3 days earlier than N, the median values during infections being significantly (p less than or equal to 0.001) higher than those during rejection crises. The routine measurement of N and IF allow the simple, quick and reliable monitoring of the immune status, which seems to be of a high relevance for the daily monitoring of transplant recipients. PMID:3150820

  19. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    PubMed

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals. PMID:26788527

  20. Discovery of a 176 day period in 4U 1820-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Terrell, J.

    1984-09-01

    Long-term X-ray observations of the X-ray burster 4U 1820-30 (in NGC 6624) reveal a significant 176.4 + or - 1.3 day period. These data were obtained by a 3-12 keV detector on the Vela 5 B satellite during the years 1969-1976. The X-ray flux varies by a factor of 2 over the cycle; the light curve, which has a sawtooth shape with fast rise and slow decline, is quite similar to the 199 day light curve of the burster 4U 1915-05. These long-period variations may be intrinsic luminosity changes, perhaps similar to the quasi-periodic outbursts of dwarf novae, or aspect-dependent effects, such as periodic obscuration by a precessing accretion disk.

  1. Microbial contamination of musical wind instruments.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart

    2011-08-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies were used to assess the numbers, types and persistence of microbes that contaminate wind instruments. All previously played instruments (n = 20) harbored viable bacteria as well as mold and/or yeast. Reedinstruments consistently carried higher microbial loads than did flutes or trumpets. Instruments played within the previous three days bore typical mouth flora, while bacteria recovered after 72 h following play consisted of normal environmental flora. Prospective studies tested survival of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Escherichia coli and attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis) when applied to reeds or following simulated 'play' of a clarinet. All species survived for a maximum of 24-48 h on reeds, except Mycobacterium, which persisted through 13 days. In simulated play experiments, test bacteria could persist for up to five days. These findings support the establishment of guidelines for decontamination of wind instruments and for sharing or transfer of these instruments among players. PMID:21745020

  2. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  3. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  4. Detection of measles virus RNA in urine specimens from vaccine recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, P A; Khan, A S; Durigon, E; Yuran, T; Villamarzo, Y S; Bellini, W J

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of urine specimens by using reverse transcriptase-PCR was evaluated as a rapid assay to identify individuals infected with measles virus. For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15-month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases. PMID:7494055

  5. Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum detected in Japanese black and Holstein calves in Iwate Prefecture and Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aita, Junya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Kinami, Aiko; Yaita, Seiko; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 43 out of 77 calves from two farms in Iwate Prefecture and nine farms on Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The DNA fragments of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene were amplified by a nested PCR from 43 oocyst-positive as well as one oocyst-negative samples. All of them were precisely identified as C. parvum by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene. C. parvum oocyst-positive calves ranged in age from 6 to 13 days old and significantly have watery diarrhea (P<0.05). Sequences of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) in 43 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive samples were identical to that of the zoonotic IIaA15G2R1 subtype. We therefore suggest that calves could be potential sources of C. parvum infections in humans. PMID:25819544

  7. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, soars into the sky after KSC liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, soars into a cloudy sky after liftoff from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 12:12:23:0534 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). A low-angle perspective captures OV-102 after it has cleared the launch tower and looks up the long trail of exhaust smoke pouring out the skirt of the left solid rocket booster (SRB) to the top of the external tank (ET). The three space shuttle main engines are visible as is the diamond shock effect produced at the SSME nozzles. This is the beginning of OV-102's scheduled record 13-day mission in Earth orbit. OV-102 is NASA's first extended duration orbiter (EDO).

  8. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  9. The NASA-USPHS Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbeck, D. C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Moxley, R. T., III; Schacther, J.; Payne, G. H.; Limoncelli, D. D.; Fox, S. M., III; Arnoldi, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    An exercise program was initiated to assess the feasibility of an on the job health evaluation and enhancement program, as well as to identify the factors which influenced volunteering, adherence, and effectiveness of the program. The program was utilized by 237 of the 998 eligible Federal employees, with a mean attendance of 1.3 days per week. Those who volunteered perceived a need for increased physical activity, felt they had sufficient time to participate, and derived subjective as well as objective benefits. Significant improvements were found in heart rate response to the standard exercise test, body weight, skinfold measurements, and triglycerides. A consistent relationship was found between subjectively reported effects of the program on work, health habits, and behavior, and improvement in cardiovascular function, based on treadmill performance. Numerous personal and programmatic factors influencing volunteering and participation were identified.

  10. Effects of Sustained Low-Level Elevations of Carbon Dioxide on Cerebral Blood Flow and Autoregulation of the Intracerebral Arteries in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwka, U.; Krasney, J. A.; Simon, S. G.; Schmidt, P.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) was measured by insonating the middle cerebral arteries of 4 subjects using a 2 Mhz transcranial Doppler. Ambient CO2 was elevated to 0.7% for 23 days in the first study and to 1.2% for 23 days in the same subjects in the second study. By non-parametric testing CBFv was elevated significantly by +35% above pre-exposure levels during the first 1-3 days at both exposure levels after which CBFv progressively readjusted to pre-exposure levels. Despite similar CBFv responses, headache was only reported during the initial phase of exposure to 1.2% CO2. Vascular reactivity to CO2 assessed by rebreathing showed a similar pattern with the CBFv increases early in the exposures being greater than those elicited later. An increase in metabolic rate of the visual cortex was evoked by having the subjects open and close their eyes during a visual stimulus. Evoked CBFv responses measured in the posterior cerebral artery were also elevated in the first 1-3 days of both studies returning to pre-exposure levels as hypercapnia continued. Cerebral vascular autoregulation assessed by raising head pressure during 10 deg head-down tilt both during the low-level exposures and during rebreathing was unaltered. There were no changes in the retinal microcirculation during serial fundoscopy studies. The time-dependent changes in CO2 vascular reactivity might be due either to retention of bicarbonate in brain extracellular fluid or to progressive increases in ventilation, or both. Cerebral vascular autoregulation appears preserved during chronic exposure to these levels of ambient CO2.

  11. Outcomes of the Tower Crane Technique with a 15-mm Trocar in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yooyoung; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kang, Shin Kwang; Na, Myung Hoon; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Lim, Seung Pyung; Kang, Min-Woong

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pulmonary wedge resection has emerged as the standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recently, single-port VATS has been introduced and is now widely performed. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Tower crane technique as novel technique using a 15-mm trocar and anchoring suture in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods Patients who underwent single-port VATS wedge resection in Chungnam National University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled. The medical records of the enrolled patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results A total of 1,251 patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax during this period, 270 of whom underwent VATS wedge resection. Fifty-two of those operations were single-port VATS wedge resections for primary spontaneous pneumothorax performed by a single surgeon. The median age of the patients was 19.3±11.5 years old, and 43 of the patients were male. The median duration of chest tube drainage following the operation was 2.3±1.3 days, and mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2±1.3 days. Prolonged air leakage for more than three days following the operation was observed in one patient. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.7±6.1 months, with a recurrence rate of 3.8%. Conclusion The tower crane technique with a 15-mm trocar may be a promising treatment modality for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. PMID:27066430

  12. [Rat cardiomyocyte remodeling after neonatal cryptosporidiosis. II. Elongation, excessive polyploidization and HIF-1alpha overexpression].

    PubMed

    Anatskaia, O V; Sidorenko, N V; Matveev, I V; Kropotov, A V; Vinogradov, A E

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective epidemyological studies evidence that infant diseases leave survivors with an increased susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in later life. At the same time, the mechanisms of this link remain poorly understood. Based on medical statistics reporting that infectious gastroenteritis is the most common cause of maladies in babies, infants and children, we analysed the effects of moderate cryptosporidial gastroenteritis on the heart and ventricular cardiomyocyte remodelling in rats of the first month of life. The disease was challenged by a worldwide human protozoic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa, Sporozoa). The main symptoms manifested in the growth retardation moderate diarrhea. Using real-time PCR, cytophotometry, confocal microscopy and image analysis, we indicated that cryptosporidiosis was associated, with the atrophy heart and the elongation, narrowing, protein content decrease and hyperpolyploidization of cardiomyocytes and the moderate overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA. Cardiomyocyte shape remodeling and heart atrophy presented in all age groups. The severity of these changes, hovewer, declined gradually from younger to older groups. In contrast, hyperpolyploidization and HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression were registered mainly among animals aged between 6 and 13 days, and were barely detected and non-significant in older age groups. In the rat the time period covering 6-13 days after birth is known to coincide with the intensive cardiomyocyte polyploidization and the switch from proliferation to hypertrophy. Thus, our data indicate that neonatal cryptosporidiosis may be potential cardiovascular diseases risk factor and that one of the critical time windows for the growing heart covers the time period when cardiomyocyte undergo polyploidization. PMID:23074852

  13. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 μg/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  14. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongping; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xiujiu

    2010-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days but different HRT for acidification (1, 2, and 3 days) and methanogenesis (12, 11, and 10 days) in two-phase digesters. The results showed that the gas production rate (GPR) of co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure was enhanced by 0.8-5.5 times as compared to the digestion with dairy manure alone. Appropriate HRT for acidification was mainly determined by the biodegradability of the substrate digested. Three-, 2-, and 1-day HRT for acidification were found to be optimal for the digestion of R0, R1, and R2/R3, respectively, when overall HRT of 13 days was used. The highest GPR of 3.97 L/L.day was achieved for R3(6:1) in Run 1 (1 + 12 days), therefore, the mixing ratio of 6:1 and HRT of 1 day for acidification were considered to be the optimal ones and thus recommended for co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure. There were close correlations between degradation of organic matters and GPR. The highest VS removal rate was achieved at the same HRT for acidification and mixing ratio of food waste and dairy manure as GPR in the co-digestion. The two-phase digestion system showed good stability, which was mainly attributed to the strong buffering capacity with two-phase system and the high alkalinity from dairy manure when co-digested with food waste. PMID:19214795

  15. HNO3, N2O5 and CIONO2 Enhancements after the October-November 2003 Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Tsidu, G. Mengistu; Fischer, H.; Jackman, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    The large solar storm in October-November 2003 produced enormous amounts of high-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observed significant enhancements of the NO(y) components HNO3, N2O5 and CIONO2 in the Northern polar stratosphere after the intense solar proton events. Two distinct HNO3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1-2 ppbv was observed immediately after the SPEs and is attributed to gas-phase chemistry: NO2 + OH + M yields HNO3 + M, accelerated by SPE-produced excess OH. A very large second increase of 1- 5 ppbv started around 10 November and lasted until the end of December. It is attributed to NO(x) (NO+NO2) produced in the mesosphere during the major SPEs in late October/early November and then transported downwards during November and December, partially converted to N2O5 in the upper stratosphere, which finally formed HNO3 via ion cluster reactions. N2O5 was observed to increase by 0.1-0.4 ppbv 1-3 days after the major SPEs and reached down to 30 km altitude. A second, more pronounced N2O5 enhancement of up to 1.2 ppbv at 40 km appeared about 12-13 days after the major SPEs. With a delay of 1-2 days after the major SPEs CIONO2 increased by up to 0.4 ppbv (40%) at 32 km altitude. NO(y) enhancements in the Southern hemisphere were generally less pronounced.

  16. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group animals were treated with mupirocin and petroleum jelly, respectively. Treatment was given for 13 days and the wound area was measured on alternate days. Parameters of healing assessed were the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization and hydroxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Extract-treated animals exhibited 87% reduction in the wound area over 13 days when compared with the control (78%) and standard (83%) groups (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the epithelialization period was noticed with the extract-treated test group animals compared with the controls and the standard group animals (P < 0.008). The hydroxyproline content of the extract-treated animals was higher (230.5 ± 42.1) when evaluated against the control and (79.0 ± 32.2) and the standard (115.0 ± 44.5) groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increase in the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content with decrease in epithelialization time in extract-treated animals support further evaluation of N. lobata as a pharmacotherapy for wound healing. PMID:25143886

  17. Radiological Follow-up of New Compression Fractures Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Noboru Komemushi, Atsushi; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Sawada, Satoshi

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain chronological changes in the analgesic effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) on osteoporotic vertebral compression factures and to radiologically follow new compression fractures after PVP. Seventy-six patients (206 vertebral bodies) were followed radiologically for a mean of 11.5 months. A visual analog scale (VAS; 0-10) was used to assess pain severity, and frontal and lateral plain radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were taken 1-3 days and 1, 4, 10, and 22 months after PVP.The average VAS score was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 (mean pain score {+-} standard deviation) before PVP, 2.5 {+-} 2.3 at 1-3 days after PVP, 2.2 {+-} 2.3 at 1 month, 1.9 {+-} 2.2 at 4 months, 1.8 {+-} 2.4 at 10 months, and 1.0 {+-} 0.2 at 22 months. A new compression fracture was confirmed in 56 vertebral bodies in 28 patients (36.8%), affecting 38 adjacent vertebral bodies (67.8%), 17 nonadjacent vertebral bodies (30.4%), and 1 treated vertebral body (1.8%). A new compression fracture occurred within 1 week of PVP in 2 vertebral bodies (3.6%), between 1 week and 1 month after PVP in 22 (39.3%), between 1 and 3 months in 12 (21.4%), between 3 and 6 months in 12 (21.4%), and after more than 6 months in 8 (14.3%). PVP was highly effective in relieving the pain associated with osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures, and this analgesia was long lasting. Radiological follow-up observation revealed new compression fractures in about one-third of patients. More than half of these new compression fractures occurred in adjacent vertebral bodies within 3 months of PVP.

  18. Changes in Intensity of Serotonin Syndrome Caused by Adverse Interaction between Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Serotonin Reuptake Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rui; Rudacille, Mary; Zhang, Gongliang; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Drug interaction between inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOIs) and selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake (SSRIs) induces serotonin syndrome, which is usually mild but occasionally severe in intensity. However, little is known about neural mechanisms responsible for the syndrome induction and intensification. In this study, we hypothesized that the syndrome induction and intensity utilize two different but inter-related mechanisms. Serotonin syndrome is elicited by excessive 5-HT in the brain (presynaptic mechanism), whereas syndrome intensity is attributed to neural circuits involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors (postsynaptic mechanism). To test this hypothesis, basal 5-HT efflux and postsynaptic circuits were pharmacologically altered in rats by once daily pretreatment of the MAOI clorgyline for 3, 6, or 13 days. Syndrome intensity was estimated by measuring 5-HT efflux, neuromuscular activity, and body-core temperature in response to challenge injection of clorgyline combined with the SSRI paroxetine. Results showed that the onset of serotonin syndrome is caused by 5-HT efflux exceeding 10-fold above baseline, confirming the presynaptic hypothesis. The neuromuscular and body-core temperature abnormalities, which were otherwise mild in drug-naive rats, were significantly intensified to a severe level in rats pretreated with daily clorgyline for 3 and 6 days but not in rats pretreated for 13 days. The intensified effect was blocked by M100907 and MK-801, suggesting that variation in syndrome intensity was mediated through a 5-HT2A and NMDA receptor-engaged circuit. Therefore, we concluded that pretreatments of MAOI pharmacologically alter the activity of postsynaptic circuits, which is responsible for changes in syndrome intensity. PMID:24577320

  19. Spaceflight and hind limb unloading induce similar changes in electrical impedance characteristics of mouse gastrocnemius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sung, M.; Li, J.; Spieker, A.J.; Spatz, J.; Ellman, R.; Ferguson, V.L.; Bateman, T.A.; Rosen, G.D.; Bouxsein, M.; Rutkove, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential of electrical impedance myography (EIM) to serve as a marker of muscle fiber atrophy and secondarily as an indicator of bone deterioration by assessing the effects of spaceflight or hind limb unloading. Methods In the first experiment, 6 mice were flown aboard the space shuttle (STS-135) for 13 days and 8 earthbound mice served as controls. In the second experiment, 14 mice underwent hind limb unloading (HLU) for 13 days; 13 additional mice served as controls. EIM measurements were made on ex vivo gastrocnemius muscle. Quantitative microscopy and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements of the hindlimb were also performed. Results Reductions in the multifrequency phase-slope parameter were observed for both the space flight and HLU cohorts compared to their respective controls. For ground control and spaceflight groups, the values were 24.7±1.3°/MHz and 14.1±1.6°/MHz, respectively (p=0.0013); for control and HLU groups, the values were 23.9±1.6°/MHz and 19.0±1.0°/MHz, respectively (p=0.014). This parameter also correlated with muscle fiber size (ρ=0.65, p=0.011) for spaceflight and hind limb aBMD (ρ=0.65, p=0.0063) for both groups. Conclusions These data support the concept that EIM may serve as a useful tool for assessment of muscle disuse secondary to immobilization or microgravity. PMID:24292610

  20. Short and long term gene expression variation and networking in human proximal tubule cells when exposed to cadmium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a known nephrotoxin causing tubular necrosis during acute exposure and potentially contributing to renal failure in chronic long-term exposure. To investigate changes in global gene expression elicited by cadmium, an in-vitro exposure system was developed from cultures of human renal epithelial cells derived from cortical tissue obtained from nephrectomies. These cultures exhibit many of the qualities of proximal tubule cells. Using these cells, a study was performed to determine the cadmium-induced global gene expression changes after short-term (1 day, 9, 27, and 45 μM) and long-term cadmium exposure (13 days, 4.5, 9, and 27 μM). These studies revealed fundamental differences in the types of genes expressed during each of these time points. The obtained data was further analyzed using regression to identify cadmium toxicity responsive genes. Regression analysis showed 403 genes were induced and 522 genes were repressed by Cd2+ within 1 day, and 366 and 517 genes were induced and repressed, respectively, after 13 days. We developed a gene set enrichment analysis method to identify the cadmium induced pathways that are unique in comparison to traditional approaches. The perturbation of global gene expression by various Cd2+ concentrations and multiple time points enabled us to study the transcriptional dynamics and gene interaction using a mutual information-based network model. The most prominent network module consisted of INHBA, KIF20A, DNAJA4, AKAP12, ZFAND2A, AKR1B10, SCL7A11, and AKR1C1. PMID:23369406

  1. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  2. Extended access methamphetamine decreases immature neurons in the hippocampus which results from loss and altered development of neural progenitors without altered dynamics of the S-phase of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Clara J.; Quiocho, Jovy Marie D.; Kim, Airee; Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired hippocampal-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration partially contributes to the maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis were identified in the present study. Key aspects of the cell cycle dynamics of hippocampal progenitors, including proliferation and neuronal development, were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day: short access (ShA)-4 days and ShA-13 days) or extended access (6 h/day: long access (LgA)-4 days and LgA-13 days) paradigm. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 cells with 5-chloro-2’-deoxyuridine (CldU) demonstrated that LgA methamphetamine inhibited hippocampal proliferation by decreasing the proliferating pool of progenitors that are in the synthesis (S)-phase of the cell cycle. Double S-phase labeling with CldU and 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IdU) revealed that reduced S-phase cells were not due to alterations in the length of the S-phase. Further systematic analysis of Ki-67 cells with GFAP, Sox2, and DCX revealed that LgA methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was attributable to impairment in the development of neuronal progenitors from preneuronal progenitors to immature neurons. Methamphetamine concomitantly increased hippocampal apoptosis, changes that were evident during the earlier days of self-administration. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine self-administration initiates allostatic changes in adult neuroplasticity maintained by the hippocampus, including increased apoptosis, and altered dynamics of hippocampal neural progenitors. These data suggest that altered hippocampal plasticity by methamphetamine

  3. Ovarian stimulation medications and patients’ responses as prognostic factors in IUI-treated infertile Saudi patients

    PubMed Central

    M. Isa, Ahmed; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Al-Asiri, Sahel; Al-Motawa, Johara; Almady, Khalid; Alwaznah, Raheek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) remains the first thought of infertility treatment. Objective: To compare the stimulation effects and Pregnancy rate (PR) outcomes of two ovulation induction (OI) medications, human-derived menopausal gonadotrophins (hMGH), Merional (MER), and recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), Puregon (PUR), in a cohort of Saudi infertile patients, for better predictability of treatment results. Materials and Methods: During a 24-month period, 296 women underwent IUI single treatments. PR’s were correlated with the type of stimulation medication that were prospectively and randomly assigned to each patient, and with the number and size of maturing follicles detected on the hCG injection day. Results: MER and PUR needed comparable number of days (9.26±4.74 and 9.73±6.27 respectively) before follicles were ready for IUI, although the average amount used from MER, 1199.90 IU, was about double that was used from PUR, 621.08 IU. The overall PR in case of PUR however was nearly double that of MER, 13.28% and 7.14% respectively. The best PR, 16.22%, occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. Three follicles of at least 15-mm diameter on the hCG day had better PR’s than one or two, however when the follicles’ diameters were at least 18-mm, PR was significantly higher, (p=0.013). Conclusion: MER and PUR had comparable stimulation effects; however PUR had noticeably higher PR. The best PR occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. PR in case of three maturing follicles on the hCG day was better than only one or two, and significantly better when their diameters were at least 18 mm. PMID:25114672

  4. [THE TEST OF GENERATION OF THROMBIN IN DYNAMICS IN PATIENTS AFTER TRANSCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION].

    PubMed

    Napalkova, O S; Emanuel, V L; Karpenko, M A; Berezovskaia, G A; Iakovlev, A N; Yudina, V A; Vasilieva, E Yu; Lapin, S V; Tishkov, A V; Hisheva, N A

    2015-04-01

    The article presents results of observation of generation of thrombin in patients with ischemic heart disease in different terms after transcutaneous coronary intervention. The sampling included 37 patients with stable ischemic heart disease. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. To study system of hemostasis of this category of patients the test of generation of thrombin and its modification with added thrombomodulin were applied for evaluating anti-coagulant activity of system of protein C. The comparison of indicators of test of generation of thrombin in patients with ischemic heart disease before operation and in individuals of control group revealed no reliable differences (p > 0.05). The observation of patients with stable ischemic heart disease in various time-frame after mechanical re-vascularization of myocardium established significant increasing of generation of thrombin and decreasing of anticoagulant activity of system of protein C at 1-3 day after operation (p < 0.05). The positive correlation was established between endogenous thrombin potential and annexin 5, an early marker of dysfunction of endothelium in mentioned time-frame after operation (p = 0.0008; r = 0.57). The significant increasing of content of anti-inflammatory markers of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen was observed at 1-3 day after transcutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.05). In that way, the study data give evidence to hyper-coagulation in patients with stable ischemic heart disease in early time-frame after operation despite normal values of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, D-dimer and applied standard disaggregant therapy. PMID:26189289

  5. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions. PMID:23044158

  6. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-02-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically.

  7. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S.S.; Lyerly, D.P. )

    1989-12-01

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with (35S)methionine and (3H)fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure.

  8. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions. PMID:26139826

  9. Relationships between range access as monitored by radio frequency identification technology, fearfulness, and plumage damage in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hickey, K A; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Wilkinson, S J; Singh, M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP), a particularly injurious behaviour in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is thought to be negatively correlated with range use in free-range systems. In turn, range use is thought to be inversely associated with fearfulness, where fearful birds may be less likely to venture outside. However, very few experiments have investigated the proposed association between range use and fearfulness. This experiment investigated associations between range use (time spent outside), fearfulness, plumage damage, and BW. Two pens of 50 ISA Brown laying hens (n=100) were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders (contained within silicone leg rings) at 26 weeks of age. Data were then collected over 13 days. A total of 95% of birds accessed the outdoor run more than once per day. Birds spent an average duration of 6.1 h outside each day over 11 visits per bird per day (51.5 min per visit). The top 15 and bottom 15 range users (n=30), as determined by the total time spent on the range over 13 days, were selected for study. These birds were tonic immobility (TI) tested at the end of the trial and were feather-scored and weighed after TI testing. Birds with longer TI durations spent less time outside (P=0.01). Plumage damage was not associated with range use (P=0.68). The small group sizes used in this experiment may have been conducive to the high numbers of birds utilising the outdoor range area. The RFID technology collected a large amount of data on range access in the tagged birds, and provides a potential means for quantitatively assessing range access in laying hens. The present findings indicate a negative association between fearfulness and range use. However, the proposed negative association between plumage damage and range use was not supported. The relationships between range use, fearfulness, and SFP warrant further research. PMID:26593871

  10. Attenuation of tolerance to opioid-induced antinociception and protection against morphine-induced decrease of neurofilament proteins by idazoxan and other I2-imidazoline ligands

    PubMed Central

    Boronat, M Assumpció; Olmos, Gabriel; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    1998-01-01

    Agmatine, the proposed endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors, has been shown to attenuate tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception (Kolesnikov et al., 1996). The main aim of this study was to assess if idazoxan, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist that also interacts with imidazoline receptors, could also modulate opioid tolerance in rats and to establish which type of imidazoline receptors (or other receptors) are involved. Antinociceptive responses to opioid drugs were determined by the tail-flick test. The acute administration of morphine (10 mg kg−1, i.p., 30 min) or pentazocine (10 mg kg−1, i.p., 30 min) resulted in marked increases in tail-flick latencies (TFLs). As expected, the initial antinociceptive response to the opiates was lost after chronic (13 days) treatment (tolerance). When idazoxan (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) was given chronically 30 min before the opiates it completely prevented morphine tolerance and markedly attenuated tolerance to pentazocine (TFLs increased by 71–143% at day 13). Idazoxan alone did not modify TFLs. The concurrent chronic administration (10 mg kg−1, i.p., 13 days) of 2-BFI, LSL 60101, and LSL 61122 (valldemossine), selective and potent I2-imidazoline receptor ligands, and morphine (10 mg kg−1, i.p.), also prevented or attenuated morphine tolerance (TFLs increased by 64–172% at day 13). This attenuation of morphine tolerance was still apparent six days after discontinuation of the chronic treatment with LSL 60101-morphine. The acute treatment with these drugs did not potentiate morphine-induced antinociception. These drugs alone did not modify TFLs. Together, these results indicated the specific involvement of I2-imidazoline receptors in the modulation of opioid tolerance. The concurrent chronic (13 days) administration of RX821002 (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and RS-15385-197 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonists, and morphine (10 mg kg−1, i.p.), did not

  11. The role of oropharnygeal receptors in thirst perception after dehydration and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Obika, L F O; Okpere, S O; Ozoene, J O; Amabebe, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of drinking and gargling on thirst perception (TP) in 33 young dehydrated female subjects (18-25 yrs), using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Group A subjects drank, while group B gargled the fluid provided - 0.0%, 0.9% and 1.8% NaCl (7.0 ml/kg body weight of fluid). The procedure was alternated two weeks later. All subjects dehydrated for 18 hours prior to the study, and the last 12-hour urine was collected and volume recorded. Subject who provided a 12 hr urine volume greater than 400 ml was excluded from the study. After recording the baseline TP, and voiding the bladder, drinking/gargling was done within 5 minutes, and the subsequent TPs were recorded at 5 minutes interval for 25 minutes. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of the 30 minutes, when urine volumes were recorded. Drinking (0.0% and 1.8% NaCl) resulted in an initial decrease in thirst perception, which was statistically significant (p<0.05) only up to 10 minutes. Water intake ad libitum (mean ± SEM) at the end of the 30 minutes was statistically significantly lower (p<0.05) only in the group that drank 0.0% NaCl. Gargling on the other hand did not affect TP and water intake throughout the period of study. It can be concluded that drinking, but not gargling reduces thirst perception irrespective of the tonicity of the fluid as earlier reported (Obika et. al., 2009; Salata et. al., 1987). This study suggests that the oropharyngeal receptors for TP are activated by recurrent stimulation by the act of drinking rather than gargling. PMID:26196564

  12. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Combs, Cindy; Peters, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) strongly influences the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLCC on ecosystem dynamics especially during hot and dry Mediterranean climate summers. Monthly, annual, and decadal FLCC digital maps (indices) were derived for June-September 1999-2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N (south of Monterey Bay) to latitude 41.95°N (north of Crescent City) from 26,000 hourly night and day Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images. Monthly average FLCC ranges from <2 to 18 hours per day (h/d). Average FLCC over the ocean increases from north (9 h/d) to south (14 h/d), whereas on land, FLCC is highest where land juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects farthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night, average total hours of FLCC are higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. The interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long-term geographic stability that is strongly associated with landform position. FLCC hours per day mapped contours, derived from decadal average FLCC, delineate the commonly used term "fog belt" into FLCC zones with increased locational precision. FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website (http://climate.calcommons.org/datasets/summertime-fog). FLCC indices can improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models; understanding meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns; solar energy feasibility studies; investigations of ecohydrology, evapotranspiration, and agricultural irrigation demand; and viticulture ripening models.

  13. A Conundrum of Tropical Cyclone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will address a conundrum that has emerged from recent research on tropical cyclone formation. Composite analyses and case studies suggest that prior to genesis, the atmosphere presents a mid-tropospheric vortex that is strong compared to the cyclonic circulation in the boundary layer. Accompanying this vortex is near saturation from the boundary layer through at least 5 km, sometimes more, and a nearly balanced weak negative temperature anomaly below the vortex and stronger positive temperature anomaly above. This thermodynamic state is one of high moisture but low buoyancy for lifted parcels (i.e. low convective available potential energy). However, observations also suggest that widespread deep convection accompanies genesis, with cloud top temperatures becoming colder near the time of genesis. This is seemingly at odds with in situ observations of thermodynamic characteristics prior to genesis. Progress toward understanding the apparent contradiction can be made by realizing that the existence of a moist, relatively stable vortex, and deep convective clouds are not necessarily coincident in space and time. This is demonstrated by a detailed analysis of the two days leading up to the formation of Atlantic tropical cyclone Karl on 14 September. Karl featured a relatively long gestation period characterized initially by a marked misalignment of mid-tropospheric and surface cyclonic circulations. The mid-tropospheric vortex strengthened due to a pulse of convection earlier on 13 September. Meanwhile, the near-surface vortex underwent a precession around the mid-tropospheric vortex as the separation between the two decreased. The eruption of convection around midnight on 14 September, 18 hours prior to declaration on a TC, occurred in the center of the nearly-aligned vortex, contained a mixture of shallow and deep convection and resulted in spin-up over a deep layer, but particularly at the surface. Prior to genesis, the most intense deep convection was

  14. Effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on Betta splendens aggressive display.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Bruno de Matos; Cavalcante, Caio Neno Silva; dos Santos, Bruno Rodrigues; Gouveia Júnior, Amauri

    2012-03-01

    Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a toxic mercury salt and a major pollutant, that can be found in soil, water and air, with influences on behavior, physiology and adaptation to the environment. In this study two experiments were designed to examine interactions and effects of HgCl2 on some behavioral patterns of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). In the first experiment we tested the effect of a progressive dose (five 0.04 mg) on aggressive display with exposure to a mirror, whereas in the second experiment we tested the effect of an acute dose (0.2 mg) on the aggressive display with exposure to a mirror. The experiments were performed on 5 consecutive sessions at intervals of 18 hours between sessions. Differences of performance were shown by subjects in the acute and progressive treatments when compared with a control treatment in the majority of behaviors evaluated, namely Floating, Slow Swimming, Wavy Swimming, Emerging, Bend, Square Move and Motor Display Components. Acute treatment was different from control only on Show Body, while the progressive group differed on Resting, Horizontal Display and Appropriate Display Components. Differences between Correlate Display Components and Total were also shown. Both the acute and progressive contamination with HgCl2 decrease the motor activity in the aggressive display, mirror-image test of Betta splendens, mainly on the progressive dose. This implies an impairment on feeding behavior, predator avoidance, reproductive behavior, mate choice and territoriality. These results suggest that in this fish species, the progressive dose has a greater effect on behavior in general and that both the acute and progressive contamination with mercury chloride affect many other aspects of behavior. PMID:22379732

  15. An Evaluation of Lysyl Oxidase–Derived Cross-Linking in Keratoconus by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Anna; Babar, Natasha; Hogan, Julia; Kim, MiJung; Price, Marianne O.; Price, Francis W.; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Current literature contains scant information regarding the extent of enzymatic collagen cross-linking in the keratoconus (KC) cornea. The aim of the present study was to examine levels of enzymatic lysyl oxidase–derived cross-links in stromal collagen in KC tissue, and to correlate the cross-link levels with collagen fibril stability as determined by thermal denaturation temperature (Tm). Methods Surgical KC samples (n = 17) and Eye-Bank control (n = 11) corneas of age 18 to 68 years were analyzed. The samples were defatted, reduced (NaBH4), hydrolyzed (6N HCl at 110°C for 18 hours), and cellulose enriched before analysis by C8 high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with parallel fluorescent and mass detectors in selective ion monitoring mode (20 mM heptafluorobutyric acid/methanol 70:30 isocratic at 1 mL/min). Nine different cross-links were measured, and the cross-link density was determined relative to collagen content (determined colorimetrically). The Tm was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Results Cross-links detected were dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), hydroxylysinonorleucine, lysinonorleucine (LNL), and histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine in both control and KC samples. Higher DHLNL levels were detected in KC, whereas the dominant cross-link, LNL, was decreased in KC samples. Decreased LNL levels were observed among KC ≤ 40 corneas. There was no difference in total cross-link density between KC samples and the controls. Pyridinolines, desmosines, and pentosidine were not detected. There was no notable correlation between cross-link levels with fibril instability as determined by Tm. Conclusions Lower levels of LNL in the KC cornea suggest that there might be a cross-linking defect either in fibrillar collagen or the microfibrillar elastic network composed of fibrillin. PMID:26780316

  16. Nutrient intake, body fat, and lipid profiles of competitive male and female bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Bazzarre, T L; Kleiner, S M; Litchford, M D

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure nutrient intake, body fat, [estimated from seven skinfolds: chest, axilla, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh (Jackson and Pollock, 1985)], total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, and HDL3-C of 19 male and 8 female bodybuilders competing in the National Physique Committee's USA Bodybuilding Championships (Raleigh, NC, April 1988). Casual blood samples and anthropometric data were collected 18 hours prior to competition, whereas 7-day diet records were completed 1 week prior to competition. Only 11 males and 2 females provided blood samples. Competitors were not tested for steroid use. These data are unique because the measurements were collected on site at the competition. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Estimated body fat for males (6.0 +/- 1.8%) and females (9.8 +/- 1.5%) was quite low. Blood lipids (mg%) for males (TC = 187 +/- 11, HDL-C = 37 +/- 6, HDL2-C = 13 +/- 4, and HDL3-C = 24 +/- 4) were not indicative of increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Data for the 2 females (TC = 190, 205; HDL-C = 56, 56; HDL2-C = 22, 8; and HDL3-C = 34, 48) could only be evaluated on an individual basis. Body fat was significantly correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.63; p = 0.04) and HDL3-C (r = 0.65; p = 0.03), but not TC nor HDL2-C. Of the dietary variables, only saturated fat was significantly correlated with HDL2-C (r = 0.60; p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2338462

  17. Comparison Between the Integrated Ion Outflow Fluxes from the North and South Hemispheres Under Sustained Geomagnetically Active Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.; Eccles, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Generalized Polar Wind (GPW) model is used to simulate the polar ionosphere during the September/October 2002 storm. The simulation period is near equinox when the north and south hemispheres are similarly exposed to solar radiation. We present a model simulation of the eight day period 2002 September 27 (DOY 270) through October 4 (DOY 277). The first three days have relatively quiet magnetic activity as indicated by low Kp values. The fourth day (270) is moderately active, and over the last four days (1-4 October) a strong magnetic storm takes place where Kp reaches values greater than 7 and Dst reaches values below -170. The GPW model was utilized to simulate the behavior of the plasma outflow from both hemispheres over the eight-day period. This storm differs from idealized storm that was the subject of a number of previous studies by Schunk and coauthors in the following ways. First, the interplanetary magnetic field changed in a complex manner in contrast to the previous studies where the IMF remained in the negative z direction. Second, Kp variation is more complex than the previous investigations. Third, the simulation period of eight days is much longer than the previous simulations (less than 18 hours). Finally, both hemispheres are considered, in contrast to previous simulations that investigated the northern hemisphere only. This investigation focuses on the variation of the integrated flux (from the poles to 45 degrees of latitude). We discuss how the integrated flux depends on the ion species (O+ vs. H+) and on the hemisphere (north vs. south). We also investigated the integrated flux dependence on the physical conditions, e.g., Kp, Dst universal time, etc. This statistical approach helped extract important simple conclusions from the complex behavior of the ion outflow during real a storm.

  18. Foley Catheter or Oral Misoprostol for Induction of Labor in Women with Term Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Randomized Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Kruit, Heidi; Tihtonen, Kati; Raudaskoski, Tytti; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Aitokallio-Tallberg, Ansa; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Paavonen, Jorma; Rahkonen, Leena

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To compare the Foley catheter and misoprostol for induction of labor in term women with premature rupture of membranes. Study Design A randomized controlled trial was performed in three university hospitals in Finland between March 2012 and September 2014. A total of 202 term women with ruptured membranes >18 hours, singleton pregnancies in cephalic presentation, unfavorable cervix, and no prior cesarean section were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated to induction of labor by Foley catheter or oral misoprostol in a 1:1 ratio. All women received prophylactic antibiotics. The main outcomes were cesarean section and maternal and neonatal infections. Results Labor induction by Foley catheter or misoprostol showed no difference in cesarean delivery rates (23.6 vs. 18.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-2.82; p = 0.36), maternal intrapartum infections (2.2 vs. 2%; OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.15-8.9; p = 1.00), postpartum infections (1.1 vs. 2.0%; OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.05-6.18; p = 1.00), or neonatal infections (1.1 vs. 5.1%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.24-1.87; p = 0.22). The total time from induction to delivery was similar (1,311 vs. 1,435 minutes; p = 0.31) in the two groups. Conclusions Foley catheter or misoprostol can both be used for induction of labor in women with term premature rupture of membranes. PMID:27031055

  19. Azimilide pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administration of a solution and capsule formulation.

    PubMed

    Corey, A E; Agnew, J R; Valentine, S N; Nesbitt, J D; Wagner, D L; Powell, J H; Thompson, G A

    1999-12-01

    Azimilide dihydrochloride (NE-10064) is a novel class III anti-arrhythmic agent that blocks both the slowly and rapidly acting components of the delayed rectifier potassium current of human atrial and ventricular myocytes. In clinical studies, azimilide reduced the frequency of symptomatic episodes of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. This study was conducted to characterize azimilide pharmacokinetics following single-dose administration of a 1 mg/kg intravenous infusion (18 min), 2 mg/kg oral solution, and a 150 mg orally administered capsule. This was a three-period, randomized, crossover study in 27 healthy, drug-free (including caffeine and alcohol), non-smoking male volunteers (mean [SD]; age, 25.9 [1.0] years; weight 74.3 [0.7] kg; 23 Caucasians and 4 Hispanics). Blood and urine samples were collected for 27 days and analyzed for azimilide using HPLC with UV detection. Subjects were monitored for adverse events and abnormalities in clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiography (including Holter monitoring). Mean (%CV) azimilide parameters were total clearance = 0.143 L/h/kg (38%), renal clearance = 0.014 L/h/kg (35%), steady-state volume of distribution = 13.2 L/kg (23%), and terminal exponential half-life = 78.8 h (44%). Similar parameter estimates were obtained following oral administration. Both the oral solution and capsule formulations were completely absorbed. In addition, the rate (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC) following oral administration of the capsule dosage form were bioequivalent to the oral solution with means for times of maximum blood concentration of 7.08 and 7.18 hours for the oral solution and capsule, respectively. Azimilide dihydrochloride was generally well tolerated in all subjects. PMID:10586393

  20. Sea Ice Friction: The Effect of Ice Rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourfield, S.; Sammonds, P. R.; Lishman, B.; Riska, K.; Marchenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ice deformation processes in the Arctic often generate ice rubble, and situations arise where ice fragments of varying size separate sea ice floes. While the shear forces between sea ice floes in direct contact with each other are controlled by ice-ice friction, what is not known is how the slip of the floes is affected by the presence of rubble between the sliding surfaces. We present the result of field experiments undertaken on fjord ice in Svea, Svalbard, which investigated the velocity and hold time dependence of sea ice friction involving ice gouge. Average air temperature for the duration of time in which experiments were run was -12.4°C, and the thickness of the level fjord ice was 70 cm. A double-direct-shear experiment was done on floating sea ice in the field, with the addition of rubble ice between the sliding surfaces. This was achieved by moving a floating ice block through a channel of open water whilst subjected to normal loading, which was transferred through regions of ice rubble on both sides of the mobile block. The ice rubble regions were 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The displacement of the block and the force needed to move the block were measured. The rate dependence of friction was investigated for speeds of 10-3 to 10-2 ms-1. To investigate the state dependence of friction, slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests were conducted for hold times ranging from 1 second to 18 hours. When comparing the results from these experiments with a model for ice friction presented by Schulson and Fortt (2013), similar behaviour is seen at low hold times, where the peak coefficient of friction has a linear relationship with the logarithm of hold time. This is not the case for long hold times, however, and we attribute this to thermal consolidation of the ice rubble region.